RU2522359C2 - Element of multilayer light-weight construction panel, and its manufacturing method - Google Patents

Element of multilayer light-weight construction panel, and its manufacturing method Download PDF

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RU2522359C2
RU2522359C2 RU2012135323/03A RU2012135323A RU2522359C2 RU 2522359 C2 RU2522359 C2 RU 2522359C2 RU 2012135323/03 A RU2012135323/03 A RU 2012135323/03A RU 2012135323 A RU2012135323 A RU 2012135323A RU 2522359 C2 RU2522359 C2 RU 2522359C2
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parts
frame
building panel
lightweight building
horizontal
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RU2012135323/03A
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Russian (ru)
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RU2012135323A (en
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Игорь Петрович Дубатовка
Роман Валентинович Твердохлебов
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Игорь Петрович Дубатовка
Роман Валентинович Твердохлебов
Дубатовка Антон Игоревич
Доронина Юлия Николаевна
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C2/00Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels
    • E04C2/02Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials
    • E04C2/26Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials composed of materials covered by two or more of groups E04C2/04, E04C2/08, E04C2/10 or of materials covered by one of these groups with a material not specified in one of the groups
    • E04C2/284Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials composed of materials covered by two or more of groups E04C2/04, E04C2/08, E04C2/10 or of materials covered by one of these groups with a material not specified in one of the groups at least one of the materials being insulating
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/02Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements
    • E04B1/08Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements the elements consisting of metal
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C2/00Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels
    • E04C2/30Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by the shape or structure
    • E04C2/38Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by the shape or structure with attached ribs, flanges, or the like, e.g. framed panels
    • E04C2/384Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by the shape or structure with attached ribs, flanges, or the like, e.g. framed panels with a metal frame
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C2/00Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels
    • E04C2002/001Mechanical features of panels
    • E04C2002/004Panels with profiled edges, e.g. stepped, serrated

Abstract

FIELD: construction.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ground construction, and namely to enclosing structures of buildings and structures, and namely to wall panels, panels of coatings, floors, and can be used at erection of multi-storey buildings with a load-carrying reinforced-concrete, metal and wooden frame for large-scale and individual development, at reconstruction of buildings and secondary structures. An element of a multilayer light-weight construction panel includes an internal frame made in the form of a detachable steel frame containing perforated horizontal lower and upper guide elements, between which perforated vertical post elements are installed, which are located in a row in a longitudinal direction of guide elements and rigidly attached to them by means of fasteners and nodal connections, as well as an internal heat insulating layer and external and internal linings; with that, horizontal and vertical elements are made in the form of steel profiles, and profiles of vertical elements have a C-shaped section. Elements of the skeleton frame represent finished parts; with that, horizontal parts are made in the form of profiles of C-shaped section and also include horizontal connection straps; vertical and horizontal parts are connected and have additional bends of flanges of a trapezoid shape at connection points; perforation of parts is made in the form of transverse and longitudinal cut-outs for shaped metal, plate or wooden reinforcement elements of the framing, as well as in the form of process through cuts and guide drawn ends of holes for reinforcement of a connection node with additional stiffeners. The internal heat insulating layer is three-layered and made in the form of two layers of cellulose warmth-keeping material, between which an internal temperature and moisture control insert with internal vertical air chambers, drain channels and condensate collecting channels, which are connected to each other into a common system, is located; inner and outer linings are composite and made in the form of parts with internal fish joints and structural attachment nodes; to outer surface of the outer lining there attached are external fish joints and horizontal U-shaped profiles, which are covered with an external heat insulating layer. Besides, a manufacturing method of such an element is described.
EFFECT: reduction of labour intensity and power consumption for manufacture and erection owing to reducing the number of process operations related to humid processes, machines and mechanisms, which provides the possibility of reducing design and construction limits, with increased fire resistance, sound insulation and heat insulation indices; reduction of material consumption and power consumption for construction.
31 cl, 5 dwg

Description

The invention relates to the field of ground construction, in particular to the besieging structures of buildings and structures, namely to wall panels, flooring panels, floors, and can be used in the construction of multi-storey buildings with a bearing reinforced concrete, metal and wooden frame for mass and individual development, during reconstruction buildings, superstructures.

There is a known construction of a building panel with communications inside it, containing a series-connected internal magnesite plate, a vapor barrier film, sound-absorbing mite, a metal frame including U-shaped and C-shaped profiles made of galvanized steel sheets with perforation and connected with self-drilling screws, rivets, soldering or welding, a waterproof layer in the form of a waterproofing film, Unisol cellulose insulation, an external magnesite plate, and a mineral finishing layer noy wool façade, and the height of a building panel of up to 8 m, and their thickness -150-250 mm / 1 /.

However, the well-known building panel contains a vapor-tight outer coating - a vapor-tight layer of mineral facade wool, which increases moisture formation between the vapor-tight insulation and the lining: with this moistening, the thermal conductivity of the insulation increases up to 7 times, which is confirmed by studies of the dependence of thermal conductivity on the moisture content of mineral wool insulation / 2 /. And according to / 3 /, moistening of polystyrene thermal insulation by 1% leads to an increase in thermal conductivity by 4%, which undoubtedly worsens the performance, durability of such panels and the environmental situation in the houses assembled from them, and the mineral wool used in this panel is not less than than 2 times more expensive than cellulose insulation, it uses phenolic formaldehyde-based polymer binder fibers, which makes these bonds unstable and short-lived, the mineral wool’s life does not exceed 25-26 years / 2 /, and f enolformaldehyde adversely affect human health / 4 /. The most suitable for their use is the design of ventilated walls.

In addition, the vapor-tight waterproofing film does not have fire resistance and durability (up to 25 years with the required 50 years / 10 /.

A known structural system for the construction of low-rise buildings with a metal frame, including external load-bearing walls, internal load-bearing walls, partitions, structures of floor and attic floors with a frame of steel profiles, load-bearing trusses or beams, roofing and wall girders from steel profiles, and these structural the elements are formed on the basis of frame frames made of thin-walled steel profiles connected by a detachable connection, thin-walled profiles of the Naru frame the walls and attic floors have a perforated wall, and the heat and sound insulating material in the walls and ceilings is located within the cross-sectional height of the frame elements and is protected from the inside with a vapor barrier film and outside with a diffusion waterproofing film, and the frame frames of the walls, partitions and ceilings are sheathed with gypsum plasterboard or gypsum plaster sheets . The system further comprises a foundation on which frame frames of the walls / 5 / are installed.

However, the specifics of the work of thin-walled structures is such that when they are actually loaded due to the mismatch between the bending center and the center of application of the resulting load, the so-called bending torsion occurs, leading to the deployment (violation of flatness) of the cross section and the appearance of additional normal and tangential stresses in the shelves and walls of the core elements. The hypothesis of flat sections in the calculation of such profiles is incorrect. In addition, a local loss of stability of the walls of the profiles is possible, which must also be taken into account when designing and calculating panels based on cold-formed profiles.

When designing such panels, it is necessary to more carefully analyze the stress-strain state of the elements and select profiles with some notorious margin or use additional amplifiers both in nodes and in planes.

In addition, insufficiently protected from corrosion, light steel thin-walled structures made of cold-formed profiles can be destroyed at a rate of 0.004 mm / year (in a short time) due to electromechanical corrosion, which is caused by aqueous solutions of electrolytes and is the result of microelements / 6 /. Perforation is also incorrectly performed: according to Finnish technology, perforation with carving and riveting, which is undoubtedly more expensive than the Russian analogue of perforation: broaching and extrusion with one-sided perforation of extruded burrs, which not only damages the galvanized protective coating, also forms molded irregularities, in the walls of which dust and moisture will accumulate, which significantly accelerates the corrosion process.

The electrolyte is atmospheric moisture containing CO 2 , but most often other chemical compounds. Water condenses on the metal, which contains a certain amount of salts. A small layer of electrolyte solution creates conditions conducive to electrochemical corrosion.

As a result, despite the fact that the predominant part of the metal element remains almost untouched by corrosion, the structure can quickly collapse due to the appearance of deep corrosion ulcers even in some places. Torsional stresses additionally increase the rate of corrosion cracking by several tens of percent. In addition, thin-walled steel elements cannot come into contact with building materials containing gypsum, magnesium chloride, coal or coke ash, as well as coke slag, since they cause rapid corrosion of steel / 6 /.

When designing such panels, it is necessary to more carefully analyze the stress-strain state of the elements and select profiles with some notorious margin or use additional amplifiers both in nodes and in planes, which is not done in the known solution.

In addition, the profiles do not have centering holes and bullets, which reduces the accuracy of the assembly and the durability of the structure. The tolerances of the connection unit of the profiles are 1-3 mm, which leads to the formation of gaps between the connected profiles and increases the risk of the self-cutting screw working on the cut, significantly reducing the reliability and service life of the product. Such significant tolerances and the lack of marking profiles do not allow to assemble the frame without selection and adjustment. The technological scheme in which the assembly of the frame and walls is carried out on the site without tight control of the number of self-tapping screws, strict observance of the places of their fastening, efforts to screw the screw, compliance with the step of screwing the screws, which reduces the strength, reliability and durability of the structure. In a known solution for lining a structural system, sheet materials, plasterboard sheets are used, and not individual details of the lining.

A set of cold-formed galvanized steel profiles for the Nordalfa prefabricated building is known, including at least one C-shaped profile formed by continuously connected with each other a C-shaped profile wall, the width of which determines the width of the C-shaped profile, and two symmetrically located longitudinally the axis of the profile and perpendicular to the wall with shelves of a C-shaped profile of equal height, determining the height of the C-shaped profile, the free end of each of which is bent inward at an angle α towards its the butt end of the opposite shelf and forms a corresponding linear stiffener with a width L c of the C-shaped profile, and at least one run roof profile formed continuously by the roof profile wall and two roof profile profiles perpendicular to the wall, the free end of each of which bent outward at an angle β in the opposite direction to the free end of the opposite shelf and forms the corresponding L-shaped stiffening rib of the roof profile, with the volume of the C-profile shelf is provided with at least two additional longitudinal stiffeners, each of which is made in the form of a corrugation, each pair of the wall and the C-profile shelf is rounded with a radius of curvature R c , each transition between the shelf and the stiffener C shaped profile formed rounded with a radius of curvature r c, and each pair walls and shelves roof profile are rounded with a radius of curvature R k, each transition between the flange and rib roof profile adapted ruglennym with radius r k of curvature, the rib roof profile has two mutually perpendicular portion, the first of which determines the width and height of the second reinforcing ribs. The thickness of each profile is from 0.55 to 1.5 mm / 7 /.

This set of cold-formed profiles is suitable for creating building frames, and only for the construction of low-rise buildings (up to 3 floors). This building kit contains three or at least two types of profiles - C-shaped and roofing, which increases the metal consumption and the number of heat-conducting inclusions, which degrades the heat-insulating characteristics of the products. Thickness up to 1.5 mm is ineffective for profiles of the supporting structure of the building, from the point of view the number of processes involved in the manufacture of load-bearing supports and beams in the form of frames for their insulation, especially frame elements of the truss type with inclined profiles, and their final cost, taking into account the necessary fire protection, comparing NIJ with rationally selected design solutions designs in the form of solid wood, standard metal or concrete elements rolling bearing frame. The reinforcing element of the supporting frame is roofing profiles, this increases the metal consumption and, as a result, the thermal conductivity and worsens the heat transfer resistance index.

Also known is a multilayer building panel, which is taken as a prototype of the claimed element of a light building panel, containing an internal frame made in the form of a collapsible frame, non-structural insulation and sheet skin, and the frame is made of galvanized perforated thermal profiles and contains lower and upper guides of a U-shaped profile with bends of the edges made in one direction, between them are installed vertical ribs of a C-shaped profile, located in a row at equal distances from each other the longitudinal direction of the guide and rigidly connected with them by means of fastening elements and thermo perforation made in the form of elongated holes arranged in the longitudinal direction of the profiles, wherein the openings in different parts across their width profiles are arranged mutually alternating manner. Double gypsum-fiber sheets were used as the material of the inner lining, and fiber-cement plates “Fibrit” or other finishing material were used as the material of the outer lining. As a material of non-structural insulation, heat-insulating mineral-wool plates or cotton wool heat-insulating cellulose “Ecowool” were used. As fasteners for thermal profiles, galvanized self-tapping screws are used. The authors indicate that this building panel is intended for multi-story construction / 8 /.

In fact, this design has such drawbacks that make it dangerous and unsuitable for multi-story construction.

The calculation of thermal profiles is primarily expressed in a decrease in the geometric characteristics of the cross section of the profiles by the length of the perforation, depending on the height and thickness of the profile.

Such perforation, leading to a decrease in strength and a significant decrease in the coefficient of the estimated length of the wall of the profiles, contributes to a local loss of stability. Therefore, the effect of perforation of the walls of thermal profiles is taken into account in the calculations by reducing the wall thickness by multiplying by the coefficient k r = 0.7 for bending and compression and the coefficient k k n = 0.45 ... 0.65 for shearing. When calculating the parameters of the cross section, the perforated part of the section is considered as a single hole in the entire volume. The calculation is made using graphs based on regulatory loads. The total safety factor of 1.7. In addition, it is very difficult to predict how the perforated structure will behave in time, how its plastic and fatigue properties will manifest.

The advantages of perforation as the possibility of reducing thermal conductivity and eliminating the so-called “cold bridge” are very controversial from the point of view of theoretical physics, because most of the properties of metals, in particular their high electrical and thermal conductivity, are mainly determined by the movement of free (valence) electrons. In addition, the thermal perforation technology as a method of stamping "thermal cuts", adopted in the well-known solution, does not provide for covering the edges of the through holes with a protective layer during perforation, as was originally conceived by the developer of perforation equipment by SAMESOR (Finland). As a result, lightweight steel structures made of cold-formed sections that are not sufficiently protected against corrosion can be destroyed in a short time due to electromechanical corrosion caused by aqueous solutions of electrolytes and resulting from the action of trace elements.

Thus, thermal profiles are not reliable in terms of corrosion resistance. The use of cladding with magnesite plates, without insulating gaskets and seals that protect the metal frame of the panel from corrosion, as well as mineral wool boards made of glass fiber or slag using organic binders, negatively affects durability and reliability, since chlorides and magnesium oxides, as well as chemical compounds of such heaters in interaction with moisture form an aggressive environment, accelerating the corrosion process.

This construction panel design does not provide for floor strengthening of the structure, which is mandatory given the increase in wind loads directly proportional to the building floor height according to SNIPs. It does not take into account the fact that with an increase in the number of storeys of a building, reinforced structures must be used. From the description it can be assumed that amplifiers are not provided at all. Accordingly, the number of deformations increases during which cracks form in the galvanized coating and the corrosion resistance is impaired.

The fibrite cement boards used for external cladding of this structure are heavy, which increases the load on the fastening screws of the structure and leads to its instability and fragility, in addition, these plates are harder and more fragile than glass-magnesite plates, which also enhances the fragility of the structure. In the calculations of the joints of the profiles and facings of this panel, constructional rather than machine-building tolerances were applied, the observance of which could increase the reliability and durability of structures, and this is applicable only to prefabricated structures.

In addition, this design is intended for assembly at a construction site, and deviations and great inaccuracies arise during assembly, since there are no nodal folds, centering holes of guide beams that limit the influence of the “human factor” on the speed, correctness and accuracy of panel assembly, which also degrades the strength and durability of the building.

The frame profiles of this design are connected by self-tapping screws in the panels for buildings of any number of storeys, while it is known that additional shear loads, resonant vibrations of the structure from ground shocks and wind speed can occur on the upper floors of high-rise buildings, and the wind load, and other effects of destructive factors. Accordingly, the fastening of profiles on screws, with a tolerance of connecting panels from 1 to 3 mm, working on a cut, will not provide the necessary strength of such building envelope structures, that is, there is a clear fragility of this panel design.

In addition, due to the high hygroscopicity of ecowool, it cannot be used for continuous insulation without compensating devices and dehumidifying inserts, and such devices are absent in the described construction. For this reason, condensation forms and the internal humidity in the insulation increases, as a result of which the thermoprofiles rust, which reduces the durability of the structure.

One of the ways to improve porous fiber insulation of laminated panels is to develop knowledge about the structure of these materials, their influence on sorption-desorption processes in enclosing structures, as well as the development of appropriate forms of structures / 9 /.

The real durability of the described construction is from 5 years, which is unacceptable in building envelopes because for a multi-layer building envelope of buildings with effective insulation, the estimated service life is 50 years / 10 /.

Also, in this design, the issue of condensate drainage and technogenic moisture flows (in case of an accident) has not been resolved; a cured heat-insulating layer can freeze in winter, which will significantly impair the performance of the panels.

The prototype of the inventive method for manufacturing an element of a multilayer lightweight building panel is the method of manufacturing building panels, according to which profiles are made of thin-walled galvanized steel sheet, perforated, assembled from them the frames of building panels, flashing the nodes with self-tapping screws, cover the frame with heat-insulating material, protect it from the inside with a vapor barrier a film and an internal plate, and outside - a waterproofing film, a heater and an external plate. At the same time, for assembling the frame of wall panels, the upper and lower U-shaped profiles are placed on the mounting table, fixed horizontally, vertical racks from the C-shaped profile are attached to the lower U-shaped profile, to which short jumpers from the U-shaped profile for the device are attached window and door openings, flush all nodes and connections with self-tapping screws or rivets, and to assemble the frame of the floor panels on the mounting table, lay C-shaped profiles horizontally, and U-shaped profiles vertically, unified By inserting two C-shaped profiles into the I-beam with self-drilling screws and placing the I-beams parallel to each other horizontally, then on the assembly site they assemble one-sided building panels, installing a waterproofing film, covering the frame with magnesite plate and connecting it to the frame with self-drilling screws, and for assembling the double-sided panels in ready-made one-sided panels at the installation site of communications put a corrugated sleeve with an internal wire into them for drawing electric cables, cables with ides, heating pipes, after installing the communications, they are moved to the heat-insulating section, where they fill the voids of the building panel with cellulose insulation, then they install a sound-absorbing tape, vapor barrier and magnesite plate, sewing them with self-drilling screws, then unilateral and bilateral building panels are moved to the external finishing area, where they are decorated with facade decoration materials. As cellulose insulation, Unisol is used. One-sided panels are decorated with Icenin insulation. As facade finishing materials use mineral facade wool, acrylic plaster, ventilated facades, wooden beams, siding, brick, stone / 11 /.

However, in the known solution, insufficiently protected from corrosion, light steel thin-walled structures made of cold-formed profiles can be destroyed at a speed of 0.004 mm / year in a short time due to electromechanical corrosion caused by aqueous solutions of electrolytes and resulting from the action of trace elements.

The electrolyte is atmospheric moisture containing CO 2 , but most often other chemical compounds. Water condenses on the metal, which contains a certain amount of salts. A small layer of electrolyte solution will create conditions conducive to electrochemical corrosion.

As a result, despite the fact that the predominant part of the metal element remains almost untouched by corrosion, the structure can quickly collapse due to the appearance of deep corrosion ulcers even in some places. Torsional stresses additionally increase the rate of corrosion cracking by several tens of percent. In addition, thin-walled steel elements cannot come into contact with building materials containing gypsum, magnesium chloride, coal or coke ash, and coke slag, since they cause rapid corrosion of steel.

When designing such panels, it is necessary to more carefully analyze the stress-strain state of the elements and select profiles with some notorious margin or use additional amplifiers both in nodes and in planes, which is not done in the known solution / 6 /.

In the known method applied vapor tight insulation. Therefore, without compensating devices and dehumidifying inserts, and in the described solution there are no such devices, moisture will accumulate in them, which will lead to shrinkage and loss of heat-insulating abilities / 2 /. The formation of condensate and increased humidity of the insulation contribute to the development of corrosion, as a result of which the profiles rust, which reduces the durability of the structure. In addition, the known method does not provide for the implementation of the connecting elements, the number of process steps is greater, the profiles are produced not from a coil, but from sheet steel, which is irrational and less technological. The processes of joining profiles, joining parts of facings with the frame and applying the outer heat-insulating layer are not automated. Also, in none of the known methods computer-controlled technological processes and computer-based quality control are used.

Since in the known building panels, methods for their manufacture and installation, the main technological processes are burdened by increased costs for the manual movement of materials, fixtures and mechanisms in the assembly shop (or floor), technological pauses associated with the drying of the applied layers, repeated leveling and grinding, and directly depend from the professional level and qualifications of personnel, the acceleration of such processes is impossible without a radical change in the method of manufacturing enclosing structures uktsy, can significantly reduce the number of processing steps associated with wet processes and their labor intensity. In addition, the use of vapor-tight insulation systems increases residual moisture, which leads to a deterioration in the rate of heat transfer resistance.

Based on the foregoing, the present invention was based on the task: to propose an element of a multi-layer lightweight building panel, common for walls, coatings and ceilings, that does not impede diffusion and vapor permeation, equipped with a condensate and other liquid removal system, to reduce the residual moisture index, equipped with a system connecting elements, having a full-fledged external finish for the all-weather installation of panel elements, and at the same time having a reduced thickness, less weight, allowing creatures It is possible to reduce the labor and energy consumption of manufacturing and installation, by reducing the number of technological operations associated with wet processes, machines and mechanisms, which makes it possible to reduce the design and construction time, with increased fire resistance, sound insulation and thermal insulation, as well as a method of manufacturing a multi-layer element for lightweight construction panels that allow you to combine design, manufacturing with a control and audit system of the technological effectiveness of each pro into a single software product essa, analysis of compliance with deadlines, quality, operational indicators for systemic improvement, reduction of material and energy consumption of construction, creation of energy-efficient buildings and structures with the ability to automatically control the indoor climate and solve the problem of natural supply air flows, drain condensed and other liquids to reduce residual moisture , taking into account the requirements of the standards of the so-called “energy-passive house” (German Passiv haus) and the active house concept, which helps buildings to function in harmony with nature and people to lead an environmentally sound lifestyle in them. Good architecture, an internal microclimate and environmentally friendly constructions are no less important than reducing energy consumption / 12, 13 /.

The problem is solved in the invention due to the fact that in the element of a multilayer lightweight building panel containing an internal frame made in the form of a steel collapsible frame containing perforated horizontal lower and upper guide elements, between which are installed perforated vertical rack elements arranged in a row in the longitudinal the direction of the guide elements and rigidly connected with them by means of fasteners and nodal connections, as well as the inner heat-insulating layer and outer and inner cladding, while the horizontal and vertical elements are made in the form of steel profiles, and the profiles of the vertical elements have a C-shaped section, the frame elements of the frame are finished parts, while the horizontal parts are also made in the form of C-shaped sections and include also horizontal jumpers, while vertical and horizontal parts are connected and have additional perpendicular bends of short trapezoidal shapes in the docking nodes, perforation it is made in the form of transverse and longitudinal notches for profile metal, sheet or wooden carcass reinforcing elements, as well as technological notches and guiding beams - to strengthen the docking unit with additional stiffening ribs, the internal thermal insulation layer is made of three layers, in the form of two layers of cellulose insulation, between which there is an internal temperature-moisture control insert with internal vertical air chambers, drainage channels and condensate collection channels With interlocking interconnected systems, the inner and outer claddings are prefabricated, in the form of parts with internal patch joints and structural fasteners, outer patch joints and horizontal U-shaped profiles coated with an outer heat-insulating layer are attached to the outer surface of the outer cladding. The thickness of the steel frame frame parts is 0.5-1.2 mm. The frame frame parts may be coated with at least one additional protective scrap. The fasteners of the nodal joints are made in the form of screw joints, as well as riveted joints, based on soldering and welding, or joints by cold stamping with the formation of a geometric and power circuit. The multi-layer lightweight building panel element contains additional reinforcing elements - metal profiles, wooden elements and cladding elements - attached to the shelves of the frame parts in the form of a C-shaped profile using curved and concave "tongues", as well as punching, notches and guiding pupples of the frame parts . The connection of perforated technological transverse and longitudinal die-cuts (“tongues”) with the frame structure amplifiers is achieved through the use of glue, screw joints, and for profile metal amplifiers also by soldering, welding and cold stamping with the formation of geometric and power short circuits. Mounting units with additional milling and mounting holes are made on the details of the outer and inner prefabricated facings. In the assembly of fastening parts of the external and internal prefabricated cladding, a hollow metal core with a cap is installed in which a through central hole is made. The parts of the outer and inner prefabricated linings are equipped with moisture-resistant, fire-resistant and heat-insulating seals. The inner heat-insulating layer consists of two outer layers of cellulose insulation, firmly connected to the internal temperature-moisture control insert. The condensate collection channels have strips of vapor-permeable material with metallized threads interwoven into them. In the element of the multilayer lightweight construction panel, abutment nodes for joining with connecting elements are made. An element of a multi-layer lightweight construction panel has around the perimeter connecting grooves for connecting elements: vertical, horizontal, angular. The junction of the panel element and the connecting element forms a “labyrinth seal”.

The problem is solved in the invention also due to the fact that in the method of manufacturing an element of a light multilayer building panel, according to which the elements of the steel frame of the frame are made in the form of C-shaped profiles, perforated, cut lengthwise, the frame of the building panel element is assembled from them in the form collapsible frame, connect the nodes of the frame, inside the frame place the inner heat-insulating layer, and on the outside - the inner lining, as well as the outer lining, covered with the outer heat-insulating layer,

as elements of the carcass frame, finished parts are made in the form of C-shaped profiles with perforations in the form of notches, punching and pucking on one rolling mill by one technological process controlled by a software system, the carcass frame is assembled from horizontal parts (guides: upper and lower, and jumpers ) and vertical parts (racks), while horizontal parts and vertical parts - racks in the form of C-shaped profiles, are coated externally with fire-resistant, moisture-proof and heat-insulating seals, then vertical parts are framed together with horizontal parts (jumpers and guides), the inner heat-insulating layer is made three-layer, in the form of two layers of cellulose insulation, between which there is a temperature-moisture control insert, in which internal vertical air chambers, drainage channels and condensate-collecting channels connected between by themselves into a single system, install this heat-insulating layer inside the jumpers of fragments of vertically fastened parts - racks, why these fragments are interconnected on the assembly table by horizontal parts (guides and jumpers) and rigidly fastened by fasteners, nodal joints by at least one automated technological process, the inner and outer claddings are prefabricated, while the details of the inner cladding are placed on one surface frame, then attach them to the frame with at least one automated process, after which the element is light multi-layer construction the panels are turned over with the facing side down and the external cladding parts are attached through the sealant to the second surface of the carcass with at least one automated technological process, the external patch joints and the U-shaped profile are horizontally installed on their outer surface, on the outer surface of the outer cladding with a U-shaped profile an external heat-insulating layer is applied with a seal, then the panel element is moved to the external decoration area, where its final external department is produced ku. Vertical rack parts and horizontal parts - guides and jumpers of the C-shaped profile are made of steel with a thickness of 0.5-1.2 mm with the possible subsequent application of at least one additional protective layer. On the shelves of horizontal parts - guides and jumpers in the form of a C-shaped profile, additional vertical bends of a trapezoidal shape are performed at the docking nodes. Fasteners of nodal joints are made in the form of screw joints, as well as riveted joints, based on soldering and welding, or joints by cold stamping with the formation of a geometric and power circuit. Additional reinforcing elements are mounted on the panel, attached to the shelves of C-shaped profiles of horizontal and vertical frame parts using curved and concave “tongues” (punch), as well as grooves and guide pouches of C-shaped profiles of frame parts, such as metal, wooden elements and elements of cladding parts by at least one automated process. Perforated technological transverse and longitudinal die-cuts (“tongues”) are connected with additional reinforcing elements of the frame through the use of adhesive, screw joints, and for profile metal amplifiers also through the use of soldering, welding and cold stamping with the formation of geometric and power short circuits. In the frame of the element of the building panel, prefabricated landing sockets for docking with connecting elements are performed. In the inner heat-insulating layer, the outer layers of the cellulose insulation are firmly connected to the inner temperature-moisture control insert. Fasteners with additional milling and mounting holes are made on the details of the outer and inner prefabricated facings. The outer heat-insulating layer is made of ecowool and compacted by plane pressing with at least one non-waste automated process. A hollow metal core with a hat, in which a through central hole is made, is installed in the fastening assembly of the parts of the precast cladding. Prefabricated parts of the outer and inner prefabricated claddings are provided with moisture-resistant, fire-resistant and heat-insulating seals. In condensate collecting channels, strips of vapor-permeable material with threads with a metallized coating woven into them are made. All parts are marked with an identification mark. In the prefabricated junctions of the junction of the connecting grooves of the frame of the element of the building panel, the connecting elements, including vertical, horizontal, angular, are arranged in accordance with the marking, without selection and fitting. The junction of the panel and the connecting element is performed with the formation of the "labyrinth seal". The design of building panel elements, ready-made precipitating structures, the manufacture of carcass parts and cladding parts, the control of the process of joining the carcass parts, the fastening of the cladding parts to the carcass, the density control of the application of internal and external thermal insulation layers and the quality control of all technological processes and operations are carried out by at least one automated software package. The invention is illustrated by drawings.

Figure 1 shows an element of a multi-layer lightweight construction panel, the connection diagram of prefabricated parts.

In Fig.2 is the same, a diagram of an element of a multilayer lightweight construction panel in section;

Figure 3 is the same, the connection diagram of the frame parts;

Figure 4 is the same, the fastening scheme of the cladding parts;

Figure 5 is the same, the connection diagram of the elements of building panels.

An element of a multi-layer lightweight construction panel consists of a basic structure and an external protective and decorative layered coating. The main structure is the basis of the element of the multi-layer lightweight construction panel, made in the form of a collapsible frame 1, which consists of horizontal lower guide parts 2 and horizontal upper guide parts 3, between which are installed vertical strut parts 4, arranged in a row in the longitudinal direction, horizontal guides parts 2 and 3 and interconnected also by horizontal jumpers 5, while the horizontal parts 2, 3 and 5 are rigidly connected to the vertical rack parts 4 by m fasteners 6 and / or 7 nodal connections.

All these details of the frame 1 are made of steel perforated profiles of C-shaped section with short shelves 8, on which at the joints of the joints there are made 9 trapezoidal bends perpendicular to the shelves 8. On horizontal parts in the form of a C-shaped profile - the lower 2 and upper 3 guides and jumpers 5, as well as on the vertical rack parts 4 in the form of a C-shaped profile, perforation is made in the form of technological holes 10, transverse 11 and longitudinal 12 notches (“tongues ") Under profile metal 13a, sheet 13b or wooden carcass reinforcing elements 13c, as well as guiding beadlets 14 and technological notches 15 for reinforcing nodal connections 7 with additional carcass reinforcing elements 13, Horizontal parts - bottom 2 and the upper 3 guides and jumpers 5, as well as the vertical rack parts 4 of the frame 1 are fastened together by means of steel rivets, self-tapping screws, soldering (welding) or by cold stamping with the formation of a geometric and power short circuit 16a of circular and 16b rectangular shape.

Mounting eyes 17 are attached to parts 3 and 4 of frame 1.

An element of a multi-layer lightweight building panel may contain additional elements 13 for reinforcing the frame structure, attached to the shelves 8 of horizontal parts 2, 3, 5 and vertical parts 4 in the form of a C-shaped profile, as well as using curved 11 and concave 12 “tongues” and notches 15 horizontal parts 2, 3, 5 and vertical parts 4 of the frame 1. These profile metal, wooden reinforcing elements 13 and elements 14, 15 of the parts of the frame 1 and the sheet parts 18 are connected to the perforating technological transverse 11 and longitudinal 12 sections ("tongues"), as well as technological holes 10, notches 15 due to the use of adhesive, screw connections, and for profile metal reinforcing elements 13 also due to soldering, welding and cold stamping with the formation of geometric and power short circuit 16.

Between the short shelves 8 of the horizontal parts 2, 3, 5 and the vertical parts 4 of the C-shaped profile of the frame 1 there is an internal heat-insulating layer 19, which is made three-layer, in the form of two layers 20 of cellulose insulation, between which there is an internal temperature-moisture control insert 21, firmly connected to the layers 20. The insert 21 has internal vertical air chambers 22, drainage channels 23, as well as condensate collection channels 24, interconnected into a single system. The condensate collection channels 24 have strips 25 of vapor-permeable material with metallic coated threads interwoven into them.

The inner 26 and outer 27 cladding of the panel element are prefabricated from individual parts 18, which are equipped with moisture-resistant, fire-resistant and heat-insulating seals 28 in accordance with GOST 481-90, while overhead joints 29 and fastening units 30 with additional milling 31 and mounting holes 32 are made on them , in the node 30 for fastening the parts of the outer 27 and inner 26 of the prefabricated linings, a hollow metal core 33 with a cap 34 is installed in which a through central hole 35 is made.

A horizontal U-shaped profile 36 and external patch joints 37 are attached to the outer surface of the prefabricated outer cladding 27, on which the outer heat-insulating layer 38 is applied, consisting of insulation 39 (ecowool) and the fastening system 40 to sheet parts 18 and cladding parts 27 and (or ) a suspension system 41 for fastening the mounted systems 42, including ventilated systems, which are attached through sheet metal parts 18 of the lining 26, 27 to the metal frame of the frame 1 according to the design documentation (architectural solutions).

The multi-layer lightweight building panel element has adjacency nodes 43 in which the connecting elements 44 are located, as well as the vertical connecting elements 45, the horizontal connecting elements 46, the angular connecting elements 47. The perimeter of the multi-layer lightweight building panel has connecting grooves 48 for the connecting elements 44, 45, 46 and 47, wherein the junction 43 of the element of the multilayer lightweight building panel and the connecting element 44 forms a “labyrinth seal”

And also the nodes 43 of the abutment fastener of the main structure of the element of the multilayer lightweight building panel serve to form technological voids 49 for laying communications, additional insulation, filling with light concrete and other mixtures. On the inner, front side of the element of the multilayer lightweight construction panel, under the details of the linings 26 and 27, a layer 50 of a vapor-proof polyethylene film is arranged. The front (inner) or outer surfaces of these panels can be supplied with a protective coating, insulation (facade), a hinged system (crate), and the option of additional input of many anchor elements on the front and front parts of the elements of building panels of external walls is also possible.

The manufacture of frame parts 1 in the form of cold-formed C-shaped profiles of the metal frame of an element of a multilayer lightweight building panel is carried out by rolling. As raw materials, rolled galvanized or painted steel is used with or without a protective coating. On the rolling mill, additionally, by stamping on horizontal parts 2 and 3 and 5 and vertical parts 4 made in the form of C-shaped profiles, perforated technological holes 10, transverse 11 and longitudinal 12 die cuts (“tongues”), notches 14, guiding puppies are produced 15. Then the parts are cut in length. Moreover, for the manufacture of a steel collapsible frame 1 of the frame, the horizontal upper 2 and lower 3 guide parts, as well as for vertical rack parts 4, use only C-shaped profiles, on short shelves 8 of which, during rolling and stamping, bends are formed perpendicular to the shelves 8 9 trapezoidal shapes. All these operations are carried out on one rolling mill by one technological process.

When assembling the frame 1, vertical strut parts 4 of the C-shaped profile are fragment-wise fastened with horizontal parts - jumpers 5 and upper guide parts 3 of C-shaped profiles, these fragments are arranged in a row in the longitudinal direction of the lower guide parts 2 of the C-shaped profile and rigidly fastened with them through fasteners 6 and (or) nodal connections 7.

Perforated technological holes 10, transverse 11 and longitudinal 12 “tongues” are performed under profile metal, sheet or wooden elements 13 for reinforcing the carcass, as well as beetles 14 and technological notches 15 for reinforcing nodal joints 7.

The horizontal lower 2 and upper 3 guide profiles and vertical rack profiles 4 of the frame 1 are fastened together using steel rivets, self-tapping screws, soldering (welding) or by cold stamping with the formation of a geometric and power short circuit 16.

Mounting eyes 17 are attached to the parts 3 and 4 of the frame 1.

An element of a multi-layer lightweight building panel is provided with additional reinforcing elements 13 of the carcass structure attached to the shelves 8 of C-shaped profiles, as well as to the curved 11 and concave 12 “tongues”, and the notches 15 horizontal parts 2, 3 and 5 and vertical parts 4 in the form C-shaped profiles of the frame 1. These profile metal, wooden reinforcing elements 13 and elements 14 and 15 of the parts of the frame 1 and the sheet parts 18 are connected with perforated technological transverse 11 and longitudinal 12 die cuts (“tongues”), as well as those nologicheskimi holes 10 and notches 15 due to the use of adhesive, screw connections, and profile metal reinforcing elements 13 also due to soldering, welding and cold stamping with the formation of geometric and power short circuit 16.

The inner heat-insulating layer 19 is made three-layer, in the form of two outer layers 20 of cellulose heat-insulating cotton wool — ecowool, between which there is an internal temperature-moisture-regulating insert 21 made by extrusion and having internal vertical air chambers 22, drainage channels 23, as well as condensate collection channels 24, while in the condensate-collecting channels 24, the bands 25 are made of vapor-permeable material with metallized coating threads interwoven into them. Internal vertical air chambers 22, drainage channels 23 and condensate collection channels 24 are interconnected into a single system. Layers 20 ecowool wet spray with a seal firmly connected to the inner insert 21.

The details of the inner 26 and the outer 27 claddings are prefabricated, supplying them with moisture-resistant, fire-resistant and heat-insulating seals 28, while on the details of the inner 26 and the outer 27 claddings, overhead joints 29 and fastening units 30 with additional milling 31 and mounting holes 32 are made in the node 30 fastening parts 27 of the outer and 26 inner precast linings establish a hollow metal core 33 with a cap 34, in which a through central hole 35 is formed.

Horizontal U-shaped profiles 36 and external patch joints 37 are attached to the outer surface of the outer cladding 27, then an outer heat-insulating layer 38 consisting of a heater 39 and a fastening system 40 to sheet parts 18, cladding parts 26, 27 is applied to the outer surface of the outer cladding 27. and / or for fastening the hinged systems 42. The fastening is carried out through sheet metal parts 18 and cladding parts 26, 27 to the metal frame of the frame 1 according to the design documentation (architectural solutions).

On the element of the multilayer lightweight building panel, abutment nodes 43 are made, in which the connecting elements 44, 45, 46, 47 are located, and along the perimeter of the element, the connecting grooves 48 are provided for the connecting elements 44, as well as the vertical connecting elements 45, the horizontal connecting elements 46, angled connecting elements 47a and 47b, and the node 43 of the junction of the element of the multilayer light building panel and connecting elements 44, 45, 46, 47 are performed with the formation of the "labyrinth seal".

And also the nodes 43 of the abutment fastener of the main structure of the element of the multilayer lightweight building panel serve to form technological voids 49 for laying communications, additional insulation, filling with light concrete and other mixtures. On the inner, front side of the element of the multilayer lightweight construction panel, under the details of the linings 26 and 27, a layer 50 of a vapor-proof polyethylene film is formed.

All parts of the panel element are marked for ease of identification and assembly.

In accordance with the first "semi-finished" variant of the method of manufacturing an element of a multi-layer lightweight building panel (main structure and connecting elements) of the invention, the parts are manufactured in the form of assembly kits. Then, the elements of the multi-layer lightweight construction panel are delivered to stationary assembly plants and (or) mobile, deployed at the construction site or directly in the quarterly development area, where the compact is assembled in large-panel elements of the enclosing structures for subsequent delivery to the construction site, with a protective and decorative layer applied (or without it). Thus, all basic technological operations are carried out using the conveyor principle, and operations associated with wet processes are performed, as a rule, in a horizontal position with the temperature regime of production optimal for each technological process, which makes it possible to reduce the total labor input by 3 times and reduce production time of elements of multilayer lightweight building panels. The presence of typical attachment and docking nodes for connecting elements, as well as technological channels for laying communications, including corrugated hoses for laying internal engineering communications, further increases the degree of prefabrication of an element of a multi-layer lightweight construction panel.

An assembly kit is a kit of assembly parts for the main structure of the elements of a multi-layer lightweight building panel and parts for the protective and decorative layer of the mounting unit — one panel produced in accordance with the project documentation in sufficient transport packaging. The assembly kit includes connecting, fastening, docking and mounting elements (elbows, plates, brackets), connecting elements with a surface applied according to the assembly diagram of element-wise, component-based, unit-by-unit marking, assembled and packaged in a transport package at one enterprise.

According to the second “industrial” option, in the assembly shop of the head enterprise manufacturing assembly kits, large-panel elements of enclosing structures — elements of multi-layer lightweight building panels — are assembled and shipped to the construction site. They are shipped with an external protective and decorative layered coating: a warming system, a hinged, prefabricated system or with a protective and decorative coating (or without it).

The delivery radius with the first option is unlimited, with the second it is no more than 300 km. Lightweight construction panels in a ready-to-install state, fixed in sealed transport packaging (provided with a packing list): transport bag or multi-turn container, suitable for installation “from the wheels”.

At the construction site, the transport packages are unpacked and additional fasteners are fastened, which ensure the maximum tight connection of all horizontal and vertical elements, and molded and mounted facade elements are hung. The wiring diagram and routing of construction installation is passed to the construction and installation organization. The lightweight building panel, ready for installation, assembled from the elements of a multilayer lightweight building panel, is mounted year-round, even at low temperatures up to -15 ° С, 3-4 assemblers perform installation at the position indicated in the installation diagram up to 4 times faster than the production of wall structures made of bricks or blocks. This installation scheme allows to reduce the complexity of the facade, on the site they only seal the joints of the elements of multilayer lightweight building panels, hang up the connecting facade elements, apply the finish coating layer (painting). The complexity of the installation process of enclosing structures is reduced by 4 times, and the use of heavy machines and mechanisms by 5 times, which allows to accelerate the construction process by an average of 2-3 months. Reducing by at least 5 times the weight of finished large-panel products (compared with traditional blocks, reinforced concrete panels and brick products) allows you to not use special vehicles (DSC system, efficiency) for transportation, with restrictions on weight and quantity (up to 6 large-panel units). Lightweight construction panels are transported by ordinary trucks with trailers and semi-trailers (up to 20 large-panel units assembled).

After installation, enclosing structures made of elements of multilayer light building panels, joined with special connecting elements, form an adjustable ventilation (cooling) system in the summer and drainage of condensing and other liquids (formed or trapped in the drainage system) in autumn and spring. This system is designed to reduce the indicator of residual moisture and the possibility of improving the thermal insulation properties of building envelopes due to convective flows controlled by special dampers (covering the system for the winter period of operation) in buildings and structures constructed using elements of a multi-layer lightweight building panel.

Moreover, in such building structures do not use thermal profiles with a perforated wall that excludes the formation of cold bridges, as in one of the analogues / 5 / and "thermal perforation" in the form of elongated holes along the width of the profile, as in the prototype / 8 /.

The number of storeys of a building using a multi-layer light building element is limited only by the bearing capacity of the frame: steel frames from rolled, bent or welded profiles, frames with wooden racks and beams reinforced with metal crossbars (for buildings and structures up to 4 floors, reinforced concrete monolithic or prefabricated frames , as well as combined frames: with reinforced concrete racks and metal crossbars, which allows the number of storeys of buildings to be made unlimited, which is more rational m solution than / 5 / and / 7 /.

According to the “industrial” and “prefabricated” options, cladding parts made of sheet material with milled mounting holes are used as cladding. Additionally, on the cladding details, milling “quarters” can be produced. Known solutions use sheet materials, not cladding parts. So in the analogue / 5 / (use gypsum plasterboard sheets, double gypsum fiber sheets, and in the prototype / 8 / use additional fiber cement sheets "Fibrite".

The presence of the assembly scheme and the marking on the details of the facings allows you to accelerate the coarse-grained assembly of the elements of multilayer lightweight building panels, to make assembly of the conveyor and provide an additional possibility of constructive reinforcement - to recreate the design and operational characteristics of the elements of multilayer lightweight construction panels and parts.

To improve the soundproofing properties of large-panel elements of building envelopes, the claimed element of a multi-layer lightweight building panel is laminated with internal air chambers 22. As an internal heat-insulating layer, a 3-layer heat-insulating layer 19 is used, consisting of two outer layers of ecowool 20 covering the internal temperature-moisture-regulating insert 21, used to improve sound insulation and regulation of temperature and humidity conditions, the collection and removal of condensate sweat Cove into the internal drainage system, both internal (vapor pressure) and external ( "dew point"), as well as removal of any accidental leaks from both inside and outside the precipitating structures.

The basic design of the element of the multi-layer lightweight building panel due to the use of moisture-resistant, fire-resistant and heat-insulating seals 28, 3-layer heat-insulating layer 19, internal air chambers 22, the effect of the “labyrinth seals” in the nodes of the joints of the elements, due to the connection “spike-groove” of the connected elements , details of claddings 26 and 27 (glass-magnesite sheet), allow to achieve a heat transfer resistance of 3.2 m 2 · ° C / W, an air noise insulation index of 50 dB, a sound insulation of 45 dBA with a thickness of the main con structure 190 mm.

To improve the heat-insulating properties of large-panel elements of building envelopes in the layered structure of the claimed structure of the inventive element of a multilayer lightweight building panel, an external vapor-permeable heat-insulating layer 38 with a thickness of at least 30 mm, heat transfer resistance of the glass-magnesite sheet used for cladding parts 26 and 27, no more than 0.26 W / m ° C at a density of not less than 900 kg / m 3 for the manufacture of parts and the outer cladding 27 is not less than 600 kg / m 3 for the manufacture of trim pieces 26 face (at morning) surfaces.

The details of claddings 26 and 27 of the claimed element of the multilayer lightweight building panel are made of magnesite or glass-magnesium (glass-magnesite) sheet (glass magnesium board, dolomite fiber sheet, DVL, xylitol fiber sheet, CVL), as a material having increased moisture resistance, fire resistance, improved elasticity (flexibility) and less weight at increased density compared with cement-bonded particleboards and their analogues, based on crushed plant material - “wood-fiber” it. The details of the lining 26 and 27 of the inventive element of the multilayer lightweight building panel form the front (inner) and outer surfaces of the main structure.

The use of tongue-and-groove or tongue-and-groove joints in adjoining nodes eliminates the penetration of moisture and the formation of the effect of "cold bridges". “Grooves” and “tongues” are formed by external patch joints 37 from strips of glass-magnesite sheet fixed to the cladding parts 26, 27 through the seal 28 in the “groove” part (to form the mounting gap) between the protrusion of the cladding part 27 or 26 in the form of a “spike” and the groove.

As noise-absorbing, moisture-proof, heat-insulating and fire-resistant seal 28, parts are used made of a non-combustible elastic material but GOST 481-90, additionally treated with special compounds or without treatment, in the form of a square and / or strips attached between the metal frame and the details of the facings with an external sides and metal frame and details of the inner lining.

Elements of a multi-layer lightweight construction panel can be supplied with all types of protective and decorative coatings, insulation systems, and exterior finishes (plaster, decorative coatings, with a protective coating in the form of paints). Additionally, it is possible to use an additional lathing of the main structure - mounted systems (including “ventilated” ones) both from the outside and from the inside (from the premises), according to the requirements of the project documentation.

The main advantages of the finished product manufactured according to this invention are environmental cleanliness, complete processability of the main materials used, a significant reduction in the area of attachment to the base and floor slabs (semi-mounted mounting method) and wall thickness by 2 or more times (minimum thickness with insulation of 190 mm) . Compared with traditional small-sized products (from 300 mm without insulation and from 400 mm with insulation), due to a significant increase in the coefficient of heat transfer resistance at a smaller thickness, taking into account the requirements of the relevant standards of the so-called “energy-passive house” (German: Passivhaus).

The thickness of the main structure of the elements of lightweight building panels and the enclosing structures assembled from them, as well as their overall dimensions in the finished form, can vary depending on the design requirements for the strength and thermal insulation properties of fire resistance and fire hazard.

From the elements of building lightweight panels of the main structure and protective-decorative layered coatings proposed in the invention, through their assembly, partitions, internal and external walls of buildings, self-supporting floor elements and coating panels can be assembled. Moreover, the front or outer surfaces of these walls can be supplied with a protective coating, insulation (facade), a hinged system (crate), and it is also possible to additionally enter a lot of anchor elements on the front and front parts of the building panels of the external walls.

The basic design of the multi-layer lightweight building panel element can be used in combination with all types of protective and decorative coatings.

The protective and decorative coating of the multi-layer prefabricated structure of the multi-layer lightweight building panel element in the form of hinged systems is performed as hinged internal and external subsystems and systems attached to the main structure. The following are used as protective, decorative, and technological layers: “ventilated” systems, insulation systems, with exterior and front decoration: decorative coatings, molded and hinged facade elements: granite-cement facade products, porcelain stoneware, piece stone, siding (plastic and metal) , metal facade, multilayer panels.

Guiding beetles, centering holes and marking allow assembling panel elements without selection and adjustment (connection of parts: stand - jumper, stand - guide). All details in the proposed solution are connected with the effect of the fit - tension, which provides increased strength of the connection.

The proposed method allows to perform in the structure of an element of a multilayer light building panel separated external and internal air chambers. The difference in the densities of the material used - the outer and inner layers of the insulation, and the air chambers allow you to get higher noise and heat insulation with a reduced thickness of the inner insulation layer.

The marking applied to all the details of the panel element allows you to speed up the assembly process according to detailed assembly diagrams and without delay in time to determine the location of each part according to the assembly diagram, as well as to control the correct assembly by scanning.

Reducing the complexity and cost of manufacturing due to the use of low energy-consuming materials and technological processes, reducing the complexity of installation due to the fact that the products are delivered ready-made, with external decoration and filled openings, as well as through the use of connecting elements in the vertical and horizontal angles docking points, and a reduction in construction time due to the rapid all-weather installation will allow the construction industry to launch a new technological step.

Information sources

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Claims (31)

1. An element of a multilayer lightweight building panel containing an internal frame made in the form of a steel collapsible frame containing perforated horizontal lower and upper guide elements, between which perforated vertical rack elements are installed, located in a row in the longitudinal direction of the guide elements and rigidly connected with them fasteners and nodal connections, as well as the inner heat-insulating layer and the outer and inner cladding, while horizontal and vertical the vertical elements are made in the form of steel profiles, and the profiles of the vertical elements have a C-shaped section,
characterized in that the frame frame elements are finished parts, while the horizontal parts are also made in the form of C-shaped profiles and also include horizontal jumpers, vertical and horizontal parts are connected and have additional perpendicular bends of the trapezoidal shelves in the docking nodes, perforation of the parts made in the form of transverse and longitudinal die-cuts for profile metal, sheet or wooden frame reinforcement elements, as well as in the form of technological notches and guide beads for reinforcing the docking unit with additional stiffening ribs, the inner heat-insulating layer is made three-layer in the form of two layers of cellulose insulation, between which there is an internal temperature-moisture-regulating insert with internal vertical air chambers, drainage channels and condensate-collecting channels interconnected into a single system, inner and outer claddings are prefabricated, in the form of parts with internal patch joints and structural units and fasteners, external patch joints and horizontal U-shaped profiles coated with an external heat-insulating layer are attached to the outer surface of the outer lining.
2. An element of a multilayer lightweight building panel according to claim 1, characterized in that the frame frame parts are made of steel with a thickness of 0.5-1.2 mm.
3. An element of a multilayer lightweight building panel according to any one of claims 1 to 2, characterized in that the frame frame parts can be coated with at least one additional protective layer.
4. An element of a multilayer lightweight building panel according to any one of claims 1 to 2, characterized in that the fasteners of the nodal joints are made in the form of screw joints, riveted joints, as well as on the basis of soldering and welding or joints by cold stamping with the formation of geometric and power short circuit.
5. An element of a multilayer lightweight building panel according to claims 1 to 2, characterized in that it contains additional reinforcing elements — metal profiles, wood elements and cladding elements — attached to the shelves of the frame parts in the form of a C-shaped profile using curved and concave "tongues", as well as punching, notches and guide poulevings of frame parts.
6. An element of a multilayer lightweight building panel according to any one of claims 1 to 2, characterized in that the connection of perforated technological transverse and longitudinal die-cuts (“tongues”) with the frame structure amplifiers is achieved through the use of adhesive, screw joints, and for profile metal amplifiers also due to soldering, welding and cold stamping with the formation of geometric and power short circuits.
7. An element of a multilayer lightweight building panel according to any one of claims 1 to 2, characterized in that fastening units with additional milling and mounting holes are made on the details of the outer and inner prefabricated facings.
8. An element of a multilayer lightweight building panel according to any one of claims 1 to 2, characterized in that a hollow metal core with a cap in which a through central hole is made is provided in the fastening assembly of the parts of the external and internal prefabricated facings.
9. An element of a multilayer lightweight building panel according to any one of claims 1 to 2, characterized in that the parts of the outer and inner prefabricated facings are equipped with moisture-resistant and fire-resistant seals.
10. An element of a multilayer lightweight building panel according to any one of claims 1 to 2, characterized in that in the three-layer inner heat-insulating layer, two outer layers of cellulose insulation are firmly connected to the internal temperature-moisture control insert.
11. An element of a multilayer lightweight building panel according to any one of claims 1 to 2, characterized in that the condensate collecting channels have strips of vapor-permeable material with metallic coated threads woven into them.
12. An element of a multilayer lightweight building panel according to any one of claims 1 to 2, characterized in that it has landing slots for docking with connecting elements.
13. An element of a multilayer lightweight building panel according to any one of claims 1 to 2, characterized in that it has around the perimeter connecting grooves for the connecting elements: vertical, horizontal, angular.
14. The element of the multilayer lightweight building panel according to any one of claims 1 to 2, characterized in that the connection unit of the element of the multilayer lightweight panel and the connecting element forms a “labyrinth seal”.
15. A method of manufacturing an element of a multilayer lightweight building panel, according to which the elements of the steel frame of the frame are made in the form of C-shaped profiles, perforated, cut to length, the frame of the element of the multilayer lightweight building panel in the form of a collapsible frame is assembled from them, the nodes of the frame are connected, inside the frame is placed the inner heat-insulating layer, and on the outside the inner lining, as well as the outer lining, covered with an outer heat-insulating layer,
characterized in that, as elements of the frame frame, finished parts are made in the form of C-shaped profiles with perforation in the form of notches, punching and pucking on one rolling mill by one technological process controlled by a software system, the frame frame is assembled from horizontal parts (guides: upper and lower and jumpers) and vertical parts (racks), while horizontal parts and vertical parts - racks in the form of C-shaped profiles are coated externally with fireproof, moisture resistant and heat-insulating seals, then the vertical parts are framed together with the horizontal parts (jumpers and guides), the inner heat-insulating layer is made three-layer, in the form of two layers of cellulose insulation, between which there is a temperature-moisture control insert, in which the internal vertical air chambers, drainage channels and condensate collection channels are made , interconnected into a single system, install this heat-insulating layer inside the jumpers fragmentally bonded vertically parts - racks, after which these fragments are interconnected on the assembly table by horizontal parts (guides and jumpers) and rigidly fastened by fasteners, nodal joints with at least one automated technological process, the inner and outer claddings are prefabricated, while the details are internal cladding is placed on one surface of the frame and attach them to the frame with at least one automated process, after which the element is light multi-layer of the welded building panel is turned over with the facing side down and the details of the outer cladding are fastened to the other surface of the carcass by at least one automated technological process on the outer surface of the outer surface of the outer surface joints and a U-shaped profile, on the outer surface of the outer lining with a U-shaped an external heat-insulating layer is applied with a seal with a profile, then the element of the multilayer light panel is moved to the external decoration area, where Dressed his final exterior.
16. The method of manufacturing an element of a multilayer lightweight building panel according to claim 15, characterized in that the vertical strut parts and the horizontal parts — guides and jumpers of the C-shaped profile — are made of steel with a thickness of 0.5-1.2 mm with possible subsequent application of at least one additional protective layer.
17. A method of manufacturing an element of a multilayer lightweight building panel according to any one of paragraphs.15-16, characterized in that on the short shelves of horizontal parts - guides and jumpers in the form of a C-shaped profile, additional vertical bends of trapezoidal shape are performed.
18. A method of manufacturing an element of a multilayer lightweight building panel according to any one of claims 15-16, characterized in that the fasteners of the nodal joints are made in the form of screw joints, as well as riveted joints, based on brazing and welding, or by cold forming to form geometric and power circuit.
19. A method of manufacturing an element of a multilayer lightweight building panel according to any one of claims 15-16, characterized in that additional reinforcing elements are mounted on the frame elements of the multilayer lightweight building panel attached to the shelves of C-shaped profiles of horizontal and vertical frame parts using curved and concave "tongues" (punching), as well as grooves and guiding beadings of parts in the form of a C-shaped profile, - shaped metal, wooden elements and elements of the details of the cladding with at least one vtomatizirovannym process.
20. A method of manufacturing an element of a multilayer lightweight building panel according to any one of claims 15-16, characterized in that the perforated technological transverse and longitudinal die-cuts (“tongues”) are connected to additional reinforcing elements of the frame through the use of adhesive, screw joints, and for profile metal amplifiers also through the use of soldering, welding and cold stamping with the formation of geometric and power short circuits.
21. A method of manufacturing an element of a multilayer lightweight building panel according to any one of paragraphs.15-16, characterized in that in the frame of the element of the building panel, prefabricated landing sockets for docking with connecting elements are performed.
22. A method of manufacturing an element of a multilayer lightweight building panel according to any one of claims 15-16, characterized in that the outer layers of the cellulose insulation are firmly connected to the inner temperature-moisture control insert in the inner heat-insulating layer.
23. A method of manufacturing an element of a multilayer lightweight building panel according to any one of claims 15-16, characterized in that fastening units with additional milling and mounting holes are made on the details of the outer and inner prefabricated facings.
24. A method of manufacturing an element of a multilayer lightweight building panel according to any one of claims 15-16, characterized in that a hollow metal core with a cap in which a through central hole is made is mounted in the fastening assembly of the parts of the precast cladding.
25. A method of manufacturing an element of a multilayer lightweight building panel according to any one of claims 15-16, characterized in that the outer heat-insulating layer is made of ecowool and compacted by plane pressing with at least one non-waste automated process.
26. A method of manufacturing an element of a multilayer lightweight building panel according to any one of claims 15-16, characterized in that the prefabricated parts of the outer and inner prefabricated facings are provided with moisture resistant and fireproof seals.
27. A method of manufacturing an element of a multilayer lightweight building panel according to any one of claims 15-16, characterized in that strips of vapor-permeable material with threads with a metallized coating woven into them are made in the condensate collecting channels.
28. A method of manufacturing an element of a multilayer lightweight building panel according to any one of claims 15-16, characterized in that an identification marking is applied to all parts and elements.
29. A method of manufacturing an element of a multi-layer lightweight building panel according to any one of claims 15-16, characterized in that in the prefabricated landing sockets of the connecting grooves of the frame of the element of the multi-layer lightweight building panel, the connecting elements are arranged in accordance with the marking, without matching and fitting: vertical, horizontal , angular, included in one delivery set with elements of a multilayer lightweight construction panel.
30. A method of manufacturing an element of a multilayer lightweight building panel according to any one of claims 15-16, characterized in that the assembly of the element of the multilayer lightweight building panel and the connecting element is formed to form a “labyrinth seal”.
31. A method of manufacturing an element of a multilayer lightweight building panel according to any one of claims 15-16, characterized in that the design of the elements of the multilayer lightweight building panels and finished enclosing structures, manufacturing frame parts and cladding parts, controlling the process of connecting the frame parts, attaching the cladding parts to frame, density control of the application of internal and external thermal insulation layers, quality control of all technological processes and operations is carried out by at least one automation engineer software suite bathrooms.
RU2012135323/03A 2012-05-29 2012-08-17 Element of multilayer light-weight construction panel, and its manufacturing method RU2522359C2 (en)

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