RU2530112C2 - Vertical adsorber with fixed adsorbent bed - Google Patents

Vertical adsorber with fixed adsorbent bed Download PDF

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RU2530112C2
RU2530112C2 RU2012134380/05A RU2012134380A RU2530112C2 RU 2530112 C2 RU2530112 C2 RU 2530112C2 RU 2012134380/05 A RU2012134380/05 A RU 2012134380/05A RU 2012134380 A RU2012134380 A RU 2012134380A RU 2530112 C2 RU2530112 C2 RU 2530112C2
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adsorber
gas
layer
adsorbent
holes
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RU2012134380/05A
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RU2012134380A (en
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Евгений Анатольевич Бессонный
Павел Дмитриевич Машковцев
Александр Викторович Михайлов
Виктор Михайлович Сидоров
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Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Научно-исследовательский и проектно-конструкторский институт химического машиностроения" (ООО "ЛЕННИИХИММАШ")
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Abstract

FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: adsorber comprises vertical casing, support grate with adsorbent bed, metal separation screens and plies of ceramic balls arranged at support grate and above adsorbent ply, union at upper and lower case bottoms for processed gas inlet and outlet. Horizontal perforated circular web is arranged above adsorbent top ply to cover the case crosswise section, its central part being shaped to conical barrel diverging upward and having holes at its bottom. Perforated web between conical barrel and adsorber case has spaced apart holes of different diameters. The number of holes and their distribution at given sizes of adsorber case and conical barrel are defend by gas flow rate and pressure.
EFFECT: higher reliability of adsorber and efficient use of adsorbent ply.
2 cl, 4 dwg

Description

The invention is intended for industrial adsorption of gases and vapors in gas, oil, chemical and other industries.

In the technology of industrial adsorption of gases and vapors, vertical adsorbers are widely used, the inner cavity of which is filled with a fixed layer of granular adsorbent. In this case, the adsorbent is uniformly distributed over the entire cross-sectional area of the apparatus.

The processed gas enters the apparatus from above through a fitting mounted on the upper bottom, and moves in the adsorbent layer in the direction from top to bottom. The gas used to regenerate the adsorbent moves in the opposite direction from bottom to top. This flow pattern has been adopted due to the fact that the flow rate of the regeneration gas and, accordingly, its speed in the absorbent layer is much less than the flow rate and speed of the processed gas. The use of lower values of gas velocities when passing it from the bottom up reduces the dynamic effect of the gas flow on the adsorbent grains, reduces their movement in the layer, abrasion and ablation with the gas flow through the upper fitting.

Vertical hollow-body adsorbers are simple in design. They are suitable for the implementation of the adsorption process in a sufficiently large range of pressures and flow rates of the processed gases. They are widely used in the technology of cleaning and drying hydrocarbon gases, such as natural, petroleum, hydrocarbon pyrolysis gases, etc. They are also used for gas cleaning processes, for example, from volatile solvents, air drying, and production of pure inert gases. As absorbers in the process of adsorption, depending on which component is absorbed from the gas mixture, activated carbon, zeolites, silica gels and active alumina are most often used.

The disadvantages of vertical hollow adsorbers include the difficulty of ensuring a uniform velocity field of the gas flow in the cross section of the apparatus at the inlet of the adsorption layer when supplying the processed gas through a nozzle located on the upper bottom of the adsorber, the cross-sectional area of which is 15-50 times smaller than the cross-sectional area of the apparatus body. As a result of a sharp expansion of the gas stream entering through the upper nozzle in the space above the adsorption layer, unevenness is created in which the gas flow fills only part of the cross section, while there is no translational movement in the rest of the section.

Known vertical adsorber for cleaning gas from various components, in particular an adsorber for purifying air from volatile solvents [1, 2], comprising a cylindrical body equipped with a top conical cover with a fitting for entering from above the processed gas mixture along the vertical axis of the apparatus, lower conical bottom with a fitting for the outlet of the processed gas and the corresponding fittings on the cover and bottom for the inlet and outlet of the regeneration gas entering the adsorber from the bottom up. A fixed adsorbent layer is placed on the supporting grids inside the housing. Various absorbers are used as adsorbents, having a developed porous surface and capable of capturing the target components from the processed gas mixture. To intensify the adsorption process by increasing the gas velocity in the adsorbent layer, the adsorbent particles can be made of various shapes: in the form of balls, cylindrical or toroidal rings with helical grooves of different profiles [2].

To prevent the adsorbent from getting under the grate, two layers of mesh or a layer of lumpy gravel are placed on it. On top of the adsorbent layer is covered with a metal mesh with loads of cast iron installed on it, fixing a mesh designed to prevent the adsorbent from being carried away with regeneration gas.

A bubbler for supplying water vapor for regeneration of the adsorbent is mounted in the lower bottom.

The upper fitting for the entrance of the processed gas mixture in its lower part is equipped with a guiding device in the form of a metal frame in the form of a cone tapering downwards with longitudinal slots, the side surface of which is covered with a metal mesh, and the bottom of the cone is drowned out by a flat disk screen. In the guiding device, a gas jet exiting the nozzle runs onto a flat disk screen, rotates 90 degrees and, moving along the plane of the disk in the radial direction, passes through slots on the side surface of the cone and moves in a radial direction towards the vertical wall of the adsorber casing.

The disadvantage of this adsorber is the inability to achieve effective equalization of the gas flow in the cross section of the apparatus at the entrance to the adsorption layer using a flat disk screen under the conditions of movement of a flat jet in the radial direction above the adsorbent layer. The reason for the inefficiency of using a screen to equalize the gas flow for a case of a gas jet running on a flat screen can be explained by an example of studying the process of a gas jet running on a flat thin-walled grating, which is a more efficient device compared to a flat disk screen [3, p. 81] . In such a grid, the distribution of the gas jet in the working area of the apparatus, despite the presence of distribution holes, occurs in a similar way. When a narrow stream of gas runs onto a flat lattice, the gas stream spreads radially, passes through the holes, preserving the radial direction of the streams, and, moving in the form of a flat stream, reaches the wall of the apparatus body. Having reached the wall, the gas flow changes its direction by 90 degrees and moves down along the wall in the form of an annular jet pressed against the wall, penetrating the adsorbent layer. Moreover, in the central part of the section below the flat lattice, the translational velocity of the gas is zero. Due to turbulent mixing, a gas stream approaching the wall of the casing entrains the stationary part of the gas from the central part of the section. Other portions of gas enter the vacant space from the sections farther from the cross-sectional grating, as a result of which reverse currents appear in the central part of the cross-sections under the grating, and the gas velocity profile under the flat-grating will have an “inverted” shape compared to the initial flow profile.

Thus, there are radial, or otherwise, transverse gas flows above the absorbent layer in the form of a flat jet: one straight line, formed as a result of radial spreading of the incoming gas stream, moves in the upper part of the working zone towards the wall of the adsorber casing, and the other, reverse, moves below the direct flow near the adsorption layer into the zone of low static pressure, located under the disk-screen.

Considering that the gas supply to the adsorbent layer occurs from unevenly distributed gas flows moving in the transverse direction with respect to the adsorbent layer, the gas distribution inside the adsorbent is also non-uniform. This leads to underutilization of the absorption capacity of the loaded adsorbent layer by the time the adsorption cycle is completed.

Ensuring a uniform distribution of the gas input stream in the adsorber cross section is especially important when carrying out drying and purification of hydrocarbon gases in the gas industry, which deals with the processing of large volumes of gas at high pressures, of the order of 8.0-10.0 MPa. For drying and purification of hydrocarbon gases, zeolites, silica gels, and active alumina are used as adsorbents, which provide gas dehydration to the dew point, respectively, to minus 70 ° C, 40 ° C, and 60 ° C.

Known designs of adsorbers used at natural gas processing facilities [4 - p. 51, Fig. 1; 4 - p. 52, fig. 2; 5 - p. 3-8, Fig. 2], which in their composition contain typical elements: a vertical body, upper and lower elliptical bottoms with fittings, respectively, for the entry and exit of the drained gas mixture. Through the same fittings, the input and output of the regeneration gas is carried out when it moves from the bottom up at the stage of regeneration of the adsorbent. The upper fitting for the inlet of the source gas, mounted on the upper bottom along the vertical axis of the housing, is equipped with a switchgear designed to equalize the gas flows in the cross section of the adsorber at the entrance to the upper adsorbent layer. The lower fitting also has a switchgear for equalizing the flow of regeneration gas when it enters the lower gas layer. Above the lower fitting there is a gas-permeable support device coated with a metal mesh, on which ceramic balls and a layer of the adsorbent technology meet the requirements. A separating grid and a layer of ceramic balls are placed on top of the adsorbent layer. The grid prevents the entrainment of adsorbent particles from above the adsorber with the regeneration gas leaving the apparatus, and the layer of ceramic balls helps to equalize the gas flow through the upper nozzle and ensures fixation of the grid on the adsorbent layer. The grid laid on the support device prevents the adsorbent from getting under the support device, and the layer of ceramic balls improves the distribution of regeneration gas flows at the entrance to the adsorbent layer.

Adsorbers [4 - p. 51, Fig. 1; 4 - p. 52, fig. 2; 5 - p. 3-8, Fig. 2] differ in the design of the used switchgear for equalizing the flow of gases entering the adsorption through the upper nozzle.

The adsorber [4 - p.51, Fig. 1], designed for drying natural gas using zeolite, includes a switchgear containing a flat disk screen mounted on the nozzle with an expansion pipe for inlet of the source gas from above the adsorber along its vertical axis, and a layer of adsorbent from zeolite grains, on top of which a layer of ceramic balls is placed through a separation grid. The disadvantage of this adsorber is the impossibility of providing conditions for a uniform distribution of gas flows in the adsorber cross section over the adsorbent layer when using a switchgear with a flat disk-screen when a narrow gas jet is incident on a flat disk and spreads in the radial direction with the formation of an uneven field of gas velocities in the working area of the adsorber, which was considered in the description of the adsorber [1, 2], in which a similar disk screen is used.

Industrial studies of the adsorber [4 - p. 51, Fig. 1] and experimental studies on the pilot model of this adsorber confirmed the existence of an uneven flow distribution over the adsorber cross section, as a result of which about 30% of the absorption capacity of the loaded adsorbent is not used at the end of the adsorption cycle.

The presence in the adsorbers of a layer of ceramic balls located above the adsorption layer through a separation grid, when using a guiding device with a flat disk-screen, leads to the appearance of additional disadvantages due to the intensive movement of the gas stream in the form of a flat jet over the layer of ceramic balls. Due to the fact that there are no demarcating surfaces in the bulk layer of ceramic balls, the annular plane stream from the walls of the body does not spread in front of the front of the bulk layer, but continues to spread gradually into the layer from section to section with the exit of a part of the gas from the bulk layer to the central zone with a reduced static pressure. Since ceramic balls are not bonded to each other and have a small mass, a gas flow penetrating into the layer draws them into motion, causing oscillations and movement with gas. In this case, ceramic balls are displaced by gas flow from the wall layers of the adsorber casing until the separation grid is exposed and are carried out into the central stagnant zone, forming a dome in the form of a cone with balls moving inside it. Exposure of the protective grid leads to a violation of the density of its fit to the adsorbent layer and the possible deformation of individual links of the grid. This leads to the removal of adsorbent particles from under the grid and mixing them with ceramic balls moving in the gas stream. Violation of the uniform distribution of the layer of ceramic balls on the protective grid affects the gas distribution at the entrance to the adsorption layer, and the mixing of ceramic balls and grains of adsorbent between them leads to their abrasion with the formation of small particles that settle in the adsorbent layer, increasing its hydraulic resistance.

The well-known adsorber [5 - p. 3-8, Fig. 2], designed to dry natural gas to breakthrough humidity, corresponds to a dew point of minus 30 ° C at a pressure of 7.5 MPa, includes a diffuser-type switchgear mounted on a nozzle for the central input of the source gas on top of the adsorber along its vertical axis.

A layer of finely porous silica gel, supported by a conical support device, on which a mullite layer of ceramic balls coated with a separation grid is placed, is placed inside the case as an adsorbent that absorbs water vapor. On top of the main drying layer of finely porous silica gel, a layer of coarse-porous silica gel is placed through a separating grid to protect the main layer from the droplet-liquid phase that may be contained in the gas entering the dryer. For a more uniform distribution of the source gas over the cross section of the adsorbent layer, a layer of ceramic balls is placed on the silica gel protective layer through a separation grid. To fix the balls in the layer in order to reduce their vibrations and movements, the layer of balls is covered with a protective mesh attached to the surface of the adsorber casing. The upper fitting for the input of the source gas is equipped with a diffuser-type switchgear designed to distribute gas flows in the cross section of the adsorber.

The use of a diffuser-type switchgear in the adsorber does not ensure uniform distribution of the gas flow in the adsorber cross section, since a sharp expansion of the initial gas flow at the entrance to the working zone and its spreading at the outlet of the diffuser in the radial direction above the adsorption layer towards the wall of the casing are maintained with the formation reverse gas flows in areas with low static pressure, in which there is no translational movement of gas. In this case, only the profiles of the circulating gas currents are changed, compared with the directions of the circulating gas currents when using a flat disk screen. Unsatisfactory results in the study of the distribution of gas flow over the cross section of the apparatus to the working layer were obtained when using a system of three ring diffusers as a switchgear [3, p. 284].

The disadvantages of this adsorber include the problem of ensuring reliable fixation of ceramic balls using a protective mesh due to the difficulty of ensuring guaranteed tension and tight fit to the layer of balls, as well as the difficulty of attaching layers of a relatively thin wire to the surface of the adsorber casing and individual links to each other. During operation of the adsorber, over time, the mesh tension and breaks in individual parts of the mesh in the attachment zones can weaken, which will lead to the movement of balls up to their removal from the layer of balls by a gas flow with the same problems that occur in the adsorber [4 - p. .51, fig. 1].

The well-known adsorber [4 - p. 52, Fig. 2], adopted as a prototype, is intended for drying natural gas using zeolite. It contains a switchgear mounted on a fitting with an expansion pipe for entering the source gas on top of the adsorber along its vertical axis, and an adsorbent layer of zeolite grains, on top of which a layer of ceramic balls is placed through the separation grid.

The switchgear includes two coaxial metal rings of different diameters and a flat disk screen connected in series to the inlet pipe in the direction of gas flow. The rings are made in the form of a flat disk with a hole in the center. The diameters of the rings and the flat continuous disk-screen are reduced from top to bottom sequentially one after another, and their diameters and the distances between them are designed so that they provide a separation of the gas flow into three equal parts. Additionally, the rings and the disk screen are provided with twelve permanent magnets on the underside.

The use of a distributor in an adsorber with an upper inlet of the source gas along the vertical axis of the apparatus, containing a system of two coaxial rings of different diameters connected in series and a flat disk screen, has made it possible to slightly improve the efficiency of gas flow distribution in the adsorber cross section.

The addition of the design of the ring system with permanent magnets gave some more increase in the efficiency of the switchgear.

However, a switchgear from a system of two coaxially mounted in series one after another rings and a flat disk-screen cannot provide a sufficiently high degree of uniformity of flow in the cross section of the working zone of the adsorber with the upper inlet of the source gas, which is shown by the test results [4 - p. 52, fig. 2]. This can be explained by the fact that the distribution of the incoming gas stream through the upper fitting located along the vertical axis of the adsorber occurs with a significant expansion of the gas flow and spreading in the radial direction above the adsorption layer towards the wall of the adsorber casing with the formation of reverse gas currents into the zone located under disk screen. A slight improvement in the distribution of the gas flow is explained by the division of the incoming flow into three parts, which leads to a decrease in the velocities of the forward and reverse gas flows above the adsorbent layer and, therefore, the gas velocity field in the working zone becomes equal.

The disadvantages of this adsorber should also include:

- a relatively large height of the switchgear with a four-layer, taking into account the expansion pipe of the inlet fitting, the placement of the annular system of the device, which requires the need for an increased superlayer space in the adsorber;

- the complexity of the design of the switchgear, requiring additional removable devices for attaching the device to the canister body and attaching permanent magnets to the rings and the flat disk screen.

The objective of the invention is to increase the reliability of the adsorber and the efficiency of use of the absorption capacity of adsorbents used in industry by creating conditions for a uniform distribution of the processed gas flow in the cross section of the adsorber with the upper inlet fitting located along the vertical axis of the casing, which ensures a uniform gas inlet into the adsorption layer , eliminating the movement and abrasion of ceramic balls placed above the top layer of ads Bent, and the upper layer of the adsorbent. The task is achieved by the fact that a horizontal annular perforated partition is placed over the upper layer of the adsorbent, covered through a layer of ceramic balls through the separation grid, overlapping the cross section of the adsorber body, the central part of which is made in the form of a conical cup expanding upwards, at the bottom of which holes are provided. At the same time, holes with different diameters and distances between each other are made in the perforated partition in the area between the conical cup and the adsorber body.

The distance between the perforated partition and the nozzle for the inlet of the processed gas, the height, diameter and angle of inclination of the conical part of the cup, the number of holes, their diameters and the distance between the holes in the perforated partition on the area between the conical cup and the adsorber body, as well as at the bottom of the conical cup when accepted the diameter of the canister is determined by the flow rate and pressure of the processed gas.

In the present invention, one of the components of the technical solution for equalizing the gas flow at the entrance to the adsorption layer is a horizontal perforated partition - a flat lattice that has a leveling effect with the help of holes distributed across its cross section, which create resistance to the passage of the gas flow. However, due to the specific properties of a planar lattice, which was considered above, under conditions of complete flow non-uniformity, i.e. in the event of a narrow jet of gas running on it, the flat lattice is not able to ensure uniform flow distribution in the cross section of the apparatus. Since the cause of the non-uniformity of the gas flow in the adsorber cross section in the working zone in front of the adsorption layer is the radial spreading of the gas flow due to the passage of gas streams through the openings of the grate at a significant slope to the surface of the grating, the task of eliminating the radial spreading of the gas flow and eliminating the “overturning” of the profile velocity consists in maximally reducing the proportion of transverse components and, accordingly, increasing the proportion of normal velocity components of gas when passing through the holes of the grate. Taking into account the spreading mechanism of the gas flow during the interaction of a narrow jet with a flat lattice and the factors influencing this mechanism, technical solutions have been proposed to ensure such a spreading mode of the flow in which there is a fairly uniform distribution of gas in the working zone of the adsorber in front of the adsorption layer. The desired effect is achieved as a result of the gradual expansion of the gas flow, ensuring uniform filling of the entire space above the adsorption layer with gas without stagnant zones, as a result of which the speed of transverse movement of the flow over the perforated partition decreases sharply. In this case, the conditions for the entry of gas streams into the openings of the partition are significantly improved.

The initial expansion and, consequently, a decrease in the velocity of the gas jet exiting the inlet nozzle is achieved by increasing the distance between the lower edge of the upper nozzle and the perforated partition, which is installed near the adsorption layer coated with a layer of ceramic balls. Subsequent expansion of the flow and, consequently, a decrease in its velocity occurs when a gas jet runs on a conical cup expanding upward, installed in the central part of the perforated partition, which prevents the gas jet from directly running on the perforated partition and spreading it in the form of a flat jet in the radial direction toward the wall casing leading to uneven flow distribution. The conical cup acts as a guide screen, which forms the direction of the radial spreading of the gas jet incident on it upward at an angle to the side of the adsorber casing wall in the form of a radial expanding plane jet.

The gas flow distribution scheme in the upper zone of the adsorber above the distribution, annular perforated partition with a conical cup is obtained on the basis of a computer program for calculating the gas-dynamic processes of the flow of working media. Using computer simulation of the geometric parameters of the conical cup and a set of holes in the perforated partition with the accepted design parameters of the adsorber for a given gas flow rate and pressure, the gas flow is found to ensure a uniform distribution at the entrance to the adsorption layer. The resulting gas flow regime in the upper zone of the adsorber above the perforated baffle with a conical cup is monitored by obtaining a visual overall picture of the flow distribution or by a graphical method for the distribution of gas jets in the cross section of the apparatus at the outlet of the perforated baffle. The computer-generated gas flow distribution diagram in the upper zone of the adsorber is shown in FIG. 4.

Having reached the body wall, the expanding jet unfolds and is divided into two streams that continue to move in two directions.

One stream, expanding, moves up along the wall of the body, and then along the wall of the upper bottom until it contacts the center of the adsorber with a downward flowing gas stream. A gas stream, having a higher speed due to the ejection effect, carries with it a gas flow rising upward, forcing it to turn around and move in the opposite direction. Ejection of masses of gas from an upward flow occurs throughout the entire path of its movement. As a result, in the upper zone of the adsorber with a lower boundary, a circulation loop with fairly evenly distributed gas currents without stagnant sections is formed along the line of the annular gas stream.

The other stream, expanding, moves down along the wall of the casing and, at the boundary with the adsorption layer, unfolds and moves along it to the conical glass until it contacts the jet exiting the conical glass. The gas jet ejects gas masses suitable for the glass and carries it upward in its movement at an angle to the axis of the adsorber towards the vertical wall of the housing. As a result, in the lower zone of the adsorber with the upper boundary along the line of the radial gas stream, a second circulating gas circuit is formed with fairly evenly distributed gas currents without stagnant sections.

Thus, the use of a conical cup expanding upward, installed in the center of the perforated partition, can significantly increase the uniformity of the gas flow in the entire volume of the adsorber located above the perforated partition in the form of two circulating gas circuits that move together with an annular jet exiting the conical cup, towards the wall of the adsorber casing. On approaching the wall of the casing, the total gas flow is divided into two flows that move in the opposite direction from each other, each in its own circuit until the next connection between them.

As a result of a significant expansion of the source gas with a uniform distribution of the flow throughout the volume of the adsorber space above the perforated baffle, a significant decrease in the velocity of flows moving along a closed front along a wide front is provided.

In this case, the gas enters the adsorption layer through the holes in the perforated partition from a uniformly distributed flow, which moves over the perforated partition by a wide front at a significantly reduced speed. This improves the conditions for the entry of gas streams into the openings of the baffle and improves the uniformity of the distribution of the gas flow in the adsorption layer. To increase the degree of alignment of the flow entering the partition, it is equipped with holes unevenly distributed over the cross section. The number of holes, their diameters and the distances between them are determined depending on the degree of unevenness of the velocity field of the gas flow entering the perforated partition.

Example 1. An adsorber using zeolite as an adsorbent. Figure 1 schematically shows the proposed adsorber of a vertical type with a fixed adsorbent layer, a longitudinal section: in figure 2 - section aa in figure 1; figure 3 is a view of B in figure 1; figure 4 - distribution of the gas flow in the upper zone of the adsorber.

The design of the proposed adsorber with a fixed adsorbent layer includes a vertical casing 1, a nozzle 2 for the input of the processed gas installed on the axis of the upper bottom of the housing, a nozzle 3 for the outlet of the processed gas, which is installed along the axis of the lower elliptical bottom and is equipped with a device 4 for distributing the gas flow, made in the form of a pipe muffled from above with a flat disk with longitudinal slots covered with a metal mesh, manholes 5, 6 for servicing the adsorber. A support device is mounted in the lower part of the housing, comprising a support grid 7 of removable sections, removable support beams 8 and a support ring 9 welded to the housing. On a grid covered with a metal mesh 10, a layer of ceramic balls 11 with a diameter of 20 mm, a layer of ceramic balls 12 with a diameter of 6 mm, a layer of zeolite 13 providing drying of natural gas to a degree of residual moisture corresponding to a dew point of minus 70 ° C are sequentially placed one after the other, a protective layer 14 of alumina gel particles with a diameter of 8 mm, designed to absorb the droplet-liquid phase, which may be contained in the gas supplied to the dryer, and through the separation grid 15, a layer of ceramic balls 16.

Above the layer of ceramic balls 16 there is a horizontal annular perforated partition 17 overlapping the cross section of the canister body. The central part is made in the form of a conical cup 18 expanding upwards. At the base of the conical cup there are openings 19 for balancing the differential pressure of gas in the sections above and below the perforated partition in the area of the cup base. In order to increase the uniformity of gas distribution over the entire surface of the adsorbent layer in the perforated partition over an area from the conical cup to the adsorber casing, a corresponding number of holes 20 with different diameters and distances between them was made. The perforated partition rests on a support ring, which is welded to the shell of the adsorber casing. The partition is made of separate removable sections 21, attached to the support rings with bolted connections 22. Installation and dismantling of the partition sections is carried out through the manhole 5, which is also used to load the adsorbent. The adsorbent is discharged through a manhole 6.

The adsorber works as follows. The initial gas stream enters the adsorber for drying through the nozzle 2, from which it moves downward and runs into the bottom of the conical cup 18 in the form of a gas jet. Spreading along the cup in the radial direction, the gas jet moves at an angle to the cross section of the casing, depending on the angle of the conical the surface of the glass, in the form of an annular radial stream towards the vertical wall of the cylindrical body 1. Having reached the wall of the body, the expanding radial stream unfolds, forming two flows, one of which moves, expanding Rising up along the wall of the casing and the upper bottom, the other moves down along the wall of the casing, and then, after turning, along the surface of a flat perforated partition in the direction of the conical glass. When moving, the streams come in contact with the jets of gas, which carry them into their movement. As a result, two circulation circuits with uniformly distributed gas currents without stagnant sections in the entire volume of the upper zone are formed in the upper zone of the adsorber above the perforated partition.

Due to the fact that the gas flow of the lower circulation circuit moves over the perforated partition with a uniformly distributed wide front at significantly reduced speeds, favorable conditions are created for the entry of gas streams into the openings of the partition.

Additionally, an increase in the degree of equalization of the gas flow occurs when gas streams pass through the holes 20 in the perforated partition. Depending on the degree of unevenness of the velocity field in the gas flow entering the partition, the leveling holes on it are made with different degrees of living cross-section in its various sections, or otherwise, with a different number of holes, their diameters and distances between them. After passing through the openings of the partition, the aligned gas stream continues its movement from top to bottom, passing sequentially through a layer of ceramic balls 16, a layer of zeolite 13, a layer of ceramic balls 12 with a diameter of 6 mm, a layer of ceramic balls 11 with a diameter of 20 mm and a support grid 7, and leaves the adsorber through the switchgear 4 and the nozzle 3. After the zeolite is saturated with moisture, the supply of moist gas is stopped, and the adsorber switches to work in the regeneration mode - removal of water vapor from the zeolite layer during regeneration movement th gas in the opposite direction from the bottom upwards through the regeneration gas entering through the nipple 3 and remove it through the sleeve 2.

Due to the uniform distribution of the gas flow over the entire adsorber cross section, the aligned gas flow after the perforated baffle enters smoothly into the layer of ceramic balls and is evenly distributed in it. This ensures a stable position of the ceramic balls in the layer without removing them from the layer with the gas flow, which allows the use of the layer of ceramic balls not only to fix the mesh on the adsorbent layer, but also to increase the uniformity of the distribution of the gas flow in the adsorption layer. As a result of the gradual equalization of the gas flow before it enters the adsorption layer and the uniform distribution of the flow in the adsorbent layer, the degree of utilization of the absorption capacity of the adsorbent loaded into the apparatus is significantly increased. In addition, there are eliminated malfunctions in the operation of the adsorber associated with the removal of ceramic balls from the layer by the flow of gas entering through the upper nozzle. An additional advantage of the proposed adsorber is that a perforated partition with holes of different diameters and different distances between them, located above the upper adsorbent layer coated with a layer of ceramic balls, the central part of which is made in the form of a conical cup expanding upwards, is quite simple to manufacture, takes up little space in the superlayer space of the adsorber, it is convenient for mounting and dismounting inside the adsorber through the manhole, as it is made of separate removable sections.

Equipping the adsorber with an annular perforated partition with holes of different diameters and distances between them, overlapping the cross section of the apparatus body, the central part of which is made in the form of a conical cup expanding upwards, ensures uniform flow of gas into the adsorption layer with an upper inlet in vertical adsorbers of different geometric dimensions , flow rate and pressure of the processed gas. This is achieved by selecting the appropriate geometrical dimensions of the conical cup, the angle of inclination, height, diameter on the perforated, annular partition and the required set of holes on the partition using computer simulation of the gas flow in a specific adsorber with the accepted diameters of the apparatus body and the upper inlet fitting, as well as the distance from the upper fitting to the layer of ceramic balls placed on top of the adsorption layer, taking into account the flow rate and pressure of the processed gas.

Example 2. An adsorber using silica gel as an adsorbent (silica gel layer 13 in FIG. 1).

Example 3. An adsorber using activated carbon as an adsorbent (active carbon layer 13 in FIG. 1).

Example 4. An adsorber using alumina as an adsorbent (alumina layer 13 in FIG. 1).

The adsorbers given as examples operate according to the description of the schemes of FIGS. 1-3, according to which the main condition is ensured - uniform distribution of the source gas in the cross section of the adsorber.

The dependence of the degree of uniformity of the distribution of the source gas in the adsorber cross-section on the flow rate and pressure of the processed gas and the need to select for the specific flow rates and pressures the corresponding geometrical dimensions of the conical cup on the annular perforated partition and the set of openings on it to achieve the necessary uniformity of flow is explained by the absence of reasonable methods for selecting criteria to create adsorbers with identical flow distribution uniformity and incoming gas.

Adsorbers are atypical types of equipment. They are made according to individual projects. The determination of many characteristic values that affect the degree of uniformity of the distribution of the gas flow with the upper entrance to the apparatus is calculated based on practical recommendations.

The main values affecting the distribution of the gas flow in the cross section of the adsorber include:

- the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the canister and the gas inlet fitting on top of the apparatus;

- the speed of the gas stream leaving the upper fitting;

- the ratio of the height of the space above the adsorbent layer coated with a layer of ceramic balls to the diameter of the adsorber casing.

The gas velocity W g in the fitting, is taken in accordance with the recommended speeds depending on the gas density p g according to the formula:

Figure 00000001

The diameter of the inlet fitting d pc is determined depending on the gas flow rate V g and gas velocity W g :

Figure 00000002

Finally, the diameter of the nozzle is taken into account the allowable hydraulic resistance and the nearest diameter of the pipes produced by the industry.

The gas velocity in the adsorber W hell is taken in accordance with the recommended speeds depending on the gas density p g according to the formula:

Figure 00000003

The diameter of the adsorber body D hell is determined by the dependence (2).

Finally, the diameter of the adsorber D hell is taken taking into account the allowable hydraulic resistance of the adsorbent layer and the closest diameter of the cylindrical body manufactured by the industry.

In accordance with these dependences, the characteristics of adsorbers were calculated for various flow rates and pressures of natural gas, the results of which are given below:

Characteristics option 1 option 2 option 3 option 4 V g , m 3 / s 0.408 0.235 0.466 0,906 ρ g , kg / m 3 81 81 41 41 d pc mm 300 250 300 400 D hell , mm 2600 1800 2000 2800 W g , m / s 5.8 4,5 6.6 7.2 F hell / F pc 75 29th 44 49 W add., M / s 0.11 0.11 0.16 0.156 W ad.pab., M / s 0,083 0,093 0.148 0.147

An analysis of the calculation results shows that the speed of incidence of the gas jet leaving the external nozzle on the conical glass of the annular perforated partition and the ratio of the cross-sectional areas of the adsorber body and the upper nozzle F ad / F pc differ markedly in devices of different diameters depending on the values of flow and pressure recyclable gas. Also, in different adsorbers, the diameter of which depends on the gas flow and pressure, the relations between the height of the superlayer space and the diameter of the apparatus body are very different due to the need to provide a sufficient height for the manhole to be installed for installation and dismantling of internal devices by working personnel, as well as work on loading and unloading the adsorber. For example, taking into account the volume of the upper bottom when changing the diameter of the adsorber casing from 2800 mm to 1200 mm, the relative height of the superlayer space to the diameter of the casing changes from 0.68 to 1.58.

The results of these calculations once again indicate the complexity of a universal, constructive solution for use in adsorbers of various sizes, taking into account the flow rate and density of the processed gas to ensure an identical, uniform distribution of the gas flow in the cross section of the apparatus. This explains the presence of a large number of different interchangeable devices for equalizing the gas flow in the cross section of the apparatus described in the literature [3] and in the analogues in this description.

The use of an annular, perforated partition in the adsorber with a set of corresponding openings equipped with a conical cup expanding toward the top ensures uniform distribution of the gas flow into the adsorption layer in vertical adsorbers of various sizes, taking into account the flow rate and density of the gas flow using computer simulation based on a program for calculating gas-dynamic processes flow of working environments.

In accordance with the invention, an adsorber for drying associated petroleum gas for a gas processing plant in one of the northern gas fields is developed.

Technical characteristics of the adsorber:

Gas pressure - 8 MPa;

Gas consumption - 169,284 kg / h;

The diameter of the adsorber body - 2600 mm;

The height of the adsorber is 13800 mm;

The height of the adsorbent layer is 5300 mm;

Type of adsorbent - zeolite;

Inlet fitting diameter - 500 mm;

The distance between the perforated partition and the upper inlet fitting is 1900 mm;

The diameter of the lower base of the conical glass is 600 mm;

The diameter of the upper base of the conical glass is 900 mm;

The total number of holes of different diameters in the range from 24 mm to 38 mm in the perforated partition in the area between the conical cup and the adsorber body is 1680 pcs .;

The number of holes with a diameter of 16 mm on the lower base of the conical glass is 36 pcs.

The adsorber is put into operation. The parameters of the adsorber work comply with the requirements of the technical regulations of production.

Figure 4 presents a diagram of the distribution of the gas flow in the upper zone of the embedded adsorber obtained by computer simulation based on a computer program for calculating the gas-dynamic processes of the flow of working media.

The design of the adsorber proposed by the invention improves its reliability and increases the efficiency of using the absorption capacity of the adsorbent layer.

Information sources

1. Serpionova E.N. Industrial adsorption of gases and vapors. - M .: Higher school, 1969 - 414 p. - Page 175, Fig. 66, - vertical VTR adsorber.

2. RF patent No. 2354441, cl. B01D 53/02, publ. - Bull. No. 13 from. 05/10/2009

3. Idelchik I.E. Aerodynamics of technological devices. - M.: Mechanical Engineering, 1983 - 351 p.

4. Iskaliev S.K., Pivovarova N.A. and others. Increasing the service life of the adsorbent in the desulfurized gas dehydration plants. Gas industry. - 2012, - No. 1, - p. 51, Fig. 1; p.52, Fig. 2 (prototype).

5. Remizov VV, Zaynullin VF, Chugunov LS, Mikhailov NV - Features of the operation of gas adsorption dehydration plants in the fields of the far North. Series: Preparation and processing of gas and gas condensate. Review Inf. - M. - IRC Gazprom, 1995. - C.3-8, Fig. 2.

Claims (2)

1. The adsorber is vertical with a fixed adsorbent layer, comprising a vertical casing, a fitting on the upper bottom of the adsorber casing for inlet of the processed gas and outlet of regeneration gas, a fitting on the lower bottom of the adsorber casing for the outlet of the processed gas and inlet of regeneration gas, a support grid with a bulk layer of adsorbent, switchgears for the processed and regeneration gas, a layer of ceramic balls placed through a separation grid on a support grid in front of the adsorbent layer, and a layer to ceramic balls placed through a separating grid on top of the adsorbent layer, characterized in that a horizontal annular perforated partition is placed above the upper adsorbent layer coated with a layer of ceramic balls, the central part of which is made in the form of a conical cup expanding upward at the bottom through holes are provided, while in the perforated partition on the area between the conical cup and the adsorber housing Stia with different diameters and distances between them.
2. The adsorber according to claim 1, characterized in that the distance between the perforated partition and the nozzle for the input of the processed gas, the height, diameter and angle of inclination of the conical part of the glass, the number of holes, their diameters and the distance between the holes in the perforated partition on the area between the conical glass and the case of the adsorber and at the bottom of the conical glass with the accepted diameter of the case of the adsorber is determined by the flow rate and pressure of the processed gas.
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RU2569349C1 (en) * 2014-09-10 2015-11-20 Игорь Анатольевич Мнушкин Adsorber for gas cleaning
RU2590169C1 (en) * 2015-03-03 2016-07-10 Алексей Никифорович Никифоров Reactor for implementation of physical-chemical processes at high temperatures
RU2677203C1 (en) * 2018-03-07 2019-01-15 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Оренбургский государственный университет" Vertical adsorber with variable internal volume
RU2683738C1 (en) * 2018-07-18 2019-04-01 Игорь Анатольевич Мнушкин Annular adsorber
RU2689570C1 (en) * 2018-12-03 2019-05-28 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Тихоокеанский государственный университет" Vertical adsorber for separation of butane fraction
RU191337U1 (en) * 2019-04-11 2019-08-01 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "АэроФильтр" Filter-adsorber

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2569349C1 (en) * 2014-09-10 2015-11-20 Игорь Анатольевич Мнушкин Adsorber for gas cleaning
RU2590169C1 (en) * 2015-03-03 2016-07-10 Алексей Никифорович Никифоров Reactor for implementation of physical-chemical processes at high temperatures
RU2677203C1 (en) * 2018-03-07 2019-01-15 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Оренбургский государственный университет" Vertical adsorber with variable internal volume
RU2683738C1 (en) * 2018-07-18 2019-04-01 Игорь Анатольевич Мнушкин Annular adsorber
RU2689570C1 (en) * 2018-12-03 2019-05-28 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Тихоокеанский государственный университет" Vertical adsorber for separation of butane fraction
RU191337U1 (en) * 2019-04-11 2019-08-01 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "АэроФильтр" Filter-adsorber

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