RU2532954C1 - Drone - Google Patents

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Publication number
RU2532954C1
RU2532954C1 RU2013116365/11A RU2013116365A RU2532954C1 RU 2532954 C1 RU2532954 C1 RU 2532954C1 RU 2013116365/11 A RU2013116365/11 A RU 2013116365/11A RU 2013116365 A RU2013116365 A RU 2013116365A RU 2532954 C1 RU2532954 C1 RU 2532954C1
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RU
Russia
Prior art keywords
combustion chamber
fuel
jet nozzle
air ducts
liquid fuel
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RU2013116365/11A
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Russian (ru)
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RU2013116365A (en
Inventor
Александра Сергеевна Мицына
Анатолий Петрович Мищенко
Юрий Николаевич Семененко
Леонид Александрович Чернов
Original Assignee
Открытое Акционерное Общество "Государственное Машиностроительное Конструкторское Бюро "Радуга" Имени А.Я. Березняка"
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Priority to RU2013116365/11A priority Critical patent/RU2532954C1/en
Publication of RU2013116365A publication Critical patent/RU2013116365A/en
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Abstract

FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: drone comprises airframe with lateral air intakes with air ducts and engine assy. Engine consists of tank with liquid fuel and ramjet. The latter comprises combustion chamber connected with air ducts, flame holders fitted in combustion chamber. Combustion chamber has heat resistant coating and solid propellant charge. Ramjet comprises solid propellant charge igniter and starting jet nozzle articulated with mid-flight jet nozzle. Air duct opening at combustion chamber inlet are plugged. Flame holders are arranged in air ducts ahead of jettisonable plugs. Flame holders with fixtures are composed of hydraulic cylinders with above-piston chambers communicated with the system for liquid fuel feed from tank into combustion chamber.
EFFECT: fast acceleration, higher final speed.
2 cl, 2 dwg

Description

The invention relates to the equipment of aircraft, specifically, to its power plant with a jet engine using solid and liquid fuel.
Known unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) 3M-80E (Encyclopedia "Arms and Technologies of Russia", volume 3, publishing house "Arms and Technologies". - M., 2001, p.125-129) with a 3D81 engine (O.A. Artemyev "Direct-flow air-jet engines", M .: "Sputnik + Company, 2007, pp. 238-239), comprising a body with aerodynamic controllable surfaces and side air intakes with air ducts, as well as a radar system located in the body guidance, flight control system, payload (warhead), electric lovuyu system altimeter and propulsion system comprising a sustainer ramjet engine (ramjet) and starting the solid fuel rocket motor (SRM). The ramjet contains a combustion chamber and a jet nozzle. The solid propellant rocket engine is located in the cavities of the ramjet combustion chamber and its jet nozzle. Air ducts are in communication with the ramjet combustion chamber. The propulsion system also includes a liquid fuel tank, a turbopump system for supplying liquid fuel from a tank with an automatic fuel regulator. The ramjet includes in-flight flame stabilizers with mechanisms for their installation, containing fuel manifolds with spray elements in communication with the fuel supply and control system. To ensure the placement of solid propellant rocket motors, flame stabilizers are located in the ramjet combustion chamber on the rotary nodes and are in the folded state near the side walls of the combustion chamber before the ramjet starts.
The essential features of the proposed UAV, which coincides with the features of the prototype, are as follows - comprising a body with aerodynamic controllable surfaces and side air intake devices with air ducts, as well as a control system placed in the body, a payload and a propulsion system consisting of a tank with liquid fuel, direct-flow air - a jet engine including a combustion chamber in communication with air ducts, flame stabilizers installed in the combustion chamber with the mechanisms of their installation, containing fuel manifolds with spray elements, a marching jet nozzle and a liquid fuel ignition device in communication with the combustion chamber, as well as consisting of a system for supplying liquid fuel from the tank and regulating its flow into the combustion chamber in communication with the fuel collectors.
In the known device, the presence of a solid propellant rocket engine housing located in the cavities of the ramjet combustion chamber does not allow increasing the external diameter of the solid fuel charge, since the external diameter of the LED housing must be less than the internal diameter of the ramjet propulsion nozzle. In addition, flame stabilizers located near the side walls of the ramjet combustion chamber do not allow an increase in the outer diameter of the solid propellant rocket motor housing and its solid fuel charge even with a removable marching ramjet jet nozzle. This does not allow to increase the volume and mass of solid fuel used during the launch acceleration of the UAV, and to expand the energy capabilities of the launch mode of the UAV to reduce the time of its acceleration and increase the final speed during acceleration.
The technical result, the achievement of which the proposed device is directed, is to provide the possibility of increasing the diameter and mass of the charge of solid fuel for launch acceleration of the UAV.
To solve the problem in a UAV containing a body with aerodynamic controllable surfaces and side air intake devices with air ducts, as well as a control system, payload and propulsion system, consisting of a tank with liquid fuel, a ramjet engine including a camera combustion, connected with air ducts, flame stabilizers installed in the combustion chamber, with mechanisms for their installation, containing fuel collectors with p by spraying elements, a marching jet nozzle and a device for igniting liquid fuel in communication with the combustion chamber, as well as consisting of a system for supplying liquid fuel from the tank and regulating its flow into the combustion chamber in communication with the fuel collectors, the combustion chamber is made with a heat-protective coating in the chamber cavity a solid fuel charge is placed in the combustion, a ramjet engine contains a solid fuel charge igniter and a starting jet nozzle attached to the outlet part m a rhaw jet nozzle with the possibility of separation, the windows of the air ducts at the entrance to the combustion chamber are closed with plugs discharged by the air flow, and flame stabilizers with mechanisms for their installation are placed in the air ducts in front of the reset plugs, while the mechanisms for installing flame stabilizers in the combustion chamber are made in the form of hydraulic cylinders, whose supra-piston cavities are in communication with the system for supplying liquid fuel from the tank and controlling its flow into the combustion chamber, and their rods are hollow, extendable and into the cavity of the combustion chamber, the cavity of the rods communicates with the supra-piston cavities, flame stabilizers are placed on the outer ends of the hollow rods, and their fuel manifolds are communicated with the cavity of the rods. For placement in the combustion chamber of the ramjet, an extra charge of solid fuel with a maximum outer diameter exceeding the diameter of the critical section of the main jet nozzle, it is removable.
Distinctive features of the proposed UAV are the following: the combustion chamber is made with a heat-protective coating, a solid fuel charge is placed in the cavity of the combustion chamber, a ramjet engine contains a solid fuel charge igniter and a starting jet nozzle attached to the outlet of the main jet nozzle with the possibility of separation, windows the air ducts at the entrance to the combustion chamber are closed with plugs discharged by the air flow, and flame stabilizers with their installation mechanisms are sized puppies in the air ducts in front of the plugs being discharged, while the mechanisms for installing flame stabilizers in the combustion chamber are made in the form of hydraulic cylinders, the piston cavities of which are connected to the system for supplying liquid fuel from the tank and regulating its flow into the combustion chamber, and their rods are hollow, extendable into the cavity combustion chambers, rod cavities communicated with supra-piston cavities, flame stabilizers are placed on the outer ends of the hollow rods, and their fuel manifolds are communicated with rod cavities; Marching jet nozzle is removable.
Due to the presence of these distinguishing features, in conjunction with the well-known ones indicated in the restrictive part of the formula, the energy capabilities of the UAV flight start section are expanded to reduce the acceleration time and increase the final speed.
The proposed device can find application in the defense industry to create highly maneuverable and high-speed UAVs.
The proposed UAV is illustrated by the drawings shown in figures 1, 2.
Figure 1 presents a General view of the UAV in the context.
Figure 2 shows the design of a retractable combustion stabilizer with an installation mechanism containing a fuel manifold with spray elements (location A of Figure 1) at the time of starting the ramjet thrust starting mode before turning on the marching thrust mode.
SUBSTANCE: UAV contains a housing 1 with aerodynamic surfaces - central rotary wings 2 with actuators 3 and tail unit 4, side air intake devices 5 with air ducts 6, and also a control system 7, payload 8, and a propulsion system, which consists of a tank 9 with liquid fuel, a fuel pump 10 for supplying liquid fuel and a ramjet engine comprising a combustion chamber 11 with a heat-shielding coating 12 communicated through air inlet windows 13 hovodnymi channels 6 sustainer jet nozzle 14 and therethrough to the atmosphere. To ensure the starting acceleration of the UAV in the combustion chamber 11, a charge of solid fuel 15 is placed, which can be made loose or primed, bonded with a heat-shielding coating 12. In the output part of the marching jet nozzle 14, a starting jet nozzle 16 with a separation device 17 is installed, and input windows 13 are closed by plugs 18 discharged in the direction of air flow. The fuel supply system from the tank 9 includes a fuel pump 10, but may also contain another source of fuel pressure, for example, a boost device with a source of compressed gas. The ramjet also includes separate flame stabilizers 19 (FIG. 2) containing fuel manifolds made in the form of a set of spray nozzle elements 20. The devices for installing the flame stabilizers 19 in the combustion chamber 11 are made in the form of hydraulic cylinders 21 with hollow rods 22. Fuel flame stabilizers 19 connected to the outer ends of the hollow rods 22, communicated with their cavities and together with the hydraulic cylinders 21 are placed in the air ducts 6 in front of the vent plugs 18. The piston cavities 23 of the hydraulic cylinders 21 are in communication with the pump 10 cut the metering device 24 in electrical communication with the control system 7. The nozzles 20 are communicated through the cavity of the rods 22 with the piston cavities 23 of the hydraulic cylinders 21, the piston cavities 25 of which are communicated with the cavity of the combustion chamber 11 through the throttling drainage holes 26. Marching jet nozzle 14 (Fig. 1) is removable and is attached to the combustion chamber 11 through a detachable connection 27. The ramjet ignition system includes a solid fuel charge ignition device 28 and a liquid fuel ignition device 29 for mid-flight section of the UAV flight.
Presented in figure 1, 2, the device operates as follows. Due to the fact that the flame stabilizers 19 at the launch site of the UAV flight are in the air ducts 6, the solid fuel charge 15 is increased in the combustion chamber 11 with an increased diameter and mass compared to the prototype, which ensures that the UAV transfers a larger thrust impulse and its acceleration at the launch site to a higher final speed. Moreover, due to the increase in the surface area of the charge 15 and its volume, it is also possible to increase the combustion surface of the charge 15, therefore, the greater the consumption of solid fuel of the charge 15 and the thrust ramjet at the launch site of the UAV flight, which reduces the time to accelerate the UAV to the final speed. To start the UAV by activating the device 28, the solid fuel charge 15 is ignited. In the combustion chamber 11, the pressure of the gaseous products of the combustion of the charge 15 increases, ensuring that the plugs 18 are pressed against the inlet windows 13 and the thrust starting mode is achieved due to the acceleration of gases in the starting jet nozzle 16 and the outflow of gases into the environment at a supersonic speed, which ensures the UAV accelerates to supersonic speed flight sufficient to enable marching thrust ramjet thrust and maintain supersonic UAV flight speed. With the acceleration of the UAV in proportion to the square of its speed, the pressure in the air ducts 6 increases before the plugs 18, and after the charge 15 burns out, the gas pressure in the combustion chamber 11 and behind the plugs 18 decreases. The difference in these pressures, acting on the area of the plugs 18, forms a force that ejects them from the inlet windows 13 into the combustion chamber 11 and then with the gas flow through the nozzle 16 into the atmosphere. The control system 7 activates the device 17 separation of the launch nozzle 16, which is separated from the main jet nozzle 14 and is released into the atmosphere. The marching thrust of the ramjet thrust is ensured by the operation of the pump 10, which takes fuel from the tank 9 and delivers it with increased pressure through the dispenser 24 into the over-piston cavities 23 of the hydraulic cylinders 21; under the influence of fuel pressure on the pistons of the hydraulic cylinders 21, their rods 22 extend, moving the flame stabilizers 19 with nozzles 20 from the air ducts 6 to the combustion chamber 11. At the same time, fuel from the over-piston cavity 23 through the cavities of the rod rods 22 and flame stabilizers 19 enters the nozzles 20, spraying into the combustion chamber 11, mixing with the air entering through the inlet windows 13, forming a fuel-air mixture. The inclusion of the device 29 initiates the combustion of fuel with oxygen in the combustion chamber 11, the temperature and volume of gases in the combustion chamber 11 increase. The excess volume of gases, accelerating in the marching jet nozzle 14, flows into the environment, forming the marching thrust of the ramjet. Moreover, due to the presence of a tank 9 with liquid fuel, as well as a pump 10 and a dispenser 24, the fuel consumption through the nozzles 21 and into the combustion chamber 11 can vary in a wide range of values, respectively, in a wide range of values, the ramjet thrust in marching mode, formed by marching jet nozzle 14. Thus, it is possible economical operation of the engine in a wide range of flight characteristics, both in altitude and in flight speed, which expands the UAV’s technical capabilities for maneuvering. The presence of a detachable connection 27 in the UAV allows, with the undocked marching jet nozzle 14, to install a plug-in solid fuel charge 15 in the combustion chamber 11, the outer diameter of which is equal to the inner diameter of the heat-shielding coating 12 of the combustion chamber 11, and thus additionally increase the mass of the solid fuel charge 15, additionally accelerate the UAV to a higher final thrust flight speed and further reduce the acceleration time of the UAV to the final flight speed at the launch site.

Claims (2)

1. An unmanned aerial vehicle comprising a body with aerodynamic controllable surfaces and lateral air intake devices with air ducts, as well as a control system, payload and propulsion system consisting of a tank with liquid fuel, a ramjet engine including a combustion chamber located in the body. connected with air ducts, flame stabilizers installed in the combustion chamber with their installation mechanisms, containing fuel manifolds with spray elements, a marching jet nozzle and a device for igniting liquid fuel in communication with the combustion chamber, as well as consisting of a system for supplying liquid fuel from the tank and regulating its flow into the combustion chamber in communication with the fuel manifolds, characterized in that the combustion chamber is made with a heat-protective coating , a solid fuel charge is placed in the cavity of the combustion chamber, the ramjet engine contains a solid fuel charge igniter and a starting jet nozzle attached the outlet part of the marching jet nozzle with the possibility of separation, the windows of the air ducts at the entrance to the combustion chamber are closed with plugs discharged by the air flow, and flame stabilizers with mechanisms for their installation are placed in the air ducts in front of the reset plugs, while the mechanisms for installing flame stabilizers in the combustion chamber are made in the form hydraulic cylinders, the piston cavities of which are in communication with the system for supplying liquid fuel from the tank and regulating its flow into the combustion chamber, and their rods are made lymi advanced in the combustion chamber cavity, the cavity above the piston rod in communication with the cavities, the flame stabilizers are arranged on the outer ends of the hollow rods, and their collectors are communicated with the fuel rods cavities.
2. The unmanned aerial vehicle according to claim 1, characterized in that the mid-flight jet nozzle is removable.
RU2013116365/11A 2013-04-11 2013-04-11 Drone RU2532954C1 (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU171406U1 (en) * 2016-10-27 2017-05-30 Российская Федерация, от имени которой выступает Министерство промышленности и торговли Российской Федерации (Минпромторг России) Plug of the intake device of a ramjet engine
RU173530U1 (en) * 2016-08-12 2017-08-30 Федеральное государственное унитарное предприятие Тушинское машиностроительное конструкторское бюро "Союз" ФГУП ТМКБ "Союз" Powerplant hypersonic aircraft

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4631916A (en) * 1983-07-11 1986-12-30 Societe Europeenne De Propulsion Integral booster/ramjet drive
RU2040702C1 (en) * 1992-04-10 1995-07-25 Научно-производственное внедренческое объединение "Пламя" Ram-jet engine

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4631916A (en) * 1983-07-11 1986-12-30 Societe Europeenne De Propulsion Integral booster/ramjet drive
RU2040702C1 (en) * 1992-04-10 1995-07-25 Научно-производственное внедренческое объединение "Пламя" Ram-jet engine

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU173530U1 (en) * 2016-08-12 2017-08-30 Федеральное государственное унитарное предприятие Тушинское машиностроительное конструкторское бюро "Союз" ФГУП ТМКБ "Союз" Powerplant hypersonic aircraft
RU171406U1 (en) * 2016-10-27 2017-05-30 Российская Федерация, от имени которой выступает Министерство промышленности и торговли Российской Федерации (Минпромторг России) Plug of the intake device of a ramjet engine

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Effective date: 20160412