RU2542294C2 - Lengthy load-bearing structural element of construction beam type from polymer composite material - Google Patents

Lengthy load-bearing structural element of construction beam type from polymer composite material Download PDF

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RU2542294C2
RU2542294C2 RU2013122083/05A RU2013122083A RU2542294C2 RU 2542294 C2 RU2542294 C2 RU 2542294C2 RU 2013122083/05 A RU2013122083/05 A RU 2013122083/05A RU 2013122083 A RU2013122083 A RU 2013122083A RU 2542294 C2 RU2542294 C2 RU 2542294C2
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layers
fiberglass
core
laid
structural
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RU2013122083A (en
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Владимир Александрович Нелюб
Иван Андреевич Буянов
Алексей Сергеевич Бородулин
Илья Владимирович Чуднов
Павел Вячеславович Полосмак
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Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Московский государственный технический университет имени Н.Э. Баумана" (МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана)
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Abstract

FIELD: construction.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to elements of load-bearing structures operating under load and may be used as beams of building structures, slabs in construction of hangars, cross beams of power transmission line supports, etc. The structural element comprises a core and reinforcing layers from layers of glass fabric serially laid at both sides of the core, with attachment of layers impregnated with binder, preferably according to vacuum infusion technology. Layers of reinforcing material are glass fabrics with different angular orientation of fibres relative to the longitudinal axis of the core, layers are formed into identical packages, besides, in most loaded parts of the structural element each package is formed at least from three layers of different glass fabrics, namely: inner central layer - glass fabric, laid so that fibres making this glass fabric are laid at the angles of 0° and 90° relative to the longitudinal axis of the core, and other layers - external to the central layer - from multi-axial glass fabric laid so that fibres making this glass fabric are laid at the angles of 0°, +45° and -45° relative to the longitudinal axis of the core. The binder is a nano-modified epoxide binder of grade VSE-28, and core material is foam polyurethane.
EFFECT: structural element has high resistance to impact of loads, to impact of unfavourable climatic factors, has lower weight and is manufacturable.
4 cl, 3 dwg, 6 tbl

Description

The invention relates to elements of power structures operating under load, and can be used as beams of building structures, such as port and berths, as well as ceilings in the construction of hangars, as traverses for power transmission towers, etc.

The construction elements used as building beams are subject to increased requirements for ensuring high rigidity, strength and reliability with a minimum weight while maintaining long-term stability of physico-mechanical properties during operation in adverse environmental conditions.

In the manufacture of such elements from composite materials, it is necessary to take into account that in the general case, the main forces acting on the construction of the building beam are bending, torque and compressive force.

Therefore, when designing highly loaded products from polymer composite materials, it is very important to determine the optimal relative position of the reinforcing layers, their materials and the manufacturing technology of the products.

A known structural element made of a composite material based on intersecting glass fibers and longitudinally oriented glass rovings of the RBN-20 type, bonded with a polymer binder based on a polyester resin of the PN-1 type, obtained by thermal drawing through a spinneret device, the element being made of glass mat type sintepon surface density of 100 ... 400 g / m 2 of glass fibers randomly intersecting uniformly distributed on the longitudinally oriented sides to open steklorovinga x the outer surfaces of its developed profile with a volume ratio of glass mat and glass roving with a binder in the composite material from 1: 0.5 to 1: 0.75 and with wall thicknesses in the profile of 0.2 ... 2.5 mm (see RF patent No. 2164993 IPC Е06В 3/20, published on April 10, 2001).

As a result of the analysis of the known solution, it should be noted that it is characterized by high rigidity, however, the materials used for its manufacture, the method of their laying during the formation of the composite base do not allow it to be used as a heavily loaded structural element, since its bearing capacity is relatively small.

Known structural element made of composite material obtained by the method of drawing through a die of intersecting and / or interwoven fibers placed in a continuous medium of a polymer binder holding them together and formed by profile walls connected by jumpers with the formation of at least one longitudinal cavity and mounting elements for assembly in the planes of the profile walls, one of which is made with covering contact surfaces and formed in the form of two flat longitudinal cantilever shelves located on each of the profile walls in the zone of their contact with the corresponding extreme jumper, and the others with proportional male contact surfaces and formed in the form of two flat longitudinal recesses located at the free ends of each of the profile walls, in which the female and male contact the surfaces of the mounting elements are provided with longitudinally oriented locking elements with profiles made with mutually compatible contours and formed from material equivalent in structure to the reinforcing material of the profile walls, at the same time with the corresponding male and female contact surfaces, the latter are made equidistantly mixed, with the displacement being selected within the range of α = 0.1 ... 3 mm, while the outer surfaces of the frame, including mounting elements, are formed in in the form of convexities and depressions distributed over the surface, successively alternating in two intersecting directions, with a height difference in the range β = 0.05 ... 1 mm and an independent alternation step in each direction (see RF patent No. 2290483, IPC Е04С 3/29, Е04С 2/10, B29D 31/00, В29С 47/00, В29С 70/06, В29С 70/24, publ. 12/27/2006).

As a result of the analysis of the known solution, it should be noted that the manufacturing technology of this structural element is very complex, since its manufacture is carried out using a special pultruded machine. This technology has several disadvantages:

- the speed of the process depends on the temperature and speed of curing of the binder and is usually low for low heat-resistant polyester resins;

- it is difficult to ensure strict constancy of the cross section of products along the length, with the exception of products with a relatively simple section shape - round, square, I-beam and some others;

- it is necessary to use only threads or tows to obtain products;

- a tendency to increase manufacturing costs compared to traditional molding methods.

It should also be noted that the resulting structural element is characterized by high rigidity, however, the materials used for its manufacture, the order of their laying during the formation of the composite base do not allow it to be used as a heavily loaded structural element, since its bearing capacity does not provide the perception of torque and compressive load . In addition, the known structural element is characterized by a fairly significant mass and low resistance to climatic factors.

Known composite blade with a foam core, with improved performance characteristics, developed by JSC "National Institute of Aviation Technologies" (Russia), adopted as a possible closest analogue to the prototype (see RF patent No. 89189, IPC F04D 29/38, publ. 27.11. 2009).

The specified composite blade contains a foam core in the blade part with an outer layer of a fiberglass layer embedded in the foam and external reinforcing layers of woven polymer material, laid on both sides of the core, and embedded in a thermoset polymer binder. In the technological part, the preform for the blade is assembled by sequentially laying layers of fabric (or unidirectional material) and a core having an outer layer of fiberglass embedded in the foam, then the layers are fastened in a zigzag stitch on a zigzag stitch sewing machine. The resulting blade preform is subjected to vacuum processing for high-quality laying in the mold with subsequent impregnation by known methods and polymerization.

In the composite blade as a power structural element, experiencing significant power loads during operation, there are a number of signs that coincide with the features of the invention, namely:

- core;

- a layer of fiberglass;

- external reinforcing layers of woven polymeric material laid on both sides of the core;

- sequentially laying fabric layers in a preform with bonding fabric layers;

- vacuum infusion technology: the blade preform is subjected to vacuum processing for high-quality laying in the mold with subsequent impregnation with a polymer binder.

However, this power structural element made of a polymer composite material (PCM) is not intended for use in construction, and therefore there are a number of significant distinguishing features of the proposed new technical solution for the power structural element from PCM.

The technical task of the invention is the development of a lengthy strength structural element such as a building beam made of a polymer composite material, which has increased resistance to stress (primarily bending), as well as to adverse climatic factors, which has a reduced mass and is technologically advanced to manufacture.

This problem is solved in that in a long-dimensional force structural element containing a core, reinforcing layers of layers of fiberglass fabric successively laid on both sides of the core with bonding layers impregnated with a binder mainly using vacuum infusion technology, it is distinguishing that as layers of reinforcing material a composite shell fiberglass fabrics with different angular orientations of the fibers with respect to the longitudinal axis of the core are used. Layers are formed in predominantly identical packets. Moreover, in the most loaded parts of the structural element, each package is formed of at least three layers of different fiberglass fabrics, namely: the inner central layer is fiberglass with fibers oriented in two directions, forming a two-dimensional weaving structure with a direction of fiber laying angles 0/90 ° to the longitudinal axis core, and the remaining layers - external to the central one - of multiaxial fiberglass with the direction of the laying angles of the three fiber families 0 / ± 45 ° to the longitudinal axis of the core. As an impregnating binder used nanomodified epoxy binder grade VCE-28 (according to TU 1-595-12-1344-2012), the core material is polyurethane foam. Two types of fiberglass can also be used: satin-weave fiberglass T-10 (VMP) (according to TU 5952-183-05786904-2004) and multiaxial fiberglass TX-700.

A possible smooth transition from three-layer packages in the most loaded part of the structural element to two-layer packages in the less loaded part can be achieved by shedding the central layers of satin weave fiberglass in the area of the corresponding smooth change in the size of the cross section of the core, and the discharge line in adjacent packages runs at a distance of at least 5 mm for a smooth change in the thickness of the entire composite shell of the element.

When the bag is preformed, an adhesive spray is applied to each fiberglass layer to hold the layers of fiberglass in the bags and the bags themselves (in contrast to fastening the layers with a zigzag stitch on a zigzag stitch sewing machine in the prototype solution).

The invention is illustrated by graphic materials on which are given:

- figure 1 is a longitudinal rectangular core with a zone of smooth resizing of the cross section;

- figure 2 - two layout of layers in packages (three-layer and two-layer) during the formation of the power structural element;

- figure 3 is a diagram of the run-off (discharge) of part of the layers in the longitudinal direction in the range of 1000 ... 1200 mm from the end of the product.

A power structural element made of composite material is a multilayer product with a core of various cross-sections (for example, square or rectangular), which is obtained by forming a series of identical packages of several layers of dry fiberglass fabrics, sequentially stacking layer packets on top of each other and on top of the product core at predetermined laying angles of two or three directions of fiberglass fibers to the longitudinal axis of the product and then impregnating them with a nano-modified binder.

The core, for example of polyurethane foam, is used as a tool for laying out the first and subsequent layers of fiberglass fabrics, as well as as a reinforcing element that prevents the loss of stability of the walls of the product.

It is essential that to achieve a technical result, the layers are arranged in identical packages of layers of fiberglass fabrics, the central layer of which consists of satin fiberglass fabric (with angles of laying of two directions of fibers (or filaments) 0 ° / 90 °), and the layers from the bottom and top of the central layer consist of multiaxial fiberglass (with the laying angles of the three fiber families 0 ° / + 45 ° / -45 °).

The central layer of the bag with the laying angles of the two directions of the threads 0 ° / 90 ° is designed to absorb bending and compressive loads. Layers of a package of multiaxial fiberglass with laying angles of three fiber families 0 ° / + 45 ° / -45 ° are designed to absorb torque, bending and compressive loads.

The number of packages and layers in them is selected based on the calculation of the minimum allowable number of packages and layers in them to provide a given strength of the product at maximum operating loads.

The first package is laid out directly on the core. The remaining packages are laid out sequentially on top of previous packages. Layers of the structural element are formed by layering of the reinforcing filler laid in accordance with the laying pattern. As a reinforcing filler, satin weave fiberglass and multiaxial fiberglass formed by three families of threads are used. In multiaxial fiberglass, the main family of fibers runs in the direction of unwinding of the fabric (0 ° to the longitudinal axis of the core), and two additional families, respectively, at angles of + 45 ° and -45 ° to the main one. In satin fiberglass, the main direction (0 ° to the longitudinal axis of the core) of the fiberglass runs in the direction of unwinding of the fabric, and the additional direction is at an angle of 90 ° to the main one. Each package of the most loaded zone of the product is formed by the sequential laying of one layer of multiaxial fiberglass, one layer of satin fiberglass and another layer of multiaxial fiberglass. To improve manufacturability, all three layers of fabric during the formation of each bag are laid out so that the direction of unwinding of the fabric coincides with the longitudinal axis of the product, and the percentage of fibers (or threads) that go in different directions, necessary according to the strength conditions, is achieved by selecting specific brands of glass fabrics used as reinforcing fillers. Studies have shown that the following mass ratio of glass fibers that are part of the preform and directed to the longitudinal axis of the product at angles of 0 °, ± 45 °, 90 °, respectively: 50% / is most optimal for the case of bending moment as the prevailing load on the power beam 35% / 15%.

The first and third layers in each bag are multiaxial fiberglass, laid out so that the fibers (or filaments) forming this fabric are laid at angles of 0 ° / + 45 ° / -45 ° with respect to the longitudinal axis of the product. These layers provide the perception of torque, bending and compressive loads.

The second layer in each bag is a satin fiberglass fabric, laid out so that the fibers (or filaments) forming this fabric are laid at angles of 0 ° / 90 ° with respect to the longitudinal axis of the product. This layer provides the perception of bending and compressive loads.

To prevent mutual movement of the layers of the bag during its formation, laying on the core and impregnation with a binder, during the formation of the bag, an adhesive spray is applied to each layer of fiberglass, which holds the layers of fabric in the bags and the bags themselves together.

If the nature of the loads perceived by the product during operation leads to the fact that the product is loaded unevenly, for example, when the product is cantilever, additional layers can be added to increase local strength in especially loaded areas of the product. Since in the remaining zones the presence of additional layers is not required, they can be cut off so that at the boundary of the especially loaded and regular zones of the product a smooth transition of the thickness of the layered shell is formed, called the run of additional layers. In order to avoid changing the dimensions of the cross section of the product, which reduces its performance, if there are additional layers in the product, the core of the product must be made with the following feature. The dimensions of its cross-section in the laying area of the additional layers should be less than the dimensions of its cross-section in the regular zone of the product by twice the thickness of the additional layers, and in the zone of the run of layers it should have a zone of smooth resizing.

In the manufacture of the product, the stacked layers of fiberglass are impregnated with a nano-modified binder. Impregnation of the formed preform (a set of the required number of dry packs of layers laid on the core and bonded to each other using an adhesive spray) is carried out using vacuum infusion technology. This technology is based on the use of vacuum to impregnate a preformed dry preform. The preparation of the preform during vacuum infusion is not limited in time, since before applying the binder, which has a limited period of time in the working liquid state, the vacuum bag is applied to the dry preform.

The impregnation of all layer packets is carried out using a nanomodified binder. As a nanomodified binder, it is most expedient to use the VSE-28 epoxy binder according to TU 1-595-12-1344-2012, since its increased physical and mechanical characteristics make it possible to provide the necessary level of structural strength when using fiberglass fibers as a reinforcing filler. When using other known unmodified resins as a binder, the necessary level of physical and mechanical properties can be achieved only by introducing carbon fiber bundles into the reinforcing filler (however, the cost of carbon fibers is very significant). The characteristics of the nanomodified epoxy binder grade VCE-28 according to TU 1-595-12-1344-2012 are presented in tables 1 and 2.

The composition of the nanomodified epoxy binder brand VCE-28 according to TU 1-595-12-1344-2012

Table 1 The composition of the nanomodified epoxy binder brand VCE-28 according to TU 1-595-12-1344-2012 Component Name Consumption ratios for the preparation of a binder VSE-28 Epoxy resin ED-22 0.81300 Component A Nanodispersed Alumina Powder 0.00002 Total component a 0.81302 furfuryl alcohol 0,11898 Component B 2-methylimidazole 0,06800 Total component B 0.18698

table 2 Physico-mechanical and thermomechanical properties of the cured nanomodified binder grade VCE-28 according to TU 1-595-12-1344-2012 Density, g / cm 3 1.21 Glass transition temperature, Tg dry , ° C 96 Glass transition temperature, Tg wet , ° C / moisture saturation,% (sample exposure in water at a temperature of (25 ± 2) ° C for 30 days) 65 / 1,0 Tensile strength, MPa 82 Tensile modulus, GPa 3.2 Strength under static bending, MPa 182 Modulus of elasticity in static bending, GPa 3.3

The main materials for the manufacture of the product are composites based on glass fibers - fiberglass. They have a sufficiently high strength at a minimum cost. At the same time, the elastic moduli of fiberglass are small, therefore, in case the elastic moduli of fiberglass are insufficient, it is possible to use materials based on carbon fibers - carbon fiber reinforced plastics. Their characteristics are much higher, although their use is associated with a much higher cost. It is proposed to use two types of fiberglass: satin fiberglass (for example, grade T-10 (VMP - high modulus strong) according to TU 5952-183-05786904-2004 with the direction of fiber laying angles 0 ° / 90 °) and multi-axial fiberglass (for example, grade ТХ- 700 pilot production of STEKLONiT OJSC (Russia) with the direction of laying angles 0 ° / ± 45 °).

Table 3 The main characteristics of the T-10 fabric (VMP) according to TU 5952-183-05786904-2004: Name Value Layer orientation 0 ° / 90 ° Thickness mm 0.25 ± 0.02 Surface density, g / m2 310 +15 / -10 Fiber density per 1 cm Based 36 +1 By duck 20 ± 1 Breaking load, kN Based > 3.2 By duck > 1.8 Weave type Satin 8/3

Table 4 Main characteristics of the TX-700 multi-axial fabric of the pilot production of STEKLONiT OJSC (Russia) Name Value Layer orientation 0 ° / + 45 ° / -45 ° Width cm 126 ± 1 The surface density of the layers, g / m2 470/120/120 Breaking load, N / 5 cm 9800/3508/3508 Thickness mm 0.682-0.705

An example implementation of the claimed invention.

A multilayer power structural element such as a construction beam with a length of 3000 mm and a constant external rectangular cross section of 350 × 150 mm was manufactured. This product can be used for:

- work as part of the construction of the power line support (transmission line);

- for use as a typical power element of pre-fabricated bridges;

- for use as a typical power, including cantilever, element of bearing ceilings of building structures.

This structural product has a core (see Fig. 1) made of polyurethane foam, which has a smooth resizing of rectangular cross-sections in the zone of run of layers (from 1000 to 1200 mm from one end of the product).

In the process of laying out reinforcing material in the form of fiberglass was laid out on the core, mounted on a snap. Successive layers were laid out at predetermined angles until a predetermined number of layers were laid out. The number of layers and packages of them was selected on the basis of the minimum allowable amount to ensure strength at maximum operational loads. As a result, the product in the regular zone included 22 packets of layers laid so that the individual fibers in them were oriented with respect to the longitudinal axis of the product in accordance with the laying patterns in figure 2, where the lay-out of three layers is shown in section AA on the left fiberglass ТХ-700 and Т-10 (V MP) in packages from 1 to 22 (on the thinner regular side of the core in the more loaded part of the product), and on the right in the section B-B there is a lay-out scheme for two layers (without the central layer of fiberglass T -10 (in MP)) in packets from 1 to 22 (on a thicker regular hundred core core in the less stressed part of the product). Fiber-glass fibers TX-700 and T-10 (V MP) in three-layer packages were laid in the directions to the longitudinal axis of the product in accordance with table 5.

Table 5 Layer number Styling angles Fiberglass brands one 0 ° / + 45 ° / -45 ° TX-700 2 0 ° / 90 ° T-10 (VMP) 3 0 ° / + 45 ° / -45 ° TX-700

The transition from a three-layer package to a two-layer one by means of a run-off of the central layers of T-10 fiberglass (VMP) is shown in FIG. 3 by a run-away diagram of a part of the layers in a zone of smooth resizing of a rectangular cross section of a core. The scheme of the run of layers in the product packages consists in the fact that in each package the central layer is reset, and the discharge line in adjacent packages runs at a distance of at least 5 mm, which forms a smooth change in the thickness of the entire composite shell.

The binder for the impregnation of reinforcing materials was a nanomodified binder of the grade VCE-28 according to TU 1-595-12-1344-2012. After impregnation with vacuum infusion, the product was cured in an oven at a temperature of 60 ... 120 ° C or during natural curing at a temperature of 20 ... 30 ° C.

Selected technical characteristics of the resulting structural element of the type of construction beam are shown in table 6.

Table 6 Parameter unit of measurement Value Length mm 3000 Height × Width mm 350 × 150 Wall thickness mm 36 Weight kg 169 Estimated bending moment kN m 450 Estimated Life years fifty

Compared with the most widely used structures, the developed structural element has 25% higher bearing capacity, reduced by 20% weight, 10% labor-intensive manufacturing and 15% cost, as well as increased resistance to aggressive environments and adverse climatic conditions. The use of the claimed invention provides:

- reducing the mass of the product (1.5-2.0) times in comparison with metal counterparts, which leads to lower costs for transportation and installation;

- ensuring a sufficient margin of safety under the action of the design load without a significant increase in the dimensions of the cross section of the product and the thickness of its wall;

- high resistance to corrosion, icing and other atmospheric influences, which determines the long service life of the product.

The implementation of the power element in the form of a building beam provides strength and a predetermined level of ultimate deformations in the structure and the preservation of the specified physical and mechanical properties throughout the entire service life, subject to the rules and operating conditions due to the selected schemes and calculation of the number of layers and packages of fiberglass laying, as well as the use nanomodified binder, mainly epoxy grade VCE-28 according to TU 1-595-12-1344-2012.

Claims (4)

1. A lengthy strength structural element made of a polymer composite material containing a core, reinforcing layers from layers of fiberglass fabric sequentially laid on both sides of the core with bonding layers impregnated with a binder mainly using vacuum infusion technology, characterized in that fiberglass is used as layers of reinforcing material of the composite shell with different angular orientations of the fibers with respect to the longitudinal axis of the core, the layers are formed in predominantly identical packs you, and in the most loaded parts of the structural element, each bag is formed of at least three layers of different fiberglass fabrics, namely: the inner central layer is fiberglass, laid out so that the fibers forming this fiberglass are laid at angles of 0 ° and 90 ° with respect to to the longitudinal axis of the core, and the remaining layers — external to the central layer — of multiaxial fiberglass, laid out so that the fibers forming this fiberglass are laid at angles of 0 °, + 45 ° and -45 ° in relation th to the longitudinal axis of the core; as an impregnating binder used nanomodified epoxy binder brand VCE-28; core material - polyurethane foam.
2. The element according to claim 1, characterized in that two types of fiberglass are used: fiberglass satin weave brand T-10 (VMP) and fiberglass fabric multiaxial brand TX-700.
3. The element according to claim 1, characterized in that the smooth transition from the three-layer packages in the most loaded part of the structural element to the two-layer packages in the less loaded part is accomplished by shedding the central layers of satin weave fiberglass in the area of the corresponding smooth change in the size of the core cross section, the line discharge in adjacent packages passes at a distance of not less than 5 mm for a smooth change in the thickness of the entire composite shell of the element.
4. The element according to claim 1, characterized in that during the preliminary formation of the packet, an adhesive spray is applied to each fiberglass layer to hold the layers of fiberglass in the packets and the packets themselves together.
RU2013122083/05A 2013-05-15 2013-05-15 Lengthy load-bearing structural element of construction beam type from polymer composite material RU2542294C2 (en)

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RU2616465C2 (en) * 2015-04-16 2017-04-17 Борис Анатольевич Губарев Method of making blades from composite material
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RU2711882C1 (en) * 2019-06-19 2020-01-23 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Силуэт" (ООО "Силуэт") Textile fabric for structural material
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RU2616465C2 (en) * 2015-04-16 2017-04-17 Борис Анатольевич Губарев Method of making blades from composite material
RU2620430C1 (en) * 2015-12-10 2017-05-25 Российская Федерация от имени которой выступает Министерство промышленности и торговли Российской Федерации (Минпромторг России) Power grid from polymer composite material
RU2688716C1 (en) * 2018-05-24 2019-05-22 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Композит Сольюшен" Method of making large-size composite articles by vacuum infusion and composite power beam of bridge section for collapsible bridge structure
RU2711882C1 (en) * 2019-06-19 2020-01-23 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Силуэт" (ООО "Силуэт") Textile fabric for structural material
RU2719527C1 (en) * 2019-09-02 2020-04-21 Федеральное государственное унитарное предприятие "Крыловский государственный научный центр" (ФГУП Крыловский государственный научный центр") Method for making beam of u-shaped profile of ship hull from polymer composite materials

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