RU2415111C1 - Composition for making heat-insulation foamed concrete - Google Patents

Composition for making heat-insulation foamed concrete Download PDF

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RU2415111C1
RU2415111C1 RU2009138967/03A RU2009138967A RU2415111C1 RU 2415111 C1 RU2415111 C1 RU 2415111C1 RU 2009138967/03 A RU2009138967/03 A RU 2009138967/03A RU 2009138967 A RU2009138967 A RU 2009138967A RU 2415111 C1 RU2415111 C1 RU 2415111C1
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Russia
Prior art keywords
foaming agent
composition
water
wood
calcium chloride
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RU2009138967/03A
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Russian (ru)
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Юрий Григорьевич Иващенко (RU)
Юрий Григорьевич Иващенко
Андрей Иванович Щукин (RU)
Андрей Иванович Щукин
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Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Саратовский государственный технический университет" (СГТУ)
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Priority to RU2009138967/03A priority Critical patent/RU2415111C1/en
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Abstract

FIELD: chemistry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of construction materials and can be used to produce composite heat-insulation materials used in monolithic building construction. The composition for making heat-insulation foamed concrete contains the following in wt %: portland cement 40.0-50.0, wood fibre 5-9, liquid glass 1.0-1.5, calcium chloride 0.2-0.5, product from alkylating phenol production wastes with oxygen-containing organic substances 0.1-0.5, foaming agent PB-2000 1.0-4.0, complex additive in form of a product of treating second tar oil with foaming agent PB-2000 in molar ratio of 0.75:1-1:0.75 1.0-1.5, water - the rest.
EFFECT: good hydrophobic properties of the material while preserving physical and mechanical properties of finished articles.
1 ex, 2 tbl

Description

The present invention relates to the production of building materials from mineral binders and can be used for the production of composite heat-insulating materials used in monolithic housing construction.
The known composition of the raw material mixture for the production of porous arbolite, including Portland cement, sawdust, water glass, calcium chloride, a foaming agent and water and is intended to obtain heat-insulating and structural-heat-insulating wood concrete with high strength and performance characteristics ("Production and use of wood concrete" ./ Under Edited by Khazdan S.M. Moscow, Forest Industry, 1981, pp. 52-58).
However, this mixture has reduced hydrophobic properties.
Closest in technical essence to the present invention is a composition for the manufacture of lightweight building material in the following ratio of components, wt.%: Portland cement 40.0-50.0; sawdust 8.0-12.0; the product of the alkylation of the waste of the production of phenol with oxygen-containing organic substances 0.1-0.5; water glass 1.0-1.5; calcium chloride 0.2-0.5; a foaming agent 1.0-4.0; water - the rest (application No. 2008121473/03 (025421), class С04В 38/08. Application submission date 27.05.2008).
And the known composition has reduced hydrophobic properties.
The problem to which the invention is directed, is to obtain a composition for the manufacture of heat-insulating foam concrete with enhanced hydrophobic properties.
This problem is solved in that the composition for the manufacture of heat-insulating foam concrete, including Portland cement, ground wood aggregate, water glass, calcium chloride, an alkylation product of the phenol production waste with oxygen-containing organic substances, PB-2000 foaming agent and water, according to the proposed technical solution, contains filler wood fibers and optionally a complex additive in the form of a product of processing the second fat tar foam STUDIO PB-2000 in a ratio of 0.75: 1.1: 0.75 at the following component ratio, wt.%:
Portland cement 40.0-50.0
wood fibers 5-9
waste alkylation product
phenol production
oxygenated organic
substances 0.1-0.5
liquid glass 1.0-1.5
calcium chloride 0.2-0.5
PB-2000 foaming agent 1.0-4.0
specified complex additive 1.0-1.5
water rest
The use of wood fiber as a filler instead of wood sawdust leads to more effective stabilization of the foam mass (when using less wood filler, as can be seen from comparative table 1), due to the location of the wood fiber directly in the inter-pore walls, creating the effect of micro-reinforcement.
The introduction of the specified complex additives into the composition gives the cellular concrete a hydrophobic effect due to the fact that the pores of the silicate material are less clogged and their inner surface is more hydrophobized. It was found that a complex additive consisting of a second fat tar and a foaming agent, used as PB-2000, due to the formation of a thin fat film and blocking easily hydrolyzable sugars from wood aggregate into cement paste, leads to a decrease in water absorption of 1.7-2.0 times.
The technical result consists in increasing the hydrophobic properties of the material while maintaining the remaining physical and mechanical properties of the finished product.
An example of the preparation of a foam concrete mixture
First, the specified complex additive is prepared. The second fat tar is a waste of oil and fat plants of the food industry, obtained by distillation of fatty acids of salomass, is a dark brown solid product, specific gravity 0.73; acid number 15-20, melting point 50 ° C and contains, wt.%: hydroxy acids - 90; hydrocarbons - 3; neutral fats - 3; lactones - 2; higher normal fats - 2 (see SU No. 1614913 A1, publ. 23.12.90. Bull. No. 47). The second fat tar is treated with a foaming agent (PB-2000) in the form of an aqueous solution of salts of alkyl sulfates of primary fatty alcohols with stabilizing additives, which are taken in relation to the second fat tar 0.75: 1-1: 0.75. This ratio is optimal, because a smaller amount of a foaming agent (PB-2000) does not lead to a complete saponification of the second fat tar, and an increased consumption of a foaming agent (PB-2000) does not increase the hydrophobic properties of the finished heat-insulating foam concrete. The second fat tar is mixed with a foaming agent (PB-2000) in the indicated proportions, after which the resulting mixture is heated in a water bath to 60 ° C with constant stirring. The result is a homogeneous water-soluble mass of yellowish-white color, which is used as a complex additive.
As the ground wood aggregate, wood fibers (coniferous or deciduous wood with a fiber diameter of 20-50 μm and a length of 3-10 mm) with a standard moisture content of 15% were used. They are mixed in a predetermined amount with a 5% solution of sodium liquid glass for 10-15 minutes. The specified solution is prepared as follows: 1 part of sodium liquid glass according to GOST 13078-81 with a silicate module n = 2.7 and a density of 1.45-1.50 g / cm 3 is mixed with 19 parts of water. When wood filler is treated with a 5% solution of water glass, a silicate film is formed on its surface, which, by hydrolyzing and forming the smallest flakes, adsorbs sugars and other water-reducing substances (glucose, sucrose, fructose), which negatively affect the processes of crystal formation in cement gel, which leads to the destruction of foam concrete.
At the same time, cement paste is prepared: a predetermined amount of Portland cement (grade 500 according to GOST 10178-85 without slag additives) is mixed with mixing water in which calcium chloride is dissolved according to GOST 450-77 to accelerate the hardening processes. These components are mixed for 5-8 minutes. After preparing the cement dough, after 5-7 minutes, the product of alkylation of the phenol production waste product with oxygen-containing organic substances in a predetermined quantity is introduced into it, and as a result, a modified cement dough is obtained, which is mixed with wood fibers treated with a 5% solution of water glass. Then a foaming agent solution is introduced into the resulting mixture, mixing is carried out for 1.5-2.0 minutes. PB-2000, an aqueous solution of salts of alkyl sulfates of primary fatty alcohols with stabilizing additives in accordance with TU 2481-185-05744685-01, was used as a foaming agent. The foaming solution is prepared by mixing 1 part of the PB-2000 foaming agent, 10 parts of water according to GOST 23732-79. A predetermined amount of said complex additive is introduced into the mixture in the form of a homogeneous, water-soluble mass of yellowish-white color, mix thoroughly for 1.5 minutes and the composition is ready.
Phenolic resin (aka “FAS resin”) formed during the production of phenol and acetone by the cumene method was used as a waste of phenol production. The composition of the phenolic resin (wt.%): Phenol - 6-12; dimethylphenylcarbinol - 0-7; n-cumylphenol 32-43; a -methylstyrene and dimers - 7-23; acetophenone - 7-9; unidentified residue - 2-15 [S. S. Nikulin, V. S. Shein, S. S. Zlotsky and others. Wastes and by-products of petrochemical industries - raw materials for organic synthesis. Ed. M.I. Cherkashin. - M.: Chemistry, 1989. p.160].
In this case, alcohols can be used as oxygen-containing compounds. Thus, there is a known method for producing 2,6-di (tert-butyl) -4-cumylphenol by alkylation with tert-butanol of the main component of the phenolic resin - n-cumylphenol (in an acidic environment) [Czechoslovak patent No. 150822, 1971].
The phenols of various structures that are part of the phenolic resin are chemically active substances that easily enter alkylation processes by the electrophilic substitution mechanism [Albright L.F. Alkylation Research and industrial design process. / Ed. N.I. Uryvalova. Per. from English - M .: Chemistry, 1982, 337 p .; Chemical Encyclopedia. T.1./ Ed. I.L. Knunyantsa. - M .: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1988, p. 92]. The process of alkylation of phenolic resin is carried out according to the following scheme: one part of the phenolic resin is mixed with 0.2-0.4 parts of secondary or tertiary alcohol and equimolar alcohol with the amount of catalyst (AlCl 3 , FeCl 3 , etc.). The mixture is heated to 115 ° C with stirring and kept at this temperature for 1.0-4.0 hours (time spread is determined by the need to remove volatile fractions of phenolic resin).
The main function of this alkylation product is to minimize the negative impact of water-soluble extractive and hydrolyzable substances, as well as the PB-2000 foaming agent on cement hardening by destroying the resulting Ca (OH) 2 , PB-2000 complexes and wood extractive substances, which makes it possible to use such (5-9% by weight) wood fiber content in this composition. It was experimentally found that the specified alkylation product, showing acidic properties, with a content of less than 0.5% (by weight of cement) accelerates the onset of setting of cement pastes [Ivashchenko Yu.G., Shoshin EA, Schukin AI Features of phase formation of cement stone in the presence of wood carbohydrates and modifying additives. // Reliability and durability of building materials, structures and foundations. Materials of the V International Conference, Volgograd, April 23-24, 2009, Part 1. S.107-114].
Using the above technology, compositions were prepared from which samples of lightweight building material were made. The compositions of the claimed composition are shown in table 1.
All samples were made in one day, after 28 days of normal hardening, the samples were tested for basic physical and mechanical properties, the test results are presented in table 2.
The introduction of the specified complex additives leads to a decrease in sorption moisture and a decrease in water absorption. The increase in the hydrophobic properties of foam concrete is due to the fact that the pores of the silicate material are less clogged and their inner surface is more hydrophobized. Moreover, it should be noted that the increase in hydrophobic properties took place while maintaining the remaining physical and mechanical properties of the finished heat-insulating foam concrete.
As can be seen from table 2, the maximum effect is observed in the compositions of mixtures 4 and 5, i.e. in the presence of a complex additive in an amount of 1.0-1.5 wt.% and with a ratio of the second fat tar to PB-2000 1: 0.75. An increase in the content of the complex additive in the composition of the mixture leads to its greater effect, which is not desirable in that it negatively affects the strength characteristics of the finished heat-insulating foam concrete.
Table 1
Component The composition of the mixture
Prototype, wt.% Offered, wt.%
one 2 3 four 5 6
Portland cement 40,0 50,0 35 40,0 50,0 55
Sawdust (fiber) 8.0 12.0 - - - -
Coniferous or deciduous wood fibers 15% moisture (fiber diameter 20-50 microns, length 3-10 mm) - - 4.0 5,0 9.0 10.0
Frother PB-2000 1,0 4.0 0.5 1,0 4.0 5,0
Phenol production waste alkylation product with tertbutanol 0.1 0.5 0.08 0.1 0.5 0.7
Liquid glass (silicate module n = 2.7; density ρ = 1.45-1.5 g / cm 3 ) 1,0 1,5 0.8 1,0 1,5 1.7
Calcium chloride 0.2 0.5 0.18 0.2 0.5 0.7
Complex additive with a ratio of the second fat tar to PB-2000 0.75: 1, 1: 1 and 1: 0.75 - - 0.5 1,0 1,5 2.0
Water 49.7 31.5 58.94 51.7 33 24.9
table 2
Structure The ratio of the second fat tar to PB-2000 Characteristics
The average density, kg / m 3 The coefficient of thermal conductivity, W / (m · K) Tensile strength
under compression, MPa
Humidity by volume in natural conditions,% Sorption humidity,% Water absorption by volume,%
one - 250 0.05 0.45 1.8 8.2 20.5
2 - 300 0.06 0.90 1.9 9,4 23.8
3 0.75: 1 450 0.15 0.42 1.3 5.2 15.3
1: 0.75 453 0.15 0.40 1,2 5.2 14.9
1: 1 455 0.16 0.40 1.3 5.3 15.1
four 0.75: 1 250 0.05 0.55 1,1 4.1 12.6
1: 0.75 245 0.05 0.53 1,0 4.0 11.6
1: 1 255 0.05 0.54 1,1 4.1 12,4
5 0.75: 1 300 0.06 1.30 1,2 4.3 12.8
1: 0.75 295 0.06 1.25 1,1 4.0 11.9
1: 1 305 0.06 1.24 1,1 4.2 12.7
6 0.75: 1 470 0.16 0.40 1.4 6.8 16.6
1: 0.75 472 0.16 0.44 1.3 5.9 15,5
1: 1 475 0.17 0.44 1.3 6.3 16.3

Claims (1)

  1. Composition for the manufacture of heat-insulating foam concrete, including Portland cement, ground wood aggregate, water glass, calcium chloride, a product of phenol production alkylation with oxygen-containing organic substances, PB-2000 foaming agent and water, characterized in that it contains wood fibers and, in addition, a complex additive in the form of a product of processing the second fat tar with PB-2000 blowing agent at a ratio of 0.75: 1-1: 0.75, with the following wearing components, wt.%:
    Portland cement 40.0-50.0 wood fibers 5-9 specified alkylation product 0.1-0.5 liquid glass 1.0-1.5 calcium chloride 0.2-0.5 PB-2000 foaming agent 1.0-4.0 specified complex additive 1.0-1.5 water rest
RU2009138967/03A 2009-10-21 2009-10-21 Composition for making heat-insulation foamed concrete RU2415111C1 (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2538575C1 (en) * 2014-02-25 2015-01-10 Юлия Алексеевна Щепочкина Raw material mixture for foam concrete production

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2538575C1 (en) * 2014-02-25 2015-01-10 Юлия Алексеевна Щепочкина Raw material mixture for foam concrete production

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