RU2413920C1 - Method to throw ogival body with high initial speed from rifled barrel of weapon and ammunition for its realisation - Google Patents

Method to throw ogival body with high initial speed from rifled barrel of weapon and ammunition for its realisation Download PDF

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RU2413920C1
RU2413920C1 RU2009141430/11A RU2009141430A RU2413920C1 RU 2413920 C1 RU2413920 C1 RU 2413920C1 RU 2009141430/11 A RU2009141430/11 A RU 2009141430/11A RU 2009141430 A RU2009141430 A RU 2009141430A RU 2413920 C1 RU2413920 C1 RU 2413920C1
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barrel
bullet
pressure
piston
hollow
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RU2009141430/11A
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Николай Дмитриевич Дронов-Дувалджи (RU)
Николай Дмитриевич Дронов-Дувалджи
Геннадий Сергеевич Полубесов (RU)
Геннадий Сергеевич Полубесов
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Николай Дмитриевич Дронов-Дувалджи
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Abstract

FIELD: weapons and ammunition.
SUBSTANCE: method to throw body from a weapon barrel consists in creation of powder gases pressure in hollow body, rotary torque to boost body in a weapon barrel, its transformation into accelerated rotation in the weapon barrel. Simultaneously pressure of powder gases provides for cutting of thread on body and reciprocal motion of piston inside body. Reciprocal motion is transformed into power rotary torque of body in barrel, where its axial force is summed with axial force of powder gases pressure at bottom of thrown body. Throwing device comprises hollow ogival body in the form of bullet or projectile, piston, lugs and stop ring. Coaxial rectangular guiding ledges, corresponding to turns of hollow body, are arranged on surface of piston. Stop ring is installed in slot on inner surface of body at the end of trapezoidal thread. Lugs slide in rectangular slots, which are equal in width and height. Inside hollow body there is a cylindrical stop, which serves as axis of body rotation in the weapon barrel. Stop is installed with rest against bottom of inner cavity of thrown body. Stop is arranged with central end cone hole and ogival surface.
EFFECT: invention provides for throwing of ogival body with high initial speed from weapon barrel.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 5 dwg

Description

The invention relates to small arms and heavier weapons, and in particular to methods and devices for throwing bullets or shells from rifled gun trunks with a high initial speed with cartridge, separate-case or separate-shotgun loading.
Known methods of throwing bodies from rifled gun trunks with high speeds using the energy of light gases - hydrogen, helium - as a working fluid (M.E.Serebryakov. "Internal ballistics of barrel systems and powder rockets." Moscow, 1962, p. 566 -660).
Obtaining high initial speeds of propelled bodies from the channels of the plant’s trunks when firing with the use of powder gases and hydrogen injected into the chambers of the plants under high pressure allows the high energy capacity of hydrogen, which is characterized by higher heat capacity and gas constant, than for gases generated during the combustion of gunpowder. A mixture of powder gases has a molecular weight of 14-16 times that of hydrogen, and the gas constant, therefore, is much less.
For this reason, the specific volume of hydrogen is 14-16 times greater than the specific volume of the mixture of powder gases. The Kovolum or the molecular volume of hydrogen is also 10 times larger than that of powder gases, and this property contributes to a sharper increase in pressure in the chamber and in the barrel of the plants. At the same temperature, the heat capacity of hydrogen is also 14–16 times greater than the heat capacity of powder gases.
Thus, hydrogen, having such high-energy parameters, has a much higher energy even at a much lower temperature than ordinary powder gases at their high combustion temperature. High energy characteristics of hydrogen can significantly increase the pressure in the barrel of the installations and, thereby, to obtain a very high initial velocity of the propelled body when fired using hydrogen.
The use of gaseous hydrogen is the main disadvantage of the methods of throwing bodies from the threaded trunks of installations, since pumping hydrogen gas into the chambers of installations under significant pressure immediately before firing requires special safety measures that greatly complicate the practical use of hydrogen in known methods of throwing bodies.
A known method of a silent shot, taken as a prototype of the alleged invention (See the positive decision on the grant of a patent dated 08/06/2009 by application No. 2008114702/02 of 04/14/2008).
This method of silent shots, including the translational movement of a sleeve with a piston to disperse a hollow bullet in a fixed barrel of a weapon under the pressure of powder gases, with the latter being locked in the sleeve and in the hollow pool. The translational movement of the sleeve is converted into accelerated rotation of the bullet in the barrel of a rifled weapon, with an equal number of revolutions of the bullet in the rifling of the barrel and a screw pair.
A screw pair contains a sleeve with a thread on its surface and a hollow bullet with a thread on its inner surface, while the size of the grooves in the barrel is several times greater than the size of the grooves of the said screw pair. In addition, ensuring the forward movement of the sleeve is achieved by carrying out the sleeve at the exit of the hollow bullet, tides sliding when fired in rectangular grooves of channels equal in width and height to the cuts of the barrel, made coaxially to the barrel.
A disadvantage of the known method of a silent shot is the need to limit the pressure of the powder gases inside the hollow missile body and the sleeve, and therefore the weight of the powder charge, since both the length of the missile body and the sleeve increases with increasing charge volume. After the shot, the missile body increases its length, since the sleeve under pressure of the powder gases inside it and the bullet protrudes to its length from the stern of the bullet. This leads to an increase in the area of aerodynamic surface braking of the missile when moving along the trajectory, which reduces the speed of the body, the range of the shot and worsens the flatness of the trajectory.
There are two known installation schemes, taken in the application as an analogue, using light gases for shots.
The first installation has a relatively large volume of the chamber, since the volume of the barrel channel with a length of 120 calibers is only 1/20 of the chamber volume W 0 . Thus, the number of gas expansion volumes during the shot
Figure 00000001
which is almost 100 times less than the commonly used Λ D values (5 ... 7) for small arms.
Therefore, when fired, by the time the bullet takes off, only the barrel will enter
Figure 00000002
part of all gas. Before the shot, a high-calorie powder charge is placed in the chamber, providing a loading density Δ = 0.125, and a bullet is inserted into the barrel - an aluminum ball with a special obturating device, which is cut off and gives the ball a start at high pressure p 0 ≈ 2500 kg / cm 2 . Hydrogen is pumped into the chamber to a pressure p in = 250 kg / cm 2 , its weight is 15% of the weight of the powder. When burning gunpowder, the gases formed heat the hydrogen, and a pressure of up to 3000 kg / cm develops, and the temperature of their mixture reaches 2000 K. Since Λ D = 0.05, i.e. very little, then during the movement of the ball the gas pressure with such a small expansion will drop very little, and the average pressure will be close to the highest p cp = 0.96p max .
The muzzle velocity of a bullet when fired from this installation is calculated by the formula (M.E.Serebryakov, p.657)
Figure 00000003
where S is the cross-sectional area of the bore, l D is the length of the barrel, P max is the pressure in the chamber of the installation during the combustion of gunpowder with hydrogen,
Figure 00000004
is the coefficient of accounting for secondary work during the expansion of powder gases, m is the mass of the bullet.
Substitution of data in the formula (1) allows you to determine the speed of throwing bullets from the installation barrel
Figure 00000005
.
In the second installation, also taken as an analogue of the proposed invention, the powder gases are separated from the hydrogen gas by a movable piston moving in a cylindrical chamber of a very large volume. In the chamber, to the left of the piston, a charge of gunpowder is placed, and the chamber volume, to the right of the piston, is filled with hydrogen to a pressure of P OH2 = 80 kg / cm 2 when a pool is inserted into the barrel with a special obturating device that “starts” movement at a hydrogen pressure of the order 3000 kg / cm 2 .
After filling the chamber with hydrogen gas, to the right of the piston, the powder charge in the chamber ignites, and the powder gases move the piston to the right, compressing hydrogen. The volume of hydrogen is adiabatically compressed, and due to the inertia of the piston, the pressure to the right of it is much higher than the pressure in the main chamber where the powder was burnt. Hydrogen under very high pressure and heated by compression to a high temperature directly acts on the bullet, cuts off its obturation and informs the bullet when it leaves a very high speed of 3650 m / s ... 3760 m / s.
The disadvantages of the installations, taken as an analogue of the present invention, is their duration of preparation for the shot, which excludes the speed of use due to the need to pump hydrogen gas into the chambers under high pressure. The presence of hydrogen transfer devices for this purpose complicates the design of the plants and makes them cumbersome.
A silent cartridge is known (See the positive decision on the grant of a patent dated August 6, 2009 according to the application No. 2008114702/02 dated April 14, 2008), taken as a prototype of the invention, containing a hollow bullet in which a sleeve with a powder charge and a capsule is placed pressed into the end of the stern of the sleeve, and a piston for sealing powder gases connected to the sleeve. On the outer surface of the bullet, grooves are made corresponding to the polygonal rifling of the weapon barrel.
A bullet with a trapezoidal thread on the inner surface and a sleeve with a corresponding thread on its surface, the turns of which serve as the said piston, form a helical pair. The size of the grooves in the barrel is several times greater than the size of the grooves of the aforementioned screw pair.
Tides were made at the stern of the sleeve emerging from the bullet, with the possibility of their sliding when fired in rectangular cuts equal in width and height to the barrel cuts aligned with the weapon barrel. The number of turns of turns made on the surface of the liner and on the inner surface of the bullet is even. The number of revolutions of the turns on the surface of the sleeve is not more than one.
A concentric groove is made on the sleeve, corresponding to a concentric groove made on the inner surface of the bullet after the end of the trapezoidal thread, in which a retaining metal ring is fixed, fixing the initial position of the bullet and sleeve.
A disadvantage of the known silent cartridge is the increase in the length of the missile body after the shot, because under the influence of the pressure of the powder gases inside the bullet and the sleeve, the sleeve protrudes from the stern of the missile body, increasing the lateral surface of the body around the counter flow of air. The increase in aerodynamic drag also contributes to the windage of the tides. For these reasons, the speed of the propelled body on the trajectory decreases, the gyroscopic stability of the propelled body on the trajectory, the range of the shot, and the flatness of the trajectory and other tactical and technical characteristics of the propelled body also decrease.
An object of the invention is the throwing of a living body with a high initial speed from a rifled barrel of a weapon.
The stated technical problem is ensured by the fact that in the method of throwing an animated body with a high initial speed from the rifled barrel of the weapon, including creating pressure of powder gases in a hollow body with a screw pair of torque for accelerating the body in the barrel of the weapon, converting it into accelerated rotation of the body in the barrel weapons with an equal number of revolutions in the rifling of the barrel and screw pair and at the same time the pressure of the powder gases provide threading on the body and the translational movement of the piston into the body, and azuyut this movement into the power torque in the barrel body, where it is summed with the axial force of the axial pressure force of the powder gases to the bottom of the propelled bodies.
In addition, the technical result is achieved in that the munition for separate loading, containing a hollow missile animated body in the form of a bullet or a projectile, a piston on the surface of which are coaxial rectangular guiding protrusions serving as a supporting surface for single-turn multi-thread coils of trapezoidal thread corresponding to the coils of the hollow body forming with the last screw pair, while the size of the grooves of the grooves of the screw pair is several times less than the size of the grooves of the grooves in the barrel channel, the retaining ring, placed in a groove on the inner surface of the body after the end of the trapezoidal thread, tides sliding in equal to the width and height of the rectangular grooves aligned with the trunk, inside the hollow body there is a cylindrical stop serving as the axis of rotation of the body in the barrel of the weapon, which is mounted with support in the bottom of the internal cavity body and with a second support on a steel retaining ring with lead side ring gaskets in a groove covering the stop; at the exit from the body, a cylindrical stop is made with a central end conical hole and a live surface provided with said tides having guide lateral surfaces at an angle equal to the angle of the rifling of the barrel rifles to its axis.
The technical result of the invention is also achieved by the fact that the cartridge loading munition containing a sleeve with an anvil and a capsule is equipped with a truncated steel cone for internal seaming of a cartridge barrel with a throwable body, the cone being made with a cylindrical thickening matching in diameter with the inner cylindrical surface of the abutment and ending with a cylindrical extension of a smaller diameter entering the blind bore of the piston until it contacts its vertical end walls.
To solve the technical problem of the invention, in the method, under the pressure of the powder gases in the bore, provide translational movement of the piston with a trapezoidal thread, the turns of which correspond to the turns on the inner surface of the hollow body. The turns of the hollow body form a helical pair with the turns of the piston, which replaces the sleeve with turns in the prototype. The translational movement of the piston is converted by a screw pair into the torque of the body: the smaller the pitch of the grooves in the screw pair, the greater the torque.
From internal ballistics it is known (See, for example, p. 343 from M.E.Serebryakov) that U = ω · r · ctgα, where U is the translational speed of the propelled body relative to the barrel channel, determined by the linear rotation speed of this body V = ω · r, (ω is the angular velocity of rotation of the propelled body, r is the radius of the barrel), increased by the cotangent of the angle (lifting of the screw grooves of the barrel. The smaller the angle α, the greater the speed and moment of rotation of the body, since with decreasing this angle the cotangent function increases.
Since the linear speed of rotation of the body is proportional to its torque, it follows that an increase in the translational speed of the missile body in the bore is achieved not only by increasing the pressure of the powder gases on this body, but also by increasing the moment of rotation. To justify this conclusion, the assumption is used that the rotational moment of a missile body obtained in a helical pair under the influence of the pressure of powder gases is equal to the moment of rotation of this body in the grooves of the barrel.
Since the axial force of the translational motion from the torque and the axial pressure force of the powder gases on the bottom of the missile body in the barrel channel act coaxially and at the same time are applied to the same body, these forces have a total effect on the missile body, ensuring threading on the body and causing an increase in the initial speed of throwing the body from the bore.
An advantage of the method is the use of the pressure of the powder gases in the bore with conventional powder charges by weight and ordinary loading densities, which makes it possible to use existing weapons to implement the method without increasing its weight and individual strength characteristics. The implementation of the method is carried out in ammunition of both separate and cartridge loading, and for separate loading of ammunition in design is simpler.
The design of the ammunition allows the rectilinear translational movement of the piston in a fixed stop, under the influence of the pressure of the powder gases, to convert into a significant force moment, which rotates the missile body in the barrel using the specified screw pair. Since the size of the groove of the grooves of a screw pair is several times smaller than the size of the groove of the grooves in the bore, this ratio increases the axial force of the torque applied to the body being thrown due to the effect that is similar to the effect of the lifting capacity of the jack.
The immobility of the cylindrical stop relative to the hollow missile body provides a rectilinear translational movement of the piston and axial support for the rotation of this body in the bore. Therefore, the stop is installed between the bottom of the cavity of the missile body and the groove located on the inner surface of this body after the end of the trapezoidal thread, which includes the steel retaining ring connected with the stop and covering it with lead side gaskets. Lead gaskets provide a decrease in friction between the fixed stop and the hollow body rotating around it with a significant specific pressure on the friction surfaces from the pressure of the powder gases.
To improve the aerodynamics of the flow around the propelled body, the feed of which should be animated, the emphasis at the exit from the body has an animated conical surface. This surface is provided with protrusions, called tides in the text, which, when the missile is moving in the bore, keep the stop against rotation, but slip when the missile is accelerated in the trunk in grooves that are aligned with the barrel and are equal in width and height to the rifling of the barrel. The tides have a guiding lateral surface, rotated relative to the axis of the barrel at an angle equal to the angle of elevation of the rifling of the barrel to its axis. When a missile body moves along its ballistic tides, when flowing around with an oncoming air stream, they give an additional gyroscopic moment of stability to the body on the trajectory.
However, external crimping of the mouth of the liner and the bullet in the design with the tides causes technological difficulties. The invention proposes a variant of internal termination of the mouth of the sleeve into the bullet using a structural element - a truncated cone, which is inserted into the mouth of the equipped sleeve before connecting to the bullet.
Thanks to the use of such an element, it is possible to carry out automatic assembly of ammunition cartridges on rotary lines with simple instrumental operations: by expanding the mouth of the sleeve into the size of the inner conical surface of the ogival stern of the stop. In addition, when fired, a cone with a thickening for sliding in an emphasis, without a gap, transfers the pressure of the powder gases to the piston, that is, it serves as a transmission link, which is necessary structurally to shift the center of gravity of the bullet to the stern.
In case of separate-sleeve or separate-grape-loading loading, the throwing body must be performed without a cone, but with the condition that the center of gravity of the body is shifted to the stern, due to the elongation of the piston along its diameter covered by the stop.
The inventive ammunition for implementing the method of throwing a live body with a high initial speed from a rifled weapon barrel is illustrated by the drawings:
figure 1 shows a design in longitudinal section of an ammunition cartridge for small arms with a 9 mm caliber bullet; figure 2 shows a fragment of the assembly of the emphasis with the piston; figure 3 is a fragment of the emphasis; figure 4 shows a fragment of a piston with a profile projection; figure 5 is a fragment of a cone with a profile projection.
Ammunition for throwing a live body from rifled gun trunks consists of a hollow missile body in the form of a bullet 1, on the inner surface of which a two-way trapezoidal thread 2 is made. Fixed stop 3, in which the piston 4 and cone 5 move when fired, fixed by the bottom of the cavity of the missile body ( left) and lead gaskets 6 of a steel retaining ring 7, covering this stop, having a lively conical surface at the outlet of the throwing body, on which the tides are made 8. The mouth 9 of the cartridge sleeve is flared to lot connection with its outer surface with the inner conical surface of the stop.
Since the munition cartridge in the breech of the barrel by design does not have a supporting surface, the ramp 10 of the sleeve 11 is thickened to withstand the pressure of the powder gases during firing. The powder charge 12 is ignited upon initiation of the shock structure of the capsule 14 upon the anvil 13 of the impact of the striker of the weapon in its bottom.
Trapezoidal coils 15 (figure 2 and figure 4), based on the protrusions 16, cover the guides 17 of the emphasis and when the piston moves, slide along them. The piston has a blind hole 18 for joining with a cylindrical extension 19 (Fig. 5) of a cone having a surface 20 adjacent to the cylindrical bulge 21. At the end of the cylindrical continuation of this bulge, a hexagonal hole 22 is made for a tool performing flaring of the sleeve mouth.
The implementation of the method of throwing a living body from rifled weapon trunks using ammunition is as follows.
In the initial position of the ammunition in figure 1, in the chamber of the weapon, the bullet 1 rests with its front animated part on the connecting ramp of the rifling of the barrel with the chamber, the tides 8 enter rectangular longitudinal grooves in the barrel, the sleeve 11 is locked in the chamber by a shutter mirror. When the striker hits the bottom of the capsule 14, a beam of fire is transmitted from the capsule to the powder charge 12 and ignites it. There is a rapid increase in the pressure of the powder gases in the sleeve 11. Until the magnitude of the extracting force of the mouth 9 of the sleeve 11 from the cone 5, the bullet 1 continues to be in the initial position in the chamber of the weapon until the pressure on the bullet 1 reaches the boost pressure 300 ... 400 kg / cm 2 . The beginning of the movement of the bullet 1 coincides with the beginning of the movement of the cone 5 under the action of the powder gases and the piston 4 receiving this movement in the stop 3. The single-turn turns of the trapezoidal thread 15 on the piston 4 of FIG. 2, associated with the response turns 2 on the inner surface of the hollow bullet 1, cause a rotating the moment of the bullet 1 in the barrel, the axial force of which on the bullet 1 is summed with the axial force from the pressure on it of the powder gases.
On the surface of the bullet 1, grooves corresponding to the grooves of the barrel are formed, and the bullet 1 is separated from the sleeve 11. The pressure of the powder gases in the bore continues to increase. Also increases the torque of the bullet 1 and its axial force on the bullet 1 (from the movement inside the bullet 1 at the stop 3 of the cone 5 and the piston 4), which is summed with the axial force on the bottom of the bullet 1 of the powder gases. This increases the speed of the bullet 1 in the barrel. This process occurs until the bullet 1 takes off from the bore with a high initial speed of 4700 m / s, calculated by the well-known internal ballistics technique of M.E.Serebryakov, see an example of implementation below.
The emphasis 3 is one of the critical parts that perceive power loads both from the pressure of the powder gases, and from the resulting torque applied to the pool 1 in the rifled bore of the barrel. It serves as a fixed axis of rotation for the hollow bullet 1, perceiving with its steel retaining ring 7 with support in the bottom of the cavity of the bullet 1, the load from the pressure of the powder gases in the barrel channel on the bullet 1 and the significant axial force of the torque applied to it in the barrel. Therefore, the friction forces between the ring 7, sliding in a groove on the inner surface of the bullet 1 at the indicated significant specific loads, it is necessary to reduce the known use in such cases of lead gaskets 6 mounted on the rubbing side surfaces of the ring 7. The bending moment acting on the tides 8 during rotation of the bullet 1 in the grooves of the bore, is also significant, therefore, the material for the manufacture of the stop 3 must have sufficient strength and hardness.
Figure 4 shows a fragment of the piston 4 with single-turn turns of the trapezoidal thread 15, based on the rectangular protrusions 16 of the piston 4. The grooves 16 of the piston 4 are designed to slide in the guides 17 of the stop 3, shown in figure 3. During assembly with a blind hole 18, the piston 4 mates with a cone 6 with a cylindrical extension 19 in FIG. 5, at the end of which a hexagonal hole 22 is made for mounting a tool that performs the flaring operation of the mouth 9 of the sleeve 11 by the surface 20 of the cone 6.
Example of calculating the parameters of a shot: using the above assumption, we determine the value of the moment of rotation obtained from a screw pair inside a hollow missile body. First, it is necessary to determine the angle of elevation (trapezoidal rifling of the screw pair according to the average thread diameter d cp with the known value of the rifling stroke h by the formula: h = π · d cp ctgγ.
The required numerical design parameters of the projected animated body with a caliber of 9 mm are given in the table below.
From the formula we have ctgγ = h / π · d cp = 10.5 / 3.14 · 8.25 = 0.4051, and the angle according to trigonometric tables is γ = 67 ° 57 '.
From the consideration of a screw pair with a rectangular thread (in approximation to the trapezoidal one) it is known, see, for example, "Applied Mechanics" under the general editorship of prof. Dr. tech. Sciences V.M. Ossetskogo, Moscow, "Engineering", 1977, p. 74, that the torque of a horizontally located helical pair is calculated by the formula M = F · r · tg (γ + φ). The axial force F, opposite in direction to the axial movement of the screw, determines the resistance force in the screw pair, r is the average radius of the thread, φ is the friction angle determined by the beginning of the sliding of the body from an inclined plane; tgφ = µ determines the coefficient of the maximum rest friction force equal to the tangent of the angle of the beginning of the sliding of the body from an inclined plane, see, for example, SP Strelkov "Mechanics", Moscow, 1955, pp. 129 ... 131.
When steel glides over steel, the coefficient μ = 0.15 and the angle φ≈8 ° 33 'if the inclined plane and body are made of steel. To find the average radius of the screw pair r, we use the table data for the inner diameter of the bullet and for the diameter of the thread inside the bullet
Figure 00000006
To determine the force F, the value of the average ballistic pressure p is required, since it is accepted that the powder burns under this average pressure, which is the same for all points of the projectile space, see M.E Serebryakova, p. 358. This pressure is determined by the formula of P.N. Shkvornikov
Figure 00000007
, where p sn is the pressure of the powder gases at the bottom of the projectile, in this case of the claimed design is the pressure on the cone, ω is the weight of the powder, from the table ω = 3.3 g, q b is the weight of the projectile, in the claimed design the weight of the piston together with the cone , which is taken from the table and from the developed design documentation for the ammunition, q b = 5.2 g, φ 1 = 1.02 - coefficient taking into account the resistance to the movement of the projectile, in the case of the claimed design to the cylindrical piston and cone.
Table.
No. p. Name of the parameter, designation and units of measurement. Parameter value
one Caliber of the throwing body (bullets), d, mm, 9
2 The diameter of the bullet rifled, D, mm, 9.3
3 The angle of rise of the rifling of the barrel, α, degree, 5 ° 07 '
four The inner diameter of the bullet, d VN , mm, 8
5 The diameter of the thread inside the bullet, d n mm 8.5
6 Thread pitch inside the bullet, h, mm, 10.5
7 Bullet length, L, mm, 37.75
8 The number of threads in the bullet 2
9 The number of guide tides, m, 2
10 The width of the guide tides, t, mm, 2.6
eleven The angle of the tides to the axis of the bullet, δ, deg. 5.07 '
12 Bullet weight, q, g, 13.11
13 Gunpowder charge weight, ω, g, 3.3
fourteen Weight of a hollow bullet, g 5,685
fifteen Stop weight, g 2,223
16 Piston weight, g 2,965
17 The weight of the cone, g 2,233
eighteen Weight of sleeve with capsule, g, 11.6
19 Cartridge weight, Q, g, 27.00
twenty The number of rifling of the trunk, n four
Since the pressure on the bottom of the projectile is determined empirically, the pressure on the cone is 2880 kg / cm 2 , since the weight of phlegmatized gunpowder 3.25 g in the sleeve of the Mosin rifle allowed at the indicated pressure to increase the initial velocity of the bullet to 870 m / s, see M.E.Serebryakova, p. 193.
Then the pressure of the powder gases in the cavity of the bullet in accordance with the calculations according to the formula of PN Shkvornikov is equal
Figure 00000008
The calculation of the force F is carried out according to the expression (d k = 0.7 cm is the diameter of the cylindrical thickening of the cone)
Figure 00000009
Thus, to calculate the torque arising from the translational movement of the piston under the action of a force arising from the pressure of the powder gases on the cone transmitting to the piston, there are all quantities
Figure 00000010
.
This torque, in accordance with the assumption stated above, is also applied to the pool in the bore.
Since the arising rifling during firing on the surface of the bullet and the rifling of the barrel channel form a similar screw pair, but with different parameters, it can be written that M = P · R · tg (α + φ), where R is the average radius along the rifling of the barrel, calculated according to the data from the above table, R = 0.25 · (9 + 9.3) = 4.575 mm = 0.4575 cm, α is the elevation angle of the grooves in the barrel and on the surface of the bullet, α = 5 ° 07 ', φ - the angle of friction of steel over steel, φ = 8 ° 33 ', P is one of the components of the axial force, throwing a bullet from the bore, which must be determined with a known moment M
Figure 00000011
To determine the equivalent pressure of the powder gases corresponding to this force, it is necessary to divide the value of force P by the cross-sectional area of the bullet taking into account the rifling and the area of the tides. The area of the bullet is calculated by the well-known formula
S = n S · d 2 , where n S = 0.82, see M.E.Serebryakova, footnote on page 337, d = 0.9 cm - bullet caliber, (from the table).
S = 0.82.81 = 0.6642 cm 2 .
Since the height of the tides is equal to the thickness of the rifling, the area of the bullet with the tides remains unchanged. The equivalent pressure of the powder gases, corresponding to the force P, will be equal to
P E = P / S P = 26737 kg / 0.6642 cm 2 = 402 54.4 kg / cm 2 .
Ballistic pressure in the barrel channel is determined at a known pressure of the powder gases on the bottom of the projectile according to the formula of N.P. Shkvornikov, therefore, at the selected pressure p cn = 2880 kg / cm 2, we determine the indicated pressure acting on both the cone and the bottom of the bullet
Figure 00000012
.
Since the equivalent pressure P e and pressure p b occur in the bore at the same time and act on all surfaces in the projectile space, according to the laws of physics, these pressures are subject to summation.
The total pressure in the projectile space will be equal to
p Σ = R E + p b = 3235.4 + 40254.4 = 43489.8 kg / cm 2 .
To determine the length of the barrel, we use the generatrix formula, on which the rifle makes two turns in accordance with the design of the bullet
L D = 2π · d · ctgα = 2 · 3.14 · 9 · ctg5 ° 07 '= 56.55 · 11.3169 = 639.96 = 640 mm.
Since the bullet must leave the barrel by the end of the second revolution, the resulting barrel size must be reduced by the length of the bullet indicated in the table. The final barrel length is
L D = 640-37.75 = 602.3 mm.
Muzzle velocity of a bullet is calculated by the known formula
Figure 00000013
,
where φ is the coefficient of accounting for secondary works of powder gases, ω is the weight of the charge, q is the weight of the bullet, m is the mass of the bullet. Moreover, m = q / g, where g = 9.8 m / s is the acceleration of gravity. The charge weight ω and the bullet weight q are placed in the table. We calculate the mass of the bullet
Figure 00000014
Next, we determine the coefficient of accounting for minor works for small arms (a = 1.1; b = 0.3):
Figure 00000015
We define the muzzle muzzle velocity of the bullet at the calculated pressure p according to the formula previously given in the text:
Figure 00000016
Thus, the calculation confirms the reality of the method of obtaining high initial speeds of the missile bodies from rifled gun trunks. To increase the estimated value of the body throwing speed, it is necessary to reduce the value of the grooves in a screw pair, i.e. increase the angle γ.
An advantage of the method is the use of the pressure of the powder gases in the bore with conventional powder charges by weight and ordinary loading densities, which makes it possible to use existing weapons to implement the method without increasing its weight and individual strength characteristics. The implementation of the method is carried out in ammunition of both separate and cartridge loading, and for separate loading the design of ammunition is simpler.
The attractiveness of the method of throwing a live body with a high initial velocity from the barrel of the weapon and the ammunition for its implementation is that for the first time a real, simple in design ammunition is proposed, capable of having an initial throwing speed close to 5000 m / s from conventional weapon barrels without much change their designs. Thanks to this proposal, the aiming range of a direct shot, the flatness of the trajectory, and other tactical and technical characteristics of domestic weapons are significantly increased compared with the existing one.

Claims (3)

1. A method of throwing a lively body with a high initial speed from a rifled weapon barrel, including the creation of pressure of powder gases in a hollow body with a screw pair of torque to accelerate the body in the weapon barrel, converting it into accelerated rotation of the body in the weapon barrel with an equal number of revolutions per rifling of the barrel and a screw pair, characterized in that at the same time the pressure of the powder gases ensures threading on the body and the translational movement of the piston into the body and transform this movement into a force rotating the first moment of the body in the barrel, where its axial force is summed with the axial force of the pressure of the powder gases on the bottom of the missile body.
2. An ammunition for separate loading, containing a hollow missile animated body in the form of a bullet or a projectile, a piston on the surface of which are located coaxial rectangular guiding projections that serve as a supporting surface for single-turn multi-thread coils of trapezoidal thread, corresponding to the coils of the hollow body, forming a screw pair with the latter, the size of the grooves of the grooves of a screw pair is several times less than the size of the grooves of the grooves in the barrel channel, the retaining ring installed in the groove on the inner surface of the body along after the end of the trapezoidal thread, tides sliding in equal to the width and height of the rectangular grooves aligned with the trunk, characterized in that a cylindrical stop is located inside the hollow body, serving as the axis of rotation of the body in the weapon barrel, which is mounted with support in the bottom of the internal cavity of the missile body and the second bearing on a steel retaining ring with lead side ring gaskets in a groove covering the stop; at the exit from the body, a cylindrical stop is made with a central end conical hole and a lively surface Tew equipped mentioned tides having lateral guide surfaces at an angle equal to the lead angle of the barrel rifling to its axis.
3. Ammunition for loading ammunition containing a sleeve with an anvil and capsule, according to claim 2, characterized in that it is equipped with a sleeve and a steel truncated cone for internal seaming of the barrel of the barrel with a missile body, and the cone is made with a cylindrical thickening matching in diameter with an inner cylindrical surface of the stop and ending with a cylindrical extension of a smaller diameter entering the blind bore of the piston until it contacts its vertical end walls.
RU2009141430/11A 2009-11-09 2009-11-09 Method to throw ogival body with high initial speed from rifled barrel of weapon and ammunition for its realisation RU2413920C1 (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2485435C1 (en) * 2012-02-21 2013-06-20 Николай Евгеньевич Староверов Charge of staroverov - i

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2485435C1 (en) * 2012-02-21 2013-06-20 Николай Евгеньевич Староверов Charge of staroverov - i

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