RU2363888C1 - Water-heating solid-propellant boiler - Google Patents

Water-heating solid-propellant boiler Download PDF

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Publication number
RU2363888C1
RU2363888C1 RU2007146334/03A RU2007146334A RU2363888C1 RU 2363888 C1 RU2363888 C1 RU 2363888C1 RU 2007146334/03 A RU2007146334/03 A RU 2007146334/03A RU 2007146334 A RU2007146334 A RU 2007146334A RU 2363888 C1 RU2363888 C1 RU 2363888C1
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Russia
Prior art keywords
boiler
water
water jacket
grate
combustion chamber
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RU2007146334/03A
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Russian (ru)
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RU2007146334A (en
Inventor
Владимир Митрофанович Безмен (RU)
Владимир Митрофанович Безмен
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Владимир Митрофанович Безмен
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Priority to RU2007146334/03A priority Critical patent/RU2363888C1/en
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Abstract

FIELD: heat engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to energetics, particularly to devices for heating of individual dwelling and supply by domestic hot water in places, where are absence modern heat sources and is excess wastes of combustible-lubricating materials. Water heating solid-propellant boiler contains body with steel double-layer walls, forming water jacket, at least one convection air- gaseous pass, located between water heating pipes and connected to gas-collecting manifold, particulate bin, locked on combustion chamber with fire grate, under which there are located facility of delivery of primary air and ash bin, bottom pipeline of cold water supply and top pipeline of hot water drainage. In inner space of body double-layer walls form additional water jacket in the form of frontally located top and bottom flanges, where on bottom flange of water jacket it is installed heat-reflecting barrier made of refractory material, forming with top flange upward slotted nozzle, located in combustion zone and by its butts thrusting into external opposite walls of body, where opposite to each other it is implemented at least by one "reach-through" hole for delivery of secondary air into slotted nozzle into combustion zone. Water heating pipes are flowing connected to water jacket of external opposite walls of body. Gas-collecting collector is located in bottom part of combustion chamber in external wall of body.
EFFECT: expansion of heating area, creation of optimal conditions for circulation of water at its heating in boiler, effectiveness increase of fuel burning and increasing of duration of its burning from loading till loading, simplification of attendance and operation of boiler.
24 cl, 4 dwg

Description

The invention relates to energy, in particular to devices for heating individual houses and hot water for household needs in places where there are no modern sources of heat and there is an excess of waste fuel and lubricants.

Known gravitational water heating element for fireplaces, closed on the heating system of the room and containing screens of steel heating pipes installed on the rear and side walls of the combustion chamber; a convective air-gas passage located between the screens, closed to the gas collector; filling furnace chamber with a grate, under which there is an ash bin and a channel for supplying primary air; lower chilled water supply pipe and upper heated water discharge pipe [patent DE 202006009407U, publ. 09/07/2006]. A disadvantage of the known water-heating element is the low heat transfer efficiency of the flue gases due to the incomplete use of heating areas, a large amount of emission of volatile fuel particles and combustion products into the atmosphere, the limited volume of the combustion chamber, which often has to be loaded with new portions of solid fuel.

Also known is a low-power steel boiler for stratified solid fuel combustion, comprising a housing with steel insulated walls, at least one convective gas passage passing between packs of steel pipes and connected to a gas collector, and a fuel supply system to the charge furnace chamber with screens from steel pipes and a grate, under which there is an ash bin with an ash removal system, a cold water supply pipe and a hot water pipe [patent RU 22384 80, publ. 10/20/2004]. A disadvantage of the known boiler is the low efficiency of burning coal, especially of low quality, high contamination of the heating surfaces, reducing the efficiency of heat transfer, tight installation of screens, which does not allow to clean the heating surfaces qualitatively, inconvenience of maintenance during operation.

As a prototype, a home-built solid fuel boiler built into the wall is adopted, comprising a housing with steel double walls forming a water jacket; at least one convective air-gas passage connected to a gas collection manifold; filling hopper that closes to the combustion chamber with a grate, under which the primary air supply means and the ash hopper are located; the lower pipeline for supplying cold and the upper pipeline for removing hot water [patent GB 594282, publ. 11/06/1947]. A disadvantage of the known boiler is the low intensity of combustion and heat transfer processes, poor mixing of volatile and particulate matter removed from the fuel layer with air, which reduces the combustion efficiency of the fuel, the difficulty of access to the internal heating surfaces when cleaning them from the combustion products, the presence of stagnant zones in a large volume of water shirts that disrupt the circulation of water, which leads to a decrease in heat transfer.

The technical problem for which this device is proposed is to intensify combustion and heat transfer processes, increase the efficiency of fuel combustion and accumulate heat energy, create optimal conditions for washing water shirts and water heating pipes with hot fuel gases, improve water circulation when it is heated in a boiler, and facilitate access to internal heating surfaces during their cleaning during operation.

The specified technical problem is solved by the proposed solid fuel boiler, comprising a housing with steel double walls forming a water jacket; at least one convective air-gas passage located between the water pipes and connected to the gas collector; filling hopper that closes to the combustion chamber with a grate, under which the primary air supply means and the ash hopper are located; lower cold water supply pipe and upper hot water discharge pipe. New is that in the inner space of the case the double walls form an additional water jacket in the form of frontally located upper and lower protrusions, which allows you to place additional heating surfaces in the high temperature zone and make the heat transfer process more intense; a heat-reflecting barrier of refractory material is installed on the lower ledge of the water jacket, forming with the upper ledge a slotted nozzle located in the combustion zone and abutting against the outer opposite walls of the casing with at least one through feed hole facing each other secondary air into the combustion zone, which allows to make the combustion process more intense and increase the efficiency of combustion of solid fuels; water heating pipes are flow-connected to the water jacket of the outer opposite walls of the casing, and the gas collector is located in the lower part of the combustion chamber in the outer wall of the casing, which creates optimal conditions for washing the water heating pipes with hot fuel gases before they exit the casing. The accumulation of thermal energy will occur more efficiently if a thermal energy storage unit made of refractory material is made on the upper upper ledge of the water jacket. The thermal energy storage device may be located on the protrusion of the water jacket from the side of the combustion chamber. For complete combustion of solid fuel, it would be better if a channel for supplying liquid fuel to the combustion zone is inserted into the holes for supplying secondary air. The channel for supplying liquid fuel can be located along the entire length of the slotted nozzle. To change the mode of operation and maintenance of the boiler, it is more convenient if the channel for supplying liquid fuel is removable. The channel for supplying liquid fuel can be made in the form of a perforated pipe. For the formation of torches and their burning, it is better if the perforation is performed from above along the entire length of the pipe. To avoid leakage of liquid fuel, the free end of the perforated pipe may be plugged. For the supply of solid fuel and its gradual movement into the combustion zone, it is better if the filling hopper is made inclined, bounded from below by a grate and located adjacent to the combustion chamber. The grate can consist of horizontal and inclined sections, where the inclined section of the grate can be an integral part of one of the walls of the filling hopper. For cleaning from ash formations it is better if the horizontal section of the grate is made with the possibility of extension from the housing. The angle of inclination of the wall of the filling hopper may be equal to the angle of inclination of the inclined section of the grate. Optimally, if the angle of inclination of the wall of the hopper and the lattice will be from 60 to 80 degrees. The upper part of the inclined hopper may protrude from the vertical plane of the housing. For the passage of hot gases, it is better if convective air-gas passages are formed by the gaps between the water pipes. The gaps between the water pipes can be at least their diameter. It is better if the water heating pipes are installed in a checkerboard pattern, which will improve the process of heating and circulation of water in the pipes. Water heating pipes can be located throughout the space of the combustion chamber and be there in a position close to horizontal. To facilitate access to the internal heating surfaces during cleaning during operation, it is better if at least one technological opening closed by a lid is made in the outer wall of the combustion chamber opposite the water heating pipes. The cover of the technological opening can be made removable. For the circulation of heated water, it is better if the lid is equipped with a water jacket, which will be connected to the water jacket of the outer wall of the housing. The cold water supply pipe can be located on one of the sides of the boiler body at the level of the inner lower ledge of the water jacket, and the hot water pipe can be located in the upper part of the body offset from the center to the side opposite to the cold water supply, which allows balancing the circulation and heating the water in the housing relative to the inlet and outlet nozzles.

The invention is illustrated in graphic materials. Figure 1 shows the frontal section of the boiler at the location of the through holes in the housing for the passage of secondary air and the supply of the liquid fuel channel, figure 2 shows a side section of the boiler, figure 3 shows a local frontal section of the boiler at the location of the pipeline for supplying cold water, figure 4 shows a horizontal section of the boiler at the level of the through holes in the housing for the passage of secondary air and the supply channel of the liquid fuel and grate.

The invention is illustrated by the example of a specific implementation.

The steel solid fuel boiler contains a welded body 1 made of sheet steel with a thickness of δ = 4 mm along a frame of a steel corner with holes in the shelves for water circulation. The boiler body 1 consists of double walls that form the outer 2 and inner 3 water shirts (see figures 1 and 2). The thickness of the outer water jacket 2 is δ = 25 mm, and the thickness of the inner water jacket 3 is δ = 50 mm. Inside the housing 1, the water jacket 3 forms frontally located upper and lower protrusions. The inner upper protrusion of the water jacket 3 contains a thermal energy storage device 4 made of a layer of refractory ceramic brick, which is located on the side of the combustion chamber 5. On the lower protrusion of the water jacket 3 there is a heat-reflecting barrier 6 made of refractory ceramic brick, forming a slotted nozzle with the upper protrusion 7. The ends of the slotted nozzle 7 abut against the outer opposite walls of the housing 1. In the outer opposite walls, one through hole 8 di 100 mm ameter for supplying secondary air to the slotted nozzle 7 in the combustion zone. For a more complete combustion of solid fuel and an increase in the temperature of water heating, a removable channel 9 can be inserted into the hole 8 for supplying the used oil used as liquid fuel to the combustion zone. Channel 9 is a steel perforated pipe with a diameter of 75 mm, where the perforation is made in the upper part of the pipe with a pitch of 200 mm in the form of holes ⌀ 6 mm, arranged in three rows in a checkerboard pattern. The channel 9 for supplying liquid fuel enters one hole 8, extends along the entire length of the slotted nozzle 7 and leaves another hole 8 located in the opposite outer wall of the housing 1. To prevent leakage of liquid fuel, the end of the perforated pipe protruding from the hole 8 is closed by a valve 10. The boiler body 1 contains a filling hopper 12, which is closed by a folding steel shutter 11, the upper part of which protrudes beyond the vertical plane of the housing 1. The walls of the upper part of the hopper 12 are external 2 and internal 3 water shirts, and the lower part of the hopper 12 is closed to the grate 13 of the combustion chamber 5. The filling hopper 12 is made inclined, bounded below by the grate 13 and is adjacent to the combustion chamber 5. The grate 13 is made of cast iron and consists of an inclined and horizontal sections ( see figure 2). The inclination angle of the inclined portion of the grate 13 is 70 °. The horizontal section of the grate 13 relies on guides welded to opposite sides of the outer walls of the housing 1, and if necessary, to clean the hopper 12 from coal or grate 13 of ash can be pulled out of the housing 1. Under the grate 13 from the side of the hopper 12 in the lower part body 1 is a louvre grille 14 with rotary louvers, with which the primary air supply is regulated, as well as the drawer of the ash bin 15, welded from sheet steel δ = 4 mm. In the lower part of the outer water jacket 2 there is a steel pipe 16 for supplying cold water with a diameter of 50 mm (see FIGS. 3 and 4), and in the upper part of the outer water jacket 2 there is a steel pipe 17 for supplying cold water with a diameter of 50 mm (see FIG. 1 and 2). The lower cold water supply pipe 16 is located on one of the sides of the boiler body 1 at the level of the inner lower ledge of the water jacket 3. The upper hot water discharge pipe 17 is located in the upper part of the body 1 with an offset from the center to the side opposite to the cold water supply 16. The lower inner protrusion of the water jacket 3 is divided along the width of the boiler body 1 by nozzles 18 with a diameter of 25 mm, installed through 125 mm and forming through gaps for shedding of settled particles when cleaning the heating surfaces of the water heating pipes 19. In the outer wall of the combustion chamber 5 opposite the water heating pipes 19 there is a technological an aperture intended for cleaning the internal surfaces of the water pipes 19 and water jackets 2 and 3 from settled combustion products. The opening is hermetically closed by a removable cover 22, equipped with its own water jacket, which is tightly pressed against the opening contour with screw clamps and connected to the holes of the water jacket 2 of the external wall of the housing 1. Water-heating steel pipes 19 are located inside the boiler housing 1 frontally across the hot gas path and flow-wise connected by welding to a water jacket 2 of the outer opposite walls of the housing 1. Water-heating steel pipes 19 are made with a diameter of 25 mm (with m. 1) and are installed in the combustion chamber 5 in a checkerboard pattern and are in a position close to horizontal. Between the steel pipes 19 there are gaps with a width of 25 mm, forming many convective air-gas passages 20 for hot gases, which pass between the water pipes 19 and are closed at the outlet of the boiler to the exhaust duct of the gas collection manifold 21. The gas collection manifold 21 is located in the outer wall of the housing 1 at the bottom of the combustion chamber 5.

The principle of operation of the boiler is as follows. The steel cold water inlet pipe 16 is connected to a source (not shown) and the outer 2 and inner 3 water shirts and water heating pipes 19 are filled with water, after which, in a horizontal section of the grate 13, the fire is traditionally fired to the required heating temperature, and then gradually through the bulk the hopper 12 serves on the grate 13 portions of brown coal while feeding under the grate 13 through an adjustable louvre shutter 14 of the primary air. Brown coal begins to ignite and, as the hopper 12 is filled, the upper layers of coal dry out under the influence of the heat of water jackets 2 and 3, and then, under its own weight, the coal continues to gradually move into the combustion zone on the grate 13. The hopper is completely filled with coal and the hinged shutter 11 is closed. Further, the combustion process continues independently for a long time without human intervention. As the coal burns out in the lower layer, the ash falls through the grate 13, and the next dried layer of brown coal falls into the combustion zone along the inclined wall of the hopper 12 and the inclined section of the grate 13. For a more complete combustion of solid fuel and a quick increase in the temperature of water heating, a removable channel 9 is used to supply the used oil used as liquid fuel to the combustion zone. Channel 9 is made in the form of a steel perforated tube of circular cross-section, which is installed, if necessary, in the holes 8. As the temperature rises, the channel for supplying 9 liquid fuel is heated and through it into the slotted nozzle 7 from the tank installed above the channel 9 by gravity through a dispenser (not shown ) used oil is supplied, which, under the influence of a high combustion temperature of brown coal, ignites. To maintain the combustion of brown coal and waste oil, secondary air enters through the through holes 8. The combustion temperature of the oil complements the combustion temperature of brown coal. Hot gases with unburned solid particles generated during the combustion of brown coal in the combustion chamber pass through the slot nozzle 7, where the solid coal particles burn out, while hot gases accelerate their movement, fill the combustion chamber 5 and the entire internal volume of the boiler body 1, and heat water jackets 2 and 3, and then pass between the water pipes 19, bypassing all surfaces of the water heating. The temperature of the water rises and due to its own expansion, the water circulates in the water jackets 2 and 3 and the pipes 19, then it enters the upper pipe 17 and enters the consumer.

The present invention solves the problem of recycling used oil and eliminating the inconvenience associated with it in the form of storage, transportation, delivery of spent fuel and lubricants, as well as the associated financial costs of restoring and improving the environment.

Claims (24)

1. A solid fuel boiler containing a housing with steel double walls forming a water jacket, at least one convective air-gas passage located between the water pipes and connected to the gas collection manifold, a filling hopper that closes to the combustion chamber with a grate, under which is the primary air supply and ash bin, the lower cold water supply pipe and the upper hot water discharge pipe, characterized in that in the inner In the body of the casing, the double walls form an additional water jacket in the form of frontally located upper and lower protrusions, where a heat-reflecting barrier of refractory material is installed on the lower protrusion of the water jacket, forming with the upper protrusion a slotted nozzle located in the combustion zone and abutting against the outer opposite ends casing walls, in which at least one through hole for supplying secondary air to the slotted nozzle in the zones is made opposite each other while burning, while the water heating pipes are flow-connected to the water jacket of the outer opposite walls of the casing, and the gas collection manifold is located in the lower part of the combustion chamber in the outer wall of the casing.
2. The boiler according to claim 1, characterized in that on the inner upper protrusion of the water jacket is made a storage of thermal energy from a layer of refractory material.
3. The boiler according to claim 2, characterized in that the thermal energy storage device is located on the ledge of the water jacket from the side of the combustion chamber.
4. The boiler according to claim 1, characterized in that in the openings for supplying secondary air there is a channel for supplying liquid fuel to the combustion zone.
5. The boiler according to claim 4, characterized in that the channel for supplying liquid fuel to the combustion zone is located along the entire length of the slotted nozzle.
6. The boiler according to claim 4, characterized in that the channel for supplying liquid fuel is removable.
7. The boiler according to claim 4, characterized in that the channel for supplying liquid fuel is made in the form of a perforated pipe.
8. The boiler according to claim 7, characterized in that the perforation is made from above along the entire length of the pipe.
9. The boiler according to claim 7, characterized in that the free end of the perforated pipe is plugged.
10. The boiler according to claim 1, characterized in that the filling hopper is inclined, bounded below by a grate and is adjacent to the combustion chamber.
11. The boiler according to claim 10, characterized in that the grate consists of horizontal and inclined sections, where the inclined section of the grate is an integral part of one of the walls of the filling hopper.
12. The boiler according to claim 11, characterized in that the horizontal section of the grate is made with the possibility of extension from the housing.
13. The boiler according to claim 11, characterized in that the angle of inclination of the wall of the filling hopper is equal to the angle of inclination of the inclined section of the grate.
14. The boiler according to item 13, wherein the angle of inclination of the wall of the hopper and the inclined section of the lattice is from 60 to 80 °.
15. The boiler according to item 13, wherein the upper part of the inclined hopper protrudes from the vertical plane of the housing.
16. The boiler according to claim 1, characterized in that the convective air-gas passages are formed by the gaps between the water pipes.
17. The boiler according to clause 16, characterized in that the width of the gaps between the water heating pipes is not less than their diameter.
18. The boiler according to clause 16, wherein the water heating pipes are staggered.
19. The boiler according to item 16, wherein the water heating pipes are located in the combustion chamber and are in a position close to horizontal.
20. The boiler according to claim 1, characterized in that in the outer wall of the combustion chamber opposite the water heating pipes is made at least one technological opening, closed by a lid.
21. The boiler according to claim 20, characterized in that the lid of the process opening is removable.
22. The boiler according to claim 20, characterized in that the lid is equipped with a water jacket, which is fluidly connected to the water jacket of the outer wall of the housing.
23. The boiler according to claim 1, characterized in that the cold water supply pipe is located on one of the sides of the boiler body at the level of the inner lower ledge of the water jacket.
24. The boiler according to claim 1, characterized in that the hot water discharge pipe is located in the upper part of the housing with an offset from the center in the direction opposite to the cold water supply.
RU2007146334/03A 2007-12-13 2007-12-13 Water-heating solid-propellant boiler RU2363888C1 (en)

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RU2363888C1 true RU2363888C1 (en) 2009-08-10

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2456511C1 (en) * 2011-03-17 2012-07-20 Благодаров Юрий Петрович Coal-fired boiler
RU2471128C1 (en) * 2011-07-07 2012-12-27 Благодаров Юрий Петрович Hot-water solid-fuel boiler
RU2516727C1 (en) * 2012-12-17 2014-05-20 Благодаров Юрий Петрович Water-heating solid-fuel boiler
RU2520788C1 (en) * 2012-12-07 2014-06-27 Общество с ограниченной ответсвенностью "ОСНОВА" Fuel combustion
RU2561818C2 (en) * 2011-12-06 2015-09-10 Благодаров Юрий Петрович Gas-generating boiler

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2456511C1 (en) * 2011-03-17 2012-07-20 Благодаров Юрий Петрович Coal-fired boiler
RU2471128C1 (en) * 2011-07-07 2012-12-27 Благодаров Юрий Петрович Hot-water solid-fuel boiler
RU2561818C2 (en) * 2011-12-06 2015-09-10 Благодаров Юрий Петрович Gas-generating boiler
RU2520788C1 (en) * 2012-12-07 2014-06-27 Общество с ограниченной ответсвенностью "ОСНОВА" Fuel combustion
RU2516727C1 (en) * 2012-12-17 2014-05-20 Благодаров Юрий Петрович Water-heating solid-fuel boiler
RU2516727C9 (en) * 2012-12-17 2016-08-20 Благодаров Юрий Петрович Water-heating solid-fuel boiler

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Effective date: 20111214