RU2534094C1 - Aircraft with water-jet propellers - Google Patents

Aircraft with water-jet propellers Download PDF

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Publication number
RU2534094C1
RU2534094C1 RU2013141731/11A RU2013141731A RU2534094C1 RU 2534094 C1 RU2534094 C1 RU 2534094C1 RU 2013141731/11 A RU2013141731/11 A RU 2013141731/11A RU 2013141731 A RU2013141731 A RU 2013141731A RU 2534094 C1 RU2534094 C1 RU 2534094C1
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water
jet
aircraft
surface
pos
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RU2013141731/11A
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Russian (ru)
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Асхат Абрарович Гарафутдинов
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Асхат Абрарович Гарафутдинов
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Abstract

FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: aircraft comprises cabin to house pilots and cargoes, one or more water-jet propellers with one or more integrated inlets and outlets of said propellers and control system. Operating water-jet propellers allow the aircraft to be retained above water surface. Here, only sections of water-jet propeller inlets with their intake openings located at minimum sufficient depth can stay above water surface. Note also that all aircraft parts with water-jet propeller are integrated.
EFFECT: decreased overall dimensions, possibility to surface at whatever weather.
2 dwg

Description

The invention relates to the field of vehicles, and more specifically aircraft of vertical take-off and landing for moving above the surface of the water.

There are helicopters based on ships for moving above the water surface, which have high maneuverability and speed. But helicopters are very vulnerable to water entering the rotors, which makes it impossible to use them near the surface of the water when it is very rough. And when using a helicopter in combat conditions, the rotors, due to their considerable size, are vulnerable to the damaging effects of weapons.

An analogue of the proposed device is the invention described in British patent GB 2238376 (A) “Remotely-piloted airborne platform system” (translation: “Remote-controlled on-board platform system”), inventor: BLAIN WILLIAM, IPC: B64C 15/00; B64C 39/02; F41J 9/10; (IPC1-7): B64C 15/00; B64F 3/00; F41H 11/00. In analogue there is a housing for placing a payload in it, a flexible hose, a pump, at least one controlled nozzle and a control system. The work of the analogue is carried out in this way. The pump draws water from a tank or from the sea and delivers it through a flexible hose to the device under a certain pressure. Further, the water, passing through the nozzles, is thrown down and thereby creates a reaction force sufficient to hold the device together with a flexible hose filled with water, in weight in equilibrium position. As indicated in patent GB 2238376 (A), the pump is located on board the ship, the length of the flexible hose has a certain length. Therefore, the device has a restriction on the distance from the ship. Another device that can be taken as a prototype of the proposed device is described in US patent US 2010200702 (A1) "Personal propulsion device" (translation: "Personal propulsion device"), inventor: LI RAYMOND, IPC: B64C 39/02. This device is designed to provide flight over the water surface of one operator using a special control system. In the prototype, as in the analogue, water is supplied through a flexible hose to the operator and thrown down through at least two nozzles. This creates a lifting force that holds the operator above the water. But unlike the analogue in the prototype, a pump with an engine, a fuel tank are located in a separate base unit, floating freely on the surface of the water. Thereby, greater freedom of movement of the operator above the water surface is achieved than in the analog device. The prototype device most of all has an attraction orientation, because it is primarily personal, i.e. serves to move one operator. If you try to develop the maximum possible speed with this device, then the operator will have to pull a heavy base unit through a flexible hose, which, as can be seen from the description of the prototype, looks like a small boat. In this case, the entire advantage of the prototype compared to a conventional boat with a jet propulsion is lost.

The objective of the invention is to provide a vehicle for moving above and along the water surface with high maneuverability, speed and compact size. The problem is solved in that the device is made of one or more water cannons with one or more separate or combined input and output parts of water cannons, a control system, characterized in that when the water cannons have the ability to hold and move the aircraft above the water surface with a water cannon, in which under the water surface there are only sections of the inlet parts of the water cannons with the receiving holes of the water cannons located at a minimum sufficient depth no. Moreover, in an aircraft with a water cannon there is also a cabin for accommodating pilots and cargo, a stabilization system, and all parts of the aircraft with a water cannon are interconnected. As indicated in the source [1] on page 188, a jet propulsion device, or simply a jet propulsion device, is a ship propulsion device in which the force propelling the vessel is generated by the jet of water expelled from it. A water-jet propulsion device is a profiled pipe (water conduit), in which the water flow is accelerated by a blade mechanism (propeller, impeller of the pump), the energy of fuel combustion, or the pressure of a compressed gas and a directed jet discharge is provided. We name the part of the water channel of the water jet through which water enters the water jet as the inlet of the water jet, and the part of the water channel of the water jet through which the water accelerated in the water jet is pushed out of the water body by the output part of the water jet. By the reception opening of the water jet we mean the section of the inlet of the water jet through which water enters into it, and by the output section of the water jet - the cross section of the outlet of the water jet through which water is emitted from the water jet. Water enters the conduit through the inlet opening, which is located below the water level. Usually, according to the source [2] (p. 10), the reaction of the jet emitted by the water jet directed in the direction opposite to the movement of the vessel is the force that propels the vessel. That is, in ordinary vessels with a water-jet propulsion, the direction of the jet of water from the water jet is almost parallel to the water surface or the horizon and the thrust of the water jet is used only for the movement of the vessel along the water surface. In the proposed device, the direction of the ejection of a stream of water from a water jet is practically (with a slight deviation) vertically directed from top to bottom: water as usual enters through the inlet into the water conduit, rises along it, accelerates (for example, in a blade mechanism) and is thrown from top to bottom. Due to such an ejection of a jet of water from a water jet, the thrust force of a water jet, when it reaches a value sufficient to lift an aircraft with a water jet (hereinafter abbreviated LAV), raises the LAV with its main part above the water surface, and to such a height that only a section remains under the water surface the entrance of the water jet with the receiving hole of the water jet located in the lower part of the LAV. That is, in this case, the LAV almost completely rises above the surface of the water, and the inlet of the inlet of the water cannon remains below the level of the water surface, which is a prerequisite for the operability of the water cannon. The greater the depth of the receiving hole of the jet, the more stable the jet will work, i.e. air and debris from the surface of the water will not enter the conduit. But at the same time, this depth should be minimal, because the deeper the receiving hole of the water cannon is, the greater will be the resistance force of the water when moving the LAV along the water surface. Therefore, the minimum sufficient depth of the water jet’s receiving opening is understood to mean the minimum depth of its location below the water surface after the main part of the LAV is lifted above the water surface, which ensures stable operation of the water jet and minimal water resistance when the LAV moves along the water surface. The water cannon can be rigidly connected to the vehicle body, and may have some autonomy, i.e. mobility relative to the LOVE (the ability to rotate or move). Under the control system of the LOVE is meant a system that allows you to change the magnitude and direction of action of the thrust of the water jet. LAV control system can have a different design. To change the magnitude of the thrust force, you can change the rotation speed of the working body of the water jet, and to change the direction of the thrust force, you can use various controlled deviating surfaces - rudders installed near the outlet section of the water jet, during rotation which changes the direction of the ejected stream of water from the water jet. Using such rudders, it is possible to deflect the LOVE from a vertical position, which will lead to the emergence of a horizontal component of the thrust force of the water jet. This force will lead to the movement of the LOVE in the horizontal direction. Naturally, when the LAV deviates from the vertical to maintain the LAV in equilibrium with gravity, the thrust of the water jet must be increased by a certain amount. Launching LAV to the surface of the water (splashdown) is carried out in the reverse order of ascent. That is, at first they reduce the horizontal component of the velocity of the LAV, while simultaneously reducing the thrust force of the water jet and the angle of deviation of the vector of thrust force of the water jet from the vertical. After stopping the LOVE, having slightly reduced the thrust force of the water cannon, it is splashed. The inlet of the water jet and the output of the water jet can have a different shape and cross section along the length. To reduce the resistance of water during the movement of the LOVE, the inlet of the water jet in contact with water may have an external shape that provides the least resistance to the incoming water flow. To reduce the pressure loss of the oncoming flow of water to the inlet of the inlet of the water jet, it can be made directed in the direction of movement of the LAV. The number of water jets in the proposed device may not be one, but several. The input parts and (or) the output parts of several water cannons can be separate or combined among themselves. Each water cannon can have not one, but several input and (or) output parts. Various types of engines (ICE, electric, etc.) can be used to drive water cannons. The proposed device may include a stabilization system, which is understood as a system that provides a stable position of the device in the surface position. This system can be structurally built-in when the center of application of the resultant thrust force of the jet is higher than the center of mass of the LAV (taking into account the weight of the water in the jet). In this case, with any deviation of the LAV from the equilibrium position, a force arises that tends to return the LAV to its equilibrium position. The stabilization system can also work according to the following principle, when the devices monitor the deviation of the LAS from the equilibrium position and, in the presence of such deviations exceeding the limit, give the appropriate command to the controls to eliminate the deviations that have arisen. The stabilization system can also track and ensure the position of the LAS above the water surface, in which the receiving hole would be under water at the required minimum sufficient depth. In contrast to the analogue and prototype, LAV has a cabin for accommodating pilots and passengers in it, and may also have a separate cargo compartment. The presence of such a cabin allows you to use LAV as a vehicle for transporting people and goods. All parts of the aircraft with a water cannon are interconnected. This means that when moving LOVE they move together and all parts of LOVE move relative to the water surface at the same speed, in contrast to the prototype, in which the operator can move relatively freely from its base part.

The proposed device in terms of functional qualities resembles a helicopter. In the working position, the LOVE rises almost completely above the surface of the water, under the water there is only a small portion of the inlet of the water jet with a receiving hole. But unlike a helicopter, the size of the water jet is much smaller than the rotor’s rotor size, which means that the dimensions of the proposed LAV are much smaller than the dimensions of the helicopter and it is not “afraid” of wave impacts, as well as the LAV can freely land on the surface of the water in almost any weather conditions. As you know, water jets are more economical in comparison with propellers, because water, unlike air, is not compressible. The disadvantage of LAV in comparison with a helicopter is that the proposed device has a limited lift height and due to the fact that the inlet of the water cannon touches the water surface, the resistance to LAV movement will be slightly greater than that of a helicopter. But in comparison with any floating vehicle, this resistance to movement will be much less, because the main part of LAV is located above the water surface - in the air.

A variant of the proposed device, shown in Fig. 1, consists of two water jets, in which the working bodies of pos. 1 are scapula wheels like a scapula pump, driven into rotation by ICE engines of pos. 2. The input parts of pos. 3 water cannons have in the direction of movement of the working fluid in them, at first a common initial section with one receiving hole, and then “bifurcate” and thus bring the working fluid separately to each water cannon. The output parts of pos. 4 water cannons are spaced and located above the common center of mass of the LAV to ensure stability of the LAV in the vertical plane. At the exit sections of the exit parts of pos. 4 water cannons, there are deflected tubular-type rudders of pos. 5, which, when turned, change the direction of the discarded water jets emanating from the outlet sections of the water cannons, thereby providing control of the LOV. At the command of the pilot, the rudders of pos. 5 using special drives, which are not shown in Fig. 1, can deviate in any direction relative to the exit sections of the water cannons. Moreover, the wheels of both water cannons can be rotated both jointly and separately from each other. There is a cabin pos.6, in which there is a pilot compartment and a cargo compartment, which can accommodate cargo and passengers. From the bottom, the cabin pos.6 has a sealed enclosure, which at rest, the LAV provides it with buoyancy on the surface of the water. Figure 1 shows the engine pos.7, which rotates the blades pos.8, located below the water surface of the auxiliary pump, which serves to fill the inlet and outlet parts of the water cannons with water in order to start the water cannons before they start work. In the future, after the launch of the water cannons, the engine pos.7 can be turned off.

The work of the LOVE according to the variant depicted in Figure 1, is as follows. Before the first launch of the LAV with the engine turning on, item 7, the input and output parts of items 3, 4 of the water cannons are filled. Next, the pilot turns on the engines of pos.2. This starts the release of water jets through the output sections of the water jets, and the engine pos.7 shuts down. Using the rudders of pos. 5, the pilots, controlling the direction of the thrust vectors of the water cannons, provide vertical lift of the LAV. Upon reaching the required thrust of the water cannons, the LAV detaches itself from the lower part of the cab pos.6 from the surface of the water and rises to a height with a minimum contact of the inlet part of pos.3 water cannons, but at the same time the receiving hole remains under water. Next, the pilots using rudders pos.5 carry out a controlled flight of LOV along the water surface.

Figure 2 shows another version of the LAV, which consists of one water jet in which water is accelerated using the device described in patent RU 2455525 C1 "Centrifugal traction device", inventor: Garafutdinov A.A., IPC: F03H 99/00; B63H 11/08; B64C 29/04. The water cannon has a scapular working body pos.1, driven into rotational motion by the engine engine pos.2, the inlet part pos. 3 having a streamlined cross section in the underwater section (BB section) to reduce water resistance during translational movement of the LAS along the water surface. The output part pos.4 of the water cannon is formed by a plurality of scapular channels located around a circle coaxial to the axis of rotation of the working body pos.1 of the water cannon and the engine shaft pos.2. Moreover, these scapular channels in the plane of the axis of rotation of the working body pos.1 water cannons are bent so that the working fluid (water) is discarded from the outlet of the water cannon towards the surface of the water, i.e. way down. Moreover, the direction of the jet of water has a small angle α of deviation from the axis of rotation of the working body pos.1 water jet, as shown in Fig.2. This design feature of the outlet part pos. 4 of the water cannon provides a higher position of the resultant thrust force of the water cannon with respect to the center of gravity of the LAV, which ensures the stability of the LAV when it deviates from the vertical. Namely: when the LAS is deflected in one direction or another, a moment arises of the resultant thrust force of the water jet relative to the center of mass of the LAV, which tends to return the LAV to its original position. The inlet part 3 and the outlet part 4 of the water jet do not rotate. At the exit sections of the output part of pos.4 of the water cannon there are four rudders of pos.5 (one is located in front, the second is behind, the third is on the right, the fourth is on the left relative to the pilot’s workstation), which can deviate by the control signals from the pilot and thereby create additional power management. There is also a cabin pos.6 with a pilot and cargo compartment, and here the engine compartment is separately allocated, in which the engine pos.2 and the fuel tank pos.9 and other systems are located. Above the water jet level, in the lower part of the cabin there is an air toroidal ring, item 10, which ensures the buoyancy of the LAS on the water surface in a water-cut state.

The work of the LOVE according to the variant depicted in Figure 2, is carried out in this way. Initially, LAVA rests on the surface of the water in a floating state thanks to the air ring pos.10. As can be seen from Figure 2, all parts of the water jet are structurally lower than the air ring pos.10 and therefore, when the engine pos.2 is idle, they are initially below the surface of the water. Next, the pilot starts the engine pos.2 and, accordingly, the working body pos.1 of the water jet begins to rotate, which is initially in the flooded position. The water cannon due to the ejection of water from the outlet parts of pos.4 of the water cannon begins to create traction. Then the pilots, increasing the engine speed pos.2, increase the thrust force of the water jet to a value sufficient to raise the LOVE above the surface of the water, and it detaches from the water surface, rising to a height with a minimum contact of the inlet part pos.3 water jet, at which the receiving hole stays under water. Using the rudders of pos. 5 further, the pilot deflects the LAV from a vertical position, while increasing the thrust force of the water jet, and the LAV begins to move in the desired direction, while remaining above its surface with its main part using a stabilization system that works according to the following principle.

In figures 1 and 2, the LOVE is shown in the above-water position when operating water cannons.

Information sources

1. The Great Soviet Encyclopedia. (In 30 volumes). Ch. ed. A.M. Prokhorov. 3rd ed. M., "Soviet Encyclopedia", 1971. V.5. Veshin-Gazli. 1971.640 s.

2. Rusetskiy A.A., Zhuchenko, M.M., Dubrovin O.V. P88. Ship movers. L., "Shipbuilding", 1971. 288 p.

Claims (1)

1. Aircraft with a water cannon, containing one or more water cannons with one or more separate or combined between the input and output parts of the water cannons, a control system, characterized in that when the water cannons have the ability to hold and move above the water surface of the aircraft with water jet, in which under the water surface there are only sections of the inlet parts of the water cannons with the receiving holes of the water cannons located at a minimum sufficient depth; at the same time, in an aircraft with a water cannon there is also a cabin for accommodating pilots and cargoes in it, a stabilization system, and all parts of the aircraft with a water cannon are interconnected.
RU2013141731/11A 2013-09-10 2013-09-10 Aircraft with water-jet propellers RU2534094C1 (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2681784C1 (en) * 2018-07-11 2019-03-12 Борис Никифорович Сушенцев High-speed ram wing boat with vertical take-off and landing (variants)
RU2689092C1 (en) * 2018-05-25 2019-05-23 Борис Никифорович Сушенцев Hydro-jet (embodiments)

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2238376A (en) * 1986-11-12 1991-05-29 Gec Ferranti Defence Syst Remotely-piloted airborne platform system
US20100200702A1 (en) * 2004-03-26 2010-08-12 Raymond Li Personal propulsion device
RU103093U1 (en) * 2010-12-14 2011-03-27 Юрий Петрович Андреев Device for creation of lifting force over surface of water
RU118941U1 (en) * 2012-04-02 2012-08-10 Александр Владимирович Ященко Individual reactive aircraft (options)

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2238376A (en) * 1986-11-12 1991-05-29 Gec Ferranti Defence Syst Remotely-piloted airborne platform system
US20100200702A1 (en) * 2004-03-26 2010-08-12 Raymond Li Personal propulsion device
RU103093U1 (en) * 2010-12-14 2011-03-27 Юрий Петрович Андреев Device for creation of lifting force over surface of water
RU118941U1 (en) * 2012-04-02 2012-08-10 Александр Владимирович Ященко Individual reactive aircraft (options)

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2689092C1 (en) * 2018-05-25 2019-05-23 Борис Никифорович Сушенцев Hydro-jet (embodiments)
RU2681784C1 (en) * 2018-07-11 2019-03-12 Борис Никифорович Сушенцев High-speed ram wing boat with vertical take-off and landing (variants)

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Effective date: 20150911