RU2438081C2 - Procedure for liquefaction of natural gas (versions) and installation for its implementation (versions) - Google Patents

Procedure for liquefaction of natural gas (versions) and installation for its implementation (versions) Download PDF

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RU2438081C2
RU2438081C2 RU2007125077/06A RU2007125077A RU2438081C2 RU 2438081 C2 RU2438081 C2 RU 2438081C2 RU 2007125077/06 A RU2007125077/06 A RU 2007125077/06A RU 2007125077 A RU2007125077 A RU 2007125077A RU 2438081 C2 RU2438081 C2 RU 2438081C2
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production
heat exchanger
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Станислав Прокофьевич Горбачев (RU)
Станислав Прокофьевич Горбачев
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Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Научно-исследовательский институт природных газов и газовых технологий - Газпром ВНИИГАЗ" ( ООО" Газпром ВНИИГАЗ " )
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Abstract

FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: according to versions of procedure gas coming into liquefaction installation from main is divided to process and production flows. The process flow of gas is dewatered and after a preliminary heat exchanger enters an expansion device wherein pressure and temperature of gas are dropped. Further, gas is returned with a reverse flow into a distributing pipeline cooling the production flow of gas. The production flow of gas is preliminary dewatered and purified from high boiling components (including from CO2), and passes in a direct flow through heat exchangers, where it is cooled and partially liquefied after throttling. Temperature of production flow of gas before the expansion device is chosen under condition of the highest degree of gas liquefaction at absence of CO2 crystallisation upon gas expansion. At high content of CO2 in source gas the production flow of gas is additionally compressed before inlet into the installation.
EFFECT: improved procedure.
6 cl, 4 dwg

Description

The group of inventions relates to the field of liquefaction of natural gas and its mixtures and can be used to liquefy natural gas at gas distribution stations through the use of differential pressure between the main and distribution pipelines.

Closest to the proposed variants of the method of liquefying natural gas is a method of liquefying natural gas, comprising dividing the high-pressure natural gas stream into process and production streams, expanding the process gas stream with lowering its temperature and returning it with a reverse stream to cool the gas production stream, throttling the production stream gas after its cooling with the formation of a vapor-liquid mixture, separation of the vapor-liquid mixture into vapor and liquid phases with the next direction in the return flow of non-condensable natural gas (see RF patent 2127855, CL F25J 1/00, 1999).

Closest to the proposed versions of the installation for liquefying natural gas is a plant for liquefying natural gas containing a high pressure gas pipeline connected to the inlet of the process gas stream line including a gas flow expansion device, and the inlet of a gas production stream line including the preliminary and main heat exchangers, a throttle valve and a collector-separator of liquefied gas, the first outlet of which is designed to issue liquefied gas, and the second the output is connected to the input of the gas return line, which includes the main and preliminary heat exchangers connected in series, the second input of the main heat exchanger is the input of the gas return line, the second output of the preliminary heat exchanger is connected to the low pressure gas pipeline (see RF patent 2127855, class F25J 1 / 00, 1999).

The disadvantage of this method is that in the resulting liquefied natural gas (LNG) there is a high content of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other high-boiling components, therefore, it is possible to block the heat exchangers of the unit with ice during operation and to crystallize CO 2 in LNG. In addition, at a low gas pressure in the feed stream, the liquefaction coefficient decreases, which leads to a decrease in LNG productivity.

The technical result that this group of inventions aims to achieve is to obtain liquefied natural gas with a low content of carbon dioxide and other high boiling components using simplified technology as with a relatively low content of carbon dioxide in high pressure gas (for the first versions of the method of liquefying natural gas and installation for liquefying natural gas), and with a relatively high content of carbon dioxide in high-pressure gas (for the second variants of the liquefaction method natural gas and natural gas liquefaction plants).

This technical result in part of the first variant of the method is achieved due to the fact that in the method of liquefying natural gas, including the separation of the high-pressure natural gas stream into process and production streams, expanding the process gas stream with lowering its temperature and returning it to the return stream with cooling of the production stream gas, throttling the gas production stream after it is cooled to form a vapor-liquid mixture, separation of the vapor-liquid mixture into steam and liquid phase with the subsequent direction into the return flow of non-condensing natural gas, the gas production stream is dried and purified from CO 2 before cooling, and the process gas stream is dried and cooled before expansion to a temperature which value is selected from the conditions of the highest degree of gas liquefaction in the absence of CO crystallization 2 in natural gas after its expansion.

This technical result in part of the second variant of the method is achieved due to the fact that in the method of liquefying natural gas, comprising dividing the high-pressure natural gas stream into process and production streams, expanding the process gas stream with lowering its temperature and returning it to the return stream with cooling of the production stream gas, throttling the gas production stream after it is cooled to form a vapor-liquid mixture, separation of the vapor-liquid mixture into steam and liquid phase with the subsequent direction into the return flow of non-condensing natural gas, the gas production stream is compressed before cooling, then it is dried and purified from CO 2 , and the process gas stream is dried and cooled before expansion to a temperature which value is chosen from the conditions of the highest degree of gas liquefaction at the absence of crystallization of CO 2 in natural gas after its expansion, and also due to the fact that the compression of the gas production stream is carried out due to the energy obtained by expanding the technological whom gas flow.

This technical result in part of the first embodiment of the installation is achieved due to the fact that in the installation for liquefying natural gas containing a high pressure gas pipeline connected to the inlet of the process gas stream line including a gas flow expansion device, and the input of a gas production stream line including series connected preliminary and main heat exchangers, a throttle valve and a collector-separator of liquefied gas, the first outlet of which is designed to issue liquefied gas, and the the output is connected to the inlet of the gas return line, which includes the main and preliminary heat exchangers in series, the second input of the main heat exchanger is the input of the gas return line, the second output of the preliminary heat exchanger is connected to the low pressure gas pipeline, the gas production flow line has the first drying unit in series and a gas flow purification unit, and the gas process flow line is provided with a second gas flow dehydration unit and is configured to include a preliminary heat exchanger, wherein the input of the first gas flow drying unit is the input of the gas production flow line, and the output of the gas purification unit is connected to the first input of the preliminary heat exchanger, the input of the second gas flow drying unit is the input of the process gas flow line, and its output is connected to the third input of the preliminary a heat exchanger, the third output of which is connected to the input of the expansion device, connected by the output to the second input of the main heat exchanger.

The technical result in part of the second installation is achieved due to the fact that in the installation for liquefying natural gas containing a high pressure gas pipeline connected to the outlet of the line of the process gas stream, including an expansion device for the gas stream, and the input of the line of the gas production stream, including series connected preliminary and main heat exchangers, a throttle valve and a collector-separator of liquefied gas, the first outlet of which is designed to issue liquefied gas, and the second the stroke is connected to the inlet of the gas return line, which includes the main and preliminary heat exchangers connected in series, the second input of the main heat exchanger is the input of the gas return line, the second output of the preliminary heat exchanger is connected to the low pressure gas pipeline, the gas production stream line has a compressor for gas compression in series , the first drying unit and the gas flow purification unit, and the gas process flow line is provided with a second gas flow drying unit and on with the inclusion of a preliminary heat exchanger, the compressor inlet for gas compression being the input of the gas production stream line, and the output of the gas purification unit connected to the first input of the preliminary heat exchanger, the input of the second gas flow drying unit is the input of the gas process stream line, and its output is connected with the third input of the preliminary heat exchanger, the third output of which is connected to the input of the expansion device, connected by the output to the second input of the main heat exchanger, and also due to of that expansion of the gas flow device is made in the form of an expander mechanically connected to a compressor for compressing gas, wherein the compressor and expander configured to formation expander - compressor unit.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, in which Fig. 1 shows a block diagram of a first embodiment of a plant for implementing the proposed first embodiment of a method for liquefying natural gas with separation of the incoming gas into production and process streams with drying of the process gas stream and with drying and purification of the production gas stream.

Figure 2 presents the block diagram of the second embodiment of the installation for implementing the second variant of the method of liquefying natural gas with the separation of the incoming gas into production and process streams and additional compression of the production gas stream using a compressor.

Figure 3 presents a block diagram of a second embodiment of a plant for implementing a variation of a second embodiment of a method for liquefying natural gas with separation of the incoming gas into production and process streams and additional compression of the production gas stream in the compressor of the expander-compressor unit while expanding the process gas stream in the expander of the same unit.

Figure 4 presents a graph of the dependence of the solubility of carbon dioxide CO 2 in gaseous methane depending on its temperature under the assumption of an ideal solution.

Installation for liquefying natural gas (options), which implements options for a method of liquefying natural gas is illustrated in figures 1-3, which show the following notation: pipeline 1 high pressure gas, from which one of the two pipelines into the installation receives a process gas stream, This line 2 of the technological gas stream includes a block 3 for drying the technological gas stream, a preliminary heat exchanger 4, an expansion device 5 for the gas stream (in which the second embodiment Expander is used). The production gas stream also flows through the high pressure gas pipe 1, the gas production stream line 6 including a gas production stream drying unit 7, a gas production stream purification unit 8, as well as a preliminary heat exchanger 4 and a main heat exchanger 9. Gas production line 6 also contains a throttle valve 10, a collector-separator 11 of liquefied gas, one of the outlets of which is connected to a pipe 12 for draining the liquid from the collector-separator 11 of a liquefied gas. Another output of the liquefied gas separator 11 separates it from the gas return line, which includes preliminary 4 and main 9 heat exchangers and connects the liquefied gas collector-separator 11 to the low pressure gas pipe 13. Figure 2 shows the second installation option, while an expander is used as an expansion device 5 for gas flow, and 14 is a compressor for compressing gas located on line 6 of the gas production stream and intended to pressurize the gas before it enters the production drying unit 7 gas flow.

Figure 3 shows the block diagram of the installation, which is a variation of the installation shown in figure 2, with the position 14 denotes a compressor for compressing the gas flowing in the gas production stream of line 6, and the position 5 - expander of the process gas stream (expansion device) which together with compressor 14 form an expander-compressor unit, wherein compressor 14 and expander 5 are mechanically connected to each other.

Consider how the implementation of the method of liquefying natural gas using the installation shown in figure 1.

The gas flow from the pipeline 1 of high pressure gas entering the installation is divided into process and production flows. The process gas stream through line 2 of the process gas stream is sent to the drying unit 3 of the process gas stream and is passed by direct stream through the preliminary heat exchanger 4, where it is cooled by the return gas stream going through the return gas stream line. Then the process gas stream after cooling in the preliminary heat exchanger 4 is sent to an expansion device 5 (for example, an expander), where it is expanded to the pressure of the return gas stream with decreasing temperature and is passed through the main 9 and preliminary heat exchangers 4 as the return flow, cooling the direct process and gas production flows. The gas production stream through line 6 is passed through the drying unit 7 and the gas production stream purification unit 8, and then the gas production stream is directed by a direct stream sequentially through the preliminary heat exchanger 4 and the main heat exchanger 9, where it is cooled by a low pressure reverse flow that passes through the heat exchangers 4 and 9 back flow. Then, the gas production stream through line 6 is expanded using a throttle valve 10. After throttling in the unit 10, the gas is sent to a liquefied gas separator 11, from which the liquid phase is sent through a liquid discharge pipe 12 to a container for liquefied gas accumulation (in Fig. 1 not shown) for subsequent shipment to the consumer. The non-condensed portion of natural gas from the liquefied natural gas separator 11 is returned by a reverse stream through heat exchangers 9 and 4 to a low pressure gas pipe 13.

To prevent solid particles from precipitating CO 2 during gas expansion in the expansion device 5 of the gas stream (expander), the gas temperature after expansion in it should be higher than the temperature of vapor pressure of CO 2 above the crystal, i.e. above the crystallization temperature of CO 2 . It follows that the higher the concentration of CO 2 in the source gas and the higher the pressure value of the reverse gas flow, the higher the gas temperature must be before and, accordingly, after the expansion device 5 of the gas flow. On the other hand, if the direct flow pressure is lower than the critical value, then when the temperature rises after the expansion device 5, the gas flow exceeds a certain value, the heat exchange between the direct and return flows in the main heat exchanger 9 is disrupted. Moreover, the lower the direct flow pressure, the lower the value should be temperature after the expansion device 5 of the gas stream and the better the conditions for crystallization of CO 2 . Thus, at a low pressure of the direct flow, the value of the permissible concentration of CO 2 in the process gas stream along line 2 decreases, i.e. this method cannot be implemented with a high content of CO 2 in the source gas and with a low value of high-pressure gas at the inlet to the installation.

An increase in the permissible content of CO 2 in the process gas stream flowing along line 2 can be achieved by increasing the pressure of the gas production stream to values below and above the supercritical value of the gas pressure. At supercritical pressure of the gas production stream along line 6, heat transfer in the main heat exchanger 9 is not disturbed. This, in turn, allows you to increase the temperature of the gas before and, accordingly, after the expansion device 5 of the gas stream (expander) and increase the level of permissible concentration of CO 2 in the process gas stream flowing along line 2. An increase in the pressure of the gas production stream through line 6 allows In addition, to increase the coefficient of gas liquefaction at relatively low additional energy costs. To implement this method of gas liquefaction, the compressor 14 for gas compression (FIG. 2) located on line 6 of the gas production stream is additionally introduced into the flowchart of FIG. The difference in the operation of this installation from the operation of the gas liquefaction plant shown in Fig. 1 is that the gas production stream flowing through line 6 is first sent to a compressor 14 for compressing gas (e.g. methane), where it is compressed as as a rule, to values in the range of the supercritical pressure of the gas, after which it passes through the drying unit 7 and the cleaning unit 8 for the production gas stream. In other words, during the operation of this installation, natural gas can be compressed to values both below and above the critical pressure of natural gas. The compressor 14 for compressing gas is driven from a diesel generator or from a gas generator (not shown in FIG. 2).

The installation, the diagram of which is shown in figure 2, can be modified if the energy obtained by expanding the process gas stream is used to compress the gas production stream.

For this, in the installation for implementing the method of liquefying natural gas (Fig. 3), an expansion device 5 for the gas flow, made in the form of an expander, and a compressor 14 for compressing gas, are made in the form of an expander-compressor unit, which thus includes a compressor 14 and an expansion gas flow device 5 (expander).

The difference between the operation of this installation from the operation of the installation shown in the block diagram of figure 2, is as follows. The gas production stream through line 6 from the high pressure gas pipeline 1 is directed to the inlet of the compressor 14 of the expander-compressor unit, where it is compressed by expanding the process gas stream in the expander 5 of the expander-compressor unit. The gas production stream through line 6, as in the previous cases, passes through the drying unit 7 and the gas production stream purification unit 8 to a preliminary heat exchanger 4, in which it is cooled by a reverse gas flow going along the gas return flow line. In all other respects, this installation functions in the same way as in the case of the installation for liquefying natural gas, shown in figure 1.

Below is the rationale for the technical solutions that are described in this invention.

The possibility of obtaining liquefied natural gas at a low gas pressure in the main pipeline and an increased content of CO 2 will be considered using a specific example.

Let the gas pressure in the main pipeline be equal to 2 MPa, the direct flow pressure after the compressor for compressing the gas of the expander-compressor unit is 2.5 MPa, the gas pressure in the low pressure pipeline should be 1.0 MPa. The concentration of CO 2 in the feed gas is 0.04% (4 · 10 -4 ). The solubility of CO 2 in methane gas is determined by the formula:

Figure 00000001

where C co2 is the solubility of carbon dioxide in methane gas, mol / mol;

P co2 — vapor pressure of carbon dioxide above the crystal, MPa;

P is the gas pressure in the pipeline in front of the compressor, MPa;

F> 1 is a correction factor that takes into account the real properties of liquefied gas in comparison with the properties of an ideal solution, dimensionless.

Calculations for an ideal solution, taking into account expression (1), allow determining the permissible concentration of CO 2 in the initial methane with a certain reserve (book: Liquefied natural gas. Handbook of physicochemical, energy, and operational properties. / Ed. By I.L. Khodarkova Khimizdat, St. Petersburg, 2003, p. 29).

The solubility values of CO 2 in methane gas, calculated as for an ideal solution for the vapor pressure of CO 2 above the crystal (F = 1), are shown in FIG.

When the pressure of the direct gas flow is 2.5 MPa and the pressure of the gas backflow is 1.0 MPa, the optimal temperature before the expansion device 5 of the gas flow (expander) is 187K, and behind the expansion device of the gas flow (expander) is 155K . The gas flow rate through the gas flow expansion device 5 (expander) is about 93%, and the gas liquefaction coefficient is 5.5%.

Figure 4 shows that at a gas temperature of 155K, the solubility of CO 2 in the gas is 1600 ppm (0.16%) for an ideal solution. Thus, if the concentration of CO 2 in the feed gas is less than 1600 ppm (0.16%), then there is no need to purify the process gas stream flowing along line 2 from CO 2 . In our case, provided that the concentration of CO 2 in the gas is 0.04% (400 ppm), it is possible to exclude the purification of the process gas stream (93% of the total gas flow) from CO 2 and limit ourselves to cleaning only the production gas stream flowing along the line 6. This reduces operating costs and simplifies the operation of the installation. If the concentration of CO 2 in the source gas is higher than in the previous case and equal to 0.6% (6000 ppm), then when the gas expands in the device 5 (expander), crystallization of CO 2 begins, which can lead to disruption of the installation. According to the invention, in this case, it is necessary to increase the pressure of the gas production stream flowing along line 6. At a pressure of 6 MPa, the optimal gas temperature before the gas flow expansion device 5 (expander) is 232K, and after the gas expansion device 5 (gas expander) 190K. At the same time, the proportion of the process gas stream flowing through line 2 is 83%, and the liquefaction coefficient is 8.5%. The solubility of CO 2 in a gas (e.g. methane) at a temperature of 190K and a pressure of 1.0 MPa for an ideal solution will be 70,000 ppm, i.e. significantly higher than the concentration of CO 2 in the source gas (6000 ppm). Thus, by increasing the pressure of the production gas stream flowing along line 6, it is possible to eliminate the purification of the process gas stream in line 2 from CO 2 with a corresponding reduction in operating costs and simplifying the operation of the installation. In addition, due to additional compression of the gas production stream flowing along line 6, the liquefaction coefficient increased from 5.5 to 8.5% (more than 1.5 times), which makes it possible to compensate for the costs of additional equipment for gas compression, and also additional energy costs. At the same time, the cost of liquefied natural gas is reduced.

The use of this invention allows to obtain liquefied natural gas with a low content of carbon dioxide and other high-boiling components and to simplify the technology of liquefying natural gas due to its drying and purification. Moreover, the implementation of the present invention increases the liquefaction coefficient at gas distribution stations with low gas pressure in the main pipeline.

Claims (6)

1. A method of liquefying natural gas, including the separation of the high-pressure natural gas stream into process and production streams, expanding the process gas stream with lowering its temperature and returning it with a reverse stream to cool the gas production stream, throttling the gas production stream after cooling to form a vapor-liquid mixture , the separation of the vapor-liquid mixture into vapor and liquid phases with the subsequent direction in the return flow of non-condensable natural gas, about characterized by the fact that the gas production stream is dried and purified from CO 2 before cooling, and the process gas stream is dried and cooled before expansion to a temperature which value is chosen from the conditions of the highest degree of gas liquefaction in the absence of crystallization of CO 2 in natural gas after its expansion.
2. A method of liquefying natural gas, including dividing the high-pressure natural gas stream into process and production streams, expanding the process gas stream with lowering its temperature and returning it with a reverse stream to cool the gas production stream, throttling the gas production stream after cooling it to form a vapor-liquid mixture , the separation of the vapor-liquid mixture into vapor and liquid phases with the subsequent direction in the return flow of non-condensable natural gas, about characterized by the fact that the production gas stream is compressed before cooling, then dried and CO 2 cleaned, and the process gas stream is dried and cooled before expansion to a temperature which value is chosen from the conditions of the highest degree of gas liquefaction in the absence of crystallization of CO 2 in natural gas after its extensions.
3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the compression of the gas production stream is carried out due to the energy obtained by expanding the process gas stream.
4. Installation for liquefying natural gas, comprising a high pressure gas pipeline connected to the inlet of the process gas stream line including a gas flow expansion device, and the input of a gas production stream line including pre-and main heat exchangers, a throttle valve and a liquefied gas collector gas, the first outlet of which is intended for the delivery of liquefied gas, and the second outlet is connected to the inlet of the return gas line, including main and preliminary heat exchangers, the second input of the main heat exchanger is the input of the return gas flow line, the second output of the preliminary heat exchanger is connected to the low pressure gas pipeline, characterized in that the production gas flow line has a first drying unit and a gas flow purification unit connected in series, and the line the process gas stream is equipped with a second gas stream dehydration unit and is configured to include a preliminary heat exchanger, the input of the first drying unit being The gas eye is the input of the gas production flow line, and the output of the gas purification unit is connected to the first input of the preliminary heat exchanger, the input of the second gas flow drying unit is the input of the technological gas flow line, and its output is connected to the third input of the preliminary heat exchanger, the third output of which is connected to the input an expansion device connected by the output to the second input of the main heat exchanger.
5. Installation for liquefying natural gas, comprising a high pressure gas pipeline connected to an outlet with an inlet of a process gas stream line including a gas flow expansion device, and an inlet of a gas production stream line including a pre-connected and main heat exchanger, a throttle valve and a separator in series liquefied gas, the first outlet of which is designed to dispense liquefied gas, and the second outlet is connected to the inlet of the return gas line, including a series of o included main and preliminary heat exchangers, the second input of the main heat exchanger is the input of the gas return line, the second output of the preliminary heat exchanger is connected to the low pressure gas pipeline, characterized in that the gas production stream line has a series-connected compressor for gas compression, the first drying unit and the block gas flow purification, and the process gas flow line is equipped with a second gas flow drying unit and is made with the inclusion of a preliminary heat exchanger, moreover, the compressor inlet for gas compression is the input of the gas production flow line, and the output of the gas purification unit is connected to the first input of the preliminary heat exchanger, the input of the second gas flow drying unit is the input of the technological gas flow line, and its output is connected to the third input of the preliminary heat exchanger, the third output which is connected to the input of the expansion device connected by the output to the second input of the main heat exchanger.
6. Installation according to claim 5, characterized in that the expansion device for the gas flow is made in the form of an expander mechanically coupled to a compressor for compressing gas, wherein the expander and compressor are configured to form an expander-compressor unit.
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