RU2528796C2 - Internal combustion engine: six-stroke rotary engine with spinning gates, separate rotor different-purpose sections, invariable volume combustion chambers arranged in working rotors - Google Patents

Internal combustion engine: six-stroke rotary engine with spinning gates, separate rotor different-purpose sections, invariable volume combustion chambers arranged in working rotors Download PDF

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RU2528796C2
RU2528796C2 RU2011146256/06A RU2011146256A RU2528796C2 RU 2528796 C2 RU2528796 C2 RU 2528796C2 RU 2011146256/06 A RU2011146256/06 A RU 2011146256/06A RU 2011146256 A RU2011146256 A RU 2011146256A RU 2528796 C2 RU2528796 C2 RU 2528796C2
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rotor
working
engine
sections
expansion
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RU2011146256/06A
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RU2011146256A (en
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Игорь Юрьевич Исаев
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Игорь Юрьевич Исаев
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01CROTARY-PISTON OR OSCILLATING-PISTON MACHINES OR ENGINES
    • F01C1/00Rotary-piston machines or engines
    • F01C1/08Rotary-piston machines or engines of intermeshing engagement type, i.e. with engagement of co- operating members similar to that of toothed gearing
    • F01C1/12Rotary-piston machines or engines of intermeshing engagement type, i.e. with engagement of co- operating members similar to that of toothed gearing of other than internal-axis type
    • F01C1/14Rotary-piston machines or engines of intermeshing engagement type, i.e. with engagement of co- operating members similar to that of toothed gearing of other than internal-axis type with toothed rotary pistons
    • F01C1/20Rotary-piston machines or engines of intermeshing engagement type, i.e. with engagement of co- operating members similar to that of toothed gearing of other than internal-axis type with toothed rotary pistons with dissimilar tooth forms

Abstract

FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to propulsion engineering. ICE housing accommodates two hollow rotor sections, that is, compressor rotor section and drive rotor section. Every said rotor section houses cylindrical vanned rotor. Engine incorporates symmetric cylindrical hollow seats to accommodate lock drums. Relative arrangement of rotor outer surface and housing inner circular surface as well as those of rotor vanes and lock drum compose working chambers, that is, segments of expansion and contraction. Engine main shaft drives via gearing the shafts of lock drums. Every rotor section has gas exchange openings. Two drive rotor sections operate with one compressor rotor section. The latter is arranged between two drive rotor sections. One end surface of every drive rotor section abuts on every end surface of compressor section. Combustion chambers are arranged in spinning rotors of rotor sections.
EFFECT: higher output and efficiency.
2 cl, 15 dwg

Description

Technical field
The invention relates to the field of engine building, it can be used wherever internal combustion engines are used.
State of the art
Currently, the most widely used stationary power plants and power drives of vehicles are piston, much less often rotary (Wankel systems) internal combustion engines (ICE) or gas turbines (GT). Classical piston ICEs of a two-stroke and four-stroke cycle have been known since the 60s and 70s of the XIX century (S. Baldin, “Internal combustion engines”, Prague, Imka-press, 1923). The movable cylindrical piston performs linear reciprocating movements inside the stationary cylinder. The piston is connected by a connecting rod with a crankshaft. When a pre-compressed mixture of fuel and air vapors is burned in a hermetically enclosed space between the piston and the cylinder due to an increase in the pressure of hot gases, a linear working movement of the piston is carried out simultaneously with the combustion process, which is converted by the crank mechanism into rotational motion of the crankshaft and reciprocating motion of the piston itself .
The duty cycle of, for example, 4-stroke engines consists of successive technological steps - cycles: suction (intake) of the working mixture, compression of the working mixture, ignition of the working mixture with expansion of the working fluid (actual working stroke), exhaust gas discharge. Each cycle - the technological process is realized in one movement up or down the piston in the cylinder and takes half a revolution of the crankshaft of the engine. Those. out of 4 cycles for 2 revolutions of the crankshaft by the worker, which does the work and develops useful power, there is only one - the working stroke, i.e. combustion-expansion cycle. It develops over 0.5 part of the shaft’s circular revolution from 2 revolutions of the full duty cycle, i.e. the working stroke is 0.25 part of each revolution of the shaft.
Known designs of rotary engines with planetary movement of the working element, of which the most famous rotary engine F. Wankel and V. Frede, created in 1957 (G. Majuga, V.Kh. Podoynitsa. Rotary piston internal combustion engines. - M .: Knowledge, 1964). A triangular rotor is rolled around a gear wheel mounted on the side cover of the engine, engaging with an intra-gear rim, while the vertices of the rotor angle glide along the epitrachoid - the inner surface of the working chamber of the engine, which has the form of two mating cylinders. When the rotor rotates between the walls of the housing and the faces of the rotor, a sequential change in volumes occurs, i.e. four-stroke engine compression-expansion processes occur sequentially.
Also, from the 17th century, rotary engines with sealing vanes (rotary vane) have been known, A. Zoller developed the modern version of the circuit of such a machine in 1911 as a “rotary compressor,” (SB Zelenetskiy, ED Ryabkov, A . G. Mikerov. Rotary pneumatic engines. - L .: Engineering, Leningrad Branch, 1976). A rotor is located in a round or oval chamber of the housing, the axis of rotation of which is offset from the center of the cylindrical surface of the housing. Movable blades are placed in the rotor body, which can be extended in radial directions and abut against the walls of the housing. The difference in the height of the extension of the adjacent blades leads to a difference in their area, therefore, when the space between the adjacent pressure blades is applied inside, a driving force arises towards the blade with a larger area, which rotates the rotor. However, due to the fundamental shortcomings of this design, a high-quality internal combustion engine has not yet been created on the basis of this technological principle, although pneumatic motors that implement this principle have been operating successfully for a long time.
Since 1791, the principle of a gas turbine has been known (G. Gyuldner. Gas, oil and other internal combustion engines. - M .: Tipolithography of the partnership Kushnerev and Company, 1907). In such a scheme of a heat engine, the working gases of burning fuel, escaping from the combustion chamber through a nozzle, fall on the blades of the turbine wheel and set it in motion.
Piston engines with a relatively high efficiency and good engine life have a complex structure due to the presence of a crank mechanism with a large number of alternating inertial loads and reciprocating movements, a complex gas distribution mechanism with its drive, low specific power and restrictions on increasing the number of revolutions and forces torque.
Wankel and Frede rotary engines have a high power density with a relatively simple design, but they have a high level of temperature and toxicity of exhaust gases, as well as high heat stress and wear rate of the main parts, they have a high fuel consumption and do not have an advantage in terms of torque over piston motors , and also have difficult to manufacture the main parts.
The disadvantages of turbines with their high power are low efficiency and low throttle response, high requirements for the heat resistance of materials, as well as the inability to create a turbine of small mass and dimension parameters with good tactical and technical characteristics.
The low efficiency of existing internal combustion engines is associated, first of all, with the combination of two different cycles (technological processes): the “burning-formation of the working fluid” cycle and the “expansion of the working fluid” cycle, in one combined “burning-expansion” cycle. In such a single combined measure, two different processes are carried out poorly and not fully. Expansion under the conditions of the combustion process puts the mechanism in which such an expansion process is carried out under extreme operating conditions, and combustion under conditions of sharp expansion with decreasing pressure and falling temperature is not fully implemented. As a result, in order to implement such a compromise, the existing engines have to cool and put up with exhaust gases from a very high temperature to be exhausted in order to carry out essentially different technical processes in one cycle. In this case, the heat balance of a modern internal combustion engine in the middle embodiment is obtained as follows:
30% - heat, translated into useful work;
30% - heat removed through the cooling system;
40% - heat removed with the release of exhaust combustion gases;
Those. the average thermodynamic efficiency of modern internal combustion engines does not exceed 30%.
The closest analogue of the claimed invention, the INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE: 6-stroke rotary engine with rotating shut-off elements, separate rotor sections for different purposes, combustion chambers of constant volume located in the working rotors, is the design "ROTARY INTERNAL ENGINE (Rotary) Internal Engine US patent No. 3,699,930, which is an attempt to design a rotary internal combustion engine with simple rotation of the working elements and separate sections with compression and expansion of the working fluid. The design of the invention, the closest analogue, is based on the well-known Beiman engine design (see EI Akatov, B.C. Bologov et al. Marine rotary engines. - L .: Shipbuilding, 1967, p. 34). A rotary engine - the closest analogue of the claimed invention contains in the housing two process units in the form of rotor sections, each in its own cavity. In each cavity, a rotor with two blades rotates and there are two locking drums. The first process unit (rotor section) is the compression section of the working mixture (compressor), and the second process unit (rotor section) is the combustion-expansion section (power machine or power rotor section).
Each technological unit works by changing the volume of compression or expansion resulting from the rotation of the rotors and locking drums. Due to this rotation of the rotors between the rotor blades and the surfaces of the locking drums, segments of variable volume are formed.
Coinciding essential features between the claimed invention and the closest analogue under consideration is the separation of the housing into different technological cavities - chambers (rotor sections), where the processes of intake-compression and expansion-release of the working fluid occur separately. Also matching signs are the main working elements of engines - rotating rotors made in the form of disc-shaped elements with piston blades, one of which compresses the fresh charge of the working mixture, and the other converts the pressure of the working combustion gases (working fluid) into mechanical rotational motion, as well as work paired with each rotor of the locking drums with cavities for passing a rotating blade.
The reasons that impede the achievement of a high technical result in the analogue under consideration are the following constructive miscalculations:
- in this design, it is proposed to combine two technological processes in one cycle: the combustion process of a compressed working mixture and the process of expansion of combustion gases;
- in this design it is proposed to inject the compressed mixture from the rotary compression section into the rotary expansion section of the power machine at the time of continuous and rapid increase in the volume of its expansion segments. This will lead to the fact that the working mixture due to instant pressure loss and compression ratio in the rapidly expanding volume of expansion segments will be difficult to ignite and burn poorly (not completely), because even the initial stage of combustion will have to occur on the line of powerful expansion of the volume of the combustion chamber -extensions. " In conventional piston engines, to combat the difficulties of ignition and combustion of a compressed working mixture, an “early ignition” is used in the “expansion-working stroke” cycle, when the mixture is ignited by a spark at the final stage of the compression cycle until the Upper Dead Point is reached in the compression cycle. In the design of the closest analogue of such a possibility of "early ignition" it is not possible according to the purely constructive layout and dynamic scheme of the motor, therefore, this drawback may turn out to be completely insurmountable in the way of creating a really working motor according to this scheme;
- in this design, a large (largely insurmountable) difficulty for real gas exchange processes is the large length of the bypass channel of the compressed working mixture from the compression segment of the compressor rotor section to the expansion segment of the power rotor section. With this arrangement of the indicated engine, a short bypass channel cannot be made. According to preliminary calculations, the volume of such a channel turns out to be up to 2/3 of the volume of the compression segment, that is, the main process of expansion of the compressed Working Mixture will occur not in the expansion segment of the power rotor section, but in the channel — the bypass gas duct. Consequently, in the expansion segment of the power rotor section, the Working Mixture will turn out to be under low pressure and all the more badly ignite and burn on the speed expansion line. An attempt to reduce the loss of expansion of volume in the bypass channel by reducing its diameter will result in large gas-dynamic losses of friction of gases in a narrow and long channel with the same noticeable loss of pressure of the compressed charge of the Working Mixture in this channel during bypass;
- in this design, the elements that produce the process of locking and unlocking the volumes of the compression segments of the compressor rotor section and the expansion segments of the power rotor section are grooves - “streams” on the end surfaces of the rotors of both rotor sections. This decision is extremely unsuccessful, because with a short length of these grooves - “streams” they will not be able to provide gas exchange processes along the entire length of the stroke of the rotor blades in segments of the power rotor section, which will drastically impair the thermodynamic efficiency of the engine. And with a significant length of such grooves - “streams”, which will ensure full-fledged gas exchange processes, the large length of these grooves - “streams” will turn out to be a significant “dead volume”, in which compressed gases will be useless to expand when transferred from one rotor section to another lose their compression ratio;
- pressure loss when transferring a compressed Working Mixture from one rotor section to another in two imperfectly designed engine elements - the closest analogue:
A) in long channels - gas ducts arranged in the partition between the rotor sections;
B) in long grooves - “streams” located on the end surfaces of rotors;
will lead to the fact that these two elements of the bypass path, connecting into one channel of large length and significant volume, will be up to 80% of the volume of the compression segment. Consequently, the expansion of the compressed Working Mixture in the dead space of this channel will “eat up” the lion's share of the compression ratio and compression pressure. For this reason, the charge of the compressed Working Mixture in the expansion sector, where it is to be ignited, will be provided with minimal excess pressure, and this makes it practically impossible to ignite it on the line of rapid expansion and further burning;
- in this design, the rotors are arranged with three blades, and the locking drums in the rotor sections are arranged in two, and each locking drum has two through recesses where the rotor blades will pass. It follows that the lateral cylindrical surfaces of the rotors and locking drums must move with different linear speeds and friction - sliding will occur on the line of their contact, which will require active lubrication of these surfaces;
- in this design, the rotors are arranged with three blades, and the locking drums in the rotor sections are arranged in two, and each locking drum has two through recesses where the rotor blades will pass. It follows that during the rotation of the rotors between their blades at certain points in time “dead zones” will form when the high pressure combustion gases are trapped between two adjacent rotor blades (in the power rotor section) and will not produce useful expansion work. The same can be said about the compressor rotor section: there in the working processes there will be a period for each revolution when the working mixture will be sandwiched between adjacent rotor blades and compression will not work on it. The presence of such zones for each rotation of the shaft in both rotor sections will significantly reduce the efficiency considered by the closest analogue of the engine;
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The objective of the invention, which is implemented in this design, is to create a compact highly efficient internal combustion engine with an efficiency of more than 50%, in which the following samples of high technical achievements are connected, each of which independently is already a significant technical task:
- for the first time, the possibility of full-fledged combustion of a highly compressed Working Mixture was realized in a hermetically sealed combustion chamber separate from the expansion segment, which is locked for the combustion process for a considerable time, which allows the working fuel mixture to burn completely at increasing temperature and increasing pressure (isochoric process). The combustion chamber is closed for burning in this mode of the working mixture of about 30 degrees along the rotation path of the main shaft when the engine is executed with two locking drums;
- it becomes possible to simply and naturally integrate steam cycles into the engine’s technological cycle, which will turn the high temperature of combustion gases in the expansion segment and the high temperature of heating the walls of the combustion chamber into high-pressure water vapor;
- combining in one continuous rotational movement of several main structural elements of the engine - rotors with rotor blades located on the same working shaft, and the continuous rotational movement of the locking drums coordinated with them, at the same time many auxiliary and working cycles for one revolution of the working shaft;
- technological processes (measures):
1) - cycle "absorption of the working mixture";
2) - tact “compression of the working mixture”;
3) - cycle "combustion of the working mixture - the creation of working gases of high pressure combustion";
4) - cycle "water injection - the formation of high pressure steam";
5) - tact "expansion of the working fluid (working stroke)";
6) - cycle "exhaust gas emission";
divided in space in different technological volumes, but combined in time and implemented in different technological and structural cavities of the engine simultaneously and in parallel in time;
- when the working elements of the engine are rotated, several hermetically closed expansion chambers of the working fluid are created, progressively and continuously increasing their volume, due to which a significant stroke is carried out, which uses up to the end all the power of the overpressure of the working gases and thereby increases the thermodynamic efficiency of the working cycle, opening the exhaust window for the exhaust of working gases at a time when they already have a minimum residual pressure and a minimum excess temperature. This way the high thermodynamic efficiency of the engine, noiselessness and purity of the exhaust are realized;
- implemented the ability to make the volume of the segments of the expansion of the working fluid is much larger (in different values) than the volume of the compression segments;
- there is the possibility of quantitative control of engine revolutions (standard carburetor throttle control) while ensuring a high coefficient of excess air (as in a compression ignition engine — diesel);
- due to the above-described features, it becomes possible to build a simple but highly efficient engine with preliminary mixture formation in a standard carburetor without the use of complex and expensive additional modern mixture formation devices - fuel injection nozzles, high-pressure gas pumps and forced air pressures into cylinders;
- there are no reciprocating movements and alternating loads in the kinematic scheme, the transfer of power from the working fluid to the main shaft occurs only due to rotational movements carried out translationally and continuously;
- high torque develops with a constant arm of force throughout the entire engine operating cycle, which is little dependent on engine speed;
- achieved high simplicity of design and significant minimization of the kinematic scheme of the engine, which is the key to strong reliability and possible low prices with high technical and economic indicators and attractive consumer properties.
The problem of the invention is solved through the design features of the proposed device: INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE: 6-stroke rotary engine with rotating shut-off elements, separate rotor sections for different purposes, combustion chambers of constant volume located in the working rotors, contains a fixed hollow cylindrical body, consisting of three technological blocks. That is, the case is divided by partitions into three technological volumetric cavities - rotor sections. In each of the three rotor sections, a cylindrical rotor with rotor blades is located, and all engine rotors are rigidly mounted on one shaft. Also, in each rotor section, locking drums are placed according to the number of working rotor blades. Also on the body is arranged a gear drive in the movement of the locking drums.
A feature of the invention is the mutual arrangement of the rotor sections of the engine: two power rotor sections (expansion-release sections) with their working rotors, in which combustion chambers are arranged, and a compressor rotor section (inlet-compression section) with its rotor, with this compressor rotor section is placed between the power rotor sections. It is also of significant importance for obtaining a high result of the locations of the inlet, outlet windows and bypass channels for working gases, which make it possible to produce several cycles (homogeneous technological processes) of “intake”, “compression”, “combustion”, “expansion” in all technological segments of the engine and “release” in concert and simultaneously with an extremely short length of these channels. All these structural elements in a single space-layout complex create mutually agreed upon working cycles and periodically disconnected - lockable, airtight and simultaneously reducing or increasing their volume chambers (segments) of the “inlet”, “compression”, “expansion” and “release”, at the right moments connected to the combustion chambers.
For the first time, a design was implemented that allows, separately at the places of implementation, but at the same time, to implement several parallel sequences of 6 cycles of the full internal combustion engine cycle with compression and transferring the high temperature of the combustion gases of the Working Mixture into useful work by including steam cycles in this cycle.
The technical result of the application of such engineering solutions is a significant simplification of the kinematics and design of the internal combustion engine, obtaining a significant value of the rotational speed of the working shaft, as well as a high and stable torque during all cycles of the working cycle, improved throttle response and increased engine power, a significant increase in efficiency and environmental cleanliness, engine exceeding the efficiency value of 50%. This solution also allows you to create an internal combustion engine that does not have in its design a single part that would perform reciprocating movements and experience inertial alternating loads.
Thus, the INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE: 6-stroke rotary engine with rotating shut-off elements, separate rotor sections for different purposes, combustion chambers of constant volume located in the working rotors, containing several hollow rotor sections of two types of technological purpose in the housing: compressor rotor section and power a rotor section, in each of which a cylindrical rotor equipped with blades is arranged to rotate, having a circumference of the inner surface the housings are symmetrically placed cylindrical hollow sockets where the locking drums are rotatable, in which the volumetric relative position of the outer cylindrical surface of the rotor and the annular inner surface of the housing, as well as the surfaces of the rotor blades and the surfaces of the locking drums forms working chambers - “expansion” segments and “compression” segments capable of changing their volume, and having a gear drive from the main shaft to the shafts of the locking drums through gears, each rotor section is equipped with It is provided with gas exchange windows, characterized in that in the engine casing there are two power rotor sections for one compressor rotor section, and the compressor rotor section is located between two power rotor sections so that one end surface of each of the compressor sections adjoins each of the two end surfaces two power rotor sections, while combustion chambers are arranged in the rotors of the power rotor sections that can rotate.
The rotors and their locking drums, which are tightly in contact with each other by cylindrical surfaces, are able to rotate consistently in opposite directions in such a way that their cylindrical surfaces can move with the same linear speed, that is, these surfaces, when possible, move in contact with each other in the rolling mode without slipping and friction relative to each other, while the locking drums in diameter have a size relative to the diameter of the cylindrical surface of the rotors in so many times less, how many times the number of passage openings in the locking drums is less than the number of blades on the rotor.
Executed with two power rotor sections and one compressor, when each of the rotors is equipped with two blades, and two combustion chambers are arranged in the rotors of the power rotor sections, the proposed engine performs 8 working cycles (8 expansion strokes - 4 on the combustion gases of the Working Mix and 4 water vapor) per 1 revolution of the main shaft, while a 4-stroke single-cylinder piston engine is only 0.25 working cycles per full revolution of its crankshaft, and a Wankel single-cylinder engine is 0.75 cycles of useful work per revolution of the eccentric shaft.
For the first time, high-performance steam cycles, which will translate the high temperature of the combustion gases and the heating temperature of the walls of the combustion chambers into high-pressure steam, can be “integrated” into the ICE work cycle.
Due to these design features, to increase power and torque, the engine does not need to have high speeds of the main shaft, although there are no restrictions to increase its speed in the structure and you can expect prototypes to reach speed parameters close to gas turbines such as aircraft engines - up to 20 thousand revolutions per minute, but in contrast to gas turbines with high torque parameters, even at low revs and at low fuel consumption.
The method of converting the pressure of the working gases into the movement of the working shaft is a simple rotational movement, which eliminates the losses characteristic of a piston engine with its crank mechanism. The torque of the proposed design is noticeably greater than that of a four-cylinder piston or Wankel engine, because the radius of the acting shoulder of the application of force to the rotor blade is easily made in this design much larger than the shoulder of the application of force in the crank (which during its operation constantly changes from zero to maximum and vice versa) in the piston engine or the eccentricity of the eccentric shaft in the Wankel rotary engine. At the same time, several blades symmetrically spaced across the diameter of the rotor of the blades, which are located at the given moment in the arc-shaped sectors of “expansion - release”, simultaneously make a working stroke.
When designing an engine with two rotor blades, the stroke length of each blade compared to a traditional piston motor, which has a piston diameter close to the surface of the piston blade (the stroke length of the piston engine is approximately equal to the diameter of the piston) will be 6 times larger. With this design of the invention, it becomes possible to turn almost all the pressure energy of hot gases into the useful work of the movement of the blades in the arcuate sectors of the "expansion-release" with a constant rotation of the rotor. In this case, the temperature and pressure of the gases discharged from the expansion chamber (segment) should be minimally excessive.
The engine is well balanced - all moving engine parts make extremely simple rotational movements. While the 4-cylinder 4-stroke piston engine has about 40 parts with reciprocating movements, which gives significant vibration to such motors.
The engine is compact, has a simple design and a small number of parts, which makes it possible to achieve higher operating parameters compared to the existing motors of various types.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION
Realization of the purpose of the claimed engine is possible through innovative features of its design. The drawings accompanying this section of the patent application show an engine design with three rotor sections: two power sections (expansion-output sections) and one compressor (inlet-compression section) that is placed between two power rotor sections. Moreover, each rotor of the rotor sections is equipped with two working blades, two locking drums are arranged in each rotor section, and two combustion chambers are made in the rotors of the power rotor sections.
A 6-stroke rotary engine with rotating locking elements, separate rotor sections for different purposes, combustion chambers of constant volume located in the working rotors (figure 1), contains an outer casing, which consists of three separate rotor sections: two power sections (sections "expansion - release ") - (elements 1-1 and 1-2) and one compressor section (section" intake-compression ") - (element 2). The rotor sections are separated by partitions (element 3) and laterally limited by end caps (element 4). Each rotor section contains a working rotor (element 5) and locking drums (element 6). The rotors of all rotor sections are located on one main motor shaft (not shown in the drawing), while the rotors of the working rotor sections contain combustion chambers (element 7). In the housing, on one of the side covers, a gearbox for driving all the locking drums (not shown in the drawing) is arranged and the locking drums are located on two common shafts of 3 pieces.
In the engine housing, windows for supplying the working mixture (element 8), exhaust windows (element 9) for exhausting the exhaust gases were made, and in the partitions between the rotor sections windows for bypassing the compressed working mixture (element 10) were made, as well as channels - grooves for exhausting from the chambers combustion of high pressure working fluid (element 11). In the end caps, there are nests for spark plugs (element 12) and windows for water injection (element 13).
The rotors are a cylindrical part rigidly connected to the main shaft of the engine, at equal angular distances along which the blades are arranged - protruding segments (they end against the inner surface of the housing), which play the role of working surfaces, these are analogues of gas turbine blades (or piston pistons motor), and cause the rotor to move, perceiving the pressure of the working gases. The locking drums are cylindrical parts, on the side surface of which are made recesses - cavities for transmission during rotation of the working rotor blades. The cylindrical surface of the rotor and the locking drums, by selecting the diameters and frequency of rotation without friction, run around each other, and the diameters of the drums are made multiple times less than the diameter of the rotor.
The geometry of the internal working space of the engine, where the main technological processes take place sequentially and cyclically, is an annular cavity. It is arranged so that the locking drums that come into contact with the outer cylindrical surface of the rotor with their lateral cylindrical surfaces divide this circular, annular cavity (figure 2) into equal working sectors (element 14), in which the rotor blades can move in an arched volume of each . In turn, with this movement in the arcuate sectors, the rotor blades divide each of these working sectors into two segments of variable volume - into cameras (figure 3): the expansion segment (element 15) and the compression segment (element 16). In the power rotor sections (expansion-output sections), the working sectors will be divided into expansion segments and output segments, and in the compressor rotor section (inlet-compression sections), the working sectors will be divided into intake segments and compression segments.
It is in this single element-technological complex of the engine from all the arched sectors of the "intake - compression" of the compressor rotor section, the combustion chambers and the arched sectors of the "expansion - discharge" of the power rotor sections, that all the technological processes occur simultaneously in space and simultaneously and continuously in time (cycles) ) engine.
When a working mixture is ignited by a spark from electric candles in each combustion chamber, it burns for a while in the locked chambers, and then, due to the movement of the combustion chambers to a different position when the rotors of the power sections of the combustion chamber rotate, they are connected to the channels - bypasses of the working gas bypasses to the expansion segments of the power rotary sections and into these segments begin to be emitted hot working gases of high pressure. From this, high pressure arises in the arcuate cavities of the expansion segments. Since the axis of the locking drums and the housing cannot move relative to each other, only the working elements of the rotors of the power sections — their blades — can shift from the pressure of the gases, thereby turning this pressure of the hot combustion gases into rotation of the rotors. Thus, several successive processes of “expansion - output” take place in volumes of arched working sectors. Simultaneously with this process, the rotor of the compressor section (“inlet - compression” section) is driven from the main shaft, and fresh charge of the Working Mixture is compressed into the intake segments of this rotor section, which are then compressed through the bypass channels of the compressed Working Mixture fall into the combustion chambers of power rotor sections.
The sequence of rotational duty cycles of the engine is as follows. On the example of a motor (figure 1), which has three rotor sections: one compressor section (element 2) (inlet-compression section) and two power sections (expansion-outlet sections): power section A (element 1-1 ) and power section B (element 1-2). Each rotor section has a two-bladed rotor (element 5) and two locking drums (element 6) in each rotor section, the rotors of the power rotor sections have two combustion chambers (element 7), where the “combustion” cycles will take place, as well as the vaporization cycles, those. technological processes for creating a high-pressure working fluid of 2 types: either gases from the combustion of the working mixture from fuel vapor and air, or steam from the evaporation of water from contact with the hot walls of the combustion chamber.
Starting position - the compression stroke in both compression segments of the compressor section has just ended (figure 4.1), and at the same time the process of transferring the compressed working mixture to an even combustion chamber (even - as the number of sequential and cyclic expansion processes in the direction of rotation of the rotors is counted) rotary section A (figure 4.2) and into the odd combustion chamber of the rotor section B (figure 4.3). Further, the combustion chambers, due to the rotation of the rotors of the power rotor sections, have moved so that they are disconnected from the bypass channels of the compressed Working Mixture and the combustion chambers are at that moment locked. At this point, the combustion chambers move to the nests of the spark plugs, and they ignite the compressed Working Mixture. The working mixture begins to burn in a locked volume.
At the same time, the odd combustion chamber (odd - as the number of sequential and cyclic expansion processes in the direction of rotation of the rotors is counted) of the power rotor in section A and the even combustion chamber of the power rotor in section B, have just completed the working stroke in their working sectors , suitable for nests with nozzles for water injection. Nozzles inject water into the locked space of the combustion chambers, which, falling on the hot walls of the combustion chambers in the rotors, as well as in contact with the residual hot gases from the previous combustion cycle, instantly turns into steam.
The rotors of all sections continue their rotation at about 30 degrees of angular distance - this time all 4 combustion chambers remain tightly closed and pressure continues to build up in them and a working fluid is created more and more. In two combustion chambers - these will be the hot gases of the working mixture, and the other two combustion chambers are water vapor from the contact of water with the hot walls of the combustion chambers. In the first part of this phase, the blades of all rotors pass through the openings of all the locking drums, and the annular working space of all sectors of the rotor sections is not hermetically divided into separate chambers - technological segments.
With further rotation of the main shaft with rotors, the working sectors of all rotor sections are locked with locking drums, and each of them, due to the movement of the blades, is divided into two technological segments - an increasing and decreasing volume. At this moment, finely sprayed water with air is fed into the expanding expansion segments through special channels, which fills these segments. With further movement of the blades of the power rotor sections in front of themselves (in the direction of rotation of the rotors) - in the exhaust segment, the combustion products of the same expansion stroke are pushed out of the engine block, and bypass channels - grooves that connect the chamber volumes to this segment are opened behind the blades combustion.
As a result of this position and in this position, from the even combustion chamber of the power rotor section A (Figure 5.2) and from the odd combustion chamber of the power rotor section B (Figure 5.3), the gases from the combustion of the Working Mixture begin to be ejected into the corresponding expansion segments under high pressure, and from the odd combustion chamber of the power rotor section A and the even combustion chamber of the power rotor section B in the corresponding expansion segments begins to be ejected under high pressure steam obtained from the cooling of these combustion chambers. At the same time, these flows of a high temperature working fluid — especially hot gases from the combustion of the Working Mixture — evaporate water previously injected into the expansion segments. From the instantaneous transition to the vapor state of a certain amount of water, the pressure in the expansion segments increases significantly, and the temperature of the gases in these sectors decreases significantly.
At the same time, the rotation of the rotor and the locking drums in the compressor rotor section (figure 5.1) leads to the separation of the working arcuate sectors of this section into segments of the "inlet" and "compression". At the same time, the “inlet” cycles of the fresh mixture of the Working Mixture simultaneously begin behind the rotor blade (in the direction of rotation of the rotor), and in front of the blade, to the beginning of the “compression” cycle of the Working Mixture charge that was introduced into this sector in the previous cycle.
In the process of further rotation of the main shaft of the engine with all three rotors, the processes that began in the previous phase are further carried out, as a result of which 4 expansion cycles occur simultaneously in two power rotor sections - two gas expansion cycles from the combustion of the Working Mixture and two expansion cycles from the formation steam when cooling the combustion chambers, i.e. all 4 combustion chambers work simultaneously. Moreover, in the expansion segments, an increase in the pressure force of the working fluid and a decrease in its temperature occurs due to the conversion of the internal energy of the high temperature of the working fluid discharged from the combustion chambers to the vapor pressure during evaporation of water injected into the expansion segments. At the same time, in the technological segments of the decreasing volume in front of the rotor blades (in the direction of their rotation) of the power rotor sections, the exhaust gases that were working in the previous expansion strokes are released. At the same time, simultaneous implementation in the compressor rotary section of the strokes of the intake of a fresh charge of the Working Mixture and compression of the previously received charge of the Working Mixture (figures 6.1, 6.2, 6.3).
At the end of the expansion stroke, the rotor blades of the power rotor sections reach the exhaust windows to the atmosphere (figure 7.2) and (figure 7.3). In this position, the volume of the expansion segment becomes maximum, and the volume of the segment of output becomes minimal, and at the same time, the cycle of expansion goes into the cycle of production, and the previous cycle of production ends. In this position, the combustion chambers are connected through the channels of the bypass of the working fluid into the expansion segments and through these expansion segments themselves with the release windows from them into the atmosphere. In this case, the pressure in the combustion chambers becomes equal to atmospheric. In the same position, the rotor blades of the compressor rotor section (Figure 7.1) complete the compression and intake strokes, while the movement of such a rotor at the moment opens the bypass windows of the compressed Working Mixture into the power rotor sections, namely their combustion chambers, which are already already took the necessary position by turning their rotors.
Immediately after the pressure in the combustion chambers is equalized, the combustion chambers move with the rotation of the rotors to the position when they lose contact with the expansion segments of the power rotor sections. Then the moving combustion chambers are connected:
- the odd combustion chamber of the rotor section A and the even combustion chamber of the rotor section B (which previously performed a steam cycle) are connected to the compression segments of the compressor rotor section, from which the charge of the compressed Working Mixture begins to be crushed in them;
- the even combustion chamber of the rotor section A and the odd combustion chamber of the rotor section B (which previously performed the charge mixture of the Working Mix and were very hot) are connected to the water injection nozzles.
After this, the chambers move further, disconnect from the intake and injection windows, after which the odd combustion chamber of the rotor section A and the even combustion chamber of the rotor section B are connected to the nests of the spark plugs and they ignite the charge of the Working Mixture in these chambers. After that, in the locked combustion chambers there is a period when all the combustion chambers remain locked. Moreover, in two combustion chambers, the combustion process takes place in a closed volume of the charge of the Working Mixture, and in the other two combustion chambers, steam is formed with simultaneous cooling of the walls of the combustion chambers. Both of these processes lead to the creation of a gaseous working fluid of high pressure of 2 types:
- hot gases from the combustion of the Working Mixture of fuel vapor and air;
- steam from the evaporation of water in contact with the red-hot walls of the combustion chamber and the remnants of hot gases in this chamber.
Then, due to the rotation of the rotors, the combustion chambers move to the places where they are connected to the channels — grooves for bypassing the high-pressure working fluid into the technological expansion segments of the working fluid.
Thus, all the cycles (technological processes) of a given engine begin to be repeated again and again in one looped, repeating cycle, realizing in a single and continuous process all consecutive cycles (technological processes) of a 6-stroke internal combustion engine.
Due to the arrangement of the inlet, outlet and bypass windows of gas exchange, as well as the water supply windows, as well as the relative positioning of the rotor blades of different rotor sections, the implementation scheme of the operating cycles (technological processes) of the engine is formed so that in the power rotor sections one working sector all the time operates in the expansion cycle of steam from cooling the combustion chambers, and the other working sector - in the expansion cycle of gases from the combustion of the Working Mixture. In this case, the combustion chambers moving in a circle in rotating rotors inside the power rotor sections, each time they experience alternating processes sequentially and continuously:
- then they get inside a fresh charge of a compressed Working Mixture from the compressor rotor section, with its combustion and the subsequent release of combustion products;
- they get a portion of water inside to cool the heated walls with the simultaneous formation of steam and its further release.
Thus, in the engine of this constructive layout, most of the time it operates is simultaneously 4 expansion strokes, 4 exhaust strokes, 2 compression strokes and 2 intake strokes.
The expansion stroke in this structural arrangement of the engine continues for a considerable distance and occupies an angular value of almost 150 degrees in each working sector from a value of 180 degrees of its entire length in the design shown in the drawing. Those. the total working stroke is 150 degrees out of 180 degrees of the entire angular length of movement of the working body in each of the 4 arcuate sectors or 300 degrees per full revolution of the shaft, which is 84% of the angular distance of a full revolution of the shaft, and this is with a constant torque arm. (In contrast to this value, 25% in 4-stroke and 50% in 2-stroke reciprocating engines - and this is an unstable amount of torque with all the time.) Depending on the technical tasks and the geometry of a particular layout-dimensional scheme, the angular value and linear the length of the working cycle can be slightly increased.
In addition to the advantages of the rotary engine of the proposed design, there is another distinct advantage over piston engines - on the same stroke line, several working bodies (rotor blades) simultaneously carry out the working movement in one working volume, which is impossible in principle in a piston motor. During the implementation of the described process on the symmetrically spaced sides of the annular volume of the working space between the surfaces of the rotor of the power sections and the housing, the working cycles are performed by two working blades of the rotor. Those. the pressure of the working fluid during the working cycle is performed simultaneously on two working blades.
And such a continuous rotation with an almost constant removal of power from the expanding gases of a working fluid of 2 types (with a torque with a constant arm of force) throughout the ring of the working volume of the rotor power sections can go on and on. Thus, for one revolution of the rotors of two power rotor sections and the main shaft of the engine, each working blade will perform 2 working cycles, and a total of 4 working rotor blades in two power sections will make 8 working cycles in one revolution of the shaft. This value of 8 working cycles turns out to be very large against (if we take one piston scheme for traditional internal combustion engines) 0.25 working cycle for a 4-stroke engine and 0.5 working cycle for a 2-stroke single-cylinder piston motor per revolution of the working shaft. For this reason, from this design, one should expect a multiple increase in power with the same volume of working expansion chambers as traditional piston motors. And if you make the motor of the proposed design according to the example of 2- or 4-cylinder piston engines consisting of several pieces of blocks of triple complexes of rotor sections, then the number of working cycles will increase in arithmetic progression - 16 for a 2-block layout, etc.
In addition, with large rotor diameters, it is possible to manufacture a rotor with 4 or even more blades, and the motor housing, respectively, with 4 or more locking drums. These types of engines will have many times more power, since an engine with 4 rotor blades on the rotor of one rotor power section will produce 32 working cycles in two power sections per shaft revolution.
At the same time, the feature of the engine device, in which the cycles (technological processes) of compression of the working mixture and the expansion of the working fluid are spaced into different technological cavities, makes it possible to easily make the expansion and compression cycles different in stroke length and different in technological volume for fine-tuning the motor operation parameters which is almost impossible to implement in traditional piston ICEs. The proposed arrangement also allows controlling the parameters of the compression stroke, which makes it possible to control the power-dynamic properties of the engine, minimizes the design complexity and removes high requirements for fuel quality.
In addition to the suction of the working combustible mixture through the carburetor into the “intake-compression” sector, it is possible to fill this sector only with clean air with its subsequent strong compression in the compression technological segment with the further operation of the engine as a diesel engine — with fuel injection directly into the volume of the combustion chamber, which is already filled with highly compressed and hot air from this.
The main feature of the invention is the relative position of the rotor sections for different purposes and the coordinated rotational movements of the working rotor blades of the power rotor sections in their cavities, the compressor rotor blades of the compressor section in its cavity, the complex surfaces of the shuttle drums (each located in its own slot), the combustion chamber cavities in the power rotors rotor sections, as well as the location of the inlet, bypass and exhaust windows, which in the complex of joint work creates the possibility of a coordinated implementation of the same but many processes - "inlet" cycles, "contraction", "burning", "pair formation", "expansion" and "release". It is by using this design that it is possible to organize a full work cycle of 8 cycles on a rotational-ring principle for one revolution of the main shaft for the design layout option for this engine with two power rotor sections, one compressor rotor section, two blades of all rotors, indicated on the attached drawing, and the same number of locking drums in each rotor section, and four combustion chambers in two rotors of the power rotor sections.

Claims (2)

1. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE: 6-stroke rotary engine with rotating locking elements, separate rotor sections for different purposes, combustion chambers of constant volume located in the working rotors, containing several hollow rotor sections of two types of technological purpose in the housing: compressor rotor section and power section a rotor section, in each of which a cylindrical rotor equipped with blades is arranged to rotate, having around the circumference of the inner surface of the casing metrically placed cylindrical hollow nests where rotary locking drums are installed, in which the volumetric relative position of the outer cylindrical surface of the rotor and the annular inner surface of the housing, as well as the surfaces of the rotor blades and the surfaces of the locking drums forms working chambers - segments of the "expansion" and segments of the "compression", able to change their volume, and having a gear drive from the main shaft to the shafts of the locking drums through gears, each rotor section is equipped with windows for gas exchange,
characterized in that in the engine casing there are two power rotor sections for one compressor rotor section, and the compressor rotor section is placed between two power rotor sections so that one end surface of each of the two power rotor sections is adjacent to each of the two end surfaces of the compressor section, at the same time, combustion chambers are arranged in rotors of power rotor sections that can rotate.
2. The engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the rotors and their locking drums, which are in close contact with each other by cylindrical surfaces, are able to rotate in opposite directions in such a way that their cylindrical surfaces can move with the same linear speed, that is, these surfaces when it is possible, the movements are in contact with each other in the running mode without slipping and friction with respect to each other, while the locking drums have a diameter in relation to the diameter ilindricheskoy rotor surface in much less time, how many times the number of throughput openings in the closing drums less than the number of blades on the rotor.
RU2011146256/06A 2011-11-16 2011-11-16 Internal combustion engine: six-stroke rotary engine with spinning gates, separate rotor different-purpose sections, invariable volume combustion chambers arranged in working rotors RU2528796C2 (en)

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PCT/RU2012/001102 WO2013077776A2 (en) 2011-11-16 2012-12-24 Six-stroke rotary engine and operating method thereof

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2644644C1 (en) * 2016-09-01 2018-02-13 Виктор Альбертович Пилюш Steam-powered diesel
RU202524U1 (en) * 2020-06-10 2021-02-20 федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Белгородский государственный технологический университет им. В.Г. Шухова" Rotary vane internal combustion engine
RU2743607C1 (en) * 2020-06-10 2021-02-20 федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Белгородский государственный технологический университет им. В.Г. Шухова" Rotary-blade internal combustion engine
RU2745153C1 (en) * 2020-09-07 2021-03-22 Сергей Федорович Степанов Steam rotor power generating plant

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US3699930A (en) * 1971-11-08 1972-10-24 Earl G Bunce Rotary internal combustion engine
US4476826A (en) * 1982-09-29 1984-10-16 William R. And Zella B. Stephens Trust Vane type rotary internal combustion engine with transfer valve in rotor
RU2234613C2 (en) * 2002-05-18 2004-08-20 Колотилин Юрий Михайлович Method of using cooling water as working medium in rotor engine and design of rotor engine
RU2373408C2 (en) * 2007-10-08 2009-11-20 Олег Аполлосович Айзуппе Method of operating thermal engine and its design

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US1649091A (en) * 1922-08-02 1927-11-15 Zimmer Meade Lafayette Rotary internal-combustion engine
US3699930A (en) * 1971-11-08 1972-10-24 Earl G Bunce Rotary internal combustion engine
US4476826A (en) * 1982-09-29 1984-10-16 William R. And Zella B. Stephens Trust Vane type rotary internal combustion engine with transfer valve in rotor
RU2234613C2 (en) * 2002-05-18 2004-08-20 Колотилин Юрий Михайлович Method of using cooling water as working medium in rotor engine and design of rotor engine
RU2373408C2 (en) * 2007-10-08 2009-11-20 Олег Аполлосович Айзуппе Method of operating thermal engine and its design

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2644644C1 (en) * 2016-09-01 2018-02-13 Виктор Альбертович Пилюш Steam-powered diesel
RU202524U1 (en) * 2020-06-10 2021-02-20 федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Белгородский государственный технологический университет им. В.Г. Шухова" Rotary vane internal combustion engine
RU2743607C1 (en) * 2020-06-10 2021-02-20 федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Белгородский государственный технологический университет им. В.Г. Шухова" Rotary-blade internal combustion engine
RU2745153C1 (en) * 2020-09-07 2021-03-22 Сергей Федорович Степанов Steam rotor power generating plant

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