RU2472603C1 - Gasostatic extruder - Google Patents

Gasostatic extruder Download PDF

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Publication number
RU2472603C1
RU2472603C1 RU2011131607/02A RU2011131607A RU2472603C1 RU 2472603 C1 RU2472603 C1 RU 2472603C1 RU 2011131607/02 A RU2011131607/02 A RU 2011131607/02A RU 2011131607 A RU2011131607 A RU 2011131607A RU 2472603 C1 RU2472603 C1 RU 2472603C1
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RU
Russia
Prior art keywords
gas
cylinder
valve
cover
needle
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RU2011131607/02A
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Russian (ru)
Inventor
Виктор Григорьевич Тришкин
Николай Васильевич Пасечник
Алексей Владимирович Зорин
Александр Владимирович Наливайко
Александр Павлович Шляхин
Наталья Викторовна Чехова
Original Assignee
Открытое акционерное общество Акционерная холдинговая компания "Всероссийский научно-исследовательский и проектно-конструкторский институт металлургического машиностроения имени академика Целикова" (ОАО АХК "ВНИИМЕТМАШ")
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Application filed by Открытое акционерное общество Акционерная холдинговая компания "Всероссийский научно-исследовательский и проектно-конструкторский институт металлургического машиностроения имени академика Целикова" (ОАО АХК "ВНИИМЕТМАШ") filed Critical Открытое акционерное общество Акционерная холдинговая компания "Всероссийский научно-исследовательский и проектно-конструкторский институт металлургического машиностроения имени академика Целикова" (ОАО АХК "ВНИИМЕТМАШ")
Priority to RU2011131607/02A priority Critical patent/RU2472603C1/en
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Publication of RU2472603C1 publication Critical patent/RU2472603C1/en

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Abstract

FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder metallurgy, particularly, to equipment for processing discrete or solid materials at combined or separate effects of gas pressure of up to 500 MPa and temperature of up to 2000°C developed inside working chamber of gasostatic extruder. Gasostatic extruder comprises foundation and container with top and bottom plugs to form its working chamber, and cooling system communicated wit said container and plugs. Gas system comprises shutoff valves each being provided with spring, servo drive with piston and bottom cover, and discharge gas cylinder secured on said bottom cover and having needle with through bore secured on crossbar. Helical coil spring is arranged aligned with gas discharge cylinder between aforesaid crossbar and servo drive bottom cover. Said cylinder is bolted to said bottom cover. Besides, for self-alignment of cylinder on valve needle, diameter of aforesaid holes exceeds that of bolts.
EFFECT: reduced metal input, higher reliability.
4 dwg

Description

The invention relates to the field of creating industrial equipment for processing large-sized products from solid and discrete materials with simultaneous or combined exposure to high, up to 500 MPa, pressures and temperatures up to 2000 ° C created in the gas environment of the working chamber of a gas thermostat.

The main components of the gas thermostat are:

- the actual gas thermostat, including a container with upper and lower plugs, as well as a power bed;

- gas and vacuum systems providing the necessary technological parameters of the gaseous medium in the working chamber of the machine;

- heating and cooling systems,

- as well as a control system.

With the mentioned working pressures and volumes of the working chambers of industrial machines reaching several cubic meters, the efficiency of a gas thermostat depends primarily on the reliability and performance of its main gas system. In turn, the quality level of the latter’s work is determined by the conditional passage and throughput of the shut-off equipment and the gas pipeline, through which the high-pressure medium is moved during the process, the performance of the compressors and the vacuum pump pumping gas from the balloon station to the container and back at the end of the working cycle, as well as with multiple evacuation of the working chamber of the machine during the execution of each working cycle. The development and application of reliable gas pressure equipment with increased nominal bore is of particular importance when creating modern industrial gas thermostats with a working chamber volume measured in cubic meters.

In the case of the use of shut-off valves with increased nominal bores, the axial load of the working medium on the needle critically increases. So, at a working pressure of a gas thermostat of 200 MPa in a direct-acting valve with a nominal bore DN = 5 mm, it is 390 kg, and in a valve with DN = 15 mm - 3530 kg, i.e. - increases by almost 10 times, and when the working pressure in it rises to 500 MPa, the axial force in the valve will be 8831 kg, which necessitates the use of locking springs of greater stiffness, and hence increased dimensions. So, for example, the outer diameter of a coil spring with a force of Pz = 8000 kg is 360 mm, and a cup spring with a similar force is 400 mm or more. At the same time, the piston diameter of the servo-cylinder cylinder, which is necessary to compress the cylindrical or disk spring unit when the valve is opened, is proportionally growing, as well as the dimensions and metal consumption of the valve as a whole, making it practically impossible to use industrial gas thermostats with a large volume of working chambers for direct-acting shut-off valves. So, to open a normally-closed direct-acting valve with a spring force of Pz = 8000 kg, the diameter of the servo cylinder should be approximately 320 mm or more. It must be recalled that the operating pressure of the pneumatic equipment produced today to control the high pressure valves of the gas thermostat is only 1 MPa. In connection with the aforementioned, an original compact design of locking equipment with increased nominal bore and throughput has been developed, which uses the operating pressure for the functioning of the valves, eliminating the above disadvantages of direct-acting valves.

An analogue of the claimed invention is a gas thermostat described in the copyright certificate No. 1748940, bull. No. 27 dated 07/23/1992. The analog gas thermostat contains a container closed at the ends by plugs with sealing seals. In the upper and lower plugs, gas inlets are made, connected through a system of gas shut-off valves to a pressure source (compressor), balloon station, instrumentation and the atmosphere. The gas system of the machine is equipped with standardized normally closed valves with an increased passage - DN 15 mm. A gas unloading cylinder is installed on the valve, the stem of which rests on the valve needle, and its subvalvular cavity is connected via an external high-pressure capillary to the unloading cylinder. Despite the fact that the use of an unloading cylinder in order to balance the “needle-rod of the gas cylinder” system with the pressure of the working medium made it possible to reduce the dimensions and metal consumption of the valve in comparison with the similar parameters of the direct-acting shut-off valve, in which the needle is not balanced, the disadvantage of the analog gas thermostat valve is that that its diametric size is determined by the location of several cylindrical clamping springs on the periphery of the servo piston beyond the outer diameter of the unloading cylinder and Then, there are tightening pins, and the total height of the valve includes the height of the gas cylinder mounted above the upper flange of the valve, which affects the metal consumption and, as a result, its cost.

A significant drawback of the analog valve is the use of several cylindrical springs located on the periphery of the servo piston, which, when they are inhomogeneously tightened (due to the complexity and impossibility of this operation), leads to distortion and jamming of the piston in the servo cylinder, misalignment of the valve needle in the saddle and, Thus, the violation of its internal tightness and performance.

Another significant drawback of the analog gas thermostat valve is the connection of its subvalvular cavity and the unloading gas cylinder with an external high pressure capillary. The capillary is a thick-walled metal tube of small diameter with a small nominal bore, used only to equalize the pressure in the connected cavities. So, for example, a газ5 × 1.6 capillary is used in an analog gas thermostat: where 5 mm is the outer diameter and 1.6 mm is the wall thickness. Currently available capillaries are made of either stainless or thermally hardened structural steels that do not have sufficient hardness. The connection of the capillary with the corresponding body part is as follows. At the end of the capillary, a cone with a sharp edge is machined at its truncated apex, and a left thread corresponding to the outer diameter of the capillary onto which the sleeve is screwed is cut behind the cone. Using the pressure nut, the sleeve moves forward, pressing the sharp edge of the capillary to the surface of the body part with a cone several degrees higher than the angle of the cone of the capillary, thus creating a capillary-body connection. In the case of using the described capillary connection, which does not have sufficient hardness and strength, its sharp edge is crushed during the operation of the equipment, leading to the valve failure as a result of a violation of internal tightness and the creation of an emergency. The thread made on the capillary of a small external diameter weakens its cross section, creating stress concentrators, and, as a result, breaks of the capillary wall under the influence of the working fluid pressure often occur in the concentrator zone. In addition, the processing of the cone and threading on capillaries of considerable length and especially on curved (not straight) can not be performed on metal-cutting machines, but are manufactured using special, expensive tools and tools. The same problem occurs when restoring the thread and capillary cone at the place of operation of the valve. In the case of the connection of the aforementioned high-pressure cavities with an external capillary, there is also the possibility of destruction of both the capillary itself and its connections as a result of an accidental external mechanical action.

The prototype of the invention is a gas thermostat containing a power frame, fastened with a bandage of high strength tape, a container closed at the ends of the upper and lower plugs, normally closed gas valves, a compressor and a balloon station. In the valve body, the bores of the supravalvular and subvalvular cavities form a sharp edge of the seat on which the needle rests in the closed state of the valve. An inner channel is made in the rod of the unloading cylinder and the needle, connecting the gas cylinder to the subvalvular cavity. The needle and the stem are interconnected by a conical metal-metal connection (RF patent No. 2418652, priority date 05/20/2011).

The disadvantages of the shut-off valve of the prototype gas thermostat include the inability to remove the seal blocks from the unloading cylinder and valve body intact with the rod and needle, respectively, for reuse. When disassembling the valve, for example, to restore the working conical surface of the needle or to replace one of the elements of the seal block, homemade pullers are used that destroy the fluoroplastic, rubber and bronze elements of the block compressed by the pressure of the working gas, as well as the seating surfaces of the valve bores and the discharge cylinder.

Another disadvantage of the valve is the complexity of its design, high demands on the accuracy of manufacturing valve parts and, therefore, the high complexity of manufacturing the valve.

The technical result of the invention is the creation of high-performance, reliable gas baths for processing industrial products in large-volume working chambers from discrete, solid and nanopowder materials with high (up to 500 MPa) gas pressure at temperatures up to 2000 ° C, as a result

- creating an effective gas system with increased (up to 500 MPa) working pressure with a large (several cubic meters) volume of the working chamber;

- reducing the time of creating a given pressure in the container and pumping gas out of it at the end of the working cycle;

- a significant reduction in metal consumption and cost by reducing the size of gas valves and the volume of their processing;

- increase the productivity of the gas stat and reduce the cost of products.

The technical result of the invention is achieved in that the gas thermostat contains a power bed and a container with upper and lower plugs forming its working chamber, connected by a gas pipeline to a gas system including shut-off valves, each of which is equipped with a spring, an actuator with a piston and a lower cover and fixed on the bottom cover of the servo-drive with a gas unloading cylinder with a needle with a through inner channel fixed to the cross-member, while the spring is made of a cylindrical screw, installed concentrically with the unloading gas cylinder and placed between the cross member and the bottom cover of the servo drive, the unloading gas cylinder is made with eyes and fixed to the bottom cover by means of bolts installed in the holes made in the eyes, while for the self-installation of the unloading cylinder on the valve needle without distortion, the diameter of the said holes exceeds diameter of bolts.

The design of the gas thermostat is presented in figures 1-4,

Where:

- figure 1 shows a gas thermostat with a fragment of the gas system;

- figure 2 shows a normally closed valve with an enlarged passage and a gas unloading cylinder mounted on the bottom cover of the servo, and a central clamping coil spring is installed between the fixed bottom cover of the servo and the movable cross member connected to the needle with the possibility of regulating the force of pressing the needle to the saddle Valve

- figure 3 presents a section aa of figure 2, explaining the diametrical and angular arrangement of the valve elements, namely: a locking needle with a discharge cylinder installed inside the clamping spring, and two studs connecting the valve body to the actuator.

- figure 4 shows the mounting of the discharge cylinder to the bottom cover of the servo.

The gas thermostat (figure 1) contains a power bed 1, fastened with a bandage of high-strength tape 2, a container 3, closed at the ends of the upper 4 and lower 5 plugs, normally closed valves 6, 7, 8 and 9, a gas compressor 10 and a balloon station 11. For controlling the flow of the working medium during technological operations of the working cycle, valves 6, 7, 8 and 9 are connected to each other and to other components of the gas system by a pipe with an enlarged passage 12, while the gas inlet 13 into the container 3 is made in the upper tube 4. The valve (Fig. .2) contains a housing 14 in which the bores of the supravalvular 15 and the subvalvular 16 cavities form a sharp edge 17 of the seat, on which the needle 18 rests when the valve is closed. The hydraulic or pneumatic actuator 19 is connected to the housing 14 by two studs 20. The actuator consists of a sleeve 21, a piston 22 and a lower cover 23, fixed inside the sleeve by means of a spring ring 24. When the control medium (gas or liquid) is supplied through the hole 25 under the piston 22, it moves up to the stop in the flange 26. At the same time, the cross-member 27 compresses the cylindrical screw with the help of pins 28 spring 29, opening the valve. The body of the unloading cylinder 30 is screwed by bolts 31 to the lower cover of the valve 23. Between the shaft of the bolts 31 and the holes in the eyes 32 of the unloading cylinder there are gaps 33 that allow the cylinder to self-mount on the valve needle without skewing even when the valve is mounted, since the fixing of the body of the unloading cylinder is carried out by bolts 31 after assembling the servo valve. Thus, the alignment of the valve and the discharge cylinder is maintained during operation of the valve.

A needle with a through inner channel connecting the unloading cylinder with a subvalvular cavity interacts with the cross member 27 using two half rings 34 and 35 installed in its bore.

The use of a gas cylinder 30 connected to a subvalve cavity allows balancing the needle of the valve with the internal working pressure of the gas system when the outer diameters of its both ends are equal, namely, the upper end 36 located inside the discharge cylinder and the lower 37 separating the supravalve and subvalve cavities. In this case, the spring 29 should only ensure the creation of the necessary contact pressures on the edge of the saddle, and not counteract the axial force of the high-pressure working medium acting on the needle in the subvalvular cavity. When the discharge cylinder is located on the bottom cover 27, the length of the needle having an internal channel is reduced, the dimensions and metal consumption of the valve are significantly reduced, as well as the cost and laboriousness of its manufacture. If the diameter of the upper end 36 of the needle 18 is slightly larger than the diameter of its lower end 37, then the needle is pressed against the saddle with an additional force equal to the difference in the forces acting on the opposite ends of the needle of the valve, additionally ensuring its reliable internal tightness in the closed state. Moreover, the magnitude of this effort increases with increasing working pressure in the system. For ease of removal of the seal block 38 of the unloading cylinder 30 without destroying its separate elements and reusing them, a washer 39 is installed on the upper end of the needle, with which the seal is removed from the bore of the unloading cylinder by removing the needle 18. The washer is fixed to the needle with a bolt 40 having through axial drilling 41. A similar function is performed by a collar 42 made on the lower end of the needle and located above its cone 43, but below the block of needle seals 44 in the valve body. Both seal blocks and the cross-member are put on the needle through its upper end before installing the washer 39 with the valve assembly as a whole.

The thermostat operates as follows. In the initial position, the power frame 1 is shifted from the axis of the container 3. On the lower tube 5, located outside the container, the workpiece is installed and introduced into the working space of the gas thermostat chamber. The power bed is mounted on the axis of the container. The control pressure is supplied to the valve actuator 8, the valve opens, and gas flows by gravity from the cylinders 11 into the container. After equalizing the pressure in them, the valve 8 closes. Then, valves 7 and 9 open, and with the help of compressor 10, the pressure in the container rises to a predetermined value. Next, the compressor stops, and valves 7 and 9 are closed. The heating system is turned on, warming up the workpiece to the required temperature. At a given pressure and temperature, the workpiece is aged for the required time. Then the working space of the chamber with the workpiece is cooled. Valve 8 opens, and gas flows by gravity from container 3 to cylinders 11. The remaining gas is discharged through open valve 6 from the container to a low-pressure balloon station (not shown) or to the atmosphere. After reducing the pressure in the container to atmospheric pressure, the power bed 1 moves from the axis of the container, releasing the lower plug 5, which together with the processed product is removed from it, and the cycle repeats.

Thus, equipping the gas system of the machine with normally closed valves with an increased nominal bore and a gas unloading cylinder connected to the subvalvular cavity by an internal channel made in the valve needle allows:

- create a reliable and high-performance gas thermostat thanks to the use of compact shut-off valves in its gas system with increased nominal bore;

- reduce the execution time of the operations of the work cycle associated with the movement of the working medium through the gas pipeline and through the locking equipment with increased throughput;

- reduce the total cycle time, increase the productivity of the gas bath and reduce the cost of products;

- completely eliminate the noise load on the staff when replacing the hydraulic servo of the shut-off valves with pneumatic;

- significantly reduce the length of the locking needle and facilitate the implementation of the internal channel of small diameter.

Claims (1)

  1. A gas thermostat containing a power bed and a container with upper and lower plugs forming its working chamber, connected by a gas pipeline to a gas system, including shut-off valves, each of which is equipped with a spring, a servo-drive with a piston and a lower cover and a gas unloading cylinder fixed to the lower cover of the servo-drive with a needle with a through inner channel mounted on the cross-member, characterized in that the spring is made of a helical cylindrical, mounted concentrically with a gas discharge cylinder and size ene between the cross member and the bottom lid servo cylinder gas discharge is made with eyelets and is fixed on the lower cover by means of bolts installed in the holes formed in the lugs, wherein for self-alignment unloading valve needle cylinder without skewing the diameter of said holes is greater than the diameter of bolts.
RU2011131607/02A 2011-07-28 2011-07-28 Gasostatic extruder RU2472603C1 (en)

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Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
SU1748940A1 (en) * 1990-10-19 1992-07-23 Всесоюзный научно-исследовательский и проектно-конструкторский институт металлургического машиностроения им.А.И.Целикова Gas pressure control device
US6993904B2 (en) * 2004-05-06 2006-02-07 Eaton Corporation Integrated valve system
RU2402409C1 (en) * 2009-02-05 2010-10-27 Открытое акционерное общество Акционерная холдинговая компания "Всероссийский научно-исследовательский и проектно-конструкторский институт металлургического машиностроения имени академика Целикова" (ОАО АХК "ВНИИМЕТМАШ") Gasostatic extruder
RU2418652C2 (en) * 2009-07-30 2011-05-20 Открытое акционерное общество Акционерная холдинговая компания "Всероссийский научно-исследовательский и проектно-конструкторский институт металлургического машиностроения имени академика Целикова" (ОАО АХК "ВНИИМЕТМАШ") Gasostatic extruder

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
SU1748940A1 (en) * 1990-10-19 1992-07-23 Всесоюзный научно-исследовательский и проектно-конструкторский институт металлургического машиностроения им.А.И.Целикова Gas pressure control device
US6993904B2 (en) * 2004-05-06 2006-02-07 Eaton Corporation Integrated valve system
RU2402409C1 (en) * 2009-02-05 2010-10-27 Открытое акционерное общество Акционерная холдинговая компания "Всероссийский научно-исследовательский и проектно-конструкторский институт металлургического машиностроения имени академика Целикова" (ОАО АХК "ВНИИМЕТМАШ") Gasostatic extruder
RU2418652C2 (en) * 2009-07-30 2011-05-20 Открытое акционерное общество Акционерная холдинговая компания "Всероссийский научно-исследовательский и проектно-конструкторский институт металлургического машиностроения имени академика Целикова" (ОАО АХК "ВНИИМЕТМАШ") Gasostatic extruder

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Effective date: 20130729