RU2456381C1 - 400 kA RECOVERY ELECTROLYSER WITH HIGH ENERGY EFFICIENCY - Google Patents

400 kA RECOVERY ELECTROLYSER WITH HIGH ENERGY EFFICIENCY Download PDF

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RU2456381C1
RU2456381C1 RU2010153347/02A RU2010153347A RU2456381C1 RU 2456381 C1 RU2456381 C1 RU 2456381C1 RU 2010153347/02 A RU2010153347/02 A RU 2010153347/02A RU 2010153347 A RU2010153347 A RU 2010153347A RU 2456381 C1 RU2456381 C1 RU 2456381C1
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Russia
Prior art keywords
anode
cathode
electrolyzer
aluminum
cylinder
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RU2010153347/02A
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Russian (ru)
Inventor
Динсюн ЛВ (CN)
Динсюн ЛВ
Ювэй У (CN)
Ювэй У
Сицюань ЦИ (CN)
Сицюань ЦИ
Шаосянь МА (CN)
Шаосянь МА
Цзихун МАО (CN)
Цзихун МАО
Хуэй ДУН (CN)
Хуэй ДУН
Дэцюань ВАН (CN)
Дэцюань ВАН
Цзинсюн ЛЮ (CN)
Цзинсюн ЛЮ
Юй МАО (CN)
Юй МАО
Юнцзюнь ГУАНЬ (CN)
Юнцзюнь ГУАНЬ
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Нортистерн Юниверсити Инджиниринг Энд Рисерч Инститьют Ко., Лтд.
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Priority to CNA2008100115870A priority Critical patent/CN101280435A/en
Priority to CN200810011587.0 priority
Priority to CN2008101868798A priority patent/CN101457370B/en
Priority to CN200810186879.8 priority
Application filed by Нортистерн Юниверсити Инджиниринг Энд Рисерч Инститьют Ко., Лтд. filed Critical Нортистерн Юниверсити Инджиниринг Энд Рисерч Инститьют Ко., Лтд.
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C25ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25CPROCESSES FOR THE ELECTROLYTIC PRODUCTION, RECOVERY OR REFINING OF METALS; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25C3/00Electrolytic production, recovery or refining of metals by electrolysis of melts
    • C25C3/06Electrolytic production, recovery or refining of metals by electrolysis of melts of aluminium
    • C25C3/08Cell construction, e.g. bottoms, walls, cathodes
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C25ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25CPROCESSES FOR THE ELECTROLYTIC PRODUCTION, RECOVERY OR REFINING OF METALS; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25C3/00Electrolytic production, recovery or refining of metals by electrolysis of melts
    • C25C3/06Electrolytic production, recovery or refining of metals by electrolysis of melts of aluminium
    • C25C3/08Cell construction, e.g. bottoms, walls, cathodes
    • C25C3/10External supporting frames or structures
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C25ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25CPROCESSES FOR THE ELECTROLYTIC PRODUCTION, RECOVERY OR REFINING OF METALS; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25C3/00Electrolytic production, recovery or refining of metals by electrolysis of melts
    • C25C3/06Electrolytic production, recovery or refining of metals by electrolysis of melts of aluminium
    • C25C3/08Cell construction, e.g. bottoms, walls, cathodes
    • C25C3/12Anodes
    • C25C3/125Anodes based on carbon
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C25ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25CPROCESSES FOR THE ELECTROLYTIC PRODUCTION, RECOVERY OR REFINING OF METALS; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25C3/00Electrolytic production, recovery or refining of metals by electrolysis of melts
    • C25C3/06Electrolytic production, recovery or refining of metals by electrolysis of melts of aluminium
    • C25C3/16Electric current supply devices, e.g. bus bars
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C25ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25CPROCESSES FOR THE ELECTROLYTIC PRODUCTION, RECOVERY OR REFINING OF METALS; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25C3/00Electrolytic production, recovery or refining of metals by electrolysis of melts
    • C25C3/06Electrolytic production, recovery or refining of metals by electrolysis of melts of aluminium
    • C25C3/22Collecting emitted gases

Abstract

FIELD: metallurgy.
SUBSTANCE: electrolyser contains anode carbon blocks, anode buses, a device of skin breakage and power supply, an anode lifting device, trusses and supports, an electrolyser cover system and waste gases removal system, cathode bus arrangement, cathode carbon blocks, cathode lining and electrolyser cathode casing, whereby the anode structure and the trestles are supported by a structure of tube grid trusses, the anode carbon block has eight steel nipples configured symmetrically, the anode unit has 24 twin anodic sets or 48 singular anodic sets, six alumina and two fluoride salt feeding points, an extensive flue gas collection and expelling system is installed between the horizontal cover plate and a feeding hopper, a device for sealing the anode rod through the suction with negative pressure, a lining structure developed on the basis of modelling of the electric field and thermal field that holds heat on the bottom, dissipates heat from the sides, and additionally expands at the end of the cathode layer, the cathode buses have an asymmetric configuration, and there are six points of the electricity supply along the long side of the electrolyser and grid trusses of rectangular tubes are used as a pipeline for the air supply over the electrolyser, and a muffler for the residual air from a feeding and skin breaking cylinder.
EFFECT: significant energy saving and reduced emission effect.
9 cl, 12 dwg

Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Technical field
The present invention relates to the field of aluminum electrolysis, in particular to the design of an electrolytic cell for the reduction of aluminum with prebaked anodes, which is the basic unit used in the melt method of aluminum production. More specifically, the present invention relates to an ultra-large capacity recovery electrolyzer with high energy efficiency of 400 kA.
Description of the prior art
As is known, a traditional electrolyzer for the reduction of aluminum with prebaked anodes consists mainly of two parts, i.e. anode device and cathode device. The anode device contains sets of anode carbon blocks, anode tires, a crust and nutrition breaker, anode lifting mechanism, trusses, gantry supports and an electrolyzer gas exhaust system. The cathode device comprises carbon cathode blocks, an electrolytic cell lining structure, and an electrolytic cell casing structure. Conventional aluminum reduction cells with prebaked anodes have several problems. In order to overcome these problems, Chinese Patent No. CN 200510047245.0 describes a new electrolytic cell design for recovering high-capacity aluminum with prebaked anodes. This invention is primarily aimed at the manufacture and operation of an electrolyzer for the reduction of aluminum with prebaked anodes of 160 kA - 360 kA.
At present, with the increase in the capacity of the electrolytic cell for the reduction of aluminum with prebaked anodes, he is faced with new problems, including the stability of the magnetic flux, the cathode device, the anode device of the reducing electrolyzer, and the effective shelter with the exhaust gases of the electrolyzer. Therefore, those skilled in the art need to pay great attention to these issues.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a new solution that can eliminate contradictions due to increased electrolytic cell capacity, such as increased complexity of an optimized cathode busbar design, increased power consumption and increased exhaust gas emission of an electrolyzer in a 400 kA ultra-high capacity ultra-high-capacity reduction electrolytic cell. Thus, a new type of reduction electrolyzer with high energy efficiency of 400 kA is presented after the improvements on the aforementioned electrolyzer for the reduction of high-capacity aluminum with prebaked anodes are carried out.
A 400 kA high-energy recovery electrolyzer containing: anode carbon blocks, anode tires, a crust and power breaker, anode, truss and support lifting device, an electrolyzer exhaust gas shelter and exhaust system, a cathode busbar structure, cathodic carbon blocks, a cathodic structure lining and cathode casing of the electrolyzer, characterized in that:
1) the anode device and the gantry columns are supported by the design of tubular trellised farms;
2) the anode carbon block has eight steel nipples, configured symmetrically;
3) the anode device has 24 dual anode sets or 48 single anode sets, six alumina feed points and two fluoride salt feed points;
4) a branched system for collecting and removing exhaust gases is installed between the horizontal shelter plate and the feed hopper;
5) a device is provided for sealing the anode rod by suction with negative pressure;
6) a new lining design with heat retention on the hearth, heat dissipation on the side and an additional expansion layer at the end of the cathode were developed based on the simulation of the electric field and thermal field;
7) the cathode buses have an asymmetric configuration, and six power supply points are provided on the long side of the cell; and
8) lattice trusses from rectangular pipes are used as both a pipeline for supplying air over the electrolytic cell, and a silencer for the remaining air from the crust destroying the crust and the supply cylinder.
A 400 kA high-energy recovery electrolyzer according to claim 1, wherein said tubular grating truss structure comprises a connecting beam and a crane holder provided between two grating trusses, characterized in that:
the lattice truss has a connecting beam at its top and consists of gantry columns, upper chords, lower chords, straight lattice elements and diagonal lattice elements, all of which take the form of rectangular steel pipes; wherein
1) the direct elements of the lattice are spaced a certain interval between the upper chords and lower chords;
2) inclined chords are placed between the upper chords and lower chords, on both sides of the direct elements of the lattice;
3) the direct elements of the lattice and the inclined chords provided on both sides of the direct elements of the lattice are made in the form of an umbrella or the shape of an inverted umbrella in turn; and
4) the connecting beam is located on top of the direct elements of the lattice and is in the same vertical plane with the upper chords.
A 400 kA high-energy reduction electrolyzer according to claim 1, wherein said set of anode carbon block has eight symmetrical steel nipples containing transverse beams and nipples, characterized in that: the transverse beam consists of two main transverse beams, two diagonal transverse beams and four small transverse beams, with:
1) the main transverse beams and diagonal transverse beams are connected to the X-shaped traverse;
2) the middle part of each small transverse beam is connected vertically with the ends of the main transverse beams;
3) both ends of each small transverse beam are bent down to connect with nipples, and the bottom of the nipples is fixed to the carbon block; and
4) the central part, where two diagonal transverse beams intersect each other, is attached from above to the anode rod.
A 400 kA high energy-efficiency reduction electrolyzer according to claim 1, wherein said new anode arrangement contains an electrolytic cavity for aluminum reduction, carbon anode blocks and power points, characterized in that:
1) all power points are located in a position where four sets of anode carbon blocks converge;
2) the gaps between the carbon blocks of two adjacent anode sets at the supply points are widened, while the gaps between the carbon blocks of two adjacent anode sets at the supply points are narrowed; and
3) the four corners of the anode carbon blocks at the supply points are cut off to expand the space of the supply points.
A 400 kA high-energy recovery electrolyzer according to claim 1, wherein said branched exhaust gas collection and exhaust system comprises an electrolyzer chimney, a main chimney and a control valve, characterized in that:
1) the chimney is located inside the layer between the horizontal shelter plate and the feed hopper, the lower part of the feed hopper is made in a V-shape, instead of being welded to a flat truss;
2) the chimney is divided into two parallel branch chimneys and is located respectively inside the left and right layers between the horizontal shelter plate and the feed hopper of the electrolyzer for aluminum recovery;
3) each of the two branch chimneys further comprises a front air inlet and a rear air inlet;
4) the main chimney, to which two branch chimneys lead, is equipped with a control valve.
A 400 kA high energy recovery electrolyzer according to claim 1, wherein said device is provided for sealing the anode rod by using negative pressure suction, the device comprising a side plate, a front end plate and an upper plate, characterized in that: the device is a cavity formed by two side plates, the upper plate and the front end plate and made surrounding the three sides of the anode rod, while
1) the truss structure is adapted to three surrounded sides of the anode rod at the front end of the device with a cavity;
2) the rear end of the cavity is welded to the beam of the grate and communicates with a horizontal chimney; and
3) a device with a cavity is located above a horizontal shelter plate, which is used as a bottom plate.
A 400 kA high energy-efficiency reduction electrolyzer according to claim 1, wherein said new lining design is designed based on modeling an electric field and a thermal field, and the lining design contains cathode carbon blocks, a cathode steel rod, a layer of hearth refractory material, characterized in that:
1) the cathode steel rod is located in the casing of the electrolyzer, and the part of the steel rod emerging from the cathode carbon blocks is clamped by a U-shaped metal plate, and then sealed by a cast refractory;
2) the cathode steel rod is wrapped with refractory insulating paper and filled with mass for the cathode rods;
3) the middle hearth of cathode carbon is provided with granular refractory material, while both ends are provided with refractory bricks; and
4) a direct structure of the edge mass is provided, instead of the arc structure of the edge mass, between the cathode carbon blocks and the silicon carbide bricks of the side wall.
A 400 kA high energy-efficiency reduction electrolyzer according to claim 1, wherein said cathode buses have an asymmetric configuration and electric power supplied from six points on the long side of the electrolyzer, wherein the cathode buses contain a bus on the electric input side; a bus on the output side, a cathode flexible bus on the electric input side, a cathode flexible bus on the output side, a bottom electrolyser bus; and a riser tire, characterized in that:
1) a local compensation bus is additionally provided, and this local compensation bus enters the bottom of the cell and extends along the end of the cell to restore aluminum, then rises to a certain height; and
2) 56 cathode flexible buses and 6 riser buses were used to supply electricity to the electrolytic cell for aluminum recovery, and the number of cathode flexible buses connected to 6 riser buses is 10: 9: 9: 9: 9: 10, respectively.
A 400 kA high-energy recovery electrolyzer according to claim 1, wherein said rectangular grid trellis is also used as both an air supply duct and a silencer for residual air from a crust-destroying crust, and a supply cylinder, contains a compressed air pipeline crushing crust a cylinder, a supply cylinder and an aluminum release cylinder, characterized in that:
1) the compressed air pipe is connected to the rectangular steel pipe of the grill in the X direction through a one-way air inlet valve;
2) a rectangular steel tube of the grate in the X direction is connected to the air inlet pipelines of the crust-destroying cylinder, the supply cylinder and the aluminum release cylinder through an electromagnetic control valve; and
3) the residual air exhaust pipes from the crust-destroying cylinder, the supply cylinder and the aluminum exhaust cylinder are connected to rectangular steel pipes in the X direction or in the Y direction through an electromagnetic control valve.
Compared to the currently existing typical electrolytic cell for reducing aluminum with prebaked anodes of the 300 kA family, a 400 kA high energy-efficient reduction cell in accordance with the present invention has at least the following advantages:
1) Cathode buses have a more economical and safer location, and there is a much more uniform current distribution. Due to the use of an asymmetric configuration of the cathode bus around the electrolyzer and six points of electric power supply on the long side of the electrolysis cell, the effects of neighboring electrolytic cells to restore aluminum and currents in the buses of the adjacent electrolysis casing are compensated for the magnetic field distribution, the requirements for stability of the magnetic flux of the electrolytic cell for aluminum recovery are satisfied; the phase difference of the equal voltage drop among these branches is minimized, and the phase difference of the equal voltage drop on the input and output power sides of each branch is minimized, so that safety is ensured during the firing period of the electrolytic cell for aluminum reduction; and tire consumption is the smallest provided that the voltage drop across the tires is the same.
2) The design of the lining of the electrolytic cell for aluminum recovery complies with the principle of enhancing thermal insulation on the bottom of the cell and improving heat dissipation on the sides of the cell in order to ensure the existence of various isothermal lines in the corresponding refractory thermal layer of the lining in order to improve the operation of the cell for aluminum recovery and extend its service life.
3) There is an optimized steel structure for electrolysis for aluminum reduction. In particular, the electrolytic cell for aluminum reduction has a boat-type skeleton with a single-rib structure and an anode device made of tubular trellised farms. Thus, steel consumption and processing complexity are significantly reduced.
4) There is a more optimized location of power points. In particular, a new arrangement of anode carbon blocks was used, including six alumina feed points and two fluoride salt feed points, so that the gaps between the carbon blocks narrow, while the supply space expands accordingly and the effective working area of the anode increases. Thus, not only is energy consumption reduced, but also productivity is improved.
5) There is an optimized system for collecting the exhaust gas of the electrolyzer for the reduction of aluminum. In particular, this system eliminates air leakage due to the installation of a crust destruction and nutrition device by efficiently using the negative pressure caused by the temperature difference in the electrolyzer's shelter. Thus, the uniformity of the distribution of negative pressure in the shelter and the efficiency of gas collection from the exhaust gas of the electrolytic cell for aluminum recovery are greatly improved and the utilization of thermal energy of the electrolytic cell for aluminum recovery also increases to a certain extent.
In general, in comparison with a traditional electrolyzer for reducing aluminum with prebaked anodes of the 300 kA family, a 400 kA high energy-efficiency reducing electrolyzer in accordance with the present invention has a noticeable energy-saving and emission-reducing effect, as well as great economic advantages and a good distribution index .
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
These and / or other structural features and advantages of a 400 kA high energy-efficiency reduction electrolyzer according to the invention will become apparent and more apparent from the following description of embodiments shown in combination with the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a general front view of a structure of an electrolytic cell for reducing aluminum with prebaked anodes in accordance with the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a side elevational view of an aluminum recovery cell construction in accordance with the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a structural schematic view of a tubular trellised truss in accordance with the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a structural schematic view of 8 steel nipples of the anode in accordance with the present invention, wherein FIG. 4A is a stereogram of steel nipples, and FIG. 4B is a schematic view showing steel nipples in assembled condition;
FIG. 5 is a schematic view of an arrangement of anodes of an electrolytic cell for reducing aluminum in accordance with the present invention;
FIG. 6 is a structural schematic view of a branched exhaust gas collection and exhaust system, FIG. 6A is a front view of this system, and FIG. 6B is a plan view of a chimney;
FIG. 7 is a structural schematic view of an anode rod sealing apparatus in accordance with the present invention, wherein FIG. 7A is a plan view of a sealing device, and FIG. 7B is a section along line BB of FIG. 7.
FIG. 8 is a horizontal schematic view of the structure of a lining of an electrolytic cell for aluminum reduction in accordance with the present invention;
FIG. 9 is a structural schematic view of the cathode busbar of an electrolytic cell for reducing aluminum in accordance with the present invention, wherein FIG. 9A is an enlarged view of the cathode bus, and FIG. 9B is a schematic plan view of a cathode busbar; and
FIG. 10 is a schematic view of a tubular trellis truss provided on the anode device of an aluminum recovery electrolytic cell, which is used as a duct for supplying air and a silencer for residual air from the crust depleting and feed cylinder.
In the drawings, the following reference numerals indicate the following components:
1 - bottom beam; 2 - casing of the electrolyzer with a boat-type frame with one rib; 3 - lining; 4 - support; 5 - anode bus; 6 - anode clamp; 7 - anode lifting mechanism; 8 - device destruction of the crust and nutrition; 9 - anode carbon block; 10 - cathode carbon block; 11 - electrolyser cover; 12 - the main chimney; 13 - gantry supports; 14 - lower chord; 15 - upper chords; 16 - diagonal element of the lattice; 17 - a direct element of the lattice; 18 - crane holder; 19 - connecting beam; 20 - the main transverse beam; 21 - a small transverse beam; 22 - an inclined beam; 23 - nipple; 24 - anode rod; 25 - the cavity of the cell for the restoration of aluminum; 26 - power point; 27 - the gap between the anodes at the feed point; 28 - the gap between the anodes is not at the point of supply; 29 - the central gap; 30 - feed hopper; 31 - steel U-shaped plate of the chimney; 32 - branch chimney; 33 - horizontal plate of the shelter; 34 - anode balancing bus; 35 - chimney collector; 36 - control valve; 37 - side plate; 38 - front end plate; 39 - upper plate; 40 - granular material; 41 - heat shield; 42 - heat-resistant heat shield; 43 - heat-insulating brick; 44 - brick for corrosion protection of the bath; 45 - heat-insulating felt; 46 - U-shaped metal plate; 47 - cast refractory; 48 - brick made of silicon carbide; 49 - arched lateral mass; 50 - refractory insulating paper; 51 - cathode steel rod; 52 - weight for steel rods; 53 - bus on the input side of the electric power; 54 - end bypass tire; 55 - bottom busbar of the electrolyzer; 56 - local compensation bus; 57 - bus on the electricity output side; 58 - tire riser; 59 - flexible bus on the input side of the electric power; 60 - a flexible bus on the electricity output side; 61 - bus short circuit; 62 - crust destroying cylinder; 63 - feeding cylinder; 64 - supply air duct for destroying the crust of the cylinder; 65 - return duct destroying the crust of the cylinder; 66 - supply air duct of the supply cylinder; 67 - return air duct of the supply cylinder; 68 - reverse purge air duct; 69 - pipeline of compressed air; 70 - one-way control valve; 71 - pipeline for the removal of remaining air from the cylinder; 72 - manual control valve.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION
These and / or other design features and advantages of a 400 kA high energy-efficiency reduction electrolyzer in accordance with the present invention will become apparent and more apparent from the following description of embodiments given in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
In accordance with the present invention, the anode device of a 400 kA high energy-efficiency reduction electrolyzer includes a set of 9 anode carbon blocks, anode tires 5, a crust and power breaking device 8, anode lifting device 7, a support 4, an extensive exhaust gas collection and exhaust system consisting of a lid 11 of the electrolyzer, the main chimney 12 and a branched chimney 32. The cathode device comprises cathode carbon blocks 10, a lining structure and a casing structure of the electrolyzer.
With reference to FIG. 1 and 2, a 400 kA high energy efficiency reduction electrolyzer is given as an example for the purpose of describing the present invention in detail. In fact, the present invention can also be applied to ultra-large capacity recovery electrolyzers with a high energy efficiency of the 400 kA - 550 kA family.
1. Anode device of an electrolyzer for aluminum reduction .
1) Farm and support
As shown in FIG. 3, for the upper chords 15 and lower chords 14, rectangular steel pipes with dimensions of 200 mm (length) × 200 mm (width) × 10 mm (thickness) were used; and for straight lattice elements 17 and diagonal lattice elements 16, rectangular steel pipes of dimensions 150 mm (length) × 150 mm (width) × 8 mm (thickness) were used. The straight elements of the lattice 17 are located with a certain interval between the upper chords 15 and lower chords 14, and they are respectively connected to each other by welding. That is, the direct elements of the lattice and the inclined chords provided on both sides of the direct elements of the lattice are arranged in turn. After the assembly of two trellised trusses on the upper chords 15 of the two trellised trusses, connecting beams 19 are installed at the top of the direct lattice elements 17 along the direction perpendicular to the trellised trusses. Further, the connecting beams 19 are respectively connected to the upper chords 16 of the trellised trusses by welding. Then, gantry supports 13 are provided at both ends of the grating trusses in the longitudinal direction of the electrolytic cell for aluminum reduction. For gantry supports 13, rectangular steel pipes of 250 mm (length) × 250 mm (width) × 12 mm (thickness) are used. Under the connecting beams 19 and over the direct elements of the lattice 17, faucet holders 18 are welded. Each crane holder is provided respectively for one straight grid element. The crane holder is made of steel channel, such as No. 20 according to Chinese national standard. Thus, the assembly of the tubular lattice truss of the anode device of the electrolytic cell for the reduction of aluminum is completed.
In one example, a 400 kA high energy recovery reduction cell has a total length of 19,184 mm and a total height of 6,200 mm.
2) Set of anode carbon blocks
The set of anode carbon blocks contains an anode rod 24, eight steel nipples and two carbon blocks 9.
As shown in FIG. 4, eight steel nipples, two main transverse beams 20 and two inclined beams 22 are combined with each other in a horizontal X-shaped structure. Both ends of each main transverse beam 20 are connected respectively to one small transverse beam 21. The middle part of the small transverse beam 21 is vertically attached to the ends of the main transverse beams 20, while the ends of the small transverse beams 21 are bent down to connect to the nipple 23. Thus Each anode has eight steel nipples 23. As shown in FIG. 4B, the bottom of the nipple 23 is attached to the anode carbon block 9. With the above construction, the structure of the twin anodes for the electrolyzer is performed to restore high-capacity aluminum or ultra-large capacity. During the manufacture of anode steel nipples, the main transverse beams 20, the small transverse beams 21, the inclined beams 22 and the nipples 23 are assembled from each other from cast steel during processing. The connection point between the steel nipple 23 and the anode rod 24 is located in a central position where two small transverse beams intersect 21. The connection between the steel nipple 23 and the anode rod 24 is achieved by welding with a short arc, with which aluminum and steel can be welded.
The anode rod 24 is made of pure aluminum and, in one example, has a net weight of 253 kilograms. The lower end of the rod is welded to the aluminum layer using an explosion welding process in which aluminum and steel are welded to each other. In one example, each of the eight steel nipples has a diameter of 160 mm and a height of 270 mm. The crossbeam has a height of 160 mm. The nipples 23 are placed in the recess of the carbon anode to a depth of 100 mm. Cast iron is poured into the gap between the anode carbon block and the nipples 23 so that they are connected to each other. In a specific example, steel nipples 23 have a current density of 0.104 A / mm 2 and a weight of about 900 kilograms. The four carbon recesses provided on the surface of each anode carbon block 9 have an inner diameter of 190 mm, a depth of 115 mm, a central distance of 360 mm, and the weight of each carbon block is approximately 900 kilograms. The weight of each anode kit is approximately 3 tons. For each electrolyzer, 24 anode sets are provided, and their total weight is approximately 72 tons.
24 anode sets in two rows are suspended on two anode beams-buses of the anode device of the electrolyzer for aluminum reduction. They are clamped with a chamber-type fixture with a clamping force of about 18 tons and a torque of about 35 kilograms / meter.
3) Anode busbars, anode clip and anode lifting device
As shown in FIG. 1 and 2, the anode bus 5 of each electrolyzer is connected by four cast aluminum tires with a size of 8350 mm × 550 mm × 180 mm. Two anode busbars 5 on each long side of the cell are connected by flexible buses. Anode buses 5 on both long sides of the cell are connected to an aluminum sheet. In accordance with the power supply mode of the riser tires, there are six balancing tires made of welded aluminum sheet. The other end is connected to the anode rod (made of aluminum) 24 by the anode clip 6. The total weight of the anode rail is about 10.8 tons.
Each cell is equipped with an anode lifting device 7, consisting of eight screw hoists. The engine has a power of 13.5 kW. An anode lifting device 7 is mounted on the side of the steel frame of the anode electrolytic cell for aluminum reduction, with a pitch of 400 mm, a lifting speed of 75 mm / min and a lifting capacity of 120 tons, with the pitch displayed on the counter of the anode pitch. The anode tire lifting device has a total weight of 2.6 tons.
The location of the electrodes of the cell is shown in FIG. 5.
In the cavity 25 of the electrolyzer for the reduction of aluminum, 24 anode sets are provided. Two rows of anode carbon blocks 9 are symmetrically distributed along the axis of the longitudinal center line of the electrolytic cell for aluminum reduction. In the electrolyzer for aluminum reduction, eight supply points 26 are provided, between the two rows of opposite anode carbon blocks there is a central gap 29 with a width of 50-120 mm. At the feed point, the gap 27 between two adjacent anode carbon blocks has a width of 40-80 mm. The gap 28 between two adjacent anode carbon blocks, where there is no feeding point, has a width of 20-50 mm. Compared to the gaps between traditional anode carbon blocks in an existing aluminum reduction cell, it is greatly reduced. The difference between the anode carbon blocks of the present invention and the traditional blocks is that the carbon block, which is the same size as the traditional carbon blocks, was cut at two angles along the longitudinal end, while the cut corner may have a 90 ° sector shape , or isosceles right triangle.
4) The device destruction of the crust and nutrition
The crust destruction and nutrition device 8 comprises a crust destroying cylinder, a punch, a constant volume feeder and a feed hopper. A total of seven sets of cylinders are provided for one aluminum recovery cell, and one set of cylinders is used to produce aluminum. Six crust-destroying cylinders are equipped with punches for crust breaking, and one remaining cylinder is designed to release aluminum and has an inner diameter of 160 mm, a stroke of 650 mm and an impact speed of 0-80 centimeters / sec. Each of the six crust-destroying and feeding cylinders with punches has an inner diameter of 125 mm, a stroke of 550 mm, and an impact speed of 0-80 centimeters / sec. Each of the eight constant volume feeders has an internal diameter of 70 mm. Two constant volume feeders are used for feeding fluoride salt, and six for alumina feeding, with a constant volume of 1.6 kilograms and a compressed air pressure of about 0.7 MPa.
One crust-destroying cylinder for producing aluminum has a weight of 118 kilograms. One feeding unit has a weight of 103 kilograms. One constant volume feeder weighs 55 kilograms. The total weight of the crust destruction and nutrition unit is approximately 1.176 tons.
5) Flue gas collection and removal system
An exhaust gas collection and removal system for an aluminum recovery cell is shown in FIG. 6A. Firstly, the anode balancing bus 34 is offset from the initial position to the central position of the anode bus 5. The lower part of the feed hopper is not welded to the upper chords 15. Instead, it has a V-shaped configuration. The branch chimney 32 is placed in the left and right layers between the horizontal cover plate 33 and the feed hopper 30 to form two branch chimneys 32 in parallel. As shown in FIG. 6B, one of them is an air inlet with a front hole, and the other is an air inlet with a rear hole. The effluent gases from the electrolyzer from two branch chimneys 32 are collected in the main chimney 12 through the chimney collector 35, and then discharged into the cleaning system. The main chimney 12 is equipped with a control valve 36, used to easily control the negative pressure (vacuum) and the flow of exhaust gases in two parallel branch chimneys 32.
6) Anode rod sealing device
As shown in FIG. 7, the anode rod sealing device of the present invention consists of a side plate 37, a front end plate 38, and an upper plate 39. The anode rod is surrounded by these three plates to form a cavity around it.
First, the truss structure is adapted on three surrounding sides of the anode rod at the front end of the cavity. Secondly, the rear end of the cavity is welded to the side wall of the chimney and connected to a horizontal cover plate 33. Thirdly, a cavity is provided above the horizontal cover plate 33, which is used as the bottom plate.
The manufacture of the sealing device is as follows.
First, one or more holes are drilled in a horizontal cover plate of each anode rod in a predetermined position. Two side plates 37 are welded to the horizontal cover plate 33, and then the upper plate 39 is welded to them. An opening is made where the boom can be placed at the front end of the upper plate. The size of the cross-section of the opening is the same as that of the rod. The upper plate and the rear ends of the two side plates are welded to the side walls of the chimney for connection with a horizontal chimney. When the aluminum reduction cell is operating, negative pressure is created around each anode rod due to the suction force from the chimney. Thus, the exhaust gases of the electrolyzer leaving the gaps of the anode rod 24 are sucked into a horizontal chimney.
7) Pipeline for air supply and silencer for residual air from the device destruction of the crust and power
As shown in FIG. 10, along the direction of the upper chord 15 of a rectangular steel pipe and the direction of the direct element of the lattice of a rectangular steel pipe, a crust-destroying cylinder 62 with an automatic solenoid valve, a supply cylinder 63 with an automatic solenoid valve, a supply duct 64 for a crust-destroying cylinder and a return duct are connected in series 65 for a crust-destroying cylinder, a supply duct 66 for a feed cylinder and a return duct 67 for a feed cylinder, and an air duct 68 d backwash. Compressed air conduit 69 connected to the main compressed air conduit is connected to rectangular steel pipes at the top of the tubular lattice truss through a one-way control valve 70. Air is supplied from the rectangular steel pipes to the crust destroying cylinder and feed cylinder. Each crust destroying cylinder is connected to rectangular steel pipes through a supply duct for a crust destroying cylinder and a return duct for a crust destroying cylinder. Each feed cylinder is connected to rectangular steel pipes through a supply duct for the feed cylinder, a return duct for the feed cylinder, and a backflush duct. After the crust breaks down and the power is supplied, the remaining air from the cylinder is supplied to the rectangular steel pipe of the direct element of the grate through the pipe 71 for removing the remaining air from the cylinder in order to achieve silencing. Both the crust-destroying cylinder and the supply cylinder are equipped with automatic solenoid valves, which allow crust breaking and feeding operations using single-point, multi-point and separate control using the electrolyzer control unit.
One cylinder set for an alumina crust breaking operation is separately provided at the end for the release of aluminum. Alternatively, the crust breaking operation may be carried out separately by means of a manual control valve 72.
2. The cathode device of the electrolyzer for the reduction of aluminum
The cathode device of the electrolytic cell for the reduction of aluminum consists of the design of the casing of the cell, the design of the lining of the cell and the design of the cathode busbar.
1) The design of the casing of the cell
The design of the casing of the cell consists of two long side plates, two short side plates, one bottom plate and 29 cradles, while the body of the cell is in the form of a boat at the bottom of a long side plate.
The aluminum recovery cell contains 29 cradles, two of which are welded to the casing of the cell, and the remaining 27 cradles are provided in the middle part of the bottom of the cell body with a distance from the center line of 640 mm and are connected to the cell casing so as to support the cell body. A sheet of aluminum silicate with a thickness of 10 mm is provided under the bottom of the cell body to reduce thermal conductivity from the cell body to the cradles in order to ensure that the voltage between the cell body and the cradles is uniform. There is a gap of 15 mm between the side of the cell and the cradles to exclude thermal conductivity between the cell body and the cradles in order to reduce the likelihood of a reduced intensity of heating of the cradles.
The upper part of the cell body has a single-layer ceiling structure, which is bolted to the cradles, and a sheet of calcium silicate is laid between them for thermal insulation. The cell body has an internal size of 18470 mm (in length) × 4160 mm (in width) × 1506 mm (in height) and weighs about 21.8 tons.
The bottom beam of the cradle is made of H-shaped steel with a thickness of 496 mm, while the side beam has a height of 1318 mm. The bottom beam and the side beam are welded to each other by means of steel sheets. One cradle has a weight of 0.795 tons, and 27 cradles have a total weight of 21.5 tons.
The cradles are mounted on two H-shaped steel beams having a height of 300 mm, with an insulation layer supported on concrete support stands. The casing of the cell has a total of approximately 46.1 tons.
2) Cathode lining design
The design of the cathode lining consists of cathode carbon blocks 9 and lining structures. In more detail, the design of the cathode lining contains:
2.1) Set of cathode carbon blocks 10
The set of cathode carbon blocks 10 consists of steel current-conducting rods, ramming mass and cathode carbon blocks.
The cathode carbon block has two grooves, each of which has dimensions of 120 mm (in width), 200 mm (in depth) and 250 mm (in the central distance of the groove). Four steel down conductors, each 90 mm × 180 mm × 2100 mm in size, are placed in them and connected by cathodic carbon mass packing. The length of the steel bar is 4460 mm.
The cathode carbon blocks have a weight of 1.456 tons, four steel down conductors have a weight of 1.059 tons, the cathode mass has a weight of 70 tons, the cathode carbon block set has a weight of 2.58 tons, 28 sets of cathode carbon blocks in each cell have a total weight of 72.24 tons .
The gaps between these cathode carbon blocks are 30 mm, which are filled with a hearth carbon mass and flush mounted. The area occupied by the gaps is 17610 mm × 3650 mm 2 .
2.2) Lining design
As shown in FIG. 8, the bottom surface of the aluminum recovery cell is provided with a heat shield 41, heat shields 42, heat-insulating bricks 43 and bricks 44 for corrosion protection of the bath at two ends of the cell in the indicated sequence. Its middle part is “paved” with granular refractory material 40. A layer of aluminum sheet or aluminum foil is provided on it after the granular refractory material 40 is compacted. After the laying of the heat-insulating layer of the bottom of the cell is completed, cathode carbon blocks 10 are placed, and cathode steel current-conducting rods 51 surrounded by refractory insulating paper 50 are inserted into these cathode carbon blocks 10. The gaps between the cathode current-conducting rods and the cathode carbon blocks are filled with a mass 52 for cathode rods. The cathode steel rods are open on the cathode carbon blocks, the cathode steel rods, which are inside the electrolyzer casing, are clamped with a U-shaped metal plate 46, and then filled with cast refractory 47 and heat-insulating felt 45. The side wall of the aluminum recovery cell is formed by silicon carbide bricks 48, while both ends of the cathode carbon blocks, refractory concrete and silicon carbide bricks are filled with arched lateral mass 49.
The side carbon blocks have a weight of about 5.7 tons, the carbon mass has a weight of about 11.6 tons, the base layer of the fireproof insulation has a weight of about 31.26 tons, the underside structure has a weight of about 8.8 tons, and the entire lining has a weight of about 129.6 tons.
3) The design of the cathode bus
As shown in FIG. 9A and 9B, the supply of electricity to the electrolytic cell for aluminum reduction is provided by 28 sets of cathodes (56 cathode flexible buses) and 6 riser buses 61 on the side of the electrolyzer. The proportion of the distribution of cathode flexible buses connected to 6 riser tires is 10: 9: 9: 9: 9: 10, respectively. Such spacing both provides the convenience of ensuring electrical balance, and promotes a relatively balanced magnetic distribution in liquid aluminum, while avoiding an excessive vertical gradient of the magnetic field. There is a bus 53 on the electricity input side, an end bypass bus 54, a bottom electrolyser bus 55, a local compensation bus 56, a 57 bus on the output side, a riser bus 58, a cathode flexible bus 59 on the electric input side, and a cathode flexible bus 60 on output side. According to the distribution of the soft tires, the soft tire and the vertical tire are connected by these side tires or the bottom tires. Moreover, a short circuit bus is provided for forming a busbar structure around the aluminum recovery cell.
The magnetic fields at the four corners of the electrolytic cell for the reduction of aluminum are relatively large and, as a rule, more than 40 gauss. Accordingly, compensation is required for excess current passing through these ends. Since the two angles on the output side have a larger resulting magnetic field, each angle on the output side requires a larger compensation current. That is, where there is a large magnetic field, large compensation is required, and where there is a small magnetic field, small compensation is required.
It should be noted that the present invention is a combination of many inventions. The present invention combines many innovative technologies, including the location of the anodes, a branched system for collecting and removing exhaust gases, the sealing technology of the anode rod and the design of the cathode busbar. A 400 kA high energy-efficiency reduction cell in accordance with the present invention has a noticeable energy-saving and emission-reducing effect, thereby presenting great economic advantages and technological progress compared to traditional technologies.

Claims (9)

1. A 400 kA high-energy recovery electrolyzer containing anode carbon blocks, anode tires, a crust and feed breaking device, anode lifting device, trusses and supports, an electrolytic cell shelter and exhaust gas exhaust system, a cathode busbar structure, carbon cathode blocks, construction cathode lining and cathode casing of the electrolyzer, characterized in that:
the anode device and gantry supports are supported by the design of tubular trellised trusses;
the anode carbon block has eight steel nipples, configured symmetrically;
the anode device has 24 dual anode sets or 48 single anode sets, six alumina feed points and two fluoride salt feed points;
a branched system for collecting and removing exhaust gases is installed between the horizontal shelter plate and the feed hopper;
a device is provided for sealing the anode rod by suction due to negative pressure;
a new lining design with heat retention on the hearth, heat dissipation on the side and an additional expansion layer at the end of the cathode are developed on the basis of modeling the electric field and thermal field;
the cathode buses have an asymmetric configuration, and there are six power supply points on the long side of the cell, and
lattice trusses from rectangular pipes are used as both a pipeline for supplying air over the electrolyzer, and a silencer for the remaining air from the crust destructive and feed cylinder.
2. The recovery electrolyzer according to claim 1, in which the said design of the tubular trellised trusses comprises a connecting beam and a crane holder provided between two trellised trusses, characterized in that:
the lattice truss has a connecting beam as its top and consists of gantry columns, upper chords, lower chords, direct lattice elements and diagonal lattice elements, all of which take the form of rectangular steel pipes, while:
the direct elements of the lattice are spaced a certain interval between the upper chords and lower chords,
inclined chords are placed between the upper chords and lower chords, on both sides of the direct elements of the lattice,
the direct lattice elements and the inclined chords provided on both sides of the direct lattice elements are in the form of an umbrella or an inverted umbrella in turn, and
the connecting beam is located on top of the direct elements of the lattice and is in the same vertical plane with the upper chords.
3. The reduction electrolyzer according to claim 1, wherein said set of anode carbon block has eight symmetrical steel nipples containing transverse beams and nipples, characterized in that the transverse beam consists of two main transverse beams, two diagonal transverse beams and four small transverse beams , wherein:
the main transverse beams and diagonal transverse beams are connected in an X-shaped traverse;
the middle part of each small transverse beam is connected vertically with the ends of the main transverse beams;
both ends of each small transverse beam are bent down to connect with nipples, and the bottom of the nipples is fixed to the carbon block, and
the central part, in which two diagonal transverse beams intersect each other, is attached to the anode rod from above.
4. The recovery electrolyzer according to claim 1, in which the aforementioned new arrangement of the anodes contains a cavity for electrolysis of aluminum, anode carbon blocks and power points, characterized in that:
all power points are located in a position where four sets of anode carbon blocks converge;
the gaps between the carbon blocks of two adjacent anode sets at the supply points are widened, while the gaps between the carbon blocks of two adjacent anode sets at the supply points are narrowed, and
The four corners of the anode carbon blocks at the feed points are trimmed to expand the space of the feed points.
5. The recovery electrolyzer according to claim 1, wherein said branched exhaust gas collection and removal system comprises an electrolyzer chimney, a main chimney and a control valve, characterized in that:
the chimney is located inside the layer between the horizontal shelter plate and the feed hopper, the lower part of the feed hopper is made in a V-shape, instead of being welded to a flat truss;
the chimney is divided into two parallel branch chimneys and is located respectively inside the left and right layers between the horizontal shelter plate and the feed hopper of the electrolyzer for aluminum recovery;
each of the two branch chimneys further comprises a front air inlet and a rear air inlet;
the main chimney, to which two branch chimneys lead, is equipped with a control valve.
6. The recovery electrolyzer according to claim 1, wherein said device for sealing the anode rod by suction due to negative pressure is provided, said device comprising a side plate, a front end plate and an upper plate, characterized in that the device is a cavity formed two side plates, the upper plate and the front end plate and the surrounding three sides of the anode rod, while
the truss structure is adapted to three surrounded sides of the anode rod at the front end of the device with a cavity;
the rear end of the cavity is welded to the beam of the grate and communicates with a horizontal chimney; and
the device with a cavity is located above the horizontal shelter plate, which is used as the bottom plate.
7. The recovery electrolyzer according to claim 1, wherein said new lining structure is designed based on modeling an electric field and a thermal field, and this lining structure comprises cathode carbon blocks, a cathode steel rod and a layer of hearth refractory material, characterized in that:
a cathode steel rod is located in the casing of the electrolyzer, and a part of the steel rod emerging from the cathode carbon blocks is clamped by a U-shaped metal plate and then sealed by a cast refractory;
the cathode steel rod is wrapped with refractory insulating paper and filled with a mass for steel rods;
the middle cathode carbon hearth is provided with granular refractory material, while both ends are provided with refractory bricks; and
a direct structure of the edge mass is provided, instead of the arc structure of the edge mass, between the cathode carbon blocks and the silicon carbide bricks of the side wall.
8. The recovery electrolyzer according to claim 1, wherein said cathode buses have an asymmetric configuration and electric power coming from six points on the long side of the electrolyzer, the cathode buses comprising a bus on the electricity input side, a bus on the output side, and a cathode flexible bus on the input on the electric side, the cathode flexible bus on the output side, the bottom busbar of the electrolyzer and the riser bus, characterized in that
additionally, a local compensation bus is provided, and this local compensation bus enters the bottom of the cell and extends along the end of the cell to restore aluminum, then rises to a certain height; and
56 cathode flexible buses and 6 riser buses were used to supply electricity to the electrolytic cell for aluminum recovery, while the number of cathode flexible buses connected to 6 riser buses was 10: 9: 9: 9: 9: 10, respectively.
9. The recovery electrolyzer according to claim 1, in which the aforementioned lattice truss of rectangular pipes is also used as both a pipeline for supplying air and a silencer for residual air from a crust destroying crust and a supply cylinder, and comprises a compressed air pipeline destroying the crust of the cylinder, the supply cylinder and an aluminum release cylinder, characterized in that
a compressed air pipe is connected to the rectangular steel pipe of the grill in the X direction through a one-way air inlet valve;
a rectangular steel tube of the grate in the X direction is connected to the air inlet pipes of the crust-destroying cylinder, the supply cylinder and the aluminum release cylinder through an electromagnetic control valve; and
the residual air exhaust pipes from the crust-destroying cylinder, the feed cylinder and the aluminum exhaust cylinder are connected to rectangular steel pipes in the X direction or in the Y direction through an electromagnetic control valve.
RU2010153347/02A 2008-05-27 2009-05-25 400 kA RECOVERY ELECTROLYSER WITH HIGH ENERGY EFFICIENCY RU2456381C1 (en)

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CN2008101868798A CN101457370B (en) 2008-05-27 2008-12-27 400kA energy-saving and emission-reducing pre-baked aluminum cell
CN200810186879.8 2008-12-27

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CN101457370A (en) 2009-06-17
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AU2009253630B2 (en) 2012-12-20
AU2009253630A1 (en) 2009-12-03
WO2009143696A1 (en) 2009-12-03
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CN101280435A (en) 2008-10-08

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