RU2529827C1 - Acoustic sounder of pulsed sound sources - Google Patents

Acoustic sounder of pulsed sound sources Download PDF

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RU2529827C1
RU2529827C1 RU2013112543/28A RU2013112543A RU2529827C1 RU 2529827 C1 RU2529827 C1 RU 2529827C1 RU 2013112543/28 A RU2013112543/28 A RU 2013112543/28A RU 2013112543 A RU2013112543 A RU 2013112543A RU 2529827 C1 RU2529827 C1 RU 2529827C1
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Виктор Владимирович Шмелёв
Пётр Николаевич Калмыков
Сергей Васильевич Батарев
Сергей Викторович Шмелев
Егор Сергеевич Козлов
Николай Борисович Колганов
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Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Тульский государственный университет" (ТулГУ)
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Abstract

FIELD: physics.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to measure a sound source (SS) distance from an acoustic locator, its corrected sound-ranging angle and topographic coordinates (TC) of this SS. It comprises left (LLG) and right linear groups (RLG) of sound locators (SL); each group mentioned above consists of 3 SLs. Centres of these LGs are frontally arranged at approximately several hundred metres from each other and at approximately several kilometres from a troop confrontation line; there are also provided three signal processing channels (SPC), a computer (C), a selector pulse formation chain (SPFC) and a SL LG directional characteristics control system enabling signal processing in the SPC at certain moments only as determined by programs installed in 2 of its microconvertors that improves a noise immunity of the acoustic locator and provides obtaining the TCs of the SS found in a sector of reconnaissance. The first SPC and a frequency channel consist of a signal extractor (SE), a voltage summator (VS), an amplitude detector (AD), an analogue-to-digital convertor, and a series register connected to the computer. The second SPC comprises an SE, a VS, an AD, a time measurement system (TMS) and 2 registers connected to the computer. The TMS measures a pulse count (at a repetition cycle of 1 ms) to the moment of pulse acoustic signal receipt by the RLG of the SL, as well as to the LLG of the SL; the SPFC comprises series connected frontal SL, a Schmitt trigger and a trigger circuit. The frequency f1 channel processes an electrical signal of the frequency f1, while first and second ones - of the frequency f0. Processing the signals in the first SPC and the frequency f1 channel results in computed calculation of distance to the SS, while processing the signals in the second SPC results in computed measurement of the corrected sound-ranging angle, the TCs of the SS.
EFFECT: improved noise immunity of the acoustic locator.
15 dwg, 26 app

Description

The invention relates to sound-measuring stations (sound-measuring complexes) and can be used to determine the distance of a sound source (IZ) from the locator, its bearing and topographic coordinates (TK) of this IZ, i.e. it is an acoustic locator (AL) with a system for measuring the distance from the AL from the AL and the ability to determine the TC of the IZ located in a pre-selected area in the AL reconnaissance sector, i.e. in the "area of special attention" (DOM).

In modern sound metering, there are acoustic direction finders (APs) that make it possible to determine IZ bearings (angles between a known direction, for example, an equal signal (RSN), and a direction: the intersection point of linear groups (LG) of sound receivers (RF) - IZ [1 ... 4], but they do not allow determining the distance to the IZ. In works [5 ... 8] soundometric complexes are described that determine the TC of these sources of IZ using 2 or 3 APs spaced at some distance from each other (geometric base, GB), TC of the middle of acoustic bases ( AB) (AB - the distance between the doors name of the PO) which are determined by the navigation equipment.In these APs, called base points (there must be at least 2 of them), sonometric angles (the angles between the directrix and the direction: the middle of the AB - IZ) are determined using the “time difference principle.” The director is perpendicular, reconstructed from the middle, center, AB.According to the well-known GB, corrected sonometric angles (the influence of speed, wind direction in the surface layer of the atmosphere and air temperature in this layer on the speed of sound propagation is taken into account) and directional to the angles of directors 1 and 2 AP, first all 3 angles in the oblique triangle are calculated, then the length of one of the sides of this triangle connecting one of the midpoints of the AB with the IC, and then the TC IC is calculated. The disadvantages of these complexes are low noise immunity (FROM and interference are received from a large sector, approximately equal to 120 ° [7]), low bandwidth (3 ... 5 targets per minute [7]), the inability to direction finding sources of continuous acoustic signals (because it is used to determine bearings, "the principle of the difference of times"),

In [9, pp. 17-19], an AP was described that was devoid of the above-mentioned shortcomings, but it also does not allow one to determine the distances to the IZ and TC of these sources.

In [10], an AP is described that uses an equal-signal method for determining FR bearings with differential signal processing.

In it, this range is determined by solving the following transcendental equation:

exp [ 1,5 exp [ - D ( β one + β 3 - 2 β 2 ) ] P one P 3 / P 2 2 ] - D = 0

Figure 00000001
, [11, p.2 or 10, p.2],

where D is the removal from the AP (range to the IZ);

β 1 , β 2 , β 3 - sound attenuation coefficients at frequencies f, 2f, 3f, respectively, in nep / m;

P 1 , P 2 , P 3 - the amplitude of the sound pressure of the acoustic signal (AC) at the input of the AP at the above frequencies, which are proportional to the corresponding amplitudes of the voltages received by the AP and measured at the outputs of the corresponding signal processing channels (CBS).

As can be seen from this analytical expression (AB), the disadvantages of these direction finders are the following:

1. Measurement of the above range can only be performed in a homogeneous medium with constant parameters, which can be attributed, for example, to the aquatic environment;

2. The parameters of the surface layer of the atmosphere (temperature, relative humidity, thermal conductivity, adiabat,) are not taken into account, which reduces the accuracy of measuring the range to IZ;

3. The influence of reflection from the earth’s surface and sound attenuation by forests, forest belts, which will also reduce the accuracy of measuring this range, are not taken into account;

4. The measurement of the amplitudes of the voltages at the outputs of the CBS is carried out at three harmonics of the acoustic spectrum of the signal, the considered range is not determined immediately, and it can only be found by the method of successive approximations (how to solve the transcendental equation), which increases the processing time of this signal;

5. The location of the FMs, i.e. his shopping mall.

In [11], an AP is described that uses an equal-signal method for determining bearings from a classical signal processing. This AP makes it possible to determine with high accuracy bearings of pulsed (for example, single shots of artillery shells, salvos of artillery batteries) and continuous (moving on the battlefield separate objects of military equipment and military convoys) FROMs, their ranges and their TCs are quite narrow (several degrees ) the working sector. But it does not provide for scanning (moving) directional characteristics (XI) in a particular intelligence sector, which dramatically reduces its effectiveness. In addition, it has a complex acoustic antenna (AA): it includes 2 LG RFPs of 20 each. Therefore, this AP is expensive, it takes a lot of time to deploy into battle formation. This complex AA reduces the reliability of the AP in operation.

The closest technical solution is AL, described in [12], which we take as a prototype. It allows you to determine with high accuracy the IK TCs located in a very wide sector and in this regard can be used as a means of sound reconnaissance in modern combined arms combat. But it has a complex AA: it includes 2 LGs of 20 RFPs each. Therefore, this AL road, requires a lot of time to deploy in battle formation. This complex AA also reduces its reliability.

An object of the invention is to determine the TC IZ in the absence and presence of acoustic noise located in the DOM, covering an area of about 65 km 2 , see the ABCE quadrangle in Fig. 1, if the AL is 4 km away from the military contact line of the troops.

This problem in the invention is solved as follows. AL, which includes an automatic warning device, ZP 7, installed approximately on the AB director at a distance of about one hundred and fifty meters from the middle of this base, right (PLG) and left (LLG) ZP, with circular directional characteristics (XI), and the working axes of the microphones of these RFPs are directed vertically upward, and the middle of the right linear group of RFPs is a few hundred meters away from the middle of the left one along the front, called AB, RFPs one and two are installed on this base, and RFP 3 on its extension, the AC midway TCs are determined by the navigation equipment, L Г ЗП are removed from the combat contact line of the troops at approximately the same distance, about 4 km, perpendiculars recovered from the middle of these LGs ЗП should be directed approximately to the approximate center of the DOM, each of these ЛГ consists of three ЗП, connected to the corresponding inputs of three parallel the included channels, the frequency channel f 1 , the first and second channels, the frequency channel f 1 and the first channel receive speakers from the PL PL, and the first and second channels receive speakers at the same frequency f 0 , and the frequency channel f 1 at a slightly higher frequency f 1 WTO th channel receives AC with LLG RFP, wherein the first channel and the frequency f 1 are connected in series between a delineator signal (VS), voltage adder (CH), amplitude detector (AD), an analog-digital converter (ADC) and a register , the outputs of the registers of these two channels are connected by bus with the corresponding ports of the electronic computer (computer), the second channel includes a series of interconnected aircraft, СН, АД, time measuring system (SIW), registers number one and number two, whose inputs connected by tires outputs one and two SIV, the outputs of these registers are connected by buses to the corresponding computer ports, the SIV includes a crystal oscillator, a source follower, a Schmitt trigger and a frequency divider, the output of which is connected to the input of the first trigger of the pulse counter, outputs one and two which are connected by buses to the inputs of registers number one and two of the second channel, respectively, the output of register number one of the second channel is connected by a bus to port three of the computer, the output of register number two of the second channel is connected by another with four computers, port 2 of the electronic key system (EC) number one of the pulse counter connected to the AD output of the second channel, inputs 2 of the EC number two pulse counter connected to the output of the AD of the first channel, each of the aircraft includes three selective amplifiers ( DUT), the input of which receives a signal from the corresponding RF, three ECs, one of which receives a signal from the corresponding DUT, and three coincidence circuits (CC) with two inputs, the output of each CC signal is fed to the control input two corresponding EC, and from the last it to the corresponding CH input, and from the output of the last signal is fed to the AD input, the latter includes a bridge rectifier (MB) connected in series with each other, on one diagonal of which a signal from CH is supplied, a capacitive filter (EF), to the input of which a signal is supplied on the other diagonal MB, and EC, one input of which receives a signal from EF, from the output of which in the first channel and frequency channel f 1 a signal is fed to the ADC input, and from the output of the first channel AD, the signal is also fed to inputs 2 of EC system No. 2 pulse counters SIV, and in the second channel Ignal with EC is fed to the inputs 2 of EC system No. 1 of the SIV pulse counter, in addition, a circuit has been introduced consisting of a front-connected front-end ZP, Schmitt trigger and a single-shot in series, the output of this last circuit is connected to the first inputs of the SS aircraft of all three channels and the control input two EC of all ABPs, it additionally introduces a directivity control system (CMS), consisting of a differentiating circuit (DC), a diode, a micro-converter of the first channel and a frequency channel f 1 , a micro-converter of the second channel, and the signal to the input of the DC in the form of a rectangular pulse of positive polarity lasting thirty seconds from a single-shot of the above circuit, from the output of the DC signal in the form of two bipolar pulses is fed to the input of the diode, its anode, from the output of the diode the signal in the form of a positive pulse is fed to the input of the microconverter of the first channel and frequency channel f 1 and the input MicroConverter second channel, from the outputs of one, two and three MicroConverter first channel and the channel frequency f 1 at certain times, determined as set out in the Microcom nvertor program signals in the form of rectangular pulses of fifteen seconds of duration of positive polarity to the inputs of two respective SS sun first channel and the channel frequency f 1 from the outputs of one, two and three MicroConverter second channel at certain times, determined as set out in this MicroConverter program, signals in the form of a rectangular pulse of positive polarity lasting fifteen seconds are fed to the inputs of two corresponding SS aircraft of the second channel.

The inventive AL is illustrated by the following graphic materials:

Figure 1 The layout of the left, right linear groups of sound receivers, frontal sound receiver, center of the front of the terrain in the intelligence sector of the acoustic locator of the area of special attention and sound source.

Figure 2 Acoustic locator. Structural electrical circuit. Figure 3 Acoustic signals formed by single shots of a self-propelled howitzer caliber 152 mm, and their energy spectra obtained experimentally.

Figure 4 Control system of directivity characteristics of linear groups of acoustic receiver acoustic locator. Structural electrical circuit.

Figure 5 Highlighter signals of all channels. Structural electrical circuit.

Fig.6 Scheme of sound shielding barriers (hills, mountains).

Fig. 7 Sound reconnaissance scheme in the north-east direction.

Fig. 8 Sound reconnaissance scheme in the north-west direction.

Fig.9 The scheme of sound reconnaissance in the south-west direction.

Figure 10 The scheme of sound reconnaissance in the southeast direction.

11 Amplitude detector of the first channel. Structural electrical circuit.

Fig. 12 Selective amplifier. The circuit is electrical in principle.

Fig. 13 Selective amplifier. The list of elements of the electrical concept.

Fig. 14 Time measuring system. Structural electrical circuit.

Fig. 15 Pulse counter. Structural electrical circuit.

This AL allows you to explore (determine TC) FROM located on any selected area of the DOM, in the presence of acoustic interference that takes place on the battlefield, see figure 1. This ensures the reception of signals from the “necessary” IZs and their further processing, as well as the prohibition of signal processing from other IZs located in other areas of the reconnaissance sector, and acoustic interference arising from the conduct of the battle. These selected areas of the DOM terrain are indicated by a topographic map, where the most likely location of firing positions (OP) of artillery and mortars of the likely enemy. These positions are usually chosen in the lowlands, opposite the edges of the forest at distances of 2 ... 8 km from the line of military contact of the troops. The main parameters of these sites are as follows:

1. The removal of the approximate center of the DOM, point C, from the PO 4 LLG D 1L , which is determined by the topographic map, using the selected landmark, and entered into the computer 50, see figure 1.

2. The angle α K between the direction: ZP 4 LLG is the approximate center of the DOM C and the direction: ZP 4 LLG is ZP 6 LLG, measured, for example, using the artillery periscope compass PAB - 2A, which is inserted into the computer 50, see Fig. one.

3. Removing the approximate center of the DOM, point C from the RFP 1 PLG D 1P , which is also determined by the topographic map, using the selected landmark, and entered into the computer 50, see figure 1.

4. The angle α KP , which should be equal to 90 °, between the direction: ZP 1 PLG - the approximate center of the DOM Ts and the direction: ZP 1 PLG - ZP 3 PLG, measured, for example, using the artillery periscopic bus PAB - 2A, which is introduced in the computer 50, see figure 1.

5. The depth of the site, determined by the length of the depth of the OP artillery and mortars in the DOM, which is usually about 8 km.

The time of arrival of the speakers from the approximate center of the DOM, point C, to the PO 4 LLG PS can be determined by this AB:

t P R L ˙ one = D one L C C W , ( one )

Figure 00000002

Where C W = C + W cos ( ϕ ) - from to about R about from t b ( 2 )

Figure 00000003

sound taking into account the influence of wind [5, p.24, 22, 21 and 25];

FROM = 331.5 one + t B 273

Figure 00000004
- sound speed without taking into account the influence of wind [5, p.21];

t B is the air temperature in the atmospheric surface layer, measured by a remote meteorological set, for example, DMK-2, see [13, see p. 177] and entered into the computer 50 before conducting sound reconnaissance, for definiteness we take it equal to 5 ° C;

W is the wind speed in the atmospheric surface layer, also measured, for example, by the DMK-2 remote meteorological set, see [13, see 181] and entered into the computer 50 before conducting sound reconnaissance, for definiteness we take it equal to 5 m / s;

φ≈φ Wod ;

α W - directional angle of the wind [5, p.25];

α od - the directional angle of the director AB AL.

Figure 1 shows that the distance from the approximate center of the DOM, point C, from the CW 5 LLG will be determined by the cosine theorem, see [14, p.186]:

D 2 L = D one L 2 + d L 2 - 2 D one L d L cos ( α K ) , ( 3 )

Figure 00000005

where d L is the distance between the working axes of the microphones ЗП ЛЛГ.

The time of arrival of the speakers from the approximate center of the DOM, point C, to the PO 5 LLG PS can be determined by this AB:

t P R L 2 = D 2 L C W . ( four )

Figure 00000006

From figure 1 it is seen that the distance from the approximate center of the DOM, point C, from PO 6 LLG will be determined by the cosine theorem, see [14, p.186]:

D 3 L = D one L 2 + ( 2 d L ) 2 - 2 D one L ( 2 d L ) cos ( α K ) . ( 5 )

Figure 00000007

The time of arrival of the AS from the approximate center of the DOM, point C, to PO 6 LLG PO can be determined by this AB:

t P R L 3 = D 3 L C W . ( 6 )

Figure 00000008

The calculation of the arrival times to the LL LLP for different wind directions in the example under consideration is given in Appendixes 5, 7, 9, and 11. Based on these calculated arrival times, the micro-converter 42 is programmed, see Fig. 4, which feeds 1 ... 3 to its data times gating rectangular pulses of positive polarity lasting 15 s to the inputs of 2 SS aircraft of the second channel.

The time of arrival of the AS from the approximate center of the DOM, point C, to ZP 1 included in the PLP ZP can be determined by this AB:

t P R P one = D one P C W . ( 7 )

Figure 00000009

From figure 1 it is seen that the removal of C from ZP 2 included in the PLG will be determined by the cosine theorem, see [14, p.186]:

D 2 P = D one P 2 + d P 2 - 2 D one P d P cos ( α K P ) , ( 8 )

Figure 00000010

where d P - the distance between the working axes of the microphones ZP PLG.

The time of arrival of the AS from the approximate center of the DOM, point C, to ZP 2 included in the PLP ZP can be determined by this AB:

t P R P 2 = D 2 P C W . ( 9 )

Figure 00000011

From figure 1 it can be seen that the removal of the approximate center of the DOM C from the RFP 3 included in the PLP RFP will be determined by the cosine theorem, see [14, p.186]:

D 3 P = D one P 2 + ( 2 d P ) - 2 D one P ( 2 d P ) cos ( α K P ) , ( 10 )

Figure 00000012

The distances d L and d P must be chosen so that the level of the side lobes of the LV LH is minimal with a sufficiently narrow working lobe, in the example considered they are taken equal and equal to 10 m, see Fig. 5.

The time of arrival of the speakers from the approximate center of the DOM, point C, to the RF 3, included in the PL of the RF, can be determined by this AB:

t P R P 3 = D 3 P C W . ( eleven )

Figure 00000013

The calculation of the arrival times to the ZP PLG for different wind directions in this example was performed using the automated mathematical system “Mathcad 20011 Professional)), which is given in Appendixes 6, 8, 10, and 12. Based on these calculated arrival times, the microconverter 41 is programmed, see figure 4, which from its outputs 1 ... 3 delivers at these times gating rectangular pulses of positive polarity lasting 15 seconds to the inputs 2 of the SS aircraft of the first channel and the frequency channel f 1 .

The technical result of the invention is the following: increased AL noise immunity due to the spatial and temporal selection of speakers (this is achieved by relatively narrow XL LLG and PLG ZP, which at a level of 0.5 are several tens of degrees depending on wind parameters and air temperature in the surface layer of the atmosphere, see appendices 2 and 3; the arrival of speakers in the SN from certain areas of the DOM and only at certain points in time, when selective pulses from microconverters and a signal from the front end of the receiver arrive), as well as the frequency selection of the electric signal, which is achieved by introducing the DUT with resonant frequencies of 18 and 19 Hz into the corresponding channels, and a very narrow passband of these DUTs (it should be no more than 2 Hz), and therefore acoustic noise from projectiles flying at supersonic speeds and aircraft with a higher frequency range do not affect AL.

To achieve the specified technical result AL, includes (see Fig. 1) PLG ZP (ZP 1 ... ZP 3); LLG ЗП (ЗП 4 ... ЗП 6); RFP frontal 7, 3 KOS (frequency channel fb first and second channels, see figure 2), frequency channel f 1 and first channel, each of them contains BC 10, 15; CH 11, 16; HELL 12, 17; ADC 13, 18; register 14, 19; the second channel contains the aircraft 20, CH 21, HELL 22, SIV 23, register No. 24 and register No. 25; Computer 50; a circuit, see figure 2, consisting of a front-connected front-end amplifier 7, a Schmit trigger 8 and a single-shot 9, the output of a single-shot of this circuit is connected to the first inputs of the SS aircraft of all three channels, see figure 5, and the control input two EC of all AD , see Fig. 11, it additionally introduces AUCH 26, see Figs. 2 and 4, consisting of a DC 39, a diode 40, a micro-converter of the first channel and a frequency channel f 1 41, a micro-converter of the second channel 42, and the input of the DC signal in the form of a rectangular pulse of positive polarity lasting 30 s comes from a single-shot above second circuit, the output DC signal is applied to the semiconductor diode entrance, its anode from the cathode of the diode signal supplied to the input MicroConverter first channel and frequency channel f 1, 41 and the input MicroConverter second channel 42, with the outputs of one, two and three MicroConverter the first channel and the channel of frequency f 1 41, at certain points in time determined by the program installed in it, signals in the form of a rectangular pulse of positive polarity lasting 15 s arrive at the inputs of two corresponding SS aircraft of the first channel and channel of frequency f 1 4 1, see FIG. 5, from the outputs of one, two, and three microconverters of the second channel 42 at certain times determined by the program installed in it, signals in the form of a rectangular pulse of positive polarity lasting 15 s are fed to the inputs of two corresponding SS aircraft of the second channel.

SIV 23 includes, see Fig. 14, interconnected crystal oscillator 43, source follower 44, Schmitt trigger 45, frequency divider 46 and pulse counter 47,

The pulse counter 47 consists of 10 triggers connected in series (51-60). The outputs 2 of these triggers are connected to the inputs 1 of the EC # 1 48 and EC # 2 49 systems, and the trigger input 50 is connected to the output of the frequency divider.

System EC No. 48 includes 10 EC (61-70), the input 2 of which is fed a signal from the HELL of the second channel 22, and the outputs of these EC buses are connected to the register No. 1 24 of the second channel.

System EC No. 2 49 includes 10 EC (71-80), the input 2 of which is fed a signal from the HELL of the first channel 17, and the outputs of these EC buses are connected to the register No. 2 25 of the second channel.

The above devices are connected as follows. The outputs of the RFP 1 ... 3 PLG are connected to the input of the ИУ №1 27, ИУ №2 30 and ИУ №3 33, respectively, of the aircraft of the first channel and the frequency channel f 1 10, see Figs. 2 and 5.

The outputs of the RFP 4 ... 6 LLG - to the inputs of IU No. 1 27, IU No. 2 30 and IU No. 3 33, respectively, the aircraft of the second channel 20 (see figure 2 and 5).

The outputs of the ИУ №1 27, ИУ №2 30 and ИУ №3 33 of the BC of the frequency channel f 1 10 - to the inputs 1 of the EC №1 28, EC №2 31 and EC №3 34, respectively, of this aircraft, (see figure 5) .

The outputs of IU No. 1 27, IU No. 2 30 and IU No. 3 33 aircraft of the first channel 18 to inputs 1 of EC No. 1 28, EC No. 31 and EC No. 34, respectively, of this aircraft (see Fig. 5).

The outputs of IU No. 1 27, IU No. 2 30 and IU No. 3 33 aircraft of the second channel 20 to the inputs of 1 EC No. 1 28, EC No. 31 and EC No. 3 34 of this aircraft, respectively (see Fig. 5).

The outputs of EC No. 1 28, EC No. 2 31 and EC No. 3 34 BC of the first channel - to the inputs 1 ... 3, respectively, of the CH of this channel 16 (see figure 2 and 5).

The outputs of EC No. 1 28, EC No. 2 31 and EC No. 3 34 BC of the channel of frequency f 1 - to the inputs 1 ... 3, respectively, of the CH of this channel 11 (see figure 2 and 5).

The outputs of EC No. 1 28, EC No. 2 31 and EC No. 3 34 BC of the second channel to the inputs 1 ... 3, respectively, of the CH of this channel 21 (see figure 2 and 5).

The output of the CH channel of the frequency f 1 11 is connected to the input 1 of the HELL of this channel 12 (see figure 2).

The output of the first channel 16 CH - to the input 1 of the HELL of this channel 17 (see figure 2).

The output of the CH of the second channel 21 to the input 1 of the HELL of this channel 22 (see figure 2).

The output of the AD channel of the frequency f 1 12 to the input of the ADC of this channel 13 (see figure 2).

The AD output of the first channel 17 is to the ADC input of this channel 18 (see figure 2) and input 2 SIV 23.

The output HELL of the second channel 22 to the input 1 of the SIV of this channel 23 (see figure 2).

The output of the ADC channel frequency f 1 13 - to the input of the register of this channel 14 (see figure 2).

The output of the ADC of the first channel 18 is to the input of the register of this channel 19 (see figure 2).

The outputs of the register of the frequency channel f 1 14 are connected by a bus to the second port of the computer 50 (see figure 2).

The outputs of the register of the first channel 19 are connected by a bus to the first port of the computer 50 (see figure 2).

The output 1 SIV 23 of the second channel is connected by a bus to the input of the register No. 1 24 of this channel (see figure 2).

Output 2 SIV 23 of the second channel - with the input of register No. 2 25 of this channel (see figure 2).

The output of the register No. 1 24 of the second channel is connected by a bus to the port 3 of the computer 50 (see figure 2).

The output of register No. 2 25 of the second channel is connected by a bus to port 4 of the computer 50 (see figure 2).

The output of the front end 7 is connected to the input of the Schmit trigger 8, the output of the latter is connected to the input of the one-shot 9 (see figure 2).

The output of the latter is connected to the inputs 1 of SS No. 1 29, No. 2 32 and No. 3 35 of all channels, (see Fig. 5), and the inputs 2 of the EC HELL of all channels (see Fig. 2 and 11), as well as to the input DC 39 DRI 26, see figure 2 and 4.

The outputs 1 ... 3 of the micro-converter of the channel of frequency f 1 and the first channel 41 of the control system 26 are connected to the inputs 2 of the SS No. 1 29, No. 2 32 and No. 3 35, respectively, of the aircraft of the frequency channel f 1 10 and the first channel 15. Outputs 1 ... 3 of the micro-converter of the second channel 42 SUKHN 26 connected to the inputs 2 of the SS No. 1 29, No. 2 32 and No. 3 35, respectively, the aircraft of the second channel 20 (see figure 2 and 4). The output of the DC 39 AUCH 26 is connected to the input of the diode 40, the output of the latter is connected to the input of a microconverter 41 of the frequency channel f 1 and the first channel AUAH 26 and the input of a micro-converter of the second channel 42 AUA 26. The AD devices of all channels are connected as follows: the output of the corresponding CH is connected to one diagonal MB, and a capacitor of large electric capacitance (it is EF) is connected to the other diagonal of this rectifier, and the output of the latter is connected to input 1 of the EC of these BPs. The bridge diodes are turned on so that the voltage at the input of the EC relative to the AD case is positive. The outputs of the EC AD of the channels of frequency f 1 and the first channel are connected to the inputs of the corresponding ADCs of these channels. The control inputs of the EC of all 3 channels 2 are connected to the outputs of the one-shot 9. The output of the EC HELL of the second channel is connected to the inputs 2 of the EC system No. 1 of the pulse counter 47 SIV 23 of the second channel.

The maximum of the main lobe of the HN in the front-end RF 7 is directed towards the front, see Appendix 24. This arrangement of this RF and the above-mentioned connection of single-shots provides an increase in the AL noise immunity.

XN LIG and PLG ZP at the main operating frequency f 0 in AL are described by such AB:

R L L G ( Θ ) = R P L G Θ ) = R 3 P | | | [ sin ( n k sin Θ ) ] / [ n sin ( k sin Θ ) ] | | | , ( 12 )

Figure 00000014

see prototype [12, see Description of the invention on p.19],

where R ЗП - ХН of each of ЗП included in ЛГ (at non-directed ЗП

R RFP = 1 [15, p. 97, 98]);

n is the number of RFPs in each of the LG;

k = π d / λ 0 = π d f 0 / C W ; ( 13 )

Figure 00000015

Θ is the angle in the horizontal plane between the working axis XN and an arbitrary direction;

d is the distance between the working axes of the microphones of the adjacent RF in the LG.

This CN in a rectangular and polar coordinate systems is calculated and shown in Appendix 2.

To determine the range to the FROM in AL, a frequency channel f 1 is required (this frequency being slightly higher than the main operating frequency f 0 ), see the prototype [12, see the Description of the invention on p.19]. Since the channel of this frequency is connected to the ZP PLG, we consider the PL PLN at a frequency f 1 . XN PLG ZP at an additional operating frequency f 1 in AL are described by such AB [12, see the Description of the invention on p.19]:

R f one ( Θ ) = R 3 P | | | [ sin ( n k one sin Θ ) ] / [ n sin ( k one sin Θ ) ] | | | , ( fourteen )

Figure 00000016

Where k one = π d / λ one = π d f one / C W . ( fifteen )

Figure 00000017

This CN in a rectangular and polar coordinate systems is calculated and shown in Appendix 2.

The analysis of CN at the working (main) frequency f0 shows (see Appendix 2) that they have a multi-leaf structure. There are 4 petals (1. Frontal or working with a maximum at Θ = 0; 2. Rear with a maximum at Θ = 180 °) and 2 side lobes (BL). Appendix 2 shows that the maximum BL levels slightly exceed the value of 0.3. The level of BL XN LH ZP at a frequency f 1 equal to 19 Hz does not exceed 0.35 (see Appendix 2), but the control of the moments of connecting the outputs of the DUT of all channels to their inputs of the SN will eliminate the influence of acoustic noise received by the BL with high levels of sound pressure.

In the proposed AL, constant voltages at the outputs of the first channel and frequency channel f 1 are automatically measured at the same time, proportional to the amplitudes of the harmonic electrical signals (ES) at the output of the CH of these channels, which are converted by the AD of these channels into a video pulse, then it is converted by the ADC data channels in binary code, which is registered by the registers of these channels, and then entered into the computer 50.

The constant voltage measured at the output of the first channel and introduced into the computer 50 can be described, which is obvious, by the following AB:

U eighteen = P eighteen m η m R eighteen P L G ( Θ one ) TO at , ( 16 )

Figure 00000018

where P 18m is the amplitude of the sound pressure of the harmonic with a frequency of 18 Hz in the AS spectrum at the input of the microphones of the RF PLG, which is unknown;

η m - the sensitivity of the microphones PLG ZP at frequencies of 18 and 19 Hz (since these frequencies differ little from each other, the sensitivity of the microphones at these frequencies are the same;

Θ 1 - corrected soundometric angle of the PLG ZP, see figure 1;

R eighteen P L G ( Θ one ) = | | | [ sin ( n k sin Θ one ) ] / [ n sin ( k sin Θ one ) ] | | |

Figure 00000019
- the value of XN PLG ZP at a frequency of 18 Hz at a sound angle of Θ 1 , see figure 1, (given that the distance to the FROM D is much greater than AB and d, then we can assume that the angle Θ 1 is approximately equal to the corrected sound angle β 0 and the range to FROM D, see FIG. 1, will be practically equal to the distance FROM ЗП 2 of the PLG Dplg), i.e.

Θ 1 ≈β 0 and Dplg≈D;

Ku - transmission coefficient (gain) of the first channel and the frequency channel f 1 , which is determined experimentally and is a known quantity, for example, take it equal to 50.

The constant voltage at the output of the frequency channel f 1 , which, obviously, can be described by the following AB:

U 19 = P 19 m η m R 19 P L G ( Θ one ) TO at , ( 17 )

Figure 00000020

where P 19m is the amplitude of the sound pressure of the harmonic with a frequency of 19 Hz in the AS spectrum at the input of the microphones of the RF PLG (this amplitude is less than P 18m , since the absorption coefficient of the speakers at a frequency of 19 Hz is greater than at a frequency of 18 Hz), see Appendices 19 and 20;

R 19 P L G ( Θ one ) = | | | [ sin ( n k one sin Θ one ) ] / [ n sin ( k one sin Θ one ) ] | | |

Figure 00000021
- the value of XN PLG ZP at a frequency of 19 Hz at an angle of Θ 1 .

Based on the work [12, see the Description of the invention on page 28], it can be shown that for harmonics in the AS spectrum (formed by a single shot from an artillery gun, mortar, shell burst, mines, see FIG. 3), they differ little in size from a friend, the distance to IZ in meters in the considered AL can be calculated using such AB:

D = 1000 ( L - L one + Δ 2 - Δ 2 one ) / ( β a one - β a ) , m . ( eighteen )

Figure 00000022

where L = 20 log (P 18m / 2 10 -5 );

L 1 = 2 log (P 19m / 2 10 -5 ).

From AB (16), one can obtain the following AB:

P 18m = U 18 / η m R18 PLG1 ) Ku, at Θ 1 ≈β 0 ,

where R 18plg1 ) ≈ | [sin (nksinβ 0 )] / [nsin (ksinβ 0 )] |.

From AB (17) we can obtain such AB:

P 19m = U19 / η m R 19PLG1 ) Ku, at Θ 1 ≈β 0 ,

where R 19PLG1 ) = | [sin (nk 1 sinβ 0 )] / [nsin (k 1 sinβ 0 )] |.

The value of Δ 2 , due to the decrease in sound pressure level by various obstacles (it is calculated by the computer 50), when receiving a signal at a frequency f 0 will be determined by such an AB: [12, p. 26];

Δ = ΔL 2 + ΔL scr dressing 1 + β zel zel,

Where Δ L uh to R = 201 log [ 2 π N f / ( t h 2 π N f ) ] + 5

Figure 00000023
; [12, see Description of the invention on p.25];

N f = 2δ / λ 0 ;

δ = a + bD p ;

(a + b) is the length of the shortest path from the approximate center of the DOM to AL passing through the upper edge of the screen (for example, a hill or a mountain), see Fig. 6, which can be measured by a topographic map and entered into a computer before conducting sound reconnaissance ;

D P - the distance between the approximate center of the ROV Ts and ZP 2 PLG in a straight line (sighting) line, see figure 1 and 6, which can also be measured by a topographic map and entered into the computer 50 before conducting sound reconnaissance;

λ 0 = C W / f 0 - the sound wavelength, taking into account the wind parameters in the surface layer of the atmosphere when receiving a signal at a frequency f 0 ;

ΔL scr = 5 dB, when δ = 0 [12 cm. Description of the invention on p.25].

The value of ΔL pov , due to the decrease in the sound level of the underlying surface, depends on the type of this surface.

If the underlying surface with grass (snow) cover, and the height location of H and PO and PLG h above the ground is not less than 1 m and a frequency of f 0 and f 1 are in the range f H f ... B, wherein

f H = 2 · 10 3 / (Dп) 1/2 ,

af B = 20 Dp / hH AND [12, see. Description of the invention on p.25],

then when receiving a signal at a frequency f 0 ΔL pov will be determined by such an AB [12, p.25)]:

Δ L P about at 201 lg D Ts - 10 lg [ 2 10 13 f 0 four + 10 - 3 f 0 2 h 2 H AND 2 ] ,

Figure 00000024
,

[12, see Description of the invention on p.26],

where D C is the removal of the approximate center of the DOM from the middle of AB AL, see figure 1.

If the underlying surface is hard (for example, ice or rocky soil) and the reflected beam enters the PLP ZP, then

ΔL pov = 0, [12, see. Description of the invention on p.26];

If the underlying surface is hard (for example, ice or rocky soil), but the reflected beam does not fall into the PLP ZP (shielded by terrain folds), then

ΔL pov = 3 dB, [12, see. Description of the invention on p.26];

The value of β ZEL , due to the decrease in sound level by the forest and forest belts. When a signal is received at a frequency f 0, it is calculated by a computer using this AB:

β s e l = β BUT s e l ( f 0 3 / 8 ) ]

Figure 00000025
; [12, see Description of the invention on p.26];

β Azel = 0.08 dB / m - for decorative forest belts with dense large foliage;

β Azel = 0.25 dB / m - for dense forest belts;

β Azel = 0.08 dB / m - for special noise-protective forest belts with tight closure of tree crowns and filling of the under-crown space with shrubs and forests;

Azel is the path traveled by the AS from the DOM through forests and strips to the AL, which can also be measured before the AL’s combat work using a topographic map and entered into the computer.

Types of forest belts and forests can be determined by topographic map.

Value Δ 2 one

Figure 00000026
due to the decrease in sound pressure level by various obstacles (it is calculated by a computer 50), when a signal is received at a frequency f 1 it will be determined by such an AB:

Δ 2 one = Δ L uh to R one + Δ L P about at one + β s e l one I s e l

Figure 00000027
, [12, see Description of the invention on p.26];

Where Δ L uh to R one = 201 log [ 2 π N f one / ( t h 2 π N f one ) ] + 5

Figure 00000028
; [12, see Description of the invention on p.27];

N f one = 2 d / λ one

Figure 00000029
;

Δ L uh to R one = 5 d B

Figure 00000030
, for δ = 0.

Δ L P about at one 201 lg D Ts - 10 lg [ 2 10 13 f one four + 10 - 3 f one 2 h 2 H AND 2 ] ,

Figure 00000031
, [12, see Description of the invention on p.27];

If the underlying surface is hard (for example, ice or rocky soil) and the reflected beam enters the LG ZP, then

Δ L P about at one = 0

Figure 00000032
, [12, see Description of the invention on p.27];

If the underlying surface is hard (for example, ice or rocky soil), but the reflected beam does not fall into the LG ZP (shielded by terrain folds), then

Δ L P about at one = 3 d B

Figure 00000033
, [12, see Description of the invention on p.27];

The sound absorption coefficient of the forest and forest belts when receiving a signal at a frequency f 1 can be determined by this AB:

β s e l one = β BUT s e l ( f one 3 / 8 ) ]

Figure 00000034
, [12, see Description of the invention on p.27];

The sound absorption coefficient in air when receiving a signal at a frequency f 0 , is determined by this AB:

β but = 1,715 10 7 f 0 2 ρ c w 3 [ four 3 η + ( ν - one ) χ c p ]

Figure 00000035
; [12, see Description of the invention on p.27];

where ρ is the air density at the considered temperature, which is given in [15, p.6, Table 1.1]);

η is the coefficient of viscosity of air (for example, η = 1.402 at t B = 15 ° C and atmospheric pressure 101325 Pa [15, p.6, paragraph 5]);

ν = C p / C v is the adiabatic coefficient;

C p is the heat capacity of air at constant pressure;

C v is the heat capacity of air at a constant volume;

χ is the coefficient of thermal conductivity of air.

The values of the above air parameters are given in [16].

The sound absorption coefficient in air when receiving a signal at a frequency f 1 is determined by such AB:

β but one = 1,715 10 7 f one 2 ρ c w 3 [ four 3 η + ( ν - one ) χ c p ]

Figure 00000036
;

see [12, see Description of the invention on p.28].

The corrected sound angle is determined (by analogy with AB (4), see [5 on p. 133]) by such AB, (an example of its calculation is given in Appendix 17):

β 0 = β + Δ β W + Δ β η + Δ β N G M Ts , ( 19 )

Figure 00000037

Where β = arcsin ( C τ l )

Figure 00000038
- sonometric angle [5, p. 57], calculated by the computer 50;

τ = t n from n 2 to - t n from n one to = T FROM AND [ ( n l - one ) - ( n P - one ) ] = = T C AND ( n l - n P ) - ( twenty )

Figure 00000039

the time difference calculated by the computer 50 (its calculations, in relation to the considered example, see figure 1, are given in appendices 5-12);

t nsn2k , t nsn1k - the beginning of the appearance of an electrical signal at the output of the voltage adder of the second and first AL channels, respectively;

T SI = 1 ms - the pulse repetition period from the frequency divider 46 SIV 23, see Fig;

n L , n P is the number of pulses counted by the pulse counter from the moment of supplying the supply voltage to all SIV 23 devices until the moment of occurrence of a pulse from the HELL of the second channel 22 and a pulse from the HELL of the first channel 17, respectively, see Fig. 14;

1 - acoustic base (the distance between the RFP 5 LLG and RFP 2 PLG, measured by a measuring tape, see figure 1), and entered into the computer 50;

Δβ w = [Wsin (α w0D )] / (Ccos (β)) - wind correction, [5, p. 74], calculated by the computer 50;

Δ β η = sin ( 2 β ) 16 η 2

Figure 00000040
- correction for deletion [5, p.67] calculated by the computer 50;

η = D Ts l

Figure 00000041
;

Δ β N G M Ts = arcsin ( C Δ τ n g m c one )

Figure 00000042
;

Δ τ N G M Ts = sin β [ one - cos ( ε ) cos ( α n ) ] cos ( ε ) cos ( α n ) + t g ε t g α n

Figure 00000043
- correction for the inclination of the LG and the elevation angle FROM [5. p. 94], calculated by the computer 50;

ε is the elevation angle of the approximate center of the DOM C in relation to the center of AB (it is positive if the point C lies above the center, middle, AB; measured, for example, by the PAB-2A periscopic artillery compass) and entered into the computer 50;

α n - the angle of inclination of the AB (it is positive if the RFP 2 PLG lies below the RFP 5 LLG; measured, for example, by the periscope artillery compass PAB-2A) and entered into the computer 50.

The location of the IZ, their TC, when conducting sound reconnaissance in the north-east direction will be determined by such an AB (see Fig. 7, which is obvious):

x c = x l + D cos α and s = x l + D cos ( α ABOUT D + β ABOUT ) ; ( 21 )

Figure 00000044

at c = at l + D sin α and s = y l + D sin ( α ABOUT D + β ABOUT ) ; ( 22 )

Figure 00000045

where x l , y l - TK AL (middle, center, AB), determined by its navigation system or using the global navigation satellite system (GLONASS);

D is the range to the IZ, calculated by the formula (18), see figure 1;

α from = α ОД + β О - calculated directional angle of direction: AL (center AB) - IZ, see Fig. 7;

α OD - the directional angle of the director AB, [5, see p.56, 57], measured, for example, using a periscopic artillery compass [17] or artillery gyrocompass, see Fig.7.

TC IZ when conducting sound reconnaissance in the north-west direction will be determined by such an AB (see Fig. 8)

x c = x l + D cos β one = x l + D cos [ 2 π - ( α ABOUT D + β ABOUT ) ] ; ( 23 )

Figure 00000046

at c = at l - s D i n β one = at l - D sin [ 2 π - ( α ABOUT D + β ABOUT ) ] . ( 24 )

Figure 00000047

An example of the calculation for these ABs is given in Appendixes 25 and 26. TC IZ when conducting sound reconnaissance in the south-west direction will be determined by such an AB (see Fig. 9):

x c = x l - D cos β 2 = x l - D cos [ ( α ABOUT D - π ) + β O ] ; ( 25 )

Figure 00000048

at c = at l - D sin β 2 = at l - D sin [ ( α ABOUT D - π ) + β O ] . ( 26 )

Figure 00000049

TC IZ when conducting sound reconnaissance in the southeast direction will be determined by such an AB (see figure 10):

x c = x l - D cos β 3 = x l - D cos [ π - ( α ABOUT D + β O ) ] ; ( 27 )

Figure 00000050

at c = at l + D sin β 3 = at l + D sin [ π - ( α ABOUT D + β O ) ] . ( 28 )

Figure 00000051

The electrical structural diagram of the proposed AL is shown in figure 2. The purpose of the devices included in this circuit is as follows: RF 1 ... 6, 7, each of which includes a pre-amplifier of a microphone signal, a low-pass filter (LPF), which are powered by a direct current source, placed in a domed windproof a housing, in the upper part of which a spherical level is mounted, which allows installing the working axes of the microphones vertically (this ensures their circular XI in the horizontal plane). RFP 1 ... 6 solve the following problems: receive acoustic signals and interference from the surrounding space; transform them into ES and interference; isolate these signals and interference caused by the wind from the specified mixture of signals and interference; prevent moisture from entering their devices and transmit ES, as well as those low-frequency harmonics of the interference that the low-pass filter passes through, and then to the IC VS. front-end 7 is similar in composition to the others, but their case is the same as the case of the RF, for example, sound stations SCh3-6 or SCh3-6M, see [11 or 6, p. 83]. ZP 7 is located relative to the AB approximately on its director AB AB at a distance of about 150 m, see figure 1, which ensures the appearance of the selector pulse from the one-shot 9 before the AS comes to the ST 1 ... 6. The working axis of the microphone of this RFP is located approximately horizontally, and the working lobe (larger lobe) of the CN is in the direction of the approximate center of the DOM C, see Appendix 24. The CN of this RFP is described by a hypercardioid

R (Θ) = M + γcosΘ, [11, p. 9],

where M = 0.25; γ = 0.75.

This ensures the reception of the speakers and their processing, which came from the front, and the reduction of the influence of acoustic noise that is formed from the salvos of artillery and mortar batteries coming from the rear from our troops. RFP 4 ... 6 form LLG RFP, and RFP 1 ... 3 - PLG RFP (see Figs. 1, 2), which provides relatively narrow working lobes of CNs and, therefore, high noise immunity of ALs due to spatial selection of FM, (see Appendix 2).

The electrical structural diagrams of the aircraft of all channels are the same, see figure 5. PS No. 1 ... No. 3 of the first and second channels are designed to isolate and amplify ES voltage with frequency f 0 from a mixture of ES and interference coming from RF 1 ... 3 PLG and RF 4 ... 6 LLG, respectively, see figure 1, 2 and 5. PS No. 1 ... No. 3 of the channel of frequency f 1 BC 10, see FIGS. 1, 2 and 5, are designed to isolate and amplify the voltage of the ES with frequency f) from the mixture of ES and interference coming from the RF 1 ... 3 PLG. SS of all aircraft (see Fig. 5) form at their outputs ES equal to logical 1 (which are fed to control inputs 2 of EC) at ES at their 1 and 2 inputs, which are also equal to logical 1; and in the absence of at least one of the inputs of the ES equal to logical 1, they issue ES equal to the logical 0 to their outputs. The ECs of the aircraft of the first and second channels (see Fig. 5) switch the ESs isolated and amplified by the voltage of the corresponding DUTs, frequency f0 to the corresponding inputs of the CH 16 and 21 (see figure 2) of these channels upon receipt of 2 ES on their inputs (see figure 5), equal to logical 1. Upon receipt of 2 ES on their control inputs, equal to logical 0, they stop the supply of ES from the corresponding DUTs to the corresponding CH inputs of these channels. EC No. 1 ... No. 3 BC of the channel of frequency f 1, similarly to the above, switch the ES of frequency f 1 to the inputs of the CH of this channel.

The aircraft of the second channel 20, see FIGS. 2 and 5, in their structure, parameters and characteristics of the devices included in them, and their operation are absolutely identical to the aircraft of the first channel 15, but the ES on the control room No. 1 ... No. 3 of this channel 20 come from the 4 ... 6 LLG, respectively. In addition, selector pulses from the corresponding outputs of the microconverter 42 (see figure 4) are received at the 2 inputs of the SS of the aircraft of this channel 20, and the outputs of EC No. 1 ... No. 3 of this channel 20 are connected to the corresponding inputs of the CH of the second channel 21, see FIG. .2.

The BC of the channel of frequency f 1 10, see FIGS. 2 and 5, is also identical in structure to the BC of the first channel 15. In addition, the inputs of the DUT №1 ... №3 and SS of this channel are connected to the same outputs of the same devices, as in the aircraft of the first channel 15, but the control room No. 1 ... No. 3 of this channel 10 is isolated and amplified by the voltage of the ES with a frequency f 1 from a mixture of ES of other frequencies and interference coming from the RF 1 ... 3. EC No. 1 ... No. 3, the aircraft of this channel 10 are passed at the right time points from the corresponding DUT to the corresponding inputs of the CH channel of frequency f 1 11, see Fig. 2.

HELL of all channels, see Fig. 11, include MBs connected in series (which provides a lower ripple coefficient of voltage at its output than half-wave with the same electric capacitance of the capacitor EF and its load resistance, and also passes to its input ES of any polarity), EF [18 see p. 39, Fig.2.7 c] and EC, which are designed to convert the ES coming from the corresponding SN of these channels into a constant voltage (video pulse) equal to the largest amplitude of these ES. The AD of the frequency channel f 1 12 supplies a constant voltage Ui9 to the ADC of its channel 13, and the AD of the first channel sends a constant voltage U 18 to the ADC of its channel 18 and to the inputs 2 of the EC system No. 2 of the SIV 23 pulse counter, see Fig. 15.

HELL of the second channel 22, see figure 2, is used to convert the ES coming from the SN of this channel 21 into a video pulse, which is fed to the inputs 2 of the EC system No. 1 of the pulse counter 47 SIV 23, see figure 2 and 15.

The ADC of the frequency channel f 1 13 converts the constant voltage U 19 , almost equal to the above amplitude of the video pulse (see figure 2), into a digital binary code and transfers it to register 14.

The ADC of the first channel 18 converts the constant voltage U 18 equal to the corresponding voltage amplitude (see Fig. 2) into a digital binary code and transmits it to the register 19.

The registers of the frequency channel f 1 14 and the first channel 19 are used to register the constant voltages U 19 and U 18 , presented in digital binary code, respectively, from which they are automatically entered into it with the “Read” signal coming from the computer 50.

SIV 23, see figure 2 and 14, serves to generate a high frequency harmonic signal and a stable period, converting it into a pulse signal with a repetition period of 1 ms, measuring the number of pulses n P , n L and transmitting this information to registers No. 24 and No. 2 25 of the second channel. The purpose of the devices of this system is as follows. The crystal oscillator 43 is used to generate a harmonic ES of a high, stable frequency and feed it to the source repeater 44. The latter provides the minimum load on the crystal oscillator 43 (this provides greater frequency stability of this oscillator) and transfers this ES from it to the Schmitt trigger 45. The latter converts harmonic ES in a pulse signal with a stable repetition period of these pulses and feeds it to the frequency divider 46. The latter reduces the repetition period of these pulses arriving at it to a value tions of 1 msec, and delivers these pulses to the pulse counter, which ensures high measurement accuracy sound-angle and eventually - high accuracy of TC OUT pulse. The pulse counter 47 is used to automatically count the number of pulses with a highly stable period of repetition of n l and n p continuously arriving at its input, and with the arrival of a video pulse from the AD of the second channel transmits this information to the inputs of the registers No. 24 and No. 25 of the second channel, respectively .

Registers No. 24 and No. 25, see figure 2, of the second channel are used to automatically enter into the computer the counted pulses pl and pp.

The computer 50 (see figure 2) performs all the calculations according to the above formulas and provides the following information (see figure 2): 1. Target number; 2. The time of its manifestation; 3. TC Xc; 4. TC Uz. An example of the calculation of TC x and y when conducting exploration in the north-west direction is given in appendices 25 and 26, respectively.

The Schmitt trigger 8 is designed to form rectangular pulses from the ES coming from the RF 7, as well as to feed them to a single vibrator (standby, inhibited multivibrator) 9 (see figure 2).

One-shot 9 is designed to receive ES from a Schmit trigger 8 and generate rectangular pulses of positive polarity lasting 30 s (for the validity of such a duration, see Appendix 18) when receiving speakers and interference coming from different directions and feeding them to 1 input of the SS aircraft of all 3 CBS , as well as to the control input 2 EC HELL of all channels and the input of DC 39 SUKHN 26.

SUKHN 26, see figure 4, is intended for the formation of selector pulses with a duration of 15 s at calculated times and supplying them to the SS of the corresponding aircraft, which ensures the selection of ES with frequencies f 0 and f 1 in these aircraft and their further processing in the channels. It includes a DC 39, a diode 40, microconverters 41 and 42. The DC 39 is designed to generate a positive exponential pulse at the time of the arrival of a positive rectangular pulse arriving at it from a single vibrator 9 (see Fig. 2), and a negative exponential pulse in the moment of the end of this positive rectangular pulse, and the supply of these bipolar pulses to the input of the diode 40 of the control system 26. The latter transmits only a positive pulse of exponential shape to the microconverters 41 and 42, i.e. this impulse starts them and synchronizes their work in time. Microconverter 41, see figure 4, is used to generate rectangular selector pulses with a duration of 15 s synchronously with respect to the moment of arrival of the signal to the RF 7 and supply them strictly at a predetermined time (in accordance with the program established in it) to the inputs 2 of all SS aircraft of the first channel and a frequency channel f 1 . The microconverter 42, see figure 4, is used to generate rectangular selector pulses with a duration of 15 s synchronously with respect to the moment the signal approaches the RF 7 and feed them strictly at a predetermined time (in accordance with the program established in it) to the inputs 2 of all three SS aircraft of the second channel 20.

The proposed AL works as follows.

Let fired a single shot from an artillery gun in the DOM, at the point IZ, see figure 1.

After a certain time, this speaker will go to the microphone input of the front-end amplifier 7, see Appendix 4, figures 1, 2 and 3, the latter converts this speaker into an ES, which can be described by the following AB [6, p. 50]:

u M = U mm e -δcp tsin (ω o t), at 0≤t≤t C ,

Where U _ m m _

Figure 00000052
- the maximum amplitude of the ES voltage at the microphone output of the RF;

δ cp ≈6c -1 is the average value of the attenuation coefficient of the sound pressure of the muzzle wave formed by a single shot of an artillery gun [6, p.50];

t is the current time;

tC is the duration of this speaker, it can be different, because depends on the nature of the temperature distribution and wind parameters over the height at the time of the shot, see [6, p. 49, bottom line, and p. 50, first paragraph], see figure 3; ω o = 2πf o is the angular frequency of the fundamental harmonic (harmonics with the largest amplitude in the muzzle wave spectrum with frequency f O ).

Graphs of the speakers are presented in figure 3 and in Appendix 4, and its energy spectrum is shown in figure 3. From this spectrum it is seen that the main harmonic of the muzzle wave spectrum at a distance of about 10 km is approximately 18 Hz, which we take as the operating frequency of the AL and which will be the resonant frequency of the DUT of the first and second signal processing channels. From Fig. 1 of Appendix 4 and from the AS graph shown in Fig. 3, it can be seen that the amplitude of this signal first increases to the maximum value, and then monotonically decreases to zero. Figure 1 of Appendix 4 also shows that t C ≈ 1.2 s, and the largest amplitudes of the considered AC are observed approximately in the middle of the pulse. From the microphone output of the front-end amplifier 7, the considered ES will go to the input of the microphone signal amplifier, then to the low-pass filter input of this ZP, where, having amplified by voltage and getting rid of high-frequency interference, it will go to the input of Schmit trigger 8. The latter converts this ES into rectangular pulses and feeds them to one-shot 9. The first of these pulses will cause this single-shot to form a rectangular pulse of positive polarity lasting 30 s (selector pulse), which will be fed to input 1 of SS No. 1 ... No. 3 of the aircraft of all channels (see figure 5), also to the control input 2 EC BP all three channels, see. Figure 11, on the entrance and SUHN 39 DC 26 (see FIG. 4),.

After a short time, due to the propagation time of the speakers from the ZP 7 to the rest of the ZP LG, the signal will go to the inputs of the microphones ZP 1..3 PLG and ZP 4 ... 6 LLG, see figure 1, the latter also convert this AS into ES. It must be assumed that the given parameters of this ES are almost identical for all RFP LH, because the differences between the deletions of this FROM from specific RFP LH are small, which is obvious, see figure 1. From the output of the DC 39 СУХН 26 at the moment of the appearance of the pulse from the one-shot 9, a pulse of exponential shape of positive polarity is generated, which is fed to the input of the diode 40 СУХН 26 and then to the input of microconverters 41 and 42. The microconverter 41 СУХН 26 forms at its outputs 1 ... 3 The time instants set by the program are rectangular-shaped selective pulses of positive polarity lasting 15 seconds and feed them to input 2 of SS No. 1 ... No. 3, respectively, of the BC channel of frequency f 1 10, and also to input 2 of SS No. 1 ... No. 3, respectively, of the aircraft of the first channel 15. Microconverter 42 SU H 26 at its outputs 1 ... 3 also generates rectangular pulse-shaped selector pulses of positive polarity for 15 seconds at the time specified by the program and feeds them to input 2 of SS No. 1 ... No. 3, respectively, aircraft of the second channel 20. Therefore, from the output of SS No. 1 ... No. 3 aircraft of all three channels at the corresponding time points determined by the programs installed in the micro-converters, a logical 1 signal will be sent to the control input 2 of EC No. 1 ... No. 3 of these aircraft. This will ensure the connection of the outputs of IU No. 1 ... No. 3 for a period of 15 s The aircraft of all channels to the inputs 1 ... 3 corresponds CH of these channels. As a result of summing the ES with its initial phases, in all the above SNs 11, 16 and 21, total harmonic ESs will be formed, see appendices 5 ... 12. At the output of the CH channel of frequency f 1 11, a total harmonic ES with an amplitude of U 19 is formed , which will be fed to the input (first diagonal of the diode bridge) MB of this channel 12, at the output (second diagonal of the diode bridge) of MB, a pulsating electric current is generated that will charge the capacitor big

electrical capacitance to a voltage almost equal to U 19 , i.e. this ES is converted into a video pulse of positive polarity, the amplitude of which is almost equal to U 19 . This ES will go to the input 1 of the AD of the frequency channel f 1 12, see Fig. 11, and with the arrival of the selector pulse from the one-shot 9 to the control input 2 of the EC, then to the input of the ADC of the channel of frequency f 1 13, where this signal is converted to binary a digital code that will go to the register of this channel 14 and from it via the bus to port 2 of the computer 50. At the output of the first channel 15, the total harmonic ES with an amplitude of U, 8 is also formed. This ES will go to input 1 of AD 17 of the first channel, where it is similarly converted into a video pulse of positive polarity, the amplitude of which is almost equal to and 18. With the arrival of the selector pulse from the single-vibrator 9 to the control input 2 of the EC, this ES will go to the ADC input of the first channel 18, where this signal is converted into a binary digital code, which will enter the register of this channel 19 and from it through the bus to port 1 of the computer 50. In addition, the video pulse of positive polarity from the output of HELL 17, see figure 2, will be received at the inputs 2 of the EC system No. 2 of the pulse counter 47, see Fig. 15. From the outputs of EC No. 2 of the pulse counter at the first moment of receipt of this video pulse, information will be received on the bus about the number of incoming pulses n p to register No. 2 25 of the second channel, and from it through the bus to port 4 of the computer 50. At the output of the second channel 21, a also the total harmonic ES with a certain amplitude, which will be fed to the input 1 of the AD of this channel 22, where it is also converted into a video pulse of positive polarity. This ES will go to the inputs 2 of the EC system No. 1 of the SIV 23 pulse counter, where it will provide information on the number of pulses n l to the register

No. 24 of the second channel, which then automatically arrives at port 3 of the computer 50. The latter will calculate the difference in the time of arrival of the speakers to LLG ZP and PLG ZP according to formula (20), then the corrected soundometric angle (30 according to formula (19) and its components.

After receiving the computer 50, the values of U 18 from the register of the first channel 19 and the value Ui9 of the register of the frequency channel f 1 14 are calculated using formula (18) and its components, the distance to the FROM D. And then by the corresponding formulas (21) ... (28), depending from the directions of reconnaissance, the computer 50 determines the TC IZ xts and uz, assigns it a target number and fixes the time of its manifestation.

Upon receipt of acoustic noise from the rear or other directions located outside the reconnaissance sector, front-end 7 will generate gating pulses to the corresponding devices. But the aircraft of all channels will not miss this interference in the CH of these channels, because the SS SS will not receive gating pulses of a duration of 15 s from microconverters 41 and 42 of SUKHN 26.

Similar processes in AL will occur if the AS comes from the IZ located to the left of the approximate center of the DOM. But in this case, the above time difference will be negative, because AU will come earlier to LLG ZP than to PLG ZP. Therefore, the corrected soundmetric will be negative, i.e. it will be located between the left side of AB and its director, i.e. negative corrected sound-measuring angles are deferred from the AB directrix against the clockwise direction.

Technical implementation of the above AL is possible, which we will show below.

ZP 1 ... 6 during direction finding of firing artillery shells, mortars, shell explosions, warheads of missiles and mines can be ZP (Pr-2 devices, but their microphones should not be condenser, but non-directional - type 4145, see [28, p. 104]) used in automated sound metering complexes AZK-5 and included in the set of acoustic direction finder (C-1 system, base point) [11, 24]. ZP frontal 7 in its composition is similar to ZP 1 ... 6, but its microphone should be pointed, such as MD-74 [15, p.128].

As IU VS 10.15 and 20, you can use, for example, IU on operational amplifiers with a double T-shaped bridge, described in [19, see p. 167, 168 and Fig. 2.59] or even with one T-shaped bridge, see Fig.12 and 13.

As the AC of the aircraft, SIV and HELL, you can use high-speed MOS transistor switches [20, p.209 ... 213]. As SS in the aircraft, logical elements “And” for 2 inputs can be used, for example, K155LI1, the parameters of which are described in [21, p. 116].

As a CH 11, 16 and 21, you can use devices based on an operational amplifier [18, p. 158, Fig. 2.51; or 22, p.213, 214].

The composition of the blood pressure of the first channel 17 is shown in Fig.11. The AD of the second channel and the channel of frequency f 1 are similar in composition to the AD of the first channel. MB with EF of these HELLs is a diode bridge, to one diagonal of which the output CH is connected, and to the other is a large capacitor. Such a rectifier is simple in technical implementation, see [17, p. 39, fig. 2.7c]. The most effective amplitude detector can also be used as the blood pressure of all channels [23].

As an ADC, you can use integrated circuits K572PVZ or K572PV4, see [11, p.10; 24, p. 110].

As registers, you can use, for example, an 8-bit shift register K555IR8, see [11, p.10; 24, p. 117].

It is advisable to use Pentium IV 1700 MHz / 512 Mb DDR / 60 Gb HDD 7200 rpm or more modern computers as a computer 50.

As Schmit’s triggers, for example, devices based on op-amps described in [19, p.186, Fig. 3.6] can be used.

As a single vibrator 9, for example, K155AGZ integrated microcircuits can be used, see [21, p.116].

It is advisable to use 32-bit AD and C812 microconverters from Analog Devices as microconverters 41 and 42 of SUKHN 26, see the Internet site www. analog. Honeycomb "[25]. It is advisable to take an RC circuit as a DC in CAS 26, the electrical circuit diagram of which is given, for example, in [26, p.12, Fig. 1.5], and its operation when a rectangular pulse is applied to it is given on pages 19 ... 23 of this work . As a quartz generator SIV 23, you can use a generator that is included in the base point (system S-1) of the automated sound metering complex AZK-5 [7]. As a source follower, one can use the one described in [27, p. 89]. As a frequency divider and pulse counters SIV 23, one can use series-connected triggers, counters and frequency dividers given in [21, see p.118]. Thus, the proposed AL is technically feasible. Note: the values of the parameters of the air entering the AB for calculating the range to the IZ can be taken, for example, from [16, see p.6, 8; 18, 32, 33, 65, 199; 345 and 365].

List of sources of information

1. US patent No. 3042897, CL 340 - 6. Hydroacoustic direction finder. Published in 1962. Bulletin No. 20, 1962.

2. German patent No. 1807535, class. G01S. Acoustic direction finder. Published in 1970. Bulletin No. 24.

3. The Federal Republic of Germany patent No. 2027940, cl. G01S 3/80. Acoustic direction finder. Published in 1977 Bulletin No. 7.

4. RF patent No. 2048678, cl. G01S 3/80. Direction finder of sources of acoustic radiation. / Khokhlov V.K. and etc./. Published November 20, 1995

5. Talanov A.V. Sound reconnaissance artillery. - M.: Military Publishing, 1948 .-- 400 p.

6. Sergeev V.V. The bases of the device and design elements of sound measuring equipment. - Penza: PVAIU, 1964 .-- 143 p.

7. Automated sound metering complex AZK - 5. (Product 1B17) Technical description. BM, 1977.

8. Automated sound-measuring complex AZK - 7. Technical description. BM, 1987.

9.Shmelev V.V. Multichannel acoustic equalizer direction finder. Defense equipment, No. 10-11.-M. 1996.S. 17-19.

10. RF patent No. 2138059, class. G01S 3/00, 3/80, 15/08. Acoustic direction finder / Voloshchenko V.Yu. /. Published on September 20, 1999, Bulletin No. 26.

11. RF patent No. 2274873, cl. G01S 3/00, 3/80, 15/08. Acoustic direction finder / Shmelev V.V. and etc./. Priority of invention February 9, 2004. Registered in the State Register of Inventions of the Russian Federation April 20, 2006.

12. RF patent No. 2374665, cl. G01S 15/02. Acoustic locator / Shmelev V.V. and etc./. Priority of invention June 6, 2008. Registered in the State Register of Inventions of the Russian Federation on November 27, 2009. Published on November 27, 2009. Bulletin No. 33. Prototype.

13. Kostikov V. I. Meteorological support for missile forces and artillery. - M .: VAU, 2000, 214 p.

14. Bronstein I.N., Semendyaev K.A. Math reference. - M .: Nauka, 1964 .-- 608 p.

15. Iofe V.K., Korolkov V.G., Sapozhkov M.A. Reference Acoustics. - M .: Communication, 1979.-312 p.

16. Physical quantities: Reference. Ed. I. S. Grigoriev. - M.: Energoatomizdat, 1991 .-- 1231 p.

17. Periscope artillery compass PAB - 2A. Technical description and instruction manual. - BM, 1988 .-- 39 p.

18. Kitaev V.E., Bokunyaev A.A., Kolkanov M.F. Calculation of power supplies for communication devices. Uch. allowance for universities. - M.: Radio and Communications, 1993 .-- 232 p.

19. Zabrodin Yu. S. Industrial Electronics: Textbook for universities. - M.: Higher School, 1992 .-- 496 p.

20. Calculation of electronic circuits. - M.: Higher School, 1987. - 335 p.

21. Reference developer and designer CEA. Elemental base. Book I. - M .: Itar-TIZS, 1993. - 157 p.

22. Pavlov V.N. Nogin V.N. Circuitry of analog electronic devices. - M .: Hotline Telecom, 2001 .-- 320 p.

23. RF patent No. 2399150, cl. H03D 3/00, Amplitude detector of harmonic and non-harmonic electrical signals / Shmelev V.V. and etc./. Priority of invention June 23, 2009. Registered in the State Register of Inventions of the Russian Federation on September 10, 2010. Published on September 10, 2010. Bulletin No. 25.

24. Bulychev A.L., Galkin V.I., Prokhorenko V.A. Analog Integrated Circuits: A Guide. - Minsk: Belarus, 1993 .-- 382 p.

25. Micro-converter “AD and C812” by Analog Devices, see the Internet site “www.analog.Com”, 2005.

26. Starostin A.N. Impulse technique. - M.: Higher School, 1973. - 336 p.

27. Smirnov V.A., Lebedenko I.S. Electronic devices devices. - Tula: TulSU, 2007 .-- 240 p.

28. Acoustics: A Handbook. Edited by M.A.Sapozhkov. - M.: Radio and Communications, 1989 .-- 336 p.

Figure 00000053

Appendix 1. Electrical signals generated by single shots of a self-propelled howitzer caliber 152 mm, and their energy spectra.

Figure 00000054

Appendix 2. Calculation of directivity characteristics of linear groups of sound receivers received a harmonic signal with frequencies of 18 and 19 Hz, in a rectangular and polar coordinate system.

Option number 1. The source data (ID) is as follows:

f 0 : = 18 Hz - the main working frequency of the acoustic locator (resonant frequency of the selective amplifiers of the first and second channels), which can be seen from the graphs of the energy spectra given in Appendix 1;

t B : = 5 ° C - air temperature in the surface layer of the atmosphere;

W: = 5 m / s - wind speed in this layer of the atmosphere;

α w : 3 π 2 R but d

Figure 00000055
- directional angle of wind direction in this layer of the atmosphere;

α about d : 3 π 2 R but d

Figure 00000056
- directional angle of the director of the acoustic base;

d: = 10 m - the distance between the working axes of the microphones of adjacent sound receivers (RF) in linear groups (LG);

n: = 3 is the number of RFPs in each of the linear groups.

The text of the program for calculating the directivity characteristics (CI) of LLG and PLG RFP not frequency f 0

R f 0 ( t B , f 0 , d , n , W , α w , α about d , Θ ) : = | | | C 331.5 one + t B 273 φ α w - α about d C w C + W cos ( φ ) λ C w f 0 | | | sin ( n π d λ sin ( Θ ) ) n sin ( π d λ sin ( Θ ) ) | | |

Figure 00000057

R f0 (Θ): = R f0 (t B , f 0 , d, n, W, α w , α od , Θ)

Θ: = - π, -π + 0.0001 ... π

Plotting XN at a frequency f 0 in a rectangular coordinate system.

Figure 00000058

Option number 2.ID is as follows:

f 1 : = 19 Hz is the resonant frequency of the selective amplifiers of the frequency channel f 1 .

The remaining IDs are in option 1.

R f one ( t B , f one , d , n , W , α w , α about d , Θ ) : = | | | C 331.5 one + t B 273 φ α w - α about d C w C + W cos ( φ ) λ one C w f one | | | sin ( n π d λ one sin ( Θ ) ) n sin ( π d λ one sin ( Θ ) ) | | |

Figure 00000059

Plotting XN at a frequency f 1 in a rectangular coordinate system.

R f1 (Θ): = R f1 (t B , f 1 , d, n, W, α w , α od , Θ)

Θ: = - π, -π + 0.0001 ... π

Figure 00000060

Figure 00000061

Option number 3. IDs are as follows:

W: = 20 m / s - wind speed in this layer of the atmosphere;

The remaining IDs are in option 1.

The text of the calculation program for LL LLG and PLG ZP at a frequency f 0

R f 0 ( t B , f 0 , d , n , W , α w , α about d , Θ ) : = | | | C 331.5 one + t B 273 φ α w - α about d C w C + W cos ( φ ) λ C w f 0 | | | sin ( n π d λ sin ( Θ ) ) n sin ( π d λ sin ( Θ ) ) | | |

Figure 00000062

R f0 (Θ): = R f0 (t B , f 0 , d, n, W, α w , α od , Θ)

Θ: = - π, -π + 0.0001 ... π

Plotting XN at a frequency f 0 in a rectangular coordinate system.

Figure 00000063

From this characteristic it is seen that the width of the main (working lobe) at the level of 0.5 is about 0.84 rad, i.e. approximately 48 °.

Figure 00000064

Option number 4. IDs are as follows:

W: = 20 m / s - wind speed in this layer of the atmosphere;

α w : = π 2 R but d

Figure 00000065
- directional angle of wind direction, i.e. headwind.

The remaining IDs are in option 1.

The text of the calculation program for LL LLG and PLG ZP at a frequency f 0

R f 0 ( t B , f 0 , d , n , W , α w , α about d , Θ ) : = | | | C 331.5 one + t B 273 φ α w - α about d C w C + W cos ( φ )

Figure 00000066

| | | λ C w f 0 | | | sin ( n π d λ sin ( Θ ) ) n sin ( π d λ sin ( Θ ) ) | | |

Figure 00000067

R f0 (Θ): = R f0 (t B , f 0 , d, n, W, α w , α od , Θ)

Θ: = - π, -π + 0.0001 ... π

Plotting XN at a frequency f 0 in a rectangular coordinate system.

Figure 00000068

Figure 00000069

Appendix 3. Automatic calculation of the width of the working lobe of the directivity characteristics of linear groups of sound receivers with omnidirectional microphones at the level of 0.5.

The initial data for the calculation are as follows:

n: = 3 - the number of sound receivers (RF) in each linear group (LG);

d: = 10 m - the distance between the working axes of the microphones of the adjacent RFP;

C 0 : = 331.5 m / s is the speed of sound at an air temperature of 0 and no wind;

t B : = 5 ° C - air temperature in the surface layer of the atmosphere;

W: = 5 m / s - wind speed in this layer;

f 0 : = 18 Hz - the main working frequency of the acoustic locator (AL);

ϕ: = 0 rad - the difference in the directional angles of the wind direction and direction:

AL (middle of the acoustic base) - sound source;

ΔΘ: = 0.0000001 rad - increment of the angle in the horizontal plane between the direction: the middle of AB-C and an arbitrary direction in one iteration;

R: = 0.5 - the value of the directivity characteristic (ХН) of the LG ЗП equal to 0.5;

α: = 0.001 rad - the modulus of the initial difference of the angles Θ 2 and Θ 1 ;

Θ 1 : = - 0.4 rad - the approximate value of the angle taken from the XI plot, see Fig. 1 of Appendix 2.

Calculation program text

Θ ( Θ one ) : = | | | A. A. w h i l e α | | | C C 0 one + t B 273 C w C + W cos ( φ ) λ C w f 0 x d λ R one | | | sin ( n π x sin ( Θ one ) ) n sin ( π x sin ( Θ one ) ) | | | F one R - R one

Figure 00000070

| | | A. | | | R 2 R - | | | sin ( n π x sin ( Θ one + Δ Θ ) ) n sin ( π x sin ( Θ one + Δ Θ ) ) | | | Θ 2 Θ one - Δ Θ F one F 2 - F one α | | | Θ 2 - Θ one | | | Θ one Θ 2 b r e a k i f α 0.00000000000001 Θ 2

Figure 00000071

The calculated final value of half the width of the working lobe NHN LH ZP, at which it is 0.5.

Θ (-0.4) = glad

Calculation of the width of the working lobe ХН ЛГ ЗП at the level of 0.5 (effective width)

Θ 0.5 : = 2 · | Θ (-0.4) |

The result of calculating the width of the working lobe XN LH ZP at the level of 0.5

Θ 0.5 = rad - the effective width of the working lobe XN LH ZP at the level of 0.5.

Appendix 4. Plotting a graph of an acoustic signal formed by a single shot of a self-propelled howitzer of caliber 152 mm and observed at the input of a sound receiver at a distance of 10 km.

The initial data are as follows:

Riest: = 1.27 · 10 6 Pa - the amplitude of sound pressure in the center of the muzzle wave [1, p. 45];

f 0 : = 18 Hz - the main frequency in the spectrum of the acoustic signal (AC), see the rationale in Appendix 2;

δ cf : = 6 1 / s - the average value of the attenuation coefficient of the pressure fluctuations of the muzzle wave [1, p.50];

D: = 10000 m - taken as an example, the removal of self-propelled howitzers of caliber 152 mm from the sound receiver;

The text of the acoustic signal calculation program

p ( P and s m , f 0 , δ c p , D , t ) : = | | | ω 2 π f 0 P m P and s m D 1.65 [ one, c .45, 46 ] P m e - δ c p t t sin ( ω t ) [ one, c .fifty ]

Figure 00000072

Acoustic signal plotting

p (t): = p (P from m , f 0 , δ cp , D, t)

We set the following observation time range of the acoustic signal t: = 0.0 + 0.00001 ... 1.2 s

Figure 00000073

Analysis of this graph shows the following:

1. The signal duration is approximately 1.2 s.

2. The maximum amplitude of sound pressure is observed at approximately t equal to 0.18 s.

List of sources used

1. Sergeev V.V. Basics of the device and design elements of sound measuring equipment. - Penza: Penza VAIUD, 1964 .-- 143 p.

Appendix 5. Plotting voltage graphs at the outputs of selective amplifiers and a voltage combiner formed by the left linear group of an acoustic locator when receiving an acoustic signal generated by a separate artillery gun shot in the absence of wind.

Option 1. Plotting the dependence of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 4 on time.

The initial data (ID) for the calculation are as follows:

t B : = 5 ° C - air temperature in the surface layer of the atmosphere;

W: = 0 m / s - wind speed in this layer of the atmosphere (no wind);

α w : = 0 rad - directional angle (DU) of the wind direction in this layer of the atmosphere;

α OD : = 0 rad - DU of the director of the acoustic base of the acoustic locator (AL)

f 0 : = 18 Hz - the resonant frequency of the selective amplifiers (DUT) AL, the rationale see in Appendix 2;

D 1l : = 3650 m - taken as an example, the removal of the sound receiver (RF) 4 LLG from the center of the sound wave;

η m : = 0.03 V / Pa — sensitivity of the microphones of the RFP type 4142 at a frequency of 18 Hz [1, p. 104];

Figure: = 1 · 10 5 Pa - the amplitude of sound pressure of a harmonic with a frequency of 18 Hz adopted by us for the calculation in the spectrum of an acoustic signal (AS) formed by a separate shot from the above gun; according to [2, pp. 45, 47, 48], the maximum amplitudes of sound pressure of artillery pieces of various calibers in the center of a sound wave (this center is a few meters from the muzzle section of the barrel channel depending on the caliber) are in the range 1 ... 4 MPa ;

To y : = 50 - gain of the signal processing path AL, which can be achieved using modern voltage amplifiers;

The text of the program for constructing the above chart

The speed of sound at a certain air temperature is determined by the following analytical expression (AB) [3, p.21]:

C : = 331.5 one + t B 273

Figure 00000074

The difference of the above remote control is determined by such AB [3, p.25]:

ϕ: = (α wOD )

The speed of sound, taking into account the influence of wind, is determined by such an AB [3, p.24]:

C w : = (С + W cos (ϕ))

The amplitude of sound pressure at the input of the RFP 4 is determined by this AB [2, p.45]:

H AT X 3 P four : = P and s m D one l 1.65

Figure 00000075
,

where P of m is the amplitude of the sound pressure of the shock wave at the place of its formation;

D 1L - removal of the approximate center (point C) of the area of special attention (DOM) from the PO 4 of the left linear group (LLH), see figure 1 and ID.

It is obvious that the amplitude of the voltage at the output of the DUT №1 signal separator (BC) of the second channel, and the circular frequency are determined by such AV

U 1lmax : = Р ВXЗП4 · η m · К у ω 0 : = 2 · π · f 0

Obviously, the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of the control room No. 1 of the aircraft of the second channel will be determined as follows AB:

U one l ( t ) : = U one l max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D one l C w )

Figure 00000076

Plotting the dependence of the instantaneous voltage value on time.

It is obvious that the time of the onset of the appearance of the electric signal (ES) at the outputs of the control room No. 1 and the voltage combiner (SN) of the second channel will be determined by the moment the speaker arrives at the RF 4, i.e.

t n four : = ( D one l C w )

Figure 00000077

The result of the calculation of the start time of the occurrence of ES at the outputs of IU No. 1 and SN of the second channel

t H4 = 10.911093 s.

We take the end time for observing the speakers to be 0.6 s after the speakers arrive at the SP, because it will be equal to half the duration of the speaker, see Fig. 1 of Appendix 4.

Then the observation time interval of the ES will be written in the form

t : = D one l C w

Figure 00000078
, D one l C w + 0.00001 ... ( D one l C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000079

We plot this voltage over this interval

Figure 00000080

Option 2. The construction of a graph of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 2 on time.

The IDs for the calculation are as follows:

d L : = 10 m - the distance between the working axes of the microphones of the adjacent RF;

α K : = 1.83259571 rad - angle taken in this example, see figure 1. Removal of the VL 5 LLG from the center of the sound wave can be found by the cosine theorem [4. p.186]:

D 2 L : = D one L 2 + d l 2 + 2 D one L d l cos ( α K )

Figure 00000081

The remaining data is similar to option 1

The amplitude of sound pressure at the input of the RFP 5 is determined by such an AB [2, p. 45];

P AT X 3 P 5 : = R and s m D 2 l 1.65

Figure 00000082

It is obvious that the amplitude of the voltage at the output of the control room No. 2 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by such an AB:

U 2lmax : = P vhzp5 · η m · K y

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 2 of the aircraft of the second channel will be determined as follows AB:

u 2 l ( t ) : = U 2 l max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 2 l C w )

Figure 00000083

Acting similarly to option No. 1, we construct a graph of the dependence of the instantaneous voltage value on time at the output of IU No. 2

Then the time of the beginning of the appearance of ES at the output of PS No. 2 of the second channel will be determined by such AB:

t n 5 : = ( D 2 l C w )

Figure 00000084

The result of calculating the start time of the occurrence of ES at the outputs of the IS No. 2 and SN of the second channel

t n5 = 10.9188682 s

Then the observation time interval of the ES will be written in the form

t : = D 2 l C w

Figure 00000085
, D 2 l C w + 0.00001 ... ( D 2 l C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000086

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 2 of the aircraft of the second channel will be determined as follows AB:

u 2 l ( t ) : = U 2 l max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 2 l C w )

Figure 00000083

We plot this voltage over the above interval

Figure 00000087

Option 3. Construction of a graph of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 3 of the second channel versus time.

All the initial data are similar to option 1, but the removal of the LP 6 LLG from the center of the sound wave can be found by the cosine theorem [4. p.186], which is obvious by the following formula:

D 3 L : = D one L 2 + ( 2 d l ) 2 - 2 D one L d l cos ( α K )

Figure 00000088
.

The amplitude of the sound pressure at the input of the RFP 6 is determined by this AB [2, p.45]:

H AT X 3 P 6 : = P and s m D 3 l 1.65

Figure 00000089
.

It is obvious that the amplitude of the voltage at the output of the control room No. 3 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by such an AB:

U 3lmax : = Р ВXЗП6 · η m · К у

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of IU No. 3 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by this AB:

U 3 l ( t ) : = U 3 l max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 3 l C w )

Figure 00000090

Acting similarly to option No. 1, we plot the dependence of the instantaneous voltage value on time

Then the time of the beginning of the appearance of ES at the output of PS No. 3 will be determined by AB:

t n 6 : = ( D 3 l C w )

Figure 00000091

The result of the calculation of the start time of the occurrence of ES at the outputs of IU No. 3 and SN of the second channel

t n6 = 10.9267196 s

Then the observation time interval of the ES will be written in the form

t : = D 3 l C w

Figure 00000092
, D 3 l C w + 0.00001 ... ( D 3 l C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000093

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of IU No. 3 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by this AB:

U 3 l ( t ) : = U 3 l max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 3 l C w )

Figure 00000094

We plot this voltage over this interval

Figure 00000095

Plotting the voltage signal of the total signal at the output of the LL LLH ZP on the time interval when all the ZL LLG receive the AC, and this is when the AC approaches the 6 LLG ZP, as the most remote from the IZ.

Those. the observation time interval of the total signal we take the following:

t : = D one l C w

Figure 00000078
, D one l C w + 0.00001 ... ( D 3 l C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000096

The instantaneous voltage value at the output of the LL LLG ZP can be written, which is obvious, in this form: u Σ (t): = U 1l (t) + U 2l (t) + u 3l (t)

Then the voltage graph of this total signal will have the form

Figure 00000097

The calculation of the difference between the time of appearance of the signal at the output of the SN and the time of the appearance of the signal at the output of the PS No. 1 aircraft of the second channel.

The time of appearance of the signal at the output of the CH of this channel will correspond to the time of the appearance of the ES at the output of the PS No. 4, because this RFP is closest to T.C., therefore

t nsn2k : = t n4

Then the appearance time of the signal at the CH output of this channel will be equal to

t nsn2k = 10.911093 s.

And the difference in the time of the appearance of the signal at the output of the control room No. 5 of the aircraft of the second channel (this particular RFP is the only one located on the left end of the AB in the automated sound metering systems that are in service with the army of the Russian Federation) and the time of the appearance of the signal at the output of the SN is determined by this AV:

Δt lg : = t n5 -t nsn2k

and will be Δt llg = 7.7751621 × 10 -3 s.

We see that the difference between them is small.

Therefore, the time difference can be taken between the beginnings of the appearance of ES at the output of the SN of the second and first channels.

List of sources used

1. Acoustics: A Handbook. - M.: Radio and Communications, 1989 .-- 336 p.

2. Sergeev V.V. Basics of the device and design elements of sound measuring equipment. - Penza: Penza VAIU, 1964 .-- 143 p.

3. Talanov A.V. Sound reconnaissance artillery. - M.: Military Publishing, 1948 .-- 400 p.

4. Bronstein I.N., Semendyaev K.A. A reference book in mathematics for engineers and students of technical colleges. - M .: Nauka, 1964 .-- 608 p.

Appendix 6. Plotting voltage graphs at the outputs of selective amplifiers and a voltage combiner formed by the right linear group (PLG) of acoustic locator sound receivers when receiving an acoustic signal generated by a separate artillery gun shot in the absence of wind.

Option 1. The construction of a graph of the voltage at the output of the selective amplifier (DUT) No. 1 of the signal selector of the first channel from time to time.

The initial data (ID) for the calculation are as follows:

t B ; = 5 ° C - air temperature in the surface layer of the atmosphere;

W: = 0 m / s - wind speed in this layer of the atmosphere (no wind);

α w : = 0 rad - directional angle (DU) of the wind direction in this layer

atmosphere

α od : = 0 rad — remote control of the director of the acoustic base of the acoustic locator (AL);

f 0 : = 18 Hz is the resonant frequency of the AI AL, justification is given in Appendix 2;

D 1P : = 3200 m - taken as an example, the removal of the sound receiver (RF) 1 PLG from the center of the sound wave;

η m : = 0.03 B / Pa — sensitivity of the microphones of the RFP type 4142 at a frequency of 18 Hz [1, p. 104];

Figure: = 1 · 10 5 Pa - the amplitude of sound pressure of a harmonic with a frequency of 18 Hz adopted by us for the calculation in the spectrum of an acoustic signal (AS) formed by a separate shot from the above gun; according to [2, p.45, 47, 48], the maximum amplitudes of sound pressure of artillery pieces of various calibers in the center of a sound wave (this center is a few meters from the muzzle section of the barrel channel depending on the caliber) are in the range of 1 ... 4 MPa;

To y : = 50 - gain of the signal processing path AL, which can be achieved using modern voltage amplifiers;

The text of the program for constructing the above chart

The speed of sound at a certain air temperature is determined by the following analytical expression (AB) [3, p.21]:

C : = 331.5 one + t B 273

Figure 00000074

The difference of the above remote controls is determined by such AB [3, p.25]: 2

ϕ: = (α wOD )

The speed of sound, taking into account the influence of wind, is determined by such an AB [3, p.24]:

C w : = (С + W cos (ϕ))

The amplitude of sound pressure at the input of the RFP 4 is determined by this AB [2, p.45]:

H AT X 3 P one : = P and s m D one P 1.65

Figure 00000098
,

where P of m is the amplitude of the sound pressure of the shock wave at the place of its formation;

D 1g - removal of the approximate center (point C) of the area of special attention (DOM) from the PO 4 of the left linear group (LLH), see figure 1 and ID.

It is obvious that the amplitude of the voltage at the output of the DUT №1 signal separator (BC) of the second channel, and the circular frequency are determined by such AV

U 1lmax : = Р ВXЗП1 · η m · К у ω 0 : = 2 · π · f 0

A instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of the control room No. 1 of the aircraft of the second channel will be determined as follows AB:

U one P ( t ) : = U one P max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D one P C w )

Figure 00000099

Plotting the dependence of the instantaneous voltage value on time.

It is obvious that the time of the onset of the appearance of the electric signal (ES) at the outputs of the control room No. 1 and the voltage combiner (SN) of the second channel will be determined by the moment the speaker arrives at the RF 4, i.e.

t n one : = ( D one P C w )

Figure 00000100

The result of the calculation of the start time of the occurrence of ES at the outputs of IU No. 1 and SN of the second channel

t H1 = 9.5658897 s.

We take the end time for observing the speakers to be 0.6 s after the speakers arrive at the SP, because it will be equal to half the duration of the speaker, see Fig. 1 of Appendix 4.

Then the observation time interval of the ES will be written in the form

t : = D one P C w

Figure 00000101
, D one P C w + 0.00001 ... ( D one P C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000102

We plot this voltage over this interval

Figure 00000103

Option 2. The construction of a graph of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 2 on time.

The IDs for the calculation are as follows:

d p : = 10 m - the distance between the working axes of the microphones of the adjacent RFP;

α to P = π 2

Figure 00000104
- angle, see figure 1.

Removing SP 2 PLG from the center of the sound wave can be found by the cosine theorem [4. p.186]:

D 2 P : = D one P 2 + d P 2 + 2 D one P d P cos ( α to P )

Figure 00000105

The remaining data are similar to option No. 1.

The amplitude of the sound pressure at the input of the RFP 2 is determined by this AB [2, p.45]

H AT X 3 P 2 : = P and s m D one P 1.65

Figure 00000106
,

It is obvious that the amplitude of the voltage at the output of the IU No. 2 of the aircraft of the first channel is determined by this AB:

U 2gmax : = Р ВXЗП2 · η m · К у

Obviously, the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of IU No. 2 of the aircraft of the first channel is determined by this AB:

u one P ( t ) : = U one P max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 2 P C w )

Figure 00000107

Acting similarly to option No. 1, we plot the dependence of the instantaneous voltage value on time at the output of IU No. 2. The start time of the appearance of the ES at the output of the PS No. 2 will be determined by AB:

t n 2 : = ( D one P C w )

Figure 00000108
.

The result of the calculation of the start time of the occurrence of ES at the outputs of IU No. 2 and SN of the first channel

t H2 = 9.5659365 s.

Then the time interval for observing the ES at the output of PS No. 2 is written in the form

t : = D 2 P C w

Figure 00000109
, D 2 P C w + 0.00001 ... ( D 2 P C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000110

Obviously, the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of IU No. 2 of the aircraft of the first channel is determined by this AB:

u 2 P ( t ) : = U 12 P max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 2 P C w )

Figure 00000111

We plot this voltage over this interval.

Figure 00000112

Option 3. Construction of a graph of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 3 of the second channel versus time.

All the initial data are similar to option 1, but the removal of the LP 6 LLG from the center of the sound wave can be found by the cosine theorem [4. p.186], which is obvious by the following formula:

D 3 P : = D one P 2 + ( 2 d P ) 2 - 2 D one P d P cos ( α to P )

Figure 00000113
.

The amplitude of the sound pressure at the input of the RF 3 is determined by this AB [2, p.45]:

H AT X 3 P 3 : = P and s m D 3 P 1.65

Figure 00000114
.

It is obvious that the amplitude of the voltage at the output of the control room No. 3 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by such an AB:

U 3пmax : = Р ВXЗП3 · η m · К у

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of IU No. 3 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by this AB:

U 3 P ( t ) : = U 3 P max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 3 P C w )

Figure 00000115

Acting similarly to option No. 1, we plot the dependence of the instantaneous voltage value on time

Then the time of the beginning of the appearance of ES at the output of PS No. 3 will be determined by AB:

t n 3 : = ( D 3 P C w )

Figure 00000116

The result of the calculation of the start time of the occurrence of ES at the outputs of IU No. 3 and SN of the second channel

t n3 = 10.9267196 s

Then the observation time interval of the ES will be written in the form

t : = D 3 P C w

Figure 00000117
, D 3 P C w + 0.00001 ... ( D 3 P C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000118

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of IU No. 3 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by this AB:

U 3 P ( t ) : = U 3 P max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 3 P C w )

Figure 00000119

We plot this voltage over this interval

Figure 00000120

Plotting the voltage signal of the total signal at the output of the SN PLG ZP on the time interval when all the ZP PLGs are receiving speakers, and this is when the AS is suitable for ZP 3 PLGs, as the most distant from the point Ts. That is the observation time interval of the total signal we take the following:

t : = D one P C w

Figure 00000121
, D one P C w + 0.00001 ... ( D one P C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000122

The instantaneous voltage value at the output of the SN PLG ZP can be written, which is obvious, in this form: u Σ (t): = U 1п (t) + U 2п (t) + u 3п (t)

Then the voltage graph of this total signal will have the form

Figure 00000123

Calculation of the difference between the time of appearance of the signal at the output of the SN and the time of the appearance of the signal at the output of the PS No. 1 of the aircraft of the first channel.

The time of appearance of the signal at the SN output of this channel will be determined by the moment the ES appears at the output of the IU No. 1, because RFP 1 is closest to T.C.

t nsn1k : = t n1 or t nsn1k = 9.5658897 s.

Then the difference between the time of the appearance of the signal at the SN output and the time at the output of the IU No. 2 (this particular RFP is used to calculate the sound angle in the sonometric complexes that are in the arsenal of the Russian army) of the aircraft of the first channel is determined by the formula

Δt plg : = t n2 -t n1 ,

where t H2 = 9.5659365 s; t n1 = 9.5658897 s.

Then the desired time difference between the appearance of the signal will be equal

Δt plg = 4.6708332 × 10 -5 s

As you can see, the difference between them is very small. Therefore, the time difference can be taken between the beginnings of the appearance of ES at the output of the SN of the second and first channels.

Calculate this time difference.

The start time of the appearance of ES at the output of the CH of the second channel is

t nsn2k : = 10.911093 s, see Appendix 5.

Then the time difference between the beginnings of the appearance of the ES at the output of the SN of the second and first channels is determined by the formula

τ: = t nsn2k -t nsn1k

The result of calculating this time difference is as follows:

τ = 1.3452033 s.

List of sources used

1. Acoustics: A Handbook. - M.: Radio and Communications, 1989 .-- 336 p.

2. Sergeev V.V. Basics of the device and design elements of sound measuring equipment. - Penza: Penza VAIU, 1964 .-- 143 p.

3. Talanov A.V. Sound reconnaissance artillery. - M.: Military Publishing, 1948 .-- 400 p.

4. Bronstein I.N., Semendyaev K.A. A reference book in mathematics for engineers and students of technical colleges. - M .: Nauka, 1964 .-- 608 p.

Appendix 7. Plotting voltage graphs at the outputs of selective amplifiers and a voltage combiner formed by the left linear group of an acoustic locator when receiving an acoustic signal generated by a separate artillery gun shot in a north wind.

Option 1. Construction of a graph of the dependence of the voltage at the output of IU No. 4 on time.

The initial data (ID) for the calculation are as follows:

t B : = 5 ° C - air temperature in the surface layer of the atmosphere;

W: = 5 m / s - wind speed in this layer of the atmosphere;

α w : = 0 rad - directional angle (DU) of the wind direction in this layer of the atmosphere;

α ABOUT D : = 3 π 2 R but d

Figure 00000124
- directors of the acoustic base of the acoustic locator (AL);

f 0 : = 18 Hz - the resonant frequency of the selective amplifiers (DUT) AL, the rationale see in Appendix 2;

D 1l : = 3650 m - taken as an example, the removal of the sound receiver (RF) 4 LLG from the center of the sound wave;

η m : = 0.03 V / Pa — sensitivity of the microphones of the RFP type 4142 at a frequency of 18 Hz [1, p. 104];

P izm : = 1 · 10 5 Pa - the amplitude of sound pressure of a harmonic with a frequency of 18 Hz adopted by us for the calculation in the spectrum of an acoustic signal (AS) formed by a separate shot from the above gun; according to [2, pp. 45, 47, 48], the maximum amplitudes of sound pressure of artillery pieces of various calibers in the center of a sound wave (this center is a few meters from the muzzle section of the barrel channel depending on the caliber) are in the range 1 ... 4 MPa ;

To y : = 50 - gain of the signal processing path AL, which can be achieved using modern voltage amplifiers;

The text of the program for constructing the above chart

The speed of sound at a certain air temperature is determined by the following analytical expression (AB) [3, p.21]:

C : = 331.5 one + t B 273

Figure 00000125

The difference of the above remote control is determined by such AB [3, p.25]:

ϕ: = (α wOD )

The speed of sound, taking into account the influence of wind, is determined by such an AB [3, p.24]:

C w : = (С + W cos (ϕ))

The amplitude of sound pressure at the input of the RFP 4 is determined by this AB [2, p.45]:

H AT X 3 P four : = P and s m D one l 1.65

Figure 00000075
,

where P of m is the amplitude of the sound pressure of the shock wave at the place of its formation;

D 1L - removal of the approximate center (point C) of the area of special attention (DOM) from the PO 4 of the left linear group (LLH), see figure 1 and ID.

It is obvious that the amplitude of the voltage at the output of the DUT №1 signal separator (BC) of the second channel, and the circular frequency are determined by such AV

U 1lmax : = Р ВXЗП4 · η m · К у ω 0 : = 2 · π · f 0

Obviously, the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of the control room No. 1 of the aircraft of the second channel will be determined as follows AB:

U one l ( t ) : = U one l max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D one l C w )

Figure 00000076

Plotting the dependence of the instantaneous voltage value on time.

It is obvious that the time of the onset of the appearance of the electric signal (ES) at the outputs of the control room No. 1 and the voltage combiner (SN) of the second channel will be determined by the moment the speaker arrives at the RF 4, i.e.

t n four : = ( D one l C w )

Figure 00000077

The result of the calculation of the start time of the occurrence of ES at the outputs of IU No. 1 and SN of the second channel

t H4 = 10.911093 s.

We take the end time for observing the speakers to be 0.6 s after the speakers arrive at the SP, because it will be equal to half the duration of the speaker, see Fig. 1 of Appendix 4.

Then the observation time interval of the ES will be written in the form

t : = D one l C w

Figure 00000078
, D one l C w + 0.00001 ... ( D one l C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000079

We plot this voltage over this interval

Figure 00000126

Option 2. The construction of a graph of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 2 on time.

The IDs for the calculation are as follows:

d L : = 10 m - the distance between the working axes of the microphones of the adjacent RF;

α K : = 1.83259571 rad - angle taken in this example, see figure 1. Removal of the VL 5 LLG from the center of the sound wave can be found by the cosine theorem [4. p.186]:

D 2 L : = D one L 2 + d l 2 + 2 D one L d l cos ( α K )

Figure 00000081

The remaining data is similar to option 1

The amplitude of sound pressure at the input of the RFP 5 is determined by such an AB [2, p. 45];

P AT X 3 P 5 : = R and s m D 2 l 1.65

Figure 00000082

It is obvious that the amplitude of the voltage at the output of the control room No. 2 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by such an AB:

U 2lmax : = P vhzp5 · η m · K y

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 2 of the aircraft of the second channel will be determined as follows AB:

u 2 l ( t ) : = U 2 l max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 2 l C w )

Figure 00000083

Acting similarly to option No. 1, we construct a graph of the dependence of the instantaneous voltage value on time at the output of IU No. 2

Then the time of the beginning of the appearance of ES at the output of PS No. 2 of the second channel will be determined by such AB:

t n 5 : = ( D 2 l C w )

Figure 00000084

The result of calculating the start time of the occurrence of ES at the outputs of the IS No. 2 and SN of the second channel

t n5 = 10.9188682 s

Then the observation time interval of the ES will be written in the form

t : = D 2 l C w

Figure 00000085
, D 2 l C w + 0.00001 ... ( D 2 l C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000086

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 2 of the aircraft of the second channel will be determined as follows AB:

u 2 l ( t ) : = U 2 l max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 2 l C w )

Figure 00000083

We plot this voltage over the above interval

Figure 00000127

Option 3. Construction of a graph of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 3 of the second channel versus time.

All the initial data are similar to option 1, but the removal of the LP 6 LLG from the center of the sound wave can be found by the cosine theorem [4. p.186], which is obvious by the following formula:

D 3 L : = D one L 2 + ( 2 d l ) 2 - 2 D one L d l cos ( α K )

Figure 00000088
.

The amplitude of the sound pressure at the input of the RFP 6 is determined by this AB [2, p.45]:

H AT X 3 P 6 : = P and s m D 3 l 1.65

Figure 00000089
.

It is obvious that the amplitude of the voltage at the output of the control room No. 3 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by such an AB:

U 3lmax : = Р ВXЗП6 · η m · К у

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of IU No. 3 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by this AB:

U 3 l ( t ) : = U 3 l max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 3 l C w )

Figure 00000090

Acting similarly to option No. 1, we plot the dependence of the instantaneous voltage value on time

Then the time of the beginning of the appearance of ES at the output of PS No. 3 will be determined by AB:

t n 6 : = ( D 3 l C w )

Figure 00000091

The result of the calculation of the start time of the occurrence of ES at the outputs of IU No. 3 and SN of the second channel

t n6 = 10.9267196 s

Then the observation time interval of the ES will be written in the form

t : = D 3 l C w

Figure 00000092
, D 3 l C w + 0.00001 ... ( D 3 l C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000093

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of IU No. 3 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by this AB:

U 3 l ( t ) : = U 3 l max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 3 l C w )

Figure 00000094

We plot this voltage over this interval

Figure 00000128

Plotting the voltage signal of the total signal at the output of the LL LLH ZP on the time interval when all the ZL LLG receive the AC, and this is when the AC approaches the 6 LLG ZP, as the most remote from the IZ.

Those. the observation time interval of the total signal we take the following:

t : = D one l C w

Figure 00000078
, D one l C w + 0.00001 ... ( D 3 l C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000096

The instantaneous voltage value at the output of the LL LLG ZP can be written, which is obvious, in this form: u Σ (t): = U 1l (t) + U 2l (t) + u 3l (t)

Then the voltage graph of this total signal will have the form

Figure 00000129

The calculation of the difference between the time of appearance of the signal at the output of the SN and the time of the appearance of the signal at the output of the PS No. 1 aircraft of the second channel.

The time of appearance of the signal at the output of the CH of this channel will correspond to the time of the appearance of the ES at the output of the PS No. 4, because this RFP is closest to T.C., therefore

t nsn2k : = t n4

Then the appearance time of the signal at the CH output of this channel will be equal to

t sn2k = 10.911093 s.

And the difference in the time of the appearance of the signal at the output of the control room No. 5 of the aircraft of the second channel (this particular RFP is the only one located on the left end of the AB in the automated sound metering systems that are in service with the army of the Russian Federation) and the time of the appearance of the signal at the output of the SN is determined by this AV:

Δt lg : = t n5 -t nsn2k

and will be Δt llg = 7.7751621 × 10 s.

We see that the difference between them is small.

Therefore, the time difference can be taken between the beginnings of the appearance of ES at the output of the SN of the second and first channels.

List of sources used

1. Acoustics: A Handbook. - M.: Radio and Communications, 1989 .-- 336 p.

2. Sergeev V.V. Basics of the device and design elements of sound measuring equipment. - Penza: Penza VAIU, 1964 .-- 143 p.

3. Talanov A.V. Sound reconnaissance artillery. - M.: Military Publishing, 1948 .-- 400 p.

4. Bronstein I.N., Semendyaev K.A. A reference book in mathematics for engineers and students of technical colleges. - M .: Nauka, 1964 .-- 608 p.

Appendix 8. Plotting voltage graphs at the outputs of selective amplifiers and a voltage combiner formed by the right linear group (PLG) of acoustic locator sound receivers when receiving an acoustic signal generated by a separate artillery gun shot in a north wind.

Option 1. Construction of a graph of the voltage at the output of the selective amplifier (DUT) No. 1 of the signal selector of the first channel from time to time.

The initial data (ID) for the calculation are as follows:

t B : = 5 ° C - air temperature in the surface layer of the atmosphere;

W: = 5 m / s - wind speed in this layer of the atmosphere;

α w : = 0 rad - directional angle (DU) of the wind direction in this layer of the atmosphere;

α ABOUT D : = 3 π 2 R but d

Figure 00000124
- Remote control director of the acoustic base of the acoustic locator (AL);

f 0 : = 18 Hz is the resonant frequency of the AI AL, justification is given in Appendix 2;

D 1P : = 3200 m - taken as an example, the removal of the sound receiver (RF) 1 PLG from the center of the sound wave;

η m : = 0.03 V / Pa — sensitivity of the microphones of the RFP type 4142 at a frequency of 18 Hz [1, sL04];

P izm : = 1 · 10 5 Pa - the amplitude of sound pressure of a harmonic with a frequency of 18 Hz adopted by us for the calculation in the spectrum of an acoustic signal (AS) formed by a separate shot from the above gun; according to [2, p.45, 47.48], the maximum amplitudes of sound pressure of artillery pieces of various calibers in the center of a sound wave (this center is a few meters from the muzzle section of the barrel channel depending on the caliber) are in the range of 1 ... 4 MPa;

To y : = 50 - gain of the signal processing path AL, which can be achieved using modern voltage amplifiers;

The text of the program for constructing the above chart

The speed of sound at a certain air temperature is determined by the following analytical expression (AB) [3, p.21]:

C : = 331.5 one + t B 273

Figure 00000074

The difference of the above remote controls is determined by such AB [3, p.25]: 2

ϕ: = (α wOD )

The speed of sound, taking into account the influence of wind, is determined by such an AB [3, p.24]:

C w : = (С + W cos (ϕ))

The amplitude of sound pressure at the input of the RFP 4 is determined by this AB [2, p.45]:

H AT X 3 P one : = P and s m D one l 1.65

Figure 00000130
,

where P of m is the amplitude of the sound pressure of the shock wave at the place of its formation;

D 1p - the removal of the approximate center (point C) of the area of special attention (DOM) from the PO 4 of the left linear group (LLG), see figure 1 and ID.

It is obvious that the amplitude of the voltage at the output of the DUT №1 signal separator (BC) of the second channel, and the circular frequency are determined by such AV

U 1пmax : = Р ВXЗП1 · η m · К у ω 0 : = 2 · π · f 0

And the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 1 of the aircraft of the first channel will be determined as follows AB:

u one P ( t ) : = U one P max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D one P C w )

Figure 00000131

Plotting a plot of the instantaneous voltage value versus time

It is obvious that the time of the onset of the appearance of an electrical signal (ES) at the outputs of the control room No. 1 and the voltage combiner (SN) of the first channel will be determined by the moment the speaker arrives at the RF 1, as closest to T.Ts, i.e.

t n one : = ( D one P C w )

Figure 00000132

The result of calculating the start time of the occurrence of ES at the outputs of the IU No. 1 and SN of the first channel

t n1 = 9.5658897 s

We take the end time for observing the speakers to be 0.6 s after the speakers arrive at SC 1, because it will be equal to half the duration of the speaker, see Fig. 1 of Appendix 4.

Then the observation time interval of the ES will be written in the form

t : = D one P C w

Figure 00000133
, D one P C w + 0.00001 ... ( D one P C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000134

We plot this voltage over this interval

Figure 00000135

Option 2. The construction of a graph of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 2 on time.

The IDs for the calculation are as follows:

d P : = 10 m - the distance between the working axes of the microphones of the adjacent RFP;

α to P : = π 2 R but d

Figure 00000136
- angle, see figure 1.

Removing SP 2 PLG from the center of the sound wave can be found by the cosine theorem [4. p.186]:

D 2 P : = D one P 2 + d P 2 + 2 D one P d l cos ( α to P )

Figure 00000137

The remaining data is similar to option 1

The amplitude of sound pressure at the input of the RFP 5 is determined by such an AB [2, p. 45];

P AT X 3 P 5 : = R and s m D 2 l 1.65

Figure 00000082

It is obvious that the amplitude of the voltage at the output of the control room No. 2 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by such an AB:

U 2lmax : = P vhzp5 · η m · K y

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of IU No. 2 BC 4 of the first channel is determined by this

u 2 P ( t ) : = U 2 P max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 2 P C w )

Figure 00000138

Acting similarly to option No. 1, we construct a graph of the dependence of the instantaneous voltage value on time at the output of IU No. 2

Then the time of the beginning of the appearance of ES at the output of PS No. 2 of the second channel will be determined by such AB:

t n 2 : = ( D 2 P C w )

Figure 00000139

The result of calculating the start time of the occurrence of ES at the outputs of the IS No. 2 and SN of the second channel

t n2 = 9.5659365 s

Then the observation time interval of the ES will be written in the form

t : = D 2 P C w

Figure 00000140
, D 2 P C w + 0.00001 ... ( D 2 P C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000141

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 2 of the aircraft of the second channel will be determined as follows AB:

u 2 P ( t ) : = U 2 P max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 2 P C w )

Figure 00000142

We plot this voltage over this interval.

Figure 00000143

Option 3. Construction of a graph of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 3 of the second channel versus time.

All the initial data are similar to option 1, but the removal of the PL 3 LLG from the center of the sound wave can be found by the cosine theorem [4. p.186], which is obvious by the following formula:

D 3 P : = D one P 2 + ( 2 d P ) 2 - 2 D one P d P cos ( α to P )

Figure 00000144
.

The amplitude of the sound pressure at the input of the RF 3 is determined by this AB [2, p.45]:

H AT X 3 P 3 : = P and s m D 3 P 1.65

Figure 00000145
.

It is obvious that the amplitude of the voltage at the output of the control room No. 3 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by such an AB:

U 3пmax : = Р ВXЗП3 · η m · К у

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of IU No. 3 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by this AB:

U 3 P ( t ) : = U 3 P max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 3 P C w )

Figure 00000146

Acting similarly to option No. 1, we construct a graph of the dependence of the instantaneous voltage value on time u 3п (t)

Then the time of the beginning of the appearance of ES at the output of PS No. 3 will be determined by AB:

t n 3 : = ( D 3 P C w )

Figure 00000147

The result of the calculation of the start time of the occurrence of ES at the outputs of IU No. 3 and SN of the second channel

t n3 = 9.5660766 s

Then the observation time interval of the ES will be written in the form

t : = D 3 P C w

Figure 00000148
, D 3 P C w + 0.00001 ... ( D 3 P C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000149

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of IU No. 3 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by this AB:

U 3 P ( t ) : = U 3 P max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 3 P C w )

Figure 00000150

We plot this voltage over this interval

Figure 00000151

Plotting the voltage signal of the total signal at the output of the SN PLG ZP on the time interval when all the ZP PLGs are receiving speakers, and this is when the AS is suitable for ZP 3 PLGs, as the most distant from the point Ts. That is the observation time interval of the total signal we take the following:

t : = D one P C w

Figure 00000152
, D one P C w + 0.00001 ... ( D 3 P C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000153

The instantaneous voltage value at the output of the SN PLG ZP can be written, which is obvious, in this form:

u Σ (t): = U 1g (t) + U 2g (t) + u 3g (t)

Then the voltage graph of this total signal will have the form

Figure 00000154

Calculation of the difference between the time of appearance of the signal at the output of the SN and the time of the appearance of the signal at the output of the PS No. 1 of the aircraft of the first channel.

The time of appearance of the signal at the SN output of this channel will be determined by the moment the ES appears at the output of the IU No. 1, because RFP 1 is closest to T.C.

t nsn1k : = t n1 or t nsn1k = 9.5658897 s.

Then the difference between the time of the appearance of the signal at the SN output and the time at the output of the IU No. 2 (this particular RFP is used to calculate the sound angle in the sonometric complexes that are in the arsenal of the Russian army) of the aircraft of the first channel is determined by the formula

Δt plg : = t n2 -t n1 ,

where t H2 = 9.5659365 s; t n1 = 9.5658897 s.

Then the desired time difference between the appearance of the signal will be equal

Δt plg = 4.6708332 × 10 -5 s

As you can see, the difference between them is very small. Therefore, the time difference can be taken between the beginnings of the appearance of ES at the output of the SN of the second and first channels.

Calculate this time difference.

The start time of the appearance of ES at the output of the CH of the second channel is

t nsn2k : = 10.911093 s, see Appendix 5.

Then the time difference between the beginnings of the appearance of the ES at the output of the SN of the second and first channels is determined by the formula

τ: = t nsn2k -t nsn1k

The result of calculating this time difference is as follows:

τ = 1.3452033 s.

List of sources used

1. Acoustics: A Handbook. - M.: Radio and Communications, 1989 .-- 336 p.

2. Sergeev V.V. Basics of the device and design elements of sound measuring equipment. - Penza: Penza VAIU, 1964 .-- 143 p.

3. Talanov A.V. Sound reconnaissance artillery. - M.: Military Publishing, 1948 .-- 400 p.

4. Bronstein I.N., Semendyaev K.A. A reference book in mathematics for engineers and students of technical colleges. - M .: Nauka, 1964 .-- 608 p.

Appendix 9. Plotting voltage graphs at the outputs of selective amplifiers and a voltage combiner formed by the left linear group of an acoustic locator when receiving an acoustic signal generated by a separate artillery gun shot in headwind.

Option 1. Plotting the dependence of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 1 of the second channel on time.

The initial data (ID) for the calculation are as follows:

t B : = 5 ° C - air temperature in the surface layer of the atmosphere;

W: = 5 m / s - wind speed in this layer of the atmosphere;

α w : = 0 rad - directional angle (DU) of the wind direction in this layer of the atmosphere;

α ABOUT D : = 3 π 2 R but d

Figure 00000124
- Remote control director of the acoustic base of the acoustic locator (AL);

f 0 : = 18 Hz - the resonant frequency of the selective amplifiers (DUT) AL, the rationale see in Appendix 2;

D 1l : = 3650 m - taken as an example, the removal of the sound receiver (RF) 4 LLG from the center of the sound wave;

η m : = 0.03 B / Pa — sensitivity of the microphones of the RFP type 4142 at a frequency of 18 Hz [1, p. 104];

P of m : = 1 · 10 5 Pa - the amplitude of sound pressure accepted by us for calculation

harmonics with a frequency of 18 Hz in the spectrum of an acoustic signal (AS) formed by a separate shot from the above guns; according to [2, pp. 45, 47, 48], the maximum amplitudes of sound pressure of artillery pieces of various calibers in the center of a sound wave (this center is a few meters from the muzzle section of the barrel channel depending on the caliber) are in the range 1 ... 4 MPa ;

To y : = 50 - gain of the signal processing path AL, which can be achieved using modern voltage amplifiers;

The text of the program for constructing the above chart

The speed of sound at a certain air temperature is determined by the following analytical expression (AB) [3, p.21]:

C : = 331.5 one + t B 273

Figure 00000074

The difference of the above remote control is determined by such AB [3, p.25]:

ϕ: = (α wOD )

The speed of sound, taking into account the influence of wind, is determined by such an AB [3, p.24]:

C w : = (С + W cos (ϕ))

The amplitude of sound pressure at the input of the RFP 4 is determined by this AB [2, p.45]:

H AT X 3 P four : = P and s m D one l 1.65

Figure 00000075
,

where P of m is the amplitude of the sound pressure of the shock wave at the place of its formation;

D 1L - removal of the approximate center (point C) of the area of special attention (DOM) from the PO 4 of the left linear group (LLH), see figure 1 and ID.

It is obvious that the amplitude of the voltage at the output of the DUT №1 signal separator (BC) of the second channel, and the circular frequency are determined by such AV

U 1lmax : = Р ВXЗП4 · η m · К у ω 0 : = 2 · π · f 0

Obviously, the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of the control room No. 1 of the aircraft of the second channel will be determined as follows AB:

U one l ( t ) : = U one l max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D one l C w )

Figure 00000076

Plotting the dependence of the instantaneous voltage value on time.

It is obvious that the time of the onset of the appearance of the electric signal (ES) at the outputs of the control room No. 1 and the voltage combiner (SN) of the second channel will be determined by the moment the speaker arrives at the RF 4, i.e.

t n four : = ( D one l C w )

Figure 00000077

The result of the calculation of the start time of the occurrence of ES at the outputs of IU No. 1 and SN of the second channel

t H4 = 10.911093 s.

We take the end time for observing the speakers to be 0.6 s after the speakers arrive at the SP, because it will be equal to half the duration of the speaker, see Fig. 1 of Appendix 4.

Then the observation time interval of the ES will be written in the form

t : = D one l C w

Figure 00000078
, D one l C w + 0.00001 ... ( D one l C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000079
^

We plot this voltage over this interval

Figure 00000155

Option 2. The construction of a graph of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 2 on time.

The IDs for the calculation are as follows:

d L : = 10 m - the distance between the working axes of the microphones of the adjacent RF;

α K : = 1.83259571 rad - angle taken in this example, see figure 1. Removal of the VL 5 LLG from the center of the sound wave can be found by the cosine theorem [4. p.186]:

D 2 L : = D one L 2 + d l 2 + 2 D one L d l cos ( α K )

Figure 00000081

The remaining data is similar to option 1

The amplitude of sound pressure at the input of the RFP 5 is determined by such an AB [2, p. 45];

P AT X 3 P 5 : = R and s m D 2 l 1.65

Figure 00000082

It is obvious that the amplitude of the voltage at the output of the control room No. 2 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by such an AB:

U 2lmax : = P vhzp5 · η m · K y

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 2 of the aircraft of the second channel will be determined as follows AB:

u 2 l ( t ) : = U 2 l max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 2 l C w )

Figure 00000083

Acting similarly to option No. 1, we construct a graph of the dependence of the instantaneous voltage value on time at the output of IU No. 2

Then the time of the beginning of the appearance of ES at the output of PS No. 2 of the second channel will be determined by such AB:

t n 5 : = ( D 2 l C w )

Figure 00000084

The result of calculating the start time of the occurrence of ES at the outputs of the IS No. 2 and SN of the second channel

t n5 = 10.9188682 s

Then the observation time interval of the ES will be written in the form

t : = D 2 l C w

Figure 00000085
, D 2 l C w + 0.00001 ... ( D 2 l C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000086

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 2 of the aircraft of the second channel will be determined as follows AB:

u 2 l ( t ) : = U 2 l max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 2 l C w )

Figure 00000083

We plot this voltage over the above interval

Figure 00000156

Option 3. Construction of a graph of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 3 of the second channel versus time.

All the initial data are similar to option 1, but the removal of the LP 6 LLG from the center of the sound wave can be found by the cosine theorem [4. p.186], which is obvious by the following formula:

D 3 L : = D one L 2 + ( 2 d l ) 2 - 2 D one L d l cos ( α K )

Figure 00000088
.

The amplitude of the sound pressure at the input of the RFP 6 is determined by this AB [2, p.45]:

H AT X 3 P 6 : = P and s m D 3 l 1.65

Figure 00000089
.

It is obvious that the amplitude of the voltage at the output of the control room No. 3 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by such an AB:

U 3lmax : = Р ВXЗП6 · η m · К у

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of IU No. 3 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by this AB:

U 3 l ( t ) : = U 3 l max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 3 l C w )

Figure 00000090

Acting similarly to option No. 1, we plot the dependence of the instantaneous voltage value on time

Then the time of the beginning of the appearance of ES at the output of PS No. 3 will be determined by AB:

t n 6 : = ( D 3 l C w )

Figure 00000091

The result of the calculation of the start time of the occurrence of ES at the outputs of IU No. 3 and SN of the second channel

t n6 = 10.9267196 s

Then the observation time interval of the ES will be written in the form

t : = D 3 l C w

Figure 00000092
, D 3 l C w + 0.00001 ... ( D 3 l C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000093

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of IU No. 3 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by this AB:

U 3 l ( t ) : = U 3 l max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 3 l C w )

Figure 00000094

We plot this voltage over this interval

Figure 00000157

Plotting the voltage signal of the total signal at the output of the LL LLH ZP on the time interval when all the ZL LLG receive the AC, and this is when the AC approaches the 6 LLG ZP, as the most remote from the IZ.

That is, the observation time interval of the total signal we take the following:

t : = D one l C w

Figure 00000078
, D one l C w + 0.00001 ... ( D 3 l C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000096

The instantaneous voltage value at the output of the LL LLG ZP can be written, which is obvious, in this form: u Σ (t): = U 1l (t) + U 2l (t) + u 3l (t)

Then the voltage graph of this total signal will have the form

Figure 00000158

The calculation of the difference between the time of appearance of the signal at the output of the SN and the time of the appearance of the signal at the output of the PS No. 1 aircraft of the second channel.

The time of appearance of the signal at the output of the CH of this channel will correspond to the time of the appearance of the ES at the output of the PS No. 4, because this RFP is closest to T.C., therefore

t nsn2k : = t n4

Then the appearance time of the signal at the CH output of this channel will be equal to

t sn2k = 11.0766524 s.

And the difference in the time of the appearance of the signal at the output of the control room No. 5 of the aircraft of the second channel (this particular RFP is the only one located on the left end of the AB in the automated sound metering systems that are in service with the army of the Russian Federation) and the time of the appearance of the signal at the output of the SN is determined by this AV:

Δt lg : = t n5 -t nsn2k

and will be Δt llg = 7.8931385 × 10 -3 s.

We see that the difference between them is small.

Therefore, the time difference can be taken between the beginnings of the appearance of ES at the output of the SN of the second and first channels.

List of sources used

1. Acoustics: A Handbook. - M.: Radio and Communications, 1989 .-- 336 p.

2. Sergeev V.V. Basics of the device and design elements of sound measuring equipment. - Penza: Penza VAIU, 1964 .-- 143 p.

3. Talanov A.V. Sound reconnaissance artillery. - M.: Military Publishing, 1948 .-- 400 p.

4. Bronstein I.N., Semendyaev K.A. A reference book in mathematics for engineers and students of technical colleges. - M .: Nauka, 1964 .-- 608 p.

Appendix 10. Plotting voltage graphs at the outputs of selective amplifiers and a voltage combiner formed by the left linear group of the acoustic locator when receiving an acoustic signal generated by a separate artillery gun shot in headwind.

Option 1. Plotting the dependence of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 1 of the second channel on time.

The initial data (ID) for the calculation are as follows:

t B : = 5 ° C - air temperature in the surface layer of the atmosphere;

W: = 5 m / s - wind speed in this layer of the atmosphere;

α w : = π 2

Figure 00000159
- directional angle (DU) of the wind direction in this layer of the atmosphere;

α ABOUT D : = 3 π 2 R but d

Figure 00000124
- Remote control director of the acoustic base of the acoustic locator (AL);

f 0 : = 18 Hz is the resonant frequency of the AI AL, justification is given in Appendix 2;

D 1P : = 3200 m - taken as an example, the removal of the sound receiver (RF) 1 PLG from the center of the sound wave;

η m : = 0.03 V / Pa — sensitivity of the microphones of the RFP type 4142 at a frequency of 18 Hz [1, sL04];

P izm : = 1 · 10 5 Pa - the amplitude of sound pressure of a harmonic with a frequency of 18 Hz adopted by us for the calculation in the spectrum of an acoustic signal (AS) formed by a separate shot from the above gun; according to [2, p.45, 47.48], the maximum amplitudes of sound pressure of artillery pieces of various calibers in the center of a sound wave (this center is a few meters from the muzzle section of the barrel channel depending on the caliber) are in the range of 1 ... 4 MPa;

To y : = 50 - gain of the signal processing path AL, which can be achieved using modern voltage amplifiers;

The text of the program for constructing the above chart

The speed of sound at a certain air temperature is determined by the following analytical expression (AB) [3, p.21]:

C : = 331.5 one + t B 273

Figure 00000074

The difference of the above remote control is determined by such AB [3, p.25]:

ϕ: = (α wOD )

The speed of sound, taking into account the influence of wind, is determined by such an AB [3, p.24]:

C w : = (С + W cos (ϕ))

The amplitude of sound pressure at the input of the RFP 4 is determined by this AB [2, p.45]:

H AT X 3 P one : = P and s m D one l 1.65

Figure 00000130
,

where P of m is the amplitude of the sound pressure of the shock wave at the place of its formation;

D 1p - the removal of the approximate center (point C) of the area of special attention (DOM) from the PO 4 of the left linear group (LLG), see figure 1 and ID.

It is obvious that the amplitude of the voltage at the output of the DUT №1 signal separator (BC) of the second channel, and the circular frequency are determined by such AV

U 1пmax : = Р ВXЗП1 · η m · К у ω 0 : = 2 · π · f 0

And the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of the control room No. 1 of the aircraft of the first channel will be determined as AB: f Din ^

u one P ( t ) : = U one P max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D one P C w )

Figure 00000131

Plotting a plot of the instantaneous voltage value versus time

It is obvious that the time of the onset of the appearance of an electrical signal (ES) at the outputs of the control room No. 1 and the voltage combiner (SN) of the first channel will be determined by the moment the speaker arrives at the RF 1, as closest to T.Ts, i.e.

t n one : = ( D one P C w )

Figure 00000132

The result of calculating the start time of the occurrence of ES at the outputs of the IU No. 1 and SN of the first channel

t n1 = 9.5658897 s

We take the end time for observing the speakers to be 0.6 s after the speakers arrive at SC 1, because it will be equal to half the duration of the speaker, see Fig. 1 of Appendix 4.

Then the observation time interval of the ES will be written in the form

t : = D one P C w

Figure 00000133
, D one P C w + 0.00001 ... ( D one P C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000134

We plot this voltage over this interval

Figure 00000135

Option 2. The construction of a graph of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 2 on time.

The IDs for the calculation are as follows:

d P : = 10 m - the distance between the working axes of the microphones of the adjacent RFP;

α to P : = π 2 R but d

Figure 00000136
- angle, see figure 1.

Removing SP 2 PLG from the center of the sound wave can be found by the cosine theorem [4. p.186]:

D 2 P : = D one P 2 + d P 2 + 2 D one P d l cos ( α to P )

Figure 00000137

The remaining data is similar to option 1

The amplitude of sound pressure at the input of the RFP 5 is determined by such an AB [2, p. 45];

P AT X 3 P 5 : = R and s m D 2 l 1.65

Figure 00000082

It is obvious that the amplitude of the voltage at the output of the control room No. 2 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by such an AB:

U 2lmax : = P vhzp5 · η m · K y

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of IU No. 2 BC 4 of the first channel is determined by this AB:

u 2 P ( t ) : = U 2 P max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 2 P C w )

Figure 00000138

Acting similarly to option No. 1, we construct a graph of the dependence of the instantaneous voltage value on time at the output of IU No. 2

Then the time of the beginning of the appearance of ES at the output of PS No. 2 of the second channel will be determined by such AB:

t n 2 : = ( D 2 P C w )

Figure 00000139

The result of calculating the start time of the occurrence of ES at the outputs of the IS No. 2 and SN of the second channel

t n2 = 9.5659365 s

Then the observation time interval of the ES will be written in the form

t : = D 2 P C w

Figure 00000140
, D 2 P C w + 0.00001 ... ( D 2 P C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000141

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 2 of the aircraft of the second channel will be determined as follows AB:

u 2 P ( t ) : = U 2 P max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 2 P C w )

Figure 00000142

We plot this voltage over this interval.

Figure 00000143

Option 3. Construction of a graph of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 3 of the second channel versus time.

All the initial data are similar to option 1, but the removal of the PL 3 LLG from the center of the sound wave can be found by the cosine theorem [4. p.186], which is obvious by the following formula:

D 3 P : = D one P 2 + ( 2 d P ) 2 - 2 D one P d P cos ( α to P )

Figure 00000144
.

The amplitude of the sound pressure at the input of the RF 3 is determined by this AB [2, p.45]:

H AT X 3 P 3 : = P and s m D 3 P 1.65

Figure 00000145
.

It is obvious that the amplitude of the voltage at the output of the control room No. 3 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by such an AB:

U 3пmax : = Р ВXЗП3 · η m · К у

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of IU No. 3 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by this AB:

U 3 P ( t ) : = U 3 P max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 3 P C w )

Figure 00000146

Acting similarly to option No. 1, we construct a graph of the dependence of the instantaneous voltage value on time u 3п (t)

Then the time of the beginning of the appearance of ES at the output of PS No. 3 will be determined by AB:

t n 3 : = ( D 3 P C w )

Figure 00000147

The result of the calculation of the start time of the occurrence of ES at the outputs of IU No. 3 and SN of the second channel

t n3 = 9.5660766 s

Then the observation time interval of the ES will be written in the form

t : = D 3 P C w

Figure 00000148
, D 3 P C w + 0.00001 ... ( D 3 P C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000149

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of IU No. 3 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by this AB:

U 3 P ( t ) : = U 3 P max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 3 P C w )

Figure 00000150

We plot this voltage over this interval

Figure 00000151

Plotting the voltage signal of the total signal at the output of the SN PLG ZP on the time interval when all the ZP PLGs are receiving speakers, and this is when the AS is suitable for ZP 3 PLGs, as the most distant from the point Ts. That is the observation time interval of the total signal we take the following:

t : = D one P C w

Figure 00000152
, D one P C w + 0.00001 ... ( D 3 P C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000153

The instantaneous voltage value at the output of the SN PLG ZP can be written, which is obvious, in this form:

u Σ (t): = U 1п (t) + U 2п (t) + u 3п (t)

Then the voltage graph of this total signal will have the form

Figure 00000154

Calculation of the difference between the time of appearance of the signal at the output of the SN and the time of the appearance of the signal at the output of the PS No. 1 of the aircraft of the first channel.

The time of appearance of the signal at the SN output of this channel will be determined by the moment the ES appears at the output of the IU No. 1, because RFP 1 is closest to T.C.

t nsn1k : = t n1 or t nsn1k = 9.7110377 s.

Then the difference between the time of the appearance of the signal at the SN output and the time at the output of the IU No. 2 (this particular RFP is used to calculate the sound angle in the sonometric complexes that are in the arsenal of the Russian army) of the aircraft of the first channel is determined by the formula

Δt plg : = t n2 -t n1 ,

where t H2 = 9.7110852 s; t n1 = 9.7110377 s.

Then the desired time difference between the appearance of the signal will be equal

Δt plg = 4.7417061 × 10 -5 s

As you can see, the difference between them is very small. Therefore, the time difference can be taken between the beginnings of the appearance of ES at the output of the SN of the second and first channels.

Calculate this time difference.

The start time of the appearance of ES at the output of the CH of the second channel is

t nsn2k : = 11.076652 s, see Appendix 5.

Then the time difference between the beginnings of the appearance of the ES at the output of the SN of the second and first channels is determined by the formula

τ: = t nsn2k -t nsn1k

The result of calculating this time difference is as follows:

τ = 1.3656143 s.

List of sources used

1. Acoustics: A Handbook. - M.: Radio and Communications, 1989 .-- 336 p.

2. Sergeev V.V. Basics of the device and design elements of sound measuring equipment. - Penza: Penza VAIU, 1964 .-- 143 p.

3. Talanov A.V. Sound reconnaissance artillery. - M.: Military Publishing, 1948 .-- 400 p.

4. Bronstein I.N., Semendyaev K.A. A reference book in mathematics for engineers and students of technical colleges. - M .: Nauka, 1964 .-- 608 p.

Appendix 11. Plotting voltage graphs at the outputs of selective amplifiers and a voltage combiner formed by the left linear group of an acoustic locator when receiving an acoustic signal generated by a separate artillery gun shot in headwind.

Option 1. Plotting the dependence of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 1 of the second channel on time.

The initial data (ID) for the calculation are as follows:

t B : = 5 ° C - air temperature in the surface layer of the atmosphere;

W: = 5 m / s - wind speed in this layer of the atmosphere;

α w : = 3 π 2

Figure 00000160
- directional angle (DU) of the wind direction in this layer of the atmosphere;

α ABOUT D : = 3 π 2 R but d

Figure 00000124
- Remote control director of the acoustic base of the acoustic locator (AL);

f 0 : = 18 Hz - the resonant frequency of the selective amplifiers (DUT) AL, the rationale see in Appendix 2;

D 1l : = 3650 m - taken as an example, the removal of the sound receiver (RF) 4 LLG from the center of the sound wave;

η m : = 0.03 B / Pa — sensitivity of the microphones of the RFP type 4142 at a frequency of 18 Hz [1, p. 104];

P of m : = 1 · 10 5 Pa - the amplitude of sound pressure accepted by us for calculation

harmonics with a frequency of 18 Hz in the spectrum of an acoustic signal (AS) formed by a separate shot from the above guns; according to [2, pp. 45, 47, 48], the maximum amplitudes of sound pressure of artillery pieces of various calibers in the center of a sound wave (this center is a few meters from the muzzle section of the barrel channel depending on the caliber) are in the range 1 ... 4 MPa ;

To y : = 50 - gain of the signal processing path AL, which can be achieved using modern voltage amplifiers;

The text of the program for constructing the above chart

The speed of sound at a certain air temperature is determined by the following analytical expression (AB) [3, p.21]:

C : = 331.5 one + t B 273

Figure 00000074

The difference of the above remote control is determined by such AB [3, p.25]:

ϕ: = (α wOD )

The speed of sound, taking into account the influence of wind, is determined by such an AB [3, p.24]:

C w : = (С + W cos (ϕ))

The amplitude of sound pressure at the input of the RFP 4 is determined by this AB [2, p.45]:

H AT X 3 P four : = P and s m D one l 1.65

Figure 00000075
,

where P of m is the amplitude of the sound pressure of the shock wave at the place of its formation;

D 1L - removal of the approximate center (point C) of the area of special attention (DOM) from the PO 4 of the left linear group (LLH), see figure 1 and ID.

It is obvious that the amplitude of the voltage at the output of the DUT №1 signal separator (BC) of the second channel, and the circular frequency are determined by such AV

U 1lmax : = Р ВXЗП4 · η m · К у ω 0 : = 2 · π · f 0

Obviously, the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of the control room No. 1 of the aircraft of the second channel will be determined as follows AB:

U one l ( t ) : = U one l max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D one l C w )

Figure 00000076

Plotting the dependence of the instantaneous voltage value on time.

It is obvious that the time of the onset of the appearance of the electric signal (ES) at the outputs of the control room No. 1 and the voltage combiner (SN) of the second channel will be determined by the moment the speaker arrives at the RF 4, i.e.

t n four : = ( D one l C w )

Figure 00000077

The result of the calculation of the start time of the occurrence of ES at the outputs of IU No. 1 and SN of the second channel

t H4 = 10.7504098 s.

We take the end time for observing the speakers to be 0.6 s after the speakers arrive at the SP, because it will be equal to half the duration of the speaker, see Fig. 1 of Appendix 4.

Then the observation time interval of the ES will be written in the form

t : = D one l C w

Figure 00000078
, D one l C w + 0.00001 ... ( D one l C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000079

We plot this voltage over this interval

Figure 00000155

Option 2. Plotting the dependence of the voltage at the output of the IU No. 2 on time.

The IDs for the calculation are as follows:

d L : = 10 m - the distance between the working axes of the microphones of the adjacent RF;

α K : = 1.83259571 rad - angle taken in this example, see figure 1. Removal of the VL 5 LLG from the center of the sound wave can be found by the cosine theorem [4. p.186]:

D 2 L : = D one L 2 + d l 2 + 2 D one L d l cos ( α K )

Figure 00000081

The remaining data is similar to option 1

The amplitude of sound pressure at the input of the RFP 5 is determined by such an AB [2, p. 45];

P AT X 3 P 5 : = R and s m D 2 l 1.65

Figure 00000082

It is obvious that the amplitude of the voltage at the output of the control room No. 2 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by such an AB:

U 2lmax : = P vhzp5 · η m · K y

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 2 of the aircraft of the second channel will be determined as follows AB:

u 2 l ( t ) : = U 2 l max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 2 l C w )

Figure 00000083

Acting similarly to option No. 1, we construct a graph of the dependence of the instantaneous voltage value on time at the output of IU No. 2

Then the time of the beginning of the appearance of ES at the output of PS No. 2 of the second channel will be determined by such AB:

t n 5 : = ( D 2 l C w )

Figure 00000084

The result of calculating the start time of the occurrence of ES at the outputs of the IS No. 2 and SN of the second channel

t n5 = 10.9188682 s

Then the observation time interval of the ES will be written in the form

t : = D 2 l C w

Figure 00000085
, D 2 l C w + 0.00001 ... ( D 2 l C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000086

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 2 of the aircraft of the second channel will be determined as follows AB:

u 2 l ( t ) : = U 2 l max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 2 l C w )

Figure 00000083

We plot this voltage over the above interval

Figure 00000156

Option 3. Construction of a graph of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 3 of the second channel versus time.

All the initial data are similar to option 1, but the removal of the LP 6 LLG from the center of the sound wave can be found by the cosine theorem [4. p.186], which is obvious by the following formula:

D 3 L : = D one L 2 + ( 2 d l ) 2 - 2 D one L d l cos ( α K )

Figure 00000088
.

The amplitude of the sound pressure at the input of the RFP 6 is determined by this AB [2, p.45]:

H AT X 3 P 6 : = P and s m D 3 l 1.65

Figure 00000089
.

It is obvious that the amplitude of the voltage at the output of the control room No. 3 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by such an AB:

U 3lmax : = Р ВXЗП6 · η m · К у

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of IU No. 3 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by this AB:

U 3 l ( t ) : = U 3 l max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 3 l C w )

Figure 00000090

Acting similarly to option No. 1, we plot the dependence of the instantaneous voltage value on time

Then the time of the beginning of the appearance of ES at the output of PS No. 3 will be determined by AB:

t n 6 : = ( D 3 l C w )

Figure 00000091

The result of the calculation of the start time of the occurrence of ES at the outputs of IU No. 3 and SN of the second channel

t n6 = 10.7658063 s

Then the observation time interval of the ES will be written in the form

t : = D 3 l C w

Figure 00000092
, D 3 l C w + 0.00001 ... ( D 3 l C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000093

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of IU No. 3 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by this AB:

U 3 l ( t ) : = U 3 l max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 3 l C w )

Figure 00000094

We plot this voltage over this interval

Figure 00000157

Plotting the voltage signal of the total signal at the output of the LL LLH ZP on the time interval when all the ZL LLG receive the AC, and this is when the AC approaches the 6 LLG ZP, as the most remote from the IZ.

That is, the observation time interval of the total signal we take the following:

t : = D one l C w

Figure 00000078
, D one l C w + 0.00001 ... ( D 3 l C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000096

The instantaneous voltage value at the output of the LL LLG ZP can be written, which is obvious, in this form: u Σ (t): = U 1l (t) + U 2l (t) + u 3l (t)

Then the voltage graph of this total signal will have the form

Figure 00000158

The calculation of the difference between the time of appearance of the signal at the output of the SN and the time of the appearance of the signal at the output of the PS No. 1 aircraft of the second channel.

The time of appearance of the signal at the output of the CH of this channel will correspond to the time of the appearance of the ES at the output of the PS No. 4, because this RFP is closest to T.C., therefore

t nsn2k : = t n4 .

Then the appearance time of the signal at the CH output of this channel will be equal to

t sn2k = 10.7504098 s.

And the difference in the time of the appearance of the signal at the output of the control room No. 5 of the aircraft of the second channel (this particular RFP is the only one located on the left end of the AB in the automated sound metering systems that are in service with the army of the Russian Federation) and the time of the appearance of the signal at the output of the SN is determined by this AV:

Δt lg : = t n5 -t nsn2k

and will be Δt llg = 7.606605 × 10 s.

We see that the difference between them is small.

Therefore, the time difference can be taken between the beginnings of the appearance of ES at the output of the SN of the second and first channels.

List of sources used

1. Acoustics: A Handbook. - M.: Radio and Communications, 1989 .-- 336 p.

2. Sergeev V.V. Basics of the device and design elements of sound measuring equipment. - Penza: Penza VAIU, 1964 .-- 143 p.

3. Talanov A.V. Sound reconnaissance artillery. - M.: Military Publishing, 1948 .-- 400 p.

4. Bronstein I.N., Semendyaev K.A. A reference book in mathematics for engineers and students of technical colleges. - M .: Nauka, 1964 .-- 608 p.

Appendix 12. Plotting voltage graphs at the outputs of selective amplifiers and a voltage combiner formed by the left linear group of the acoustic locator when receiving an acoustic signal generated by a separate artillery gun shot in headwind.

Option 1. Plotting the dependence of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 1 of the second channel on time.

The initial data (ID) for the calculation are as follows:

t B : = 5 ° C - air temperature in the surface layer of the atmosphere;

W: = 5 m / s - wind speed in this layer of the atmosphere;

α w : = 3 π 2

Figure 00000161
- directional angle (DU) of the wind direction in this layer of the atmosphere;

α ABOUT D : = 3 π 2 R but d

Figure 00000124
- Remote control director of the acoustic base of the acoustic locator (AL);

f 0 : = 18 Hz is the resonant frequency of the AI AL, justification is given in Appendix 2;

D 1P : = 3200 m - taken as an example, the removal of the sound receiver (RF) 1 PLG from the center of the sound wave;

η m : = 0.03 V / Pa — sensitivity of the microphones of the RFP type 4142 at a frequency of 18 Hz [1, p. 104];

P izm : = 1 · 10 5 Pa - the amplitude of sound pressure of a harmonic with a frequency of 18 Hz adopted by us for the calculation in the spectrum of an acoustic signal (AS) formed by a separate shot from the above gun; according to [2, p.45, 47.48], the maximum amplitudes of sound pressure of artillery pieces of various calibers in the center of a sound wave (this center is a few meters from the muzzle section of the barrel channel depending on the caliber) are in the range of 1 ... 4 MPa;

To y : = 50 - gain of the signal processing path AL, which can be achieved using modern voltage amplifiers;

The text of the program for constructing the above chart

The speed of sound at a certain air temperature is determined by the following analytical expression (AB) [3, p.21]:

C : = 331.5 one + t B 273

Figure 00000074

The difference of the above remote control is determined by such AB [3, p.25]:

ϕ: = (α wOD )

The speed of sound, taking into account the influence of wind, is determined by such an AB [3, p.24]:

C w : = (С + W cos (ϕ))

The amplitude of sound pressure at the input of the RFP 4 is determined by this AB [2, p.45]:

H AT X 3 P one : = P and s m D one l 1.65

Figure 00000130
,

where P of m is the amplitude of the sound pressure of the shock wave at the place of its formation;

D 1p - the removal of the approximate center (point C) of the area of special attention (DOM) from the PO 4 of the left linear group (LLG), see figure 1 and ID.

It is obvious that the amplitude of the voltage at the output of the DUT №1 signal separator (BC) of the second channel, and the circular frequency are determined by such AV

U 1пmax : = Р ВXЗП1 · η m · К у ω 0 : = 2 · π · f 0

And the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 1 of the aircraft of the first channel will be determined as follows AB:

u one P ( t ) : = U one P max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D one P C w )

Figure 00000131

Plotting a plot of the instantaneous voltage value versus time

It is obvious that the time of the onset of the appearance of an electrical signal (ES) at the outputs of the control room No. 1 and the voltage combiner (SN) of the first channel will be determined by the moment the speaker arrives at the RF 1, as closest to T.Ts, i.e.

t n one : = ( D one P C w )

Figure 00000132

The result of calculating the start time of the occurrence of ES at the outputs of the IU No. 1 and SN of the first channel

t n1 = 9.4250168 s

We take the end time for observing the speakers to be 0.6 s after the speakers arrive at SC 1, because it will be equal to half the duration of the speaker, see Fig. 1 of Appendix 4.

Then the observation time interval of the ES will be written in the form

t : = D one P C w

Figure 00000133
, D one P C w + 0.00001 ... ( D one P C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000134

We plot this voltage over this interval

Figure 00000135

Option 2. The construction of a graph of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 2 on time.

The IDs for the calculation are as follows:

d P : = 10 m - the distance between the working axes of the microphones of the adjacent RFP;

α to P : = π 2 R but d

Figure 00000136
- angle, see figure 1.

Removing SP 2 PLG from the center of the sound wave can be found by the cosine theorem [4. p.186]:

D 2 P : = D one P 2 + d P 2 + 2 D one P d l cos ( α to P )

Figure 00000137

The remaining data is similar to option 1

The amplitude of sound pressure at the input of the RFP 5 is determined by such an AB [2, p. 45];

P AT X 3 P 5 : = R and s m D 2 l 1.65

Figure 00000082

It is obvious that the amplitude of the voltage at the output of the control room No. 2 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by such an AB:

U 2lmax : = P vhzp5 · η m · K y

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of IU No. 2 BC 4 of the first channel is determined by this AB:

u 2 P ( t ) : = U 2 P max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 2 P C w )

Figure 00000138

Acting similarly to option No. 1, we construct a graph of the dependence of the instantaneous voltage value on time at the output of IU No. 2

Then the time of the beginning of the appearance of ES at the output of PS No. 2 of the second channel will be determined by such AB:

t n 2 : = ( D 2 P C w )

Figure 00000139

The result of calculating the start time of the occurrence of ES at the outputs of the IS No. 2 and SN of the second channel

t n2 = 9.5659365 s

Then the observation time interval of the ES will be written in the form

t : = D 2 P C w

Figure 00000140
, D 2 P C w + 0.00001 ... ( D 2 P C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000141

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 2 of the aircraft of the second channel will be determined as follows AB:

u 2 P ( t ) : = U 2 P max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 2 P C w )

Figure 00000142

We plot this voltage over this interval.

Figure 00000143

Option 3. Construction of a graph of the voltage at the output of the PS No. 3 of the second channel versus time.

All the initial data are similar to option 1, but the removal of the PL 3 LLG from the center of the sound wave can be found by the cosine theorem [4. p.186], which is obvious by the following formula:

D 3 P : = D one P 2 + ( 2 d P ) 2 - 2 D one P d P cos ( α to P )

Figure 00000144
.

The amplitude of the sound pressure at the input of the RF 3 is determined by this AB [2, p.45]:

H AT X 3 P 3 : = P and s m D 3 P 1.65

Figure 00000145
.

It is obvious that the amplitude of the voltage at the output of the control room No. 3 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by such an AB:

U 3пmax : = Р ВXЗП3 · η m · К у

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of IU No. 3 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by this AB:

U 3 P ( t ) : = U 3 P max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 3 P C w )

Figure 00000146

Acting similarly to option No. 1, we construct a graph of the dependence of the instantaneous voltage value on time u 3п (t)

Then the time of the beginning of the appearance of ES at the output of PS No. 3 will be determined by AB:

t n 3 : = ( D 3 P C w )

Figure 00000147

The result of the calculation of the start time of the occurrence of ES at the outputs of IU No. 3 and SN of the second channel

t n3 = 9.5660766 s

Then the observation time interval of the ES will be written in the form

t : = D 3 P C w

Figure 00000148
, D 3 P C w + 0.00001 ... ( D 3 P C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000149

It is obvious that the instantaneous value of the voltage at the output of IU No. 3 of the aircraft of the second channel is determined by this AB:

U 3 P ( t ) : = U 3 P max sin ( ω 0 t + ω 0 D 3 P C w )

Figure 00000150

We plot this voltage over this interval

Figure 00000151

Plotting the voltage signal of the total signal at the output of the SN PLG ZP on the time interval when all the ZP PLGs are receiving speakers, and this is when the AS is suitable for ZP 3 PLGs, as the most distant from the point Ts. That is the observation time interval of the total signal we take the following:

t : = D one P C w

Figure 00000152
, D one P C w + 0.00001 ... ( D 3 P C w ) + 0.6
Figure 00000153

The instantaneous voltage value at the output of the SN PLG ZP can be written, which is obvious, in this form:

u Σ (t): = U 1п (t) + U 2п (t) + u 3п (t)

Then the voltage graph of this total signal will have the form

Figure 00000154

Calculation of the difference between the time of appearance of the signal at the output of the SN and the time of the appearance of the signal at the output of the PS No. 1 of the aircraft of the first channel.

The time of appearance of the signal at the SN output of this channel will be determined by the moment the ES appears at the output of the IU No. 1, because RFP 1 is closest to T.C.

t nsn1k : = t n1 or t nsn1k = 9.4250168 s.

Then the difference between the time of the appearance of the signal at the SN output and the time at the output of the IU No. 2 (this particular RFP is used to calculate the sound angle in the sonometric complexes that are in the arsenal of the Russian army) of the aircraft of the first channel is determined by the formula

Δt plg : = t n2 -t n1 ,

where t H2 = 9.4250628 s; t n1 = 9.4250168 s.

Then the desired time difference between the appearance of the signal will be equal

Δt plg = 4.6020478 × 10 -5 s

As you can see, the difference between them is very small. Therefore, the time difference can be taken between the beginnings of the appearance of ES at the output of the SN of the second and first channels.

Calculate this time difference.

The start time of the appearance of ES at the output of the CH of the second channel is

t nsn2k : = 10.7504098 s, see Appendix 5.

Then the time difference between the beginnings of the appearance of the ES at the output of the SN of the second and first channels is determined by the formula

τ: = t nsn2k -t nsn1k

The result of calculating this time difference is as follows:

τ = 1.325393 s.

List of sources used

1. Acoustics: A Handbook. - M.: Radio and Communications, 1989 .-- 336 p.

2. Sergeev V.V. Basics of the device and design elements of sound measuring equipment. - Penza: Penza VAIU, 1964 .-- 143 p.

3. Talanov A.V. Sound reconnaissance artillery. - M.: Military Publishing, 1948 .-- 400 p.

4. Bronstein I.N., Semendyaev K.A. A reference book in mathematics for engineers and students of technical colleges. - M .: Nauka, 1964 .-- 608 p.

Appendix 13. Calculation of the sound angle in the absence of wind.

The source data for this option is as follows:

t B : = 5 ° C - air temperature in the surface layer of the atmosphere;

W: = 0 - m / s wind speed in this layer of the atmosphere, because no wind;

α w : = 0 rad - directional angle (DU) of the wind direction in this layer of the atmosphere;

α OD : = 0 rad - DE directrix of the acoustic base of the acoustic locator;

τ: = 1.3452033 s - time difference calculated in Appendix 6;

l: = 500 m - sound base (distance) between the working axes of the microphones of the sound receivers of 2 right and 5 left linear groups;

Calculation program text

β ( t B , W , α w , α ABOUT D , τ , l ) ) | | | C 331.5 one + t B 273 φ α w - α ABOUT D C w C + W cos ( φ ) a sin ( C w τ one )

Figure 00000162

β (t B , W, α w , α OD , τ, l)

The result of calculating the sound angle in radians

β (1) = 1.1197696

List of sources used

1. Patent No. 2374665, Russian Federation, IPC G01S 15/02. Acoustic locator / Shmelev V.V. et al. / Applicant and patent holder of the Tula AII. No. 2008122513/28; declared 06/06/2008; publ. 11/27/2009, Bull. No. 33.

Appendix 14. Calculation of the sound angle in the absence of wind.

The source data for this option is as follows:

t B : = 5 ° C - air temperature in the surface layer of the atmosphere;

W: = 0 - m / s wind speed in this layer of the atmosphere, because no wind;

α w : = 3 π 2 R but d

Figure 00000163
- directional angle (DU) of the wind direction in this layer of the atmosphere;

α ABOUT D : = 3 π 2 R but d

Figure 00000164
- Remote control directors of the acoustic base of the acoustic locator;

τ: = 1.325393 s - time difference calculated in Appendix 12;

l: = 500 m - sound base (distance) between the working axes of the microphones of the sound receivers of 2 right and 5 left linear groups;

Calculation program text

β ( t B , W , α w , α ABOUT D , τ , l ) ) | | | C 331.5 one + t B 273 φ α w - α ABOUT D C w C + W cos ( φ ) a sin ( C w τ one )

Figure 00000165

β (t B , W, α w , α OD , τ, l)

The result of calculating the sound angle in radians

β (1) = 1.11976953

List of sources used

1. Patent No. 2374665, Russian Federation, IPC G01S 15/02. Acoustic locator / Shmelev V.V. et al. / Applicant and patent holder of the Tula AII. No. 2008122513/28; declared 06/06/2008; publ. 11/27/2009, Bull. No. 33.

Appendix 15. Calculation of the sound angle in the absence of wind.

The source data for this option is as follows:

t B : = 5 ° C - air temperature in the surface layer of the atmosphere;

W: = 0 - m / s wind speed in this layer of the atmosphere, because no wind;

α w : = π 2 R but d

Figure 00000166
- directional angle (DU) of the wind direction in this layer of the atmosphere;

α ABOUT D : = 3 π 2 R but d

Figure 00000164
- Remote control directors of the acoustic base of the acoustic locator;

τ: = 1.3656143 s - time difference calculated in Appendix 10;

l: = 500 m - sound base (distance) between the working axes of the microphones of the sound receivers of 2 right and 5 left linear groups;

Calculation program text

β ( t B , W , α w , α ABOUT D , τ , l ) ) | | | C 331.5 one + t B 273 φ α w - α ABOUT D C w C + W cos ( φ ) a sin ( C w τ one )

Figure 00000165

β (t B , W, α w , α OD , τ, l)

The result of calculating the sound angle in radians

β (1) = 1.1197689

List of sources used

1. Patent No. 2374665, Russian Federation, IPC G01S 15/02. Acoustic locator / Shmelev V.V. et al. / Applicant and patent holder of the Tula AII. No. 2008122513/28; declared 06/06/2008; publ. 11/27/2009, Bull. No. 33.

Appendix 16. Calculation of the sound angle in the absence of wind.

The source data for this option is as follows:

t B : = 5 ° C - air temperature in the surface layer of the atmosphere;

W: = 0 - m / s wind speed in this layer of the atmosphere, because no wind;

α w =: 0 - directional angle (DU) of the wind direction in this layer of the atmosphere;

α ABOUT D : = 3 π 2 R but d

Figure 00000164
- Remote control directors of the acoustic base of the acoustic locator;

τ: = 1.3452033 s - time difference calculated in Appendix 8;

l: = 500 m - sound base (distance) between the working axes of the microphones of the sound receivers of 2 right and 5 left linear groups;

Calculation program text

β ( t B , W , α w , α ABOUT D , τ , l ) ) | | | C 331.5 one + t B 273 φ α w - α ABOUT D C w C + W cos ( φ ) a sin ( C w τ one )

Figure 00000165

β (t B , W, α w , α OD , τ, l)

The result of calculating the sound angle in radians

β (1) = 1.1197696

List of sources used

1. Patent No. 2374665, Russian Federation, IPC G01S 15/02. Acoustic locator / Shmelev V.V. et al. / Applicant and patent holder of the Tula AII. No. 2008122513/28; declared 06/06/2008; publ. 11/27/2009, Bull. No. 33.

Appendix 17. An example of calculating the corrected sound angle in headwind.

The source data for this option is as follows:

t B : = 5 ° C - air temperature in the surface layer of the atmosphere;

W: = 5 m / s - wind speed in this layer of the atmosphere;

α w : = π 2 R but d

Figure 00000167
- directional angle of the wind in this layer of the atmosphere; v 2

α ABOUT D : = 3 π 2 R but d

Figure 00000168
- directors of the acoustic base of the acoustic locator (AL);

d: = 300 m - acoustic base (distance) between the middle of the left and right linear groups of sound receivers;

T si : = 10 -3 s - the repetition period of pulses from the frequency divider of the time measurement system;

p l : = 30 - the value of the number of pulses received in the register No. 1 of the second channel, taken as an example;

n p : = 10 - the value of the number of pulses received in the register No. 2 of the second channel, taken as an example;

ε: = 0.1 rad — elevation angle of the sound source;

α n : = 0.1 rad - the angle of inclination of the acoustic base;

D c : = 10000 m - the distance from the middle of the acoustic base to the approximate center of the area of special attention.

Calculation program text

β 0 ( t B , α w , α ABOUT D , D c , T from and , n l , n P , l , ε , α n ) : = | | | FROM 331.5 one + t B 273 τ T from and ( n l - n P ) β a sin ( C τ one ) Δ β W W sin ( α w - α ABOUT D ) C cos ( β ) η D c one

Figure 00000169

| | | Δ β η w t ( 2 β ) 16 η 2 Δ τ one e f t ( ε ) e f t ( α H ) Δ τ N G M Ts [ sin ( β ) ( one - cos ( ε ) cos ( α N ) ) cos ( ε ) cos ( α N ) ] + Δ l ˜ one Δ β N G M Ts a sin ( C Δ τ N G M Ts one ) β + Δ β W + Δ β η + Δ β N G M Ts

Figure 00000170

β 0 (1): = β 0 (t B , W, α w , α OD , D c , T si , n l , n p , l, ε, α Н )

The result of the calculation of the corrected sound angle in radians β 0 (1) = 0.03378191

List of sources used

1. Talanov A.V. Sound reconnaissance artillery. - M.: Military Publishing, 1948 .-- 400 p.

For specific pages where the calculation formulas are indicated in the text of the calculation program, see the description of the invention.

Appendix 18. Calculation of the minimum duration of the strobe pulse generated by a single-shot 9.

The initial data are as follows:

D max : = 10000 m - maximum range to firing positions (OP)

artillery, determined by the artillery combat charter, since these OPs are selected at a distance of 2 ... 8 km from the military contact line of troops;

D min : = 4000 m - the sum of the minimum distance of the artillery of the likely enemy from the line of contact between the troops, determined, for example, by the Combat Charter of US Army artillery, and the distance from this line of the acoustic locator;

t min : = - 50 ° C - minimum air temperature in the surface layer of the atmosphere;

t vmax : = 50 ° C - maximum air temperature in the surface layer of the atmosphere;

W max : = 30 m / s - maximum wind speed in this layer of the atmosphere at which artillery firing is permissible;

W min : = 0 m / s - the minimum wind speed in this layer of the atmosphere;

The text of the program for calculating the duration of the strobe pulse

t and from ( D m but to from , D m and n , t at m and n , t at m but to from , W m but to from , W m and n ) : = | | | FROM m and n 331.5 one + t at m and n 273 FROM m but to from 331.5 one + t at m but to from 273 C w m and n FROM m and n - W m but to from C w m but to from FROM m but to from - W m but to from ( D m but to from C w m and n ) - D m and n C w m but to from

Figure 00000171

Calculation of the minimum strobe duration

(t is (D max ): = t is (D max , D min , t min , t vmax , W max , W min )

The result of calculating the minimum duration of the strobe pulse

t is (D max ) = 26.85 s

So, the minimum strobe pulse duration should be 26.85 s. We will create some reserve of it and take the duration of the strobe pulse equal to 30 s.

Appendix 19. Calculation of the absorption coefficient of an acoustic signal with a frequency of 18 Hz in the surface layer of the atmosphere at any atmospheric pressure and relative humidity of 50%, air temperature 5 ° C.

The initial data are as follows:

C 0 : = 331.5 m / s - the speed of sound in the surface layer of the atmosphere at an air temperature in this layer equal to zero;

t B : = 5 ° C - air temperature in the surface layer of the atmosphere;

χ: = 24.396 · 10 -3 W / (m K) - coefficient of thermal conductivity of air;

C p : = 1.007 kJ / (kg K) is the heat capacity of air at constant pressure;

C v : = 0.718 kJ / (kg K) - heat capacity of air at a constant volume;

ρ in : = 1.267 kg / m 3 - air density;

N M : = 0.1 dB / km — molecular attenuation of the acoustic signal;

η: = 17.4 · 10 -6 Pa s - coefficient of viscosity of air;

α W : = 3 π 2 R but d

Figure 00000172
- directional angle of the wind, i.e. West wind;

α ABOUT D : = 3 π 2 R but d

Figure 00000173
- Remote control directors of the acoustic acoustic base of the acoustic locator;

f 0 : = 18 Hz is the frequency of the acoustic signal;

w: = 5 m / s - wind speed in the surface layer of the atmosphere.

Calculation program text

β 0 ( C p , C v , W , α W , α ABOUT D , t B , C 0 , ρ B , N M , f 0 , η , χ ) : = | | | C C 0 one + t B 273 C W C + W cos ( α W - α ABOUT D ) k a C p C v N B 1.715 10 7 f 0 2 ρ B C W 3 [ four 3 η + ( k a - one ) χ C p ] N B + N M

Figure 00000174

β a (W): = β a (C p , C v , W, α W , α OD , t B , C 0 , ρ B , N M , f 0 , η, χ)

The result of calculating the absorption coefficient of the acoustic signal

β a (5) = 1.195276 dB / km.

List of sources used

1. Talanov A.V. Sound reconnaissance artillery. - M.: Military Publishing, 1948 .-- 400 p.

2. Iofe V.K., Korolkov V.G., Sapozhkov M.A. Reference Acoustics. M .: Communication, 1979. 312 p.

For specific pages where the calculation formulas are indicated in the text of the calculation program, see the description of the invention.

Appendix 20. Calculation of the absorption coefficient of an acoustic signal with a frequency of 18 Hz in the surface layer of the atmosphere at any atmospheric pressure and relative humidity of 50%, air temperature 5 ° C.

The initial data are as follows:

C 0 : = 331.5 m / s - the speed of sound in the surface layer of the atmosphere at an air temperature in this layer equal to zero;

t B : = 5 ° C - air temperature in the surface layer of the atmosphere;

χ: = 24.396 · 10 -3 W / (m K) - coefficient of thermal conductivity of air;

C p : = 1.007 kJ / (kg K) is the heat capacity of air at constant pressure;

C v : = 0.718 kJ / (kg K) - heat capacity of air at a constant volume;

ρ in : = 1.267 kg / m 3 - air density;

N M : = 0.1 dB / km — molecular attenuation of the acoustic signal;

η: = 17.4 · 10 -6 Pa s - coefficient of viscosity of air;

α W : = 3 π 2 R but d

Figure 00000172
- directional angle of the wind, i.e. West wind;

α ABOUT D : = 3 π 2 R but d

Figure 00000173
- Remote control directors of the acoustic acoustic base of the acoustic locator;

f 0 : = 18 Hz is the frequency of the acoustic signal;

w: = 5 m / s - wind speed in the surface layer of the atmosphere.

Calculation program text

β 0 ( C p , C v , W , α W , α ABOUT D , t B , C 0 , ρ B , N M , f 0 , η , χ ) : = | | | C C 0 one + t B 273 C W C + W cos ( α W - α ABOUT D ) k a C p C v N B 1.715 10 7 f 0 2 ρ B C W 3 [ four 3 η + ( k a - one ) χ C p ] N B + N M

Figure 00000174

β a (W): = β a (C p , C v , W, α W , α OD , t B , C 0 , ρ B , N M , f 0 , η, χ)

The result of calculating the absorption coefficient of the acoustic signal

β a (5) = 1.320354 dB / km.

List of sources used

1. Talanov A.V. Sound reconnaissance artillery. - M.: Military Publishing, 1948 .-- 400 p.

2. Iofe V.K., Korolkov V.G., Sapozhkov M.A. Reference Acoustics. M .: Communication, 1979. 312 p.

For specific pages where the calculation formulas are indicated in the text of the calculation program, see the description of the invention.

Appendix 21. Calculation of the octave level of sound pressure and the amplitude of the acoustic signal with a frequency of 18 Hz, formed by a single shot from a 155 mm self-propelled howitzer, at the input of the sound receiver (RF), for route 1 of the propagation of this signal (plain terrain covered with grass, no forest) at a temperature and relative humidity in the surface layer of the atmosphere equal to 5 ° C and 50%, respectively, and some wind parameters at a distance of 10 km of ZP from the center of the sound wave.

The amplitude of sound pressure in the center of the sound wave in this case is equal to

P m : = 1.3 · 10 6 Pa [1, p. 45, 49]

Then the sound pressure level in the center of the sound wave

L p : = twenty log ( P m 10 6 2 10 - 5 )

Figure 00000175
[2, p.12]

The result of the calculation is as follows:

L p : = 212.455 dB

2. The spatial angle of radiation

Ω: = 4 · π, [3, p. 169]

3. Removing the sound receiver from the center of the sound wave is

D: = 10000 m

4. The sound absorption coefficient in air

β a : = 1.195276 d B to m

Figure 00000176
, calculation see Appendix 22;

5. Correction taking into account in-phase addition of direct and reflected waves from the earth

ΔL waves : = 0 [3, p.189]

6. Decrease in sound pressure level by screens, they are absent, therefore

ΔL scr = 0

7. Decrease in sound pressure level due to the influence of the ground surface with grass cover

ΔL pov : = 0 [3, p.177]

8. The coefficient of sound attenuation by the forest, the forest is absent, therefore

β green : = 0

9. The length of the propagation path of the acoustic signal through the forest, it is absent, therefore

l green : = 0

10. The number of additional reflective surfaces located very close to the sound receiver, we believe that they are absent, therefore [3, p.189]

n add : = 0

Then

Neg ΔL = 3 · n ext

Δ 1: = ΔL + ΔL waves Neg

2 Δ: = ΔL + ΔL scr dressings + β zel zel · l

We take the air temperature and wind speed equal

t B : = 5 ° CW: = 5 m / s

We accept the difference in the directional angles of the wind and the directrix equal

ϕ: = 0

Then the speed of sound taking into account the influence of air temperature is determined by the formula

C : = 331.5 one + t B 273

Figure 00000177

Then the speed of sound taking into account the influence of air temperature and wind speed is determined by the formula

C W : = C + W cos (ϕ)

Then the octave level of sound pressure is determined by the formula [3, p. 189]

L 10 : = L p - 10 log ( Ω ) - twenty log ( D ) - β a ( D 1000 ) + Δ one - Δ 2 + twenty log ( C W C )

Figure 00000178
and will be

L 10 = 109.639006

Calculation of the effective value of sound pressure at the input of the sound receiver

P 0 : = 2 · 10 -5 Pa [2, p.12]

P 10 : = P 0 10 L 10 twenty

Figure 00000179

P 10 = 6.067088 Pa

Calculation of the harmonic amplitude of sound pressure at the input of the sound receiver

P eighteen m : = P 10 2

Figure 00000180

P l8m = 8.580158 Pa

List of sources used

1. Sergeev V.V. The bases of the device and design elements of sound measuring equipment. Penza: PVAIU, 1964.143 s.

2. Iofe V.K., Korolkov V.G., Sapozhkov M.A. Reference Acoustics. M .: Communication, 1979. 312 p.

3. The fight against noise in the workplace: Handbook. Under the total. ed. E.Ya. Yudina. M .: Mechanical Engineering, 1985.400 p.

Appendix 22. Calculation of the octave level of sound pressure and the amplitude of the acoustic signal with a frequency of 19 Hz, formed by a single shot from a 155 mm self-propelled howitzer, at the input of the sound receiver (RF), for route 1 of the propagation of this signal (plain terrain covered with grass, no forest) at a temperature and relative humidity in the surface layer of the atmosphere equal to 5 ° C and 50%, respectively, and some wind parameters at a distance of 10 km of ZP from the center of the sound wave.

The amplitude of sound pressure in the center of the sound wave in this case is equal to

P m : = 1.3 · 10 6 Pa [1, p. 45, 49]

Then the sound pressure level in the center of the sound wave

L p : = twenty log ( P m 10 6 2 10 - 5 )

Figure 00000175
[2, p.12]

The result of the calculation is as follows:

L p : = 212.455 dB

2. The spatial angle of radiation

Ω: = 4 · π, [3, p. 169]

3. Removing the sound receiver from the center of the sound wave is

D: = 10000 m

4. The sound absorption coefficient in air

β a : = 1.320354 d B to m

Figure 00000176
, calculation see in appendix 23;

5. Correction taking into account in-phase addition of direct and reflected waves from the earth

ΔL waves : = 0 [3, p.189]

6. Decrease in sound pressure level by screens, they are absent, therefore

ΔL scr = 0

7. Decrease in sound pressure level due to the influence of the ground surface with grass cover

ΔL pov : = 0 [3, p.177]

8. The coefficient of sound attenuation by the forest, the forest is absent, therefore

β green : = 0

9. The length of the propagation path of the acoustic signal through the forest, it is absent, therefore

l green : = 0

10. The number of additional reflective surfaces located very close to the sound receiver, we believe that they are absent, therefore [3, p.189]

n add : = 0

Then

Neg ΔL = 3 · n ext

Δ 1: = ΔL + ΔL waves Neg

2 Δ: = ΔL + ΔL scr dressings + β zel zel · l

We take the air temperature and wind speed equal

t B : = 5 ° CW: = 5 m / s

We accept the difference in the directional angles of the wind and the directrix equal

ϕ: = 0

Then the speed of sound taking into account the influence of air temperature is determined by the formula

C : = 331.5 one + t B 273

Figure 00000177

Then the speed of sound taking into account the influence of air temperature and wind speed is determined by the formula

C W : = C + W cos (ϕ)

Then the octave level of sound pressure is determined by the formula [3, p. 189]

L 10 : = L p - 10 log ( Ω ) - twenty log ( D ) - β a ( D 1000 ) + Δ one - Δ 2 + twenty log ( C W C )

Figure 00000178
and will be

L 10 = 108.388226

Calculation of the effective value of sound pressure at the input of the sound receiver

P 0 : = 2 · 10 -5 Pa [2, p.12]

P 10 : = P 0 10 L 10 twenty

Figure 00000179

P 10 = 5.25341 Pa

Calculation of the harmonic amplitude of sound pressure at the input of the sound receiver

P 19 m : = P 10 2

Figure 00000181

P l9m = 8.580158 Pa

List of sources used

1. Sergeev V.V. The bases of the device and design elements of sound measuring equipment. Penza: PVAIU, 1964.143 s.

2. Iofe V.K., Korolkov V.G., Sapozhkov M.A. Reference Acoustics. M .: Communication, 1979. 312 p.

3. The fight against noise in the workplace: Handbook. Under the total. ed. E.Ya. Yudina. M .: Mechanical Engineering, 1985.400 p.

Appendix 23. Calculation of the distance to the sound source, if the acoustic signal propagates along a plain or medium-rugged, grassy area.

Calculation of the sound pressure level when receiving an acoustic signal with an acoustic locator at the main working frequency and processing it in 1 channel.

The initial data of the main variant are as follows:

n: = 3 is the number of sound receivers (RF) in the linear group (LG);

f 0 : = 17 Hz - the main working frequency of the acoustic locator;

d: - = 10 m - the distance between the working axes of the microphones of the adjacent RFP;

t B : = 5 ° C - air temperature in the surface layer of the atmosphere;

W: = 5 m / s - wind speed in the surface layer of the atmosphere;

ϕ: = 0 rad - the difference in the directional angles of the wind in the surface layer of the atmosphere and the directrix of the acoustic base;

β 0 : = 0.0225303 rad - corrected sound angle calculated in Appendix 18;

K y : = 50 is the gain of the first signal processing channel and the frequency channel ^ of the acoustic locator, determined experimentally, and let it be 50;

η m : = 0.03 V / Pa - sensitivity, for example, of Danish type 4145 microphones from Bruhl & Kier at a frequency of 18 Hz;

P 18m : = 8.580158 Pa - the amplitude of the sound pressure of the harmonic of 18 Hz at the input of the microphones of the RF PLG, calculated in Appendix 22.

The text of the calculation program L

L ( n , f 0 , d , t B , W , φ , β 0 , K y , η M , P eighteen m ) : = | | | C C 0 one + t B 273 C W C + W cos ( φ ) k π d f 0 C W R eighteen P L G | | | sin ( n k sin ( β 0 ) ) n sin ( k sin ( β 0 ) ) | | | U eighteen P eighteen m η M R eighteen P L G K y twenty log [ 10 5 U eighteen 2 ( η M ÷ R eighteen P L G K y ) ]

Figure 00000182

L (n): = L (n, f 0 , d, t B , W, β 0 , K y , η M , P 18m )

The result of calculating the sound pressure level when receiving an acoustic signal with an acoustic locator at the main operating frequency

L (n) = 12.649 dB L: = 112.649 dB

The calculation of the sound pressure level when receiving an acoustic signal of the PLG ZP at a frequency f 1 and processing it in the frequency channel f 1 .

Additional input data is as follows:

f 1 : = 19 Hz - additional working frequency of the acoustic locator, let it be taken equal to 19 Hz;

P 19m : = 7.429444 Pa - the amplitude of the sound pressure of the harmonic of 19 Hz at the input of the microphones of the RF PLG, calculated in Appendix 23.

The text of the calculation program L 1

L ( n , f one , d , t B , W , φ , β 0 , K y , η M , P 19 m ) : = | | | C C 0 one + t B 273 C W C + W cos ( φ ) k π d f 0 C W R 19 P L G | | | sin ( n k sin ( β 0 ) ) n sin ( k sin ( β 0 ) ) | | | U 19 P 19 m η M R 19 P L G K y twenty log [ 10 5 U 19 2 ( η M ÷ R 19 P L G K y ) ]

Figure 00000183

The result of calculating the sound pressure level when receiving an acoustic signal with frequency f 1

L 1 (n): = Li (n, f 1 , d, t B , W, ϕ, β 0 , K y , η M , P 19m )

L 1 (n) = 111.399 dB

L 1 : = 111.399 dB

Calculation of the distance to the sound source

Initial data

β a : = 1.195276 dB / km - the value of the attenuation coefficient of the acoustic signal with a frequency of 18 Hz, calculated in Appendix 20;

β a1 : = 1.320354 dB / km - the value of the attenuation coefficient of the acoustic signal with a frequency of 19 Hz, calculated in Appendix 21.

The text of the calculation program D.

D : = 1000 L - L one ( β a one - β a )

Figure 00000184

The result of calculating the removal of a 155 mm self-propelled howitzer, which carried out a single shot, from the acoustic locator.

D = 9.994 × 10 3 M.

Appendix 24. The directional characteristics of the microphone frontal receiver 7 in a rectangular and polar coordinate systems.

The directivity characteristic of the front sound receiver is described by the following analytical expression (AB) [1, p. 97, 98]:

R f ( Θ ) : = | | | ( one four ) ( one + 3 cos ( Θ ) )

Figure 00000185

Set the following range of angle 0:

Θ: = - π, -π + 0.0001 ... π

We plot the directivity characteristics of this sound receiver in a rectangular coordinate system

Figure 00000186

We plot the directivity characteristics of this sound receiver in the polar coordinate system.

Figure 00000187

List of sources used

1. Iofe V.K., Korolkov V.G., Sapozhkov M.A. Reference Acoustics. M .: Communication, 1979. 312 p.

Appendix 25. An example of calculating the topographic coordinate X c of a sound source when conducting reconnaissance in a northwest direction. The source data for this option is as follows:

t B : = 5 ° C - air temperature in the surface layer of the atmosphere;

W: = 5 m / s - wind speed in this layer of the atmosphere;

α w : = π 2 R but d

Figure 00000188
- directional angle (DU) of the wind direction in this layer of the atmosphere;

α ABOUT D : = 280 π 180 R but d

Figure 00000189
- Remote control of the director of the acoustic base (AB) of the acoustic locator (AL), taken as an example and equal to 280 °;

l: = 300 m - AB (distance) between the middle of the left and right linear groups of sound receivers, taken as an example;

T si : = 10 -3 s - the repetition period of pulses from the frequency divider of the time measurement system;

n L : = 30 - the value of the number of pulses received in the register No. 1 of the second channel, taken for example;

n P : = 10 - the value of the number of pulses received in the register No. 2 of the second channel, taken as an example;

ε: = 0.1 rad — elevation angle of the sound source taken as an example;

α n : = 0.1 rad - the angle of inclination of the AB, taken as an example;

D c : = 10000 m - the distance to the point C of the area of special attention, taken from the topographic map, taken as an example;

D: = 9994 m - calculated distance to the sound source from the middle of the acoustic base, see Appendix 24;

x L : = 5700 m - incomplete topographic coordinate X of the middle of the AB, obtained, for example, using the navigation equipment AL, taken as an example.

Calculation program text

X c ( t B , W , α w , α ABOUT D , D , T from and , n L , n P ,one, ε , α H , X L ) : = | | | C 33.5 one + t B 273 τ T from and ( n L - n P ) β a sin ( C τ one )

Figure 00000190

| | | Δ β W W sin ( α w - α ABOUT D ) C cos ( β ) η D c one Δ β η sin ( 2 β ) 16 η 2 Δ τ one tan ( ε ) tan ( α H ) Δ τ N G M Ts [ sin β ( one - cos ( ε ) cos ( α H ) ) cos ( ε ) cos ( α H ) ] + Δ τ one Δ β N G M Ts a sin ( C Δ τ N G M Ts one ) β 0 β + Δ β W + Δ β η + Δ β N G M Ts x L + D cos [ 2 π - ( α ABOUT D + β 0 ) ]

Figure 00000191

X c (l): = X c (t B , W, α W , α OD , D, T si , n Л , n П , l, ε, α Н , α Л )

The result of the calculation of the topographic coordinate X c sound source.

X c (l) = 7.7922514 × 10 3 m

List of sources used

1. Talanov A.V. Sound reconnaissance artillery. - M.: Military Publishing, 1948 .-- 400 p.

For specific pages where the calculation formulas are indicated in the text of the calculation program, see the description of the invention.

Annex 26. Calculation Example of topographic coordinates X i sound source when administered intelligence in the northwest direction. The source data for this option is as follows:

t B : = 5 ° C - air temperature in the surface layer of the atmosphere;

W: = 5 m / s - wind speed in this layer of the atmosphere;

α w : = π 2 R but d

Figure 00000188
- directional angle (DU) of the wind direction in this layer of the atmosphere;

α ABOUT D : = 280 π 180 R but d

Figure 00000189
- Remote control of the director of the acoustic base (AB) of the acoustic locator (AL), taken as an example and equal to 280 °;

l: = 300 m - AB (distance) between the middle of the left and right linear groups of sound receivers, taken as an example;

T si : = 10 -3 s - the repetition period of pulses from the frequency divider of the time measurement system;

n L : = 30 - the value of the number of pulses received in the register No. 1 of the second channel, taken for example;

n P : = 10 - the value of the number of pulses received in the register No. 2 of the second channel, taken as an example;

ε: = 0.1 rad — elevation angle of the sound source taken as an example;

α n : = 0.1 rad - the angle of inclination of the AB, taken as an example;

D c : = 10000 m - the distance to the point C of the area of special attention, taken from the topographic map, taken as an example;

D: = 9994 m - calculated distance to the sound source from the middle of the acoustic base, see Appendix 24;

At L = 10500 m - part topographic coordinates Y n the middle of AB, resulting, for example, by means of navigation equipment AL, taken as an example.

Calculation program text

At c ( t B , W , α w , α ABOUT D , D , T from and , n L , n P ,one, ε , α H , At L ) : = | | | C 33.5 one + t B 273 τ T from and ( n L - n P ) β a sin ( C τ one )

Figure 00000192

| | | Δ β W W sin ( α w - α ABOUT D ) C cos ( β ) η D c one Δ β η sin ( 2 β ) 16 η 2 Δ τ one tan ( ε ) tan ( α H ) Δ τ N G M Ts [ sin β ( one - cos ( ε ) cos ( α H ) ) cos ( ε ) cos ( α H ) ] + Δ τ one Δ β N G M Ts a sin ( C Δ τ N G M Ts one ) β 0 β + Δ β W + Δ β η + Δ β N G M Ts At L + D cos [ 2 π - ( α ABOUT D + β 0 ) ]

Figure 00000193

At c (l): = At c (t B , W, α W , α OD , D, T si , n L , n P , l, ε, α Н , У Л )

The result of the calculation of the topographic coordinate y C sound source.

Y c (l) = 727.4609163 m

List of sources used

1. Talanov A.V. Sound reconnaissance artillery. - M.: Military Publishing, 1948 .-- 400 p.

For specific pages where the calculation formulas are indicated in the text of the calculation program, see the description of the invention.

Claims (1)

  1. An acoustic locator of pulsed sound sources, which includes a selector pulse forming circuit, two linear groups of sound receivers, three signal processing channels, a directivity control system for linear groups of sound receivers and an electronic computer, the first and second signal processing channels receive signals at a frequency f 0 , and the frequency channel f 1 at a slightly higher frequency f 1, while the first channel and the frequency channel f 1 contain a signal separator, an adder connected in series voltages, amplitude detector, analog-to-digital converter and register, the outputs of the registers of these two channels are connected by buses to ports one and two, respectively, of the electronic computer, the second channel includes a signal isolator, voltage adder, amplitude detector, measurement system connected in series time, registers number one and number two, connected by buses to ports three and four, respectively, of an electronic computer, a directional control system eynyh groups horn in itself comprises successively interconnected differentiating circuit, a diode and connected to its cathode two parallel MicroConverter channel MicroConverter frequency f 1 and the first channel, and MicroConverter second channel, the outputs of one, two and three of which are connected to the two inputs of the circuit matching the number one, two and three, respectively extractor second channel signals, the outputs of one, two and three channel MicroConverter frequency f 1 and the first channel connected to the two inputs of the coincidence circuits the number one, two and so on and accordingly highlighters channel signal frequency f 1 and the first channel, the circuit formation of the selector pulse itself includes serially connected between a horn wheel, trigger Schmitt and monostable multivibrator, whose output is connected to the input of the differentiating circuit performance management system directional input two electronic key amplitude detector all channels, with the input of one matching circuit number one, two and three signal extractors of all channels, the amplitude detectors of all channels contain e series rectifier, capacitive filter and electronic switch connected in series, one input of which is connected to the output of the capacitive filter, and the output in the frequency channel f 1 and the first channel to analog-to-digital converters of these channels, characterized in that the frontal receiver is installed approximately on the director of the acoustic base at a distance of about one hundred and fifty meters from the middle of this base, the linear groups of sound receivers include the right and left groups of sound receivers, the right of which contains sound one, two, and three, the left one contains four, five, and six sound receivers that are equally distant from each other, with circular directional characteristics of their microphones, the working axes of the microphones of these sound receivers pointing vertically upward, and the middle of the right linear group of sound receivers removed from the middle left along the front for several hundred meters, called an acoustic base, one and two sound receivers are installed on the acoustic base, and three sound receivers are on its continuation, topographic coordinates the basins of this base are defined, both linear groups of sound receivers are approximately the same distance from the military contact line of troops, the perpendiculars recovered from the midpoints of these linear groups of sound receivers should be directed to approximately the approximate center of the area of special attention, the sound receivers are one, two and three of the right linear group connected to the inputs of one, two and three, respectively, signal extractors of the frequency channel f 1 and the first channel, the sound receivers four, five and six of the left linear group are connected to the inputs of one, two, and three, respectively, signal extractors of the second channel, the time measurement system is connected to the output of the amplitude detector of the second channel, consisting of a quartz oscillator, a source follower, a Schmitt trigger, a frequency divider, and a pulse counter consisting of ten series-connected between themselves through the information inputs of symmetric triggers, the two outputs of which are connected to the inputs of one electronic key system number one, and the outputs of these electronic keys are connected by bus to register number one of the second channel, and this register is connected by bus to port three of the electronic computer, in addition, the outputs two of the above triggers are connected and to the inputs of one electronic key system number two, and the outputs of these keys are connected by bus to register number two of the second channel, and this register is connected by bus to the port of four electronic computers, the control inputs of two electronic key systems number one are connected to the output of the electronic key of the amplitude detector of the second channel ala, and the control inputs are two electronic key systems number two are connected to the electronic key output of the amplitude detector of the first channel, the output of the frequency divider of the time measurement system is connected to the information input of the first trigger of ten triggers of this system connected in series.
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RU2676830C2 (en) * 2017-03-20 2019-01-11 Федеральное государственное казенное военное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "ВОЕННАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ МАТЕРИАЛЬНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКОГО ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЯ имени генерала армии А.В. Хрулева" Method for determining coordinates of firing artillery systems and ruptures of projectiles by sound recorder

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