RU2510853C1 - Method for receipt and transmission of information via ac power lines - Google Patents

Method for receipt and transmission of information via ac power lines Download PDF

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RU2510853C1
RU2510853C1 RU2012139921/07A RU2012139921A RU2510853C1 RU 2510853 C1 RU2510853 C1 RU 2510853C1 RU 2012139921/07 A RU2012139921/07 A RU 2012139921/07A RU 2012139921 A RU2012139921 A RU 2012139921A RU 2510853 C1 RU2510853 C1 RU 2510853C1
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Russia
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line
transmitted
number
marker
bit
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RU2012139921/07A
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Russian (ru)
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RU2012139921A (en
Inventor
Андрей Анатольевич Сапронов
Александр Юрьевич Никуличев
Антон Геннадьевич Лещенко
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Общество с ограниченной ответственностью Научное предприятие "Электронные информационные системы"
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Priority to RU2012139921/07A priority Critical patent/RU2510853C1/en
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/70Systems integrating technologies related to power network operation and communication or information technologies mediating in the improvement of the carbon footprint of electrical power generation, transmission or distribution, i.e. smart grids as enabling technology in the energy generation sector
    • Y02E60/78Communication technology specific aspects
    • Y02E60/7876Communication technology specific aspects
    • Y02E60/7892Communication technology specific aspects using the power network as support for the transmission
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y04INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
    • Y04SSYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
    • Y04S40/00Systems for electrical power generation, transmission, distribution or end-user application management characterised by the use of communication or information technologies, or communication or information technology specific aspects supporting them
    • Y04S40/10Systems for electrical power generation, transmission, distribution or end-user application management characterised by the use of communication or information technologies, or communication or information technology specific aspects supporting them characterised by communication technology
    • Y04S40/14Communication technology specific aspects
    • Y04S40/146Communication technology specific aspects using power networks as support for transmission

Abstract

FIELD: electricity.
SUBSTANCE: application: in the field of electrical engineering. The method lies in location of the master unit at the line beginning; a number of slave units is placed along the line and each slave has its serial number (identifier); information transmitted from the master unit is coded by a sequence of symbols from the preset alphabet, at that each symbol corresponds its serial number in the alphabet (symbol code); the obtained sequence of symbols is formed into a package consisting of number fields, in the first number field identifier of a slave unit is written, symbol codes of the transmitted sequence are written in remaining fields; at the beginning of each field supply feed is interrupted (marker of a field beginning), symbol is transmitted to the line by supply of a number of supply feed half-waves, after transmission of the last field supply feed is interrupted (marker of a package ending). Capacitor is connected to power supply line; in each slave unit there's series-connected resistor and controlled switch connected to the power supply line between zero and phase conductors. Information transmitted from a slave unit to the master one is coded by binary bits sequence; while transmitting bit 1 resistor is connected to the power supply line, while transmitting bit 0 resistor is not connected; by means of voltage threshold sensor the master unit defines presence or absence of voltage in the line within range of receipt marker; when voltage is interrupted during transmission of receipt marker it will be considered that a slave unit has transmitted bit 1, otherwise bit 0; then the process is repeated for each bit of binary sequence transmitted from slave units to the master.
EFFECT: providing bidirectional information change.
2 cl, 3 dwg

Description

The invention relates to systems for transmitting information along power lines.

The invention can be used to create effective telemetry systems and remote control of electricity consumers through energy supply lines, including in street lighting control systems; household electrical appliances; industrial equipment.

The task of exchanging information on power lines is relevant. Most power exchange information exchange systems traditionally use power grid modems. But when designing and operating such modems, there are a number of problems and limitations.

Firstly, these are the requirements of international and state standards for electromagnetic compatibility of devices that transmit information on distribution electric power supply networks, which limit the energy level and the harmonic composition of the transmitted signals.

Secondly, the specific parameters of the power distribution networks determine a significant level of attenuation of the signals transmitted over the network, as well as a high level of interference generated by equipment connected to the network, which leads to a decrease in the reliability and range of information transmission.

Thirdly, these are requirements to minimize the cost of the information transmission system and operating costs.

The purpose of this invention is to offer a reliable, cheap, easily implemented method for exchanging information over a power supply network.

There is a method of targeted transmission of information on AC power lines C1 RU 2390933, 2008.09.29, IPC Н04В 3/54, H02J 13/00, which consists in the fact that at the beginning of the line a transmitter is placed, consisting of a microprocessor unit, a zero moment sensor of the main harmonic of the supply voltage and a controlled switch that can interrupt the supply of supply voltage to the line for a time equal to half the period of the main harmonic of the supply voltage, with the beginning at the point of transition of the main harmonic through zero, along the line of There are many receivers, each of which consists of a microcontroller, to which a sensor of moments of transition through zero of the main harmonic of the supply voltage is connected, each receiver has its own serial number (unique identifier of the receiver), the transmitted information is encoded by a sequence of characters from a predetermined alphabet, each symbol corresponding to its serial number in the alphabet (character code), then the resulting sequence of characters is formed into packets of a fixed length, each packet consists of from the receiver identifier field and a fixed number of numeric fields, the corresponding symbol code of the transmitted sequence is recorded in each numeric field, then the packet is transmitted along the power line, characterized in that the first interruption of the supply voltage (start marker) is performed at the beginning of the packet, then the value of the receiver identifier field encode by supplying the line with the corresponding number of half-waves of the supply voltage, then perform the second interruption of the supply voltage (field separator), after For which the value of the second packet field is encoded by feeding the number of half-waves of supply voltage corresponding to the symbol code into the line, after which the following interrupt is performed - the field separator and then similarly transmit all other fields of the packet, in each receiver the moments of supply voltage interruptions are determined by the absence of pulses from the sensor the moments of transition through zero, using the receiver microprocessor, the number of half-waves of the fundamental harmonic of the voltage passed between interruptions is calculated then, the number of half-waves calculated in each field of the packet is mapped to the symbol of the given alphabet according to the code value and thus the transmitted packet is restored, if the received identifier is not equal to the receiver’s own identifier, the packet is ignored, at the end of receiving the packet, all receivers are put into the waiting state of the start marker next package.

The essential features that coincide with the claimed invention is that at the beginning of the line is placed a transmitter consisting of a microprocessor unit, a sensor of moments of transition through zero of the main harmonic of the supply voltage and a controlled switch that can interrupt the supply of voltage to the line for a time equal to half the period the main harmonic of the supply voltage, with the beginning at the transition point of the main harmonic through zero, many receivers are placed along the line, each of which consists of a microcontrol the scooter, to which the sensor of moments of transition through zero of the fundamental harmonic of the supply voltage is connected, each receiver has its own serial number (unique identifier of the receiver), the transmitted information is encoded by a sequence of characters from a predetermined alphabet, with each symbol corresponding to its serial number in the alphabet (symbol code) , then the resulting sequence of characters is formed into packets of a fixed length, each packet consists of a receiver identifier field and a fixed number of chi fields, in each numerical field the corresponding symbol code of the transmitted sequence is written, then the packet is transmitted along the power supply line, characterized in that at the beginning of the packet the first interruption of the supply voltage (start marker) is performed, then the value of the receiver identifier field is encoded by supplying the corresponding amount to the line half-waves of the supply voltage, then perform a second interruption of the supply voltage (field separator), after which the value of the second field of the packet is encoded by applying to the line corresponding to the symbol code of the number of half-waves of the supply voltage, after which the following interrupt is performed - the field separator and then similarly transmit all other fields of the packet, in each receiver determine the moments of interruption of the supply voltage by the absence of pulses from the zero-moment sensor, use the receiver microprocessor to calculate the number of half-waves of the fundamental harmonic of the voltage that passed between interruptions, then, the number of half-waves calculated in each field of the packet with they match the character of the given alphabet in accordance with the code value and thus restore the transmitted packet, if the received identifier is not equal to the receiver's own identifier, the packet is ignored, at the end of receiving the packet, all receivers are put on hold in the token of the beginning of the next packet.

The disadvantage of this method is the inability to transmit response information from subordinate nodes located along the line to the main node located at the beginning of the line.

The purpose of this invention is to propose a method for bi-directional exchange of information on a supplying electric network of alternating current between the main node located at the beginning of the line and subordinate nodes located along the line.

The technical result of the application of this invention is the possibility of a bi-directional exchange of information between the main and subordinate nodes along the AC power lines.

In the proposed method, the task is solved as follows.

A data transmission system is being created on the AC power line, consisting of a main node connected at the beginning of the line and a plurality of subordinate nodes distributed along the line. The data transmission system diagram is shown in figure 1, where the numbers indicate:

1 - source of sinusoidal emf;

2 - controlled switch of the supply voltage of the main node;

3 - control microcontroller of the main node;

4 - threshold voltage sensor of the main node;

5 - threshold voltage sensor of the slave;

6 - control microcontroller of the first slave node;

7 - managed switch of the first slave node;

8 - resistor of the first slave node;

9 - threshold voltage sensor of the last slave;

10 - control microcontroller of the last slave node;

11 - managed switch of the last node;

12 - resistor of the last slave node;

13 - capacitor.

The main node consists of a managed supply voltage switch 2, a control microcontroller 3, and a threshold voltage sensor 4.

The threshold voltage sensor 4 outputs a voltage of positive polarity at its output if the absolute value of the instantaneous voltage in the mains is less than a specified level, in other cases, the voltage at the output of the threshold sensor is zero.

Managed switch 2 can interrupt the supply of voltage to the line according to the signal from the control microcontroller 3. Switching the switch from closed to open state occurs according to the signal of the control microcontroller at the moment the current in the line passes through zero. The switch is switched from open to closed state by the signal of the control microcontroller at the moment the voltage in the line passes through zero.

The control microcontroller 3 receives at its input signals from the threshold sensor 4 and provides control signals to the switch 2 to interrupt the supply of supply voltage to the line.

The first slave node consists of a threshold voltage sensor 5, a control microcontroller 6, a resistor 8, and a managed switch 7. The remaining slave nodes have the same structure and functions.

The threshold voltage sensor of the slave node 5 is similar to the threshold sensor of the main node 4 in terms of functions and output signals.

The control microcontroller of the slave node receives signals from the threshold sensor 5 at its input and provides control signals to the switch 7.

The managed switch of the slave node 7 connects the resistor 8 to the mains according to the signals of the microcontroller 6.

Each slave node has its own unique address (identifier). The address is indicated by a positive integer, for example, you can use the serial number of the subordinate node in the line as the address.

The process of transmitting information from the main node to the subordinate is as follows.

The information to be transmitted is written in the characters of a certain alphabet. Each symbol of this alphabet has its own serial number (hereinafter, the term "symbol code" is used). The information transmitted is represented by a sequence of characters of this alphabet.

The transmitted information is divided into packets. Each packet consists of a sequence of characters of a fixed length. An incomplete last packet is supplemented to its full length with any filler, for example, spaces.

Then each package is processed as follows: instead of an alphabet character, its code is written.

In order to indicate to which subordinate node the information is intended, the identifier (address) of the subordinate node, also written as a positive integer, is added to the beginning of each packet.

The transmission of the packet is to modulate the fundamental harmonic of the supply voltage. Modulation is carried out by interrupting the supply voltage for a time equal to half the period of the fundamental harmonic (half-wave), with the beginning at the transition point of the fundamental harmonic of the supply voltage through zero. Hereinafter, the term "marker" is used to indicate such an interrupt. The process of encoding a transmitted symbol consists in the arrangement of markers so that the number of half-waves of supply voltage occurring between the two markers is equal to the symbol code. Hereinafter, the interval between two markers is called the “field” of the packet.

Thus, the maximum number of half-waves that can be between two markers will be equal to the number of characters in the alphabet used to encode information, and the minimum will be equal to one half-wave. In cases where it is necessary to increase the minimum distance between markers, for example, to comply with regulatory requirements for the quality of the supply voltage, a positive integer (offset) is added to each character code in the alphabet.

The process of marker placement is controlled by the microcontroller of the main node 3, which sends a signal to turn the switch 2 off or on. The control signals are synchronized based on the signals received from the threshold voltage sensor 4.

The packet start marker is transmitted first, after which the required number of half-waves of the fundamental harmonic equal to the address code (identifier) of the slave node is passed into the line. Then pass the marker - the field separator, after which the number of half-waves equal to the code of the first character in the packet is passed into the line. Then the second token is passed - the separator, and the process is repeated until the last symbol of the packet and the end marker are transmitted.

The plot of the voltage in the line, when transmitting a packet of information from the main node to the slave, is shown in figure 2, in which the numbers denote:

14 - start packet marker;

15, 17, 19 - packet fields;

16, 18 - markers - field separators of the package;

20 - marker of the end of the packet of information transmitted from the main node.

After the packet termination marker, after a predetermined number of half-waves, the main node interrupts the supply voltage (receive marker) and waits for response information from the slave node.

The microcontroller of the slave node 6, based on the signals from the threshold voltage sensor 5, detects the packet start markers and separate markers between the fields, and also counts the number of half-waves of the supply voltage between the markers. According to the correspondence of the number of counted pulses and the code in a given alphabet, the symbol transmitted in each field is determined.

If the identifier of the slave node and the address transmitted in the first field of the packet do not match, the packet is ignored and the slave waits for the next packet from the main node. Since the identifier of each subordinate node in the line is unique, only the node to which the packet was sent from the main node will transmit response information.

Disabling the source of sinusoidal emf 1 occurs at the moment the current in the line passes through zero, while the capacitor 13 is charged to a voltage level close to the amplitude. Therefore, the voltage in the line after the opening of the switch 2 remains above the threshold of the threshold sensor of the main node 4 and the signal at its output is zero.

The information to be transmitted from the slave to the master is encoded with a binary sequence of a predetermined length. Transmission begins with the first bit of the binary sequence. If the transmitted bit is "1", then the microcontroller of the slave node 6 provides a control signal to the switch 7 and the resistor 8 is connected to the line. When this occurs, the capacitor 13 is discharged and the threshold voltage sensor 4 gives a pulse to the input of the microcontroller of the main node 3. The microcontroller of the main node 3, having received a pulse on the interval of the receive marker, writes bit “1” to the received binary sequence.

If the transmitted bit is "0", then the resistor 8 is not connected and the capacitor 13 is not discharged. In this case, the threshold voltage sensor 4 will not give a pulse in the interval of the reception marker and the microcontroller of the main node writes the bit “0” to the received binary sequence.

The process is then repeated for all bits of the binary sequence to be transmitted from the slave to the master.

Plots of voltage in the line u 1 (t) and signals u 2 (t) at the output of the threshold voltage sensor of the main node 4 are shown in figure 3, with the following notation:

21 - the upper threshold of the threshold voltage sensor;

22 - voltage in the line during transmission by the slave node of the bit "1";

23 - voltage in the line during transmission by the slave node of the bit "0";

24 - lower threshold threshold voltage sensor;

25 - signal at the output of the threshold voltage sensor when transmitting bit "1";

26 - signal at the output of the threshold voltage sensor when transmitting bit "0".

At the end of the information exchange session, there is a guaranteed pause before starting the transfer of the next packet.

If the equivalent resistance of the power line is capacitive in nature, the capacitor 13 may not be installed.

To implement the above method, the following industrial or custom products are used.

As a microcontroller, you can use any of the commercially available 8-bit microcontrollers, for example, manufactured by Atmel (http://www.atmel.com).

The threshold voltage sensor can be implemented similarly to the sensor given in C1 RU 2390933, 2008.09.29, IPC Н04В 3/54, H02J 13/00.

Opto-triac can be used as a managed switch.

As an alphabet for encoding, one of the computer encodings can be used, for example, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange).

The cost of the used components is low, so the cost of creating a system for exchanging information through the power supply line will be low. The system is simple, practically maintenance-free, which will minimize operating costs.

Thus, the achieved technical result, which the present invention is directed to, is the possibility of a bi-directional exchange of information between the main and subordinate nodes along the AC power lines.

Claims (2)

1. The method of transmitting and receiving information on AC power lines, which consists in the fact that at the beginning of the line there is a main unit consisting of a control microcontroller, a threshold voltage sensor, a controlled switch that interrupts the supply of half-wave of supply voltage to the line from the moment the current flows in the line through zero to the beginning of the half-wave of voltage of opposite polarity, along the line are many subordinate nodes, each of which has its own serial number (identifier), information, given from the main node, encoded by a sequence of characters from a predetermined alphabet, each character corresponding to its serial number in the alphabet (character code), the resulting sequence of characters is formed into a packet consisting of number fields, in the first field of the packet write the identifier of the subordinate node, in the remaining in the fields, the character codes of the transmitted sequence are recorded, at the beginning of each field, the supply voltage is interrupted (field start marker), the symbol is transmitted by feeding into the line The number of half-waves of the supply voltage corresponding to the code, after the last field is transmitted, the supply voltage is interrupted (packet termination marker), each slave node consists of a control microcontroller and a threshold voltage sensor, with which the intervals of the supply voltage interruptions are determined and the number of half-waves of the main harmonic of the voltage is calculated, between interruptions, the counted number of half-waves is associated with the symbol code of a given alphabet and thus m, the transmitted packet is restored if the received identifier is not equal to the own identifier of the slave node, the packet is ignored, characterized in that a capacitor is connected to the power supply line, a resistor and a managed switch connected in series to the power supply line between the neutral and phase conductors are connected in series, after the packet end marker is transmitted through a predetermined number of half-waves of the fundamental harmonic of the voltage, the main node interrupts supply voltage (reception marker), information transmitted from the slave to the main node is encoded with a sequence of binary bits, each bit of the sequence is transmitted in the interval of the next reception marker, when transmitting bit "1", a resistor is connected to the power line, when transmitting bit "0", the resistor do not connect, the main node using the threshold voltage sensor determines the presence or absence of voltage interruption in the line at the interval of the reception marker, if the voltage at the interval of the reception marker was interrupted, by that slave node transmitted bit "1", otherwise - bit "0", then the process is repeated for each bit of the bitstream transmitted from the slave node to the master.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that if the equivalent resistance of the power line is capacitive in nature, the capacitor specified in claim 1 is not connected.
RU2012139921/07A 2012-09-18 2012-09-18 Method for receipt and transmission of information via ac power lines RU2510853C1 (en)

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Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2154343C2 (en) * 1997-04-17 2000-08-10 Абб Рисерч Лтд. Technique and device to transmit information over power supply network
RU2265955C2 (en) * 2000-09-05 2005-12-10 ВРЭП С.п.А. Method, system and devices for transferring data in electric circuit
EP1938467A1 (en) * 2005-10-17 2008-07-02 Indesit Company S.p.A. Method, devices and system for transmitting information on power supply electric line
RU2390933C1 (en) * 2008-09-29 2010-05-27 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью Научно-производственная фирма "Электронные информационные системы" Method of address transmission of information via ac power lines

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2154343C2 (en) * 1997-04-17 2000-08-10 Абб Рисерч Лтд. Technique and device to transmit information over power supply network
RU2265955C2 (en) * 2000-09-05 2005-12-10 ВРЭП С.п.А. Method, system and devices for transferring data in electric circuit
EP1938467A1 (en) * 2005-10-17 2008-07-02 Indesit Company S.p.A. Method, devices and system for transmitting information on power supply electric line
RU2390933C1 (en) * 2008-09-29 2010-05-27 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью Научно-производственная фирма "Электронные информационные системы" Method of address transmission of information via ac power lines

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