RU2524399C1 - Method of detecting small-size mobile objects - Google Patents

Method of detecting small-size mobile objects Download PDF

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RU2524399C1
RU2524399C1 RU2013121920/07A RU2013121920A RU2524399C1 RU 2524399 C1 RU2524399 C1 RU 2524399C1 RU 2013121920/07 A RU2013121920/07 A RU 2013121920/07A RU 2013121920 A RU2013121920 A RU 2013121920A RU 2524399 C1 RU2524399 C1 RU 2524399C1
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signals
bistatic
scattered
radio signals
signal
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Александр Александрович Перетятько
Сергей Николаевич Виноградов
Николай Григорьевич Пархоменко
Валерий Николаевич Шевченко
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Открытое акционерное общество "Конструкторское бюро по радиоконтролю систем управления, навигации и связи" (ОАО "КБ "Связь")
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Abstract

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.
SUBSTANCE: high detection probability is achieved by selecting transmitters that are superimposed in space and radiate at multiple frequencies of narrow-band and wide-band radio signals, and applying a new set of operations for combined processing of forward and object-scattered radio signals of the selected transmitters.
EFFECT: high probability of detecting small-size mobile objects.
1 dwg

Description

The invention relates to radio engineering and can be used in monitoring systems of land, sea and air space using direct and scattered objects of radio signals emitted by many uncontrolled and monitored transmitters of electronic systems for various purposes.

Achieving high detection efficiency, localization and identification of land, sea and air objects is limited by significant a priori uncertainty in size, spatial orientation, reflecting properties and parameters of the movement of objects, as well as the imperfection of known methods for detecting and tracking moving objects.

The technology of secretive detection and tracking of moving objects using natural radio illumination of targets created at a variety of frequencies by radio emissions from transmitters of various purposes: broadcast (VHF FM broadcasting, digital television), information (communication) and measurement (control, navigation), have not yet received sufficient distribution, despite the fact that it can significantly increase the stealth and effectiveness of the detection of spatial localization and identification of ever-increasing numbers and a wide class of small moving objects.

A known method for detecting small moving objects [1], which consists in selecting a transmitter emitting a spread spectrum radio signal, synchronously receiving an array of multipath radio signals including the direct radio signal of the transmitter and the radio signals of this transmitter scattered from objects, synchronously converting the ensemble of radio signals received by the antennas into digital signals, direct and compressed scattered signals are formed from digital signals, the selected direct and scattered signals are compared and determined in time delays, Doppler shifts and directions of arrival of scattered signals, according to time delays, Doppler shifts and directions of arrival, detect and spatial localize moving objects.

This method does not contain coherent interference suppression in the form of a direct radio signal from the transmitter and, as a result, provides effective detection of only closely spaced and intensely reflecting objects.

More effective is the method of detecting small moving objects [2], free from this drawback and selected as a prototype.

According to this method:

use direct and scattered by mobile objects radio signals emitted by transmitters of various electronic systems with continuous linear frequency-modulated radio signals,

periodically, asynchronously and synchronously with the irradiating signal, multi-beam radio signals are received at a plurality of search frequencies, including direct and scattered by the objects radio signals of the selected transmitter,

the received radio signals are converted to digital signals,

From digital signals by means of electronic compensation of incoherent and coherent interference, useful signals scattered by moving objects are distinguished by which objects are detected and spatially localized.

The prototype method through the selection of transmitters emitting linear frequency-modulated radio signals (LFM), and the use of electronic compensation of a wide class of coherent and incoherent interference provides a high probability of detection and accuracy of spatial localization of large moving objects.

However, the effectiveness of the prototype method when detecting small moving objects is significantly reduced.

There are several reasons for this. The radio visibility of moving objects depends on the ratio of the characteristic dimensions of the object L to the wavelength of the light source λ and at 2 L λ < < one

Figure 00000001
sharply reduced. In this regard, when detecting small-sized moving objects (typical sizes of small-sized moving objects are 0.5-5 m), the use of high-frequency range illumination sources (2-30 MHz, wavelength 10-150 m) is not effective and it is necessary to use sources, operating in higher frequency VHF-UHF bands (30-3000 MHz, wavelength 0.1-10 m). However, unlike the HF frequency range, in which, irrespective of the time of the day, a lot of LFM transmitters operate that diagnose the ionospheric propagation channel of radio waves, in the VHF-UHF ranges of LFM transmitters are used not so widely and, as a rule, for a short time. In this regard, the possibility of selection and application for highlighting small-sized targets of LFM transmitters is significantly limited and, as a result, the probability of detecting small-sized objects using the prototype method is extremely low.

Thus, the disadvantage of the prototype method is the low probability of detecting small moving objects.

The technical result of the invention is to increase the likelihood of detecting small moving objects.

An increase in the probability of detection is achieved through the choice of transmitters that are combined in space and emit narrow-band and wide-band radio signals at a variety of frequencies, as well as the use of new operations for the combined processing of direct and scattered objects of radio signals selected by transmitters.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that in the method for detecting small moving objects, which consists in the use of direct and scattered by moving objects radio signals emitted by transmitters of electronic systems for various purposes, according to the invention, select transmitters combined in space and emitting narrow-band and broadband at a variety of frequencies radio signals synchronously receive multipath signals, including direct and scattered radio signals, synchronously on multiple search frequencies the received radio signals are converted to digital signals, narrow-band and wide-band reference and reconnaissance signals are generated and stored from digital signals for given azimuth-elevation directions of reception, for each azimuth-elevation direction of reception, the reference and reconnaissance signal received at each frequency of narrow-band radio signals is converted into a bist-dependent signal range and bistatic speed complex two-dimensional cross-correlation function (DFVK), averaged over the frequency of the complex modules DFVK, determine the number of scattered signals from the maxima of the averaged DFVK and fix the values of the bistatic range and bistatic speed of each scattered signal, convert the reference and reconnaissance signals received at each frequency of the broadband radio signals into the bistatic range of the corresponding received value of the scattered signal and a complex function depending on the bistatic range cross-correlation (OFVK), averaged over the frequency modules of complex OFVK, determined by the maximum m averaged OFVK bistatic distance corrected value of the scattered signal from the values of bistatic speeds, the bistatic range and the adjusted value approach elevation directions azimuthally scattered signal receiving each operate detection and spatial localization of moving objects.

The proposed method is based on the fact that narrow-band radio and broadband broadcasting transmitters are overwhelmingly concentrated at one point in space, for example, located on the Ostankino television tower. This ensures that the bistatic geometry of all possible transmitter-receiver pairs matches, and the possibility of performing combined two-stage signal processing operations increases the likelihood of detecting small-sized moving objects. In this case, at the first stage, due to the small computational costs required when processing narrow-band radio signals, fast detection of target signals, high-precision determination of the bistatic speed and rough (due to the narrow spectrum width of the radio signals) determination of the bistatic range of each target by processing direct and scattered radio signals are performed. To increase the signal-to-noise ratio and, consequently, increase the probability of detection and the accuracy of estimating the parameters of radio signals scattered by small-sized objects, averaging of information obtained using several narrow-band backlight transmitters is used. The values of the bistatic velocity of the objects obtained at the first stage are used at the second stage to refine their bistatic ranges. In this case, instead of the traditionally performed computationally expensive two-dimensional processing, one-dimensional processing of broadband radio signals scattered by objects is performed using the bistatic speed values obtained in the first stage as target designation. This significantly reduces the computational cost required to implement the proposed method. Averaging the obtained refined bistatic ranges, they achieve an additional increase in the accuracy of determining bistatic ranges and the probability of detection.

The operation of the method is illustrated in the drawing.

A device that implements the proposed method comprises a series-connected reception and preprocessing system 1, a radio transmitter modeling and selection system (RPD) 2, a computer system 3 and a display device 4. In turn, the reception and preprocessing system 1 includes K reception devices and 1-k processing, each of which consists of an 1-k-1 antenna array, k = one, K ¯

Figure 00000002
, 1-k-2 frequency converter, 1-k-3 analog-to-digital converter (ADC), 1-k-4 reference signal shaper, 1-k-5 reconnaissance signal shaper, 1-k-6 ADC, 1 frequency converter -k-7 and antenna array 1-k-8. Computing system 3 includes a DFVK 3-1 generator, an averaging device 3-2, a detection and localization device 3-3, an averaging device 3-4 and an OFVK 3-5 generator. In turn, the DFVK 3-1 driver contains parallel-connected computers 3-1-1 ... 3-1-K i , where K i is the number of channels for receiving narrow-band radio signals, and the OFVK 3-5 driver includes parallel-connected computers 3-5-1 ... 3-5-K j , where K j is the number of channels for receiving broadband radio signals. In this case, the system 2 is connected to the input of the device 3-3, and also has an interface for connecting to the external base of the RPD.

Subsystem 1 is an analog-to-digital device and is designed for multichannel reception on a set K = K i + K j of search frequencies and preprocessing of direct signals of transmitters and signals of these transmitters scattered by air objects. Each 1-k device is designed to receive a multipath radio signal on a separate frequency of a narrowband or broadband radio signal and to generate digital reference signals and reconnaissance signals from the received radio signal. In this case, the antenna array 1-k-1, the converter 1-k-2, the ADC 1-k-3 and the driver 1-k-4 are designed to generate reference signals, and the antenna array 1-k-8, the converter 1-k- 7, the 1-k-6 ADC and the 1-k-5 driver are designed to form reconnaissance signals.

Note that there may be cases when the radio signal of the transmitter is a priori known. In such cases, a direct transmitter signal can be generated by modeling in system 2. In this case, the reception and processing channel, including the 1-k-1 antenna array, 1-k-2 converter, 1-k-3 ADC and 1-k- driver 4, can be used to receive and generate reconnaissance signals at an additional search frequency.

Antenna arrays 1-k-1 and 1-k-8 consist of N antennas with numbers n = one, N ¯

Figure 00000003
. Each antenna is directional. The spatial configuration of the antenna array should provide measurements of the azimuthal elevation direction of arrival of the radio signals and can be of any spatial configuration: flat rectangular, flat circular or surround, in particular conformal. Frequency converters 1-k-2 and 1-k-7 are N-channel, are made with a common local oscillator and with the bandwidth of each channel, variable in accordance with the width of the spectrum of the received radio signal. A common local oscillator provides multi-channel coherent signal reception. The 1-k-3 and 1-k-6 ADCs are also N-channel and are synchronized by the reference oscillator signal (for simplicity, the reference oscillator is not shown in the diagram). If the resolution and speed of the ADC are sufficient for direct analog-to-digital conversion of input signals, then frequency-selective bandpass filters and amplifiers can be used instead of frequency converters 1-k-2 and 1-k-7. In addition, each frequency converter 1-k-2 and 1-k-7 provides the connection of one of the antennas instead of all the antennas of the array to periodically calibrate the channels using an external signal source in order to eliminate their amplitude-phase non-identity. Calibration by internal signal source is possible. In this case, a noise generator can be used, the output of which is also connected instead of all antennas for periodic calibration of channels. Shapers 1-k-4 and 1-k-5 are computing devices and are designed to form reference and reconstructed digital signals, respectively. Subsystem 2 is a computing device and is designed to identify, select, and periodically update a set of transmitters that irradiate a given region of airspace with narrow-band and wide-band radio signals, as well as generate model signals of selected transmitters. Computing system 3 is designed for two-stage processing of reference and scattered targets signals in order to detect and determine their parameters.

The device operates as follows.

In system 2, based on the data of the external base of the radio transmitters, as well as data on the detected transmitters coming from the shapers 1-k-4, using the modeling software, a set of transmitters emitting narrow-band and wide-band radio signals is identified, selected and periodically updated. During the simulation, possible coverage areas, detection probabilities, and achievable localization accuracy of moving objects of various classes are estimated, which can be provided with various placement options for transmitters relative to a detection-direction finding station. In addition, model 2 transmitter signals are generated in system 2, which can be used instead of real direct transmitter signals with a priori known synchronization parameters.

The parameters of the selected set of transmitters (number i = 1, ..., K i and the carrier frequency of the narrowband signal, number j = 1, ..., K j and the carrier frequency of the broadband signal, spectrum width, shape and power of the emitted signal, coordinates or distance and the angular position relative to the receiving point) are stored in subsystem 2, supplied to the device 3-3, and are also used to configure the converters 1-k-2 and 1-k-7. In order to simplify the control circuit of the converters are not shown.

According to the signal of system 2, each pair of frequency converters 1-k-2 and 1-k-7 is tuned to a given i-th frequency of receiving a narrowband or j-th frequency of receiving a broadband radio signal. Multipath radio signals, including direct transmit signals and scattered by the objects radio signals of these transmitters, are synchronously received by K pairs of antenna arrays 1-k-1 and 1-k-8 at a variety of search frequencies. This ensures the simultaneous reception of radio signals of the selected set K = K i + K j transmitters. The time-dependent radio signal x n (t) received by each antenna element with the number n of each antenna array 1-k-1 and 1-k-8 is filtered by frequency and transferred to a lower frequency in each converter 1-k-2 and 1 -k-7. Radio signal ensembles formed in converters 1-k-2 and 1-k-7 x n ( i ) ( t )

Figure 00000004
and x n ( j ) ( t )
Figure 00000005
synchronously converted using 1-k-3 and 1-k-6 ADCs into ensembles of digital signals x n ( i ) ( z )
Figure 00000006
and x n ( j ) ( z )
Figure 00000007
where z is the number of the time reference of the signal, which enter the shapers 1-k-4 and 1-k-5.

In each shaper 1-k-4 of digital signals x n ( i ) ( z )

Figure 00000008
and x n ( j ) ( z )
Figure 00000009
for given azimuthal elevation directions of reception, a reference signal is generated at each i-th or j-th search frequency and the parameters of the generated signal are determined. In addition, in each shaper 1-k-5 of digital signals x n ( i ) ( z )
Figure 00000008
and x n ( j ) ( z )
Figure 00000009
For given azimuth-elevation reception directions, reconnaissance signals are generated at each search frequency.

The formation of reference and reconnoitered signals can be carried out in various ways, for example, by adaptive spatial filtering of digital signals x n ( i ) ( z )

Figure 00000008
and x n ( j ) ( z )
Figure 00000009
[3, p. 7].

In this case, for example, to form the reference and reconnaissance signals at the i-th frequency of narrow-band radio signals, the following actions are performed:

- ensemble of digital signals formed in the ADC 1-k-3 x n ( i ) ( z )

Figure 00000008
in the shaper 1-k-4 is converted into a matrix digital signal x ( i ) = { x one ( i ) ( z ) , ... , x n ( i ) ( z ) , ... , x N ( i ) ( z ) }
Figure 00000010
and in the signal of the spatial correlation matrix R (i) , the signals X (i) and R (i) are stored in the shaper 1-k-4, and also fed into the shaper 1-k-5, where they are also stored;

- the signal of the correlation matrix R (i) is converted in the shaper 1-k-4 into a signal of the optimal weight vector w ( i ) = ( R ( i ) ) - one v ( i )

Figure 00000011
for the formation of the reference signal, and in the shaper 1-k-5 into the signals of the optimal weight vectors w ( i ) = ( R ( i ) ) - one v ( i )
Figure 00000012
for the formation of reconnoitered signals, where v (i) is the guidance vector determined by the azimuthal elevation direction of the radio signal reception, its frequency and lattice geometry,
Figure 00000013
- number of the azimuthal elevation direction of the reception of the reconnaissance radio signal;

- in the shaper 1-k-4 matrix digital signal X (i) is converted into a reference s ( i ) = w ( i ) H X ( i )

Figure 00000014
, and in shaper 1-k-5 - in reconnaissance s ( i ) = w ( i ) H X ( i )
Figure 00000015
signals where ( ) H
Figure 00000016
- a symbol of Hermitian conjugation.

Formed at each i-th frequency of narrow-band radio signals, reference s (i) and reconnaissance s ( i )

Figure 00000017
the signals enter the shaper 3-1 of the computing system 3, where, together with the value of the selected azimuthal elevation direction of reception of the reconnaissance radio signal, are stored. The reference s (i) and reconnaissance signals obtained in a similar way at each jth frequency of broadband radio signals s ( j )
Figure 00000018
the signals are fed to the shaper 3-5 of the computing system 3, where also, together with the value of the selected azimuth-elevation direction of reception of the reconnaissance radio signal, are stored. In addition, the reference signals and their parameters (frequency f i or f j azimuth and elevation direction of arrival and signal level) are supplied to system 2, where they are also stored.

For shaper 3-1, for each azimuthal elevation direction of reception, the reference s (i) and reconnaissance s ( i )

Figure 00000017
the signals received at each i-th frequency of narrow-band radio signals are converted into a complex DFVK χ (i) (d, ν) depending on the bistatic range d and bistatic speed ν. To increase the search speed, complex DFVK χ (i) (d, ν) are formed simultaneously in K i computers 3-1-1, ..., 3-1-K i . Obtained in the shaper 3-1 K i complex DFVK χ (i) (d, ν) enter the device 3-2.

The device 3-2 performs the following actions:

- modules | | | χ ( i ) ( d , ν ) | | |

Figure 00000019
complex DFVK are averaged over frequency χ ( d , ν ) ¯ = i = one K i | | | χ ( i ) ( d , ν ) | | |
Figure 00000020
.

This operation increases the signal-to-noise ratio in proportion to the root of the number K i of frequencies and, as a result, increases the probability of detecting small objects;

- at the maxima of the averaged DFVK χ ( d , ν ) ¯

Figure 00000021
the number of scattered signals is determined and the bistatic range values are fixed
Figure 00000022
and bistatic speed
Figure 00000023
every pth scattered signal.

The found values of the number of scattered signals, bistatic range

Figure 00000024
and bistatic speed
Figure 00000025
each p-th scattered signal enters the device 3-3, where it is stored. In addition, the found values of bistatic velocity
Figure 00000026
each p-th scattered signal enters the shaper 3-5.

In the shaper 3-5 reference s (j) and reconnaissance s ( j )

Figure 00000018
the signals received at each j-th frequency of broadband radio signals are converted to the corresponding bistatic velocity value
Figure 00000027
of each p-th scattered signal and complex bifurcation-dependent complex OFVK
Figure 00000028
. To increase the search speed, complex OFVKs
Figure 00000029
are formed simultaneously in K j calculators 3-5-1, ..., 3-5-K j . Obtained in the shaper 3-5 complex OFVK
Figure 00000030
3-4 enter the device.

There are 3-4 modules in the device

Figure 00000031
integrated OFVK
Figure 00000032
averaged over frequency
Figure 00000033
. In addition, in the device 3-4, the maxima of the averaged OFVK χ ˜ ( p ) ( d ) ¯
Figure 00000034
the specified value of the bistatic range is determined d ˜ ( p )
Figure 00000035
pth scattered signal.

Note that the degree of refinement of the bistatic range value d ˜ ( p )

Figure 00000036
the higher, the greater the number of frequencies K j . In addition, the degree of refinement of the value of the bistatic range d ˜ ( p )
Figure 00000036
grows with increasing ratio of the width of the spectrum of the broadband signal to the spectrum width of the narrowband signal. This is due to the fact that for a fixed signal-to-noise ratio, the accuracy of the range estimation is higher, the greater the width of the spectrum of the signal of the backlight. So, if the signals of VHF FM radio stations (range 88-108 MHz) with a spectrum width of 100 kHz are selected as narrowband backlight signals, and the signals of digital television broadcasting radio stations (range 450-860 MHz) with a spectrum width of 7.6 are selected as broadband signals MHz, the gain in the accuracy of estimating the bistatic range can reach 7600/100 = 76 times. In proportion to the increase in the accuracy of estimating the bistatic range, the probability of detecting objects, achieved at the next stage of signal processing, is growing.

Refined bistatic range d ˜ ( p )

Figure 00000036
each p-th scattered signal enters the device 3-3.

In the device 3-3 according to the values of the refined bistatic range d ˜ ( p )

Figure 00000036
(received from device 3-3), bistatic speed
Figure 00000037
(received from device 3-2) and the value of the azimuthal elevation direction of each p-th scattered signal (received from system 2), the detection and spatial localization of moving objects is performed.

Detection and spatial localization of moving objects is carried out by known methods, for example [4].

The following actions are performed:

1) bistatic velocity values are compared with the threshold

Figure 00000038
each p-th scattered signal and when the threshold is exceeded, decisions are made to detect the p-th moving object. The threshold is selected based on minimizing the probability of missing an object;

2) by the values of the refined bistatic range d ˜ ( p )

Figure 00000036
an ellipsoid of equal bistatic distances is built;

3) the geographic coordinates of the p-th detected object are determined by the intersection of the ellipsoid of equal bistatic ranges and the azimuth-elevation direction of reception of the pth scattered signal.

The device 4 displays the results of the detection and spatial localization of objects.

Thus, due to the choice of transmitters combined in space and emitting narrow-band and wide-band radio signals at a variety of frequencies, as well as the use of a new set of operations for combined processing of direct and scattered radio signals by objects selected by transmitters, it is possible to solve the problem with the achievement of the specified technical result.

Information sources

1. US patent 7012552 B2, cl. G08B 21/00, 2006

2. RU, patent, 2440588 C1, cl. G01S 13/02, 2012

3. Ratynsky M.V. Adaptation and superresolution in antenna arrays. M .: Radio and communication. 2003 year

4. RU, patent, 2444754, cl. G01S 13/02, 2012

Claims (1)

  1. A method for detecting small-sized moving objects, which consists in the use of direct and scattered by moving objects radio signals emitted by transmitters of electronic systems for various purposes, characterized in that they select transmitters that are combined in space and emit narrow-band and wide-band radio signals at a plurality of frequencies, synchronously receive on a plurality search frequencies, multipath signals, including direct and scattered radio signals, synchronously convert the received radio signals to digital ignals, from digital signals, narrow-band and wide-band reference and reconnaissance signals are generated and stored for given azimuth-elevation directions of reception, for each azimuth-elevation direction of reception, the reference and reconnaissance signals received at each frequency of narrow-band radio signals are converted into a bistatic speed-dependent and bistatic speed-dependent complex two-dimensional cross-correlation function (DFVK), the frequency averaged modules of complex DFVK are determined by the maxima of the averaged DF The VC is the number of scattered signals and records the values of the bistatic range and bistatic speed of each scattered signal, converts the reference and reconstructed signals received at each frequency of the broadband radio signals into the bistatic speed of each scattered signal and the complex one-dimensional cross-correlation function (FVC), which depends on the bistatic range, modules of complex OFVK are averaged over frequency, the refined bistat value is determined from the maxima of the averaged OFVK the physical range of the scattered signal, according to the values of the bistatic speed, the refined bistatic range and the value of the azimuth-elevation direction of reception of each scattered signal, the detection and spatial localization of moving objects are performed.
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RU2658075C1 (en) * 2017-07-12 2018-06-19 федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Санкт-Петербургский государственный морской технический университет" (СПбГМТУ) Method of signals superresolution by time in active location
RU2674552C1 (en) * 2017-12-07 2018-12-11 Акционерное общество "Концерн" "Океанприбор" Sonar method of object detection and measurement of parameters thereof

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