RU2399164C1 - Image signal formation method - Google Patents

Image signal formation method Download PDF

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RU2399164C1
RU2399164C1 RU2009108634/09A RU2009108634A RU2399164C1 RU 2399164 C1 RU2399164 C1 RU 2399164C1 RU 2009108634/09 A RU2009108634/09 A RU 2009108634/09A RU 2009108634 A RU2009108634 A RU 2009108634A RU 2399164 C1 RU2399164 C1 RU 2399164C1
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frame
memory
charges
transfer
accumulation
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RU2009108634/09A
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Вячеслав Михайлович Смелков (RU)
Вячеслав Михайлович Смелков
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Вячеслав Михайлович Смелков
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Abstract

FIELD: physics.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in television cameras working on photosensitive matrix charge coupled devices (PMCCD) designed for operation in optical overload conditions and having electronic sensitivity adjustment by varying intra-frame accumulation time. According to the disclosed method of generating an image signal, frame (half-frame) transfer of signal charges in the PMCCD from the accumulation section to the memory section takes place at the final retrace interval of frame scanning to achieve the corresponding time delay of the duration of accumulation of signal charges, and in the retrace interval of frame scanning preceding transfer of signal charges, parasitic charges are cleared from the memory section in accordance with two embodiments, specifically: embodiment 1 - due to displacement with frame (half-frame) transfer frequency in the output register or in embodiment 2 - due to tapping parasitic charges into the photodetector substrate by engineering an anti-blooming region and an electronic shutter in the memory section.
EFFECT: wider dynamic range of PMCCD through elimination of parasitic charges in the memory section under optical overloading conditions of the photodetector independent of its conduction channel.
6 dwg

Description

The present invention relates to television technology and can mainly be used in cameras on photosensitive matrix devices with charge coupling (FMPZS), designed to work in conditions of light overload and having electronic sensitivity control by changing the intraframe accumulation time.

The closest in technical essence to the claimed invention should be considered a method of generating an image signal [1], which consists in the fact that with a period of frames (half-frames) 1, information charges are accumulated on the targets (accumulation sections) of the FPMS, and information charges are transferred with a frame (half-frame) frequency transfer from the accumulation section to the memory section, information charges are transferred line-by-line from the memory section to the output register in the interval of the reverse stroke of the horizontal scan, and in the interval of the forward stroke of the horizontal scan and transfer information charges element by element from the output register to the output block of the FPMS with the simultaneous conversion of the charge into a video signal voltage, and in the accumulation section, in the interval between the frame transfer of the current frame and the accumulation cycle of the subsequent frame, excess charges are removed by injection into the photodetector substrate, and in the memory section in the interval preceding the next frame transfer, the parasitic charges are cleaned by their injection into the substrate of the photodetector.

The disadvantage of the prototype is the impossibility of this method of generating an image signal to achieve the expansion of the dynamic range of the FFMS with a hidden (volume) conduction channel, because their circuit organization and physics of work exclude the use of the method of injection of charges into the substrate by introducing the accumulation section and the memory section into the enrichment mode of charge carriers. In practice, in case of local overexposure of the FFMS with a hidden channel, excess charges are diverted to the photodetector substrate due to the technological organization of the anti-blooming (drain) region and the electronic shutter in the accumulation section [2, p. image signal.

The objective of the invention is the expansion of the dynamic range of the FPMS by eliminating spurious charges in the memory section under conditions of light overload of the photodetector, regardless of its conduction channel.

The problem is solved in that in the claimed method of generating an image signal, which consists in the fact that with a period of frames (half frames), information charges are accumulated on the targets (storage sections) of the FPMS, information charges are transferred at a frame (half frame) transfer frequency from the storage section to the section memory, line-by-line transfer information charges from the memory section to the output register in the interval of the reverse line scan, and in the interval of the forward line scan, the information is transferred element-wise these charges from the output register to the output block of the FPGA with the simultaneous conversion of the charge into the voltage of the video signal, and in the accumulation section, in the interval between the frame transfer of the current frame and the accumulation cycle of the subsequent frame, excess charges are transferred to the photodetector substrate by technological organization of the anti-blooming region and the electronic shutter in the accumulation section , according to the invention, the personnel (half-frame) transfer of information charges from the accumulation section to the memory section is carried out and in the final interval of the frame scan reverse interval with the corresponding time delay of the duration of the accumulation of information charges, and in the interval of the frame scan reverse interval preceding the transfer of information charges, the memory section is cleaned of stray charges according to two alternative versions, namely, according to the variant 1 - due to their movement with the frequency of the personnel (half-frame) transfer to the output register or according to option 2 - due to the removal of parasites total charges into the substrate of the photodetector by technological organization of the anti-blooming region and the electronic shutter in the memory section.

Comparative analysis with the prototype shows that the inventive method of generating an image signal is characterized by the presence of new features, namely the presence of the following actions:

- the implementation of the transfer of information charges from the accumulation section to the memory section on the final time interval of the reverse scan interval of the frame scan, provided that there is a corresponding time delay in the duration of the accumulation of information charges;

- performing, according to alternative embodiment 1, cleaning the memory section of spurious charges due to their movement with the frequency of the personnel (half-frame) transfer to the output register;

- the implementation of an alternative embodiment 2 of the cleaning section of the memory of parasitic charges due to their removal into the substrate by technological organization in the memory section of the anti-blooming area and the electronic shutter.

The set of features is unknown from the prior art, therefore, the claimed solution meets the requirement of novelty.

The expansion of the dynamic range of the FPMS according to the proposed method is carried out using the method of electronic cleaning of the memory section of parasitic charges by choosing the optimal time position of the frame cycle (half-frame) exposure of information charges in the accumulation section and the frame cycle (half-frame) transfer of these charges to a previously prepared memory section. Considering the possibility of using the proposed method for photodetectors at the FMSS both with surface and with a hidden conduction channel, the proposed solution meets the requirement of inventive step.

Figure 1 shows a functional diagram of a device that implements the inventive method; figure 2, figure 3 and figure 5 are shown in a single scale, with a common time reference diagram of the control signals necessary for the implementation of the proposed method and the prototype method, relative to the personnel quenching pulse (CIG) shown in figa; figure 4 shows a plot of a fragment of the control signals according to figure 3 in a different scale; Fig.6 is a fragment of the cross section of the accumulation section or the memory section of the FPMS, illustrating the physical processes that are accompanied by the technological organization of the anti-blooming area and the electronic shutter in these sections of the photodetector.

The device in figure 1 contains a first master oscillator 1, a sync generator 2, a vertical transfer pulse generator 3, an electronic shutter pulse generator 4 of a storage section, a second master generator 5, a horizontal transfer pulse generator 6, FMSPS 7, a cleaning interval generator and an electronic shutter pulse 8 sections of memory.

Blocks 2-4 and 6-8, circled in FIG. 1 by a dash-dot line, can be made in the form of a large integrated circuit (LSI), for example, similarly to the developed domestic LSI K1124AP2 [3, p.182].

The photodetector 7 in the claimed solution has the organization "personnel transfer" with a surface or volume (hidden) conduction channel. It is preferable to use a closed-channel FMSS, since they have a low level of intrinsic noise. FMPZS 7 with such an “architecture” includes (see FIG. 1) the accumulation section 7-1 sequentially connected by charge communication, the memory section 7-2, the output register 7-3, and the output unit 7-4. In option 1, the photodetector 7 comprises an anti-blooming area and an electronic shutter integrated in section 7-1. In option 2, the anti-blooming area and the electronic shutter are built into the photodetector 7 twice, respectively in section 7-1 and in section 7-2.

As shown in FIG. 6, the shutter GA is an “electronic” shutter of the accumulation section. For a photodetector with an n-channel, if there is a low potential (relative to the substrate) on the GA gate, the potential is closed, and the potential wells under the phase electrodes of section 7-1 are isolated from the drain region due to this barrier bias. Then, at the photographic target itself, the process of accumulation of charge photoelectrons under the Ф2Н electrodes is initiated (see Fig. 6a).

When a high potential is applied to the GA gate, the potential barrier is removed, the gate opens, and the process of photoelectron accumulation is excluded in section 7-1. This is explained by the fact that the carriers, not lingering in potential wells under the Ф2Н phase electrodes, rush into deeper wells created by the potential DA in the drain region, and then recombine into the photodetector substrate (see Fig. 6b).

Examples of FPSS with such an organization are domestic devices [2] developed at the Central Research Institute "Electron" (St. Petersburg).

On the other hand, observing the physics of the operation of the FPMS, it is very similarly possible to implement in the photodetector 7 an “electronic” shutter GB with an anti-blooming area controlled by the potential DB by integrating them into the memory section around the phase electrodes Ф2П, as shown in FIG. 6.

The method of generating an image signal is as follows. The optical image of the control object is projected onto the FPGA storage section 7-1, while the memory section 7-2 is protected from illumination by a screen applied directly to its surface.

Under light overload conditions, parasitic charges are formed in the memory section 7-2 due to light re-reflection and charge diffusion in silicon from the storage section. As the next information frame (half-frame) is read from the memory section 7-2, lines free of information charges are formed in its upper part. In potential wells of these lines, parasitic charges accumulate. By the end of reading the information frame (half-frame), all the lines of memory section 7-2 contain spurious charges, but the distribution of these charges over the area of section 7-2 is uneven. The highest parasitic charge contains the upper lines of the memory section, because the total accumulation time of the charges found there exceeds the accumulation time for the remaining rows, which are located below them.

According to the prototype method, in the interval T and (see Fig. 2e-g), in the control signals of the first (F1P), second (Ф2П) and third (FZP) phases of the memory section, an enrichment level U about negative polarity with respect to the substrate 2 is formed , due to which cleaning the memory section of spurious charges by injecting them into the substrate of the photodetector. Note that in the prototype under conditions of light overload of a photodetector with a surface channel according to the electronic shutter method, the enrichment level U о must be set to the maximum time on all three phase control signals of the storage section (see fig.2b-d), excluding the interval T n for phase Ф2Н (see Fig. 2c).

In the claimed solution, the "mechanism" for cleaning the memory section of the FPGA is different. According to the proposed method for generating the image signal, the frame (half-frame) transfer of information charges from the storage section 7-1 to the memory section 7-2 is performed on the final part of the frame scan backward interval. For this, in block 3, a pulse is delayed, which determines the temporary position of the personnel (half-frame) transfer in the prototype by the required value of T s . The output pulse signal of block 3, corresponding to the interval of the personnel (half-frame) transfer according to the claimed method, is presented in Fig.2i. At the same time, in block 3, a delay of T 3 of the accumulation interval T n is performed.

The formation of a pulse signal that determines the cleaning interval T about the memory section from parasitic charges (see fig.2z) is carried out in block 8. The cleaning itself is performed in two alternative versions. These options in figure 1 are determined by the position of the switch.

According to option 1 (the switch position is “down”), block 3 generates pulse control signals of the first (Ф1Н), second (Ф2Н) and third (ФЗН) phase of accumulation section 7-1 (see fig. 3b-d), and together with block 8 - pulse control signals of the first (F1P), second (Ф2П) and third (ФЗП) phase of memory section 7-2 (see, respectively, fig.3d-g). Block 4 generates an electronic shutter control pulse (GA) of the accumulation section (see Fig. 3a), and block 6 produces pulse control signals of the first (F1P), second (Ф2Р) and third (FZR) phase of the output register 7-3 (not shown ) Moreover, in the interval T about , parasitic charges are transferred from the memory section 7-2 to the output register 7-3 with the transfer frequency T в , as shown in Figs. 3 and 4. During the flyback (t о.x.c . ) the charge strings of the parasitic signal are added (enlarged) in the output register 7-3, and then during the forward stroke the lines are transferred element by element from it to the output block 7-4. Let t o.h.s. - the interval of reception of charge lines in the output register. Then the interval T about is the value:

Figure 00000001

where N with - the number of lines in section 7-2;

T with - period of the line.

Let's take the typical values of the parameters: N s = 290; T s = 64 μs; T at = 0.6 μs; t o.h.s = 12 μs. As a result, the required value of T о will be 928 μs, and in total with the interval of personnel (half-frame) transfer T p equal to N s × T in and amounting to 174 μs, it "fits" into the frame-back interval, i.e. takes no more than 1600 microseconds.

Taking into account the fact that the control ability of the output FPSS register is several times higher than the control ability of the memory section, and the distribution of stray charge decreases in the direction “from top to bottom”, for the interval T about , the photodetector is completely cleaned of stray carriers.

In option 2 (the switch position is “up”), block 3 generates exactly the same as in option 1, the pulse control signals of the first (Ф1Н), second (Ф2Н) and third (ФЗН) phase of the storage section 7-1 (see figb-g), as well as typical pulse control signals of the first (F1P), second (Ф2П) and third (FZP) phase of the memory section 7-2 (see fig. 5d-g, respectively). Similarly to option 1, block 6 generates pulse control signals of the first (F1P), second (Ф2Р) and third (FZR) phase of the output register 7-3, block 4 - pulse control electronic gate (GA) of the accumulation section (see figa), and in addition, block 8 transmits to the photodetector a pulse to control the electronic shutter (GB) of the memory section (see FIG. 5z).

Thanks to the latter, parasitic charges from the memory section 7-2 in the interval T o are diverted to the photodetector substrate.

The application of the proposed method of generating an image signal allows in both cases to remove the stray charge accumulated under the conditions of light overload of the FFMS in a memory section with a volume conduction channel, and therefore, ceteris paribus, expand the dynamic range of the photodetector. In relation to the prototype of the proposed method is universal, because It can be used for FPMS with both volumetric and surface channel.

Currently, all the blocks of the functional diagram that implements the proposed method can be mastered by domestic industry. Therefore, the present invention should be considered as meeting the requirement for industrial applicability.

INFORMATION SOURCES

1. Klevtsov V.G., Lebedev N.V., Palochkin A.I. A method of expanding the dynamic range of a television camera on a CCD matrix. // Communication Technology, series "Television Technology", 1988, issue 1, p.3-6.

2. Timofeev V.O. Matrix FPPZ visible and near infrared ranges with effective anti-blooming and electronic shutter. Report at the XII scientific and technical conference "Ways of development of television photoelectronic devices and devices based on them", June 27-29, 2001, St. Petersburg. Abstracts, p. 74.

3. Press F.P. Charge coupled photosensitive devices. - M.: “Radio and Communications”, 1991.

Claims (1)

  1. The method of generating an image signal, which consists in the fact that with a period of frames (half-frames) information charges are accumulated on the targets (storage sections) of a charge-coupled matrix device (FPMS), information charges with a frame (half-frame) transfer frequency are transferred from the storage section to the memory section , line by line transfer information charges from the memory section to the output register in the interval of the reverse stroke of horizontal scanning, and in the interval of the forward stroke of horizontal scanning, the elementary transfer of information charges from the output register to the output block of the FPMS with the simultaneous conversion of the charge into the voltage of the video signal, and in the accumulation section in the interval between the frame transfer of the current frame and the accumulation cycle of the subsequent frame, excess charges are transferred to the photodetector substrate by technological organization of the anti-blooming region and the electronic shutter in the accumulation section, which differs the fact that the personnel (half-frame) transfer of information charges from the accumulation section to the memory section is carried out at the final interval e interval of the reverse scan of the frame scan with the corresponding time delay for the duration of accumulation of information charges, and in the interval of the interval of the reverse scan of the frame scan, prior to the transfer of information charges, the memory section is cleaned from stray charges due to their movement with the frame (half-frame) transfer frequency to the output register or due to their removal into the substrate of the photodetector by technological organization of the anti-blooming area and electronic shutter in section p memory.
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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2670420C1 (en) * 2017-12-18 2018-10-23 Вячеслав Михайлович Смелков Method of controlling the sensitivity of a television camera on a ccd matrix under conditions of complex illumination and/or complex brightness of objects
RU2683944C1 (en) * 2018-08-13 2019-04-03 Вячеслав Михайлович Смелков Method of controlling the sensitivity of a television camera on a ccd matrix in conditions of complex illumination and / or complex brightness of objects
RU2685219C1 (en) * 2018-08-27 2019-04-17 Вячеслав Михайлович Смелков Method of controlling the sensitivity of a television camera on a ccd matrix in conditions of complex lighting and / or complex brightness of objects
RU2691942C1 (en) * 2018-09-13 2019-06-19 Вячеслав Михайлович Смелков Method of controlling sensitivity of a television camera on a ccd matrix in conditions of high illumination and/or complex brightness of objects
RU2696766C1 (en) * 2018-10-08 2019-08-06 Вячеслав Михайлович Смелков Method of controlling sensitivity of a television camera on a ccd matrix and reproducing its video signal in a mobile device in conditions of high illumination and / or complex brightness of objects

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2670420C1 (en) * 2017-12-18 2018-10-23 Вячеслав Михайлович Смелков Method of controlling the sensitivity of a television camera on a ccd matrix under conditions of complex illumination and/or complex brightness of objects
RU2683944C1 (en) * 2018-08-13 2019-04-03 Вячеслав Михайлович Смелков Method of controlling the sensitivity of a television camera on a ccd matrix in conditions of complex illumination and / or complex brightness of objects
RU2685219C1 (en) * 2018-08-27 2019-04-17 Вячеслав Михайлович Смелков Method of controlling the sensitivity of a television camera on a ccd matrix in conditions of complex lighting and / or complex brightness of objects
RU2691942C1 (en) * 2018-09-13 2019-06-19 Вячеслав Михайлович Смелков Method of controlling sensitivity of a television camera on a ccd matrix in conditions of high illumination and/or complex brightness of objects
RU2696766C1 (en) * 2018-10-08 2019-08-06 Вячеслав Михайлович Смелков Method of controlling sensitivity of a television camera on a ccd matrix and reproducing its video signal in a mobile device in conditions of high illumination and / or complex brightness of objects

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