RU2345944C1 - Method of improvement of safety of work of erecting crane (versions) - Google Patents

Method of improvement of safety of work of erecting crane (versions) Download PDF

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Publication number
RU2345944C1
RU2345944C1 RU2007113419/11A RU2007113419A RU2345944C1 RU 2345944 C1 RU2345944 C1 RU 2345944C1 RU 2007113419/11 A RU2007113419/11 A RU 2007113419/11A RU 2007113419 A RU2007113419 A RU 2007113419A RU 2345944 C1 RU2345944 C1 RU 2345944C1
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Russia
Prior art keywords
crane
load
parameters
control
boom
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RU2007113419/11A
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Russian (ru)
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RU2007113419A (en
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Владимир Андреевич Коровин (RU)
Владимир Андреевич Коровин
Константин Владимирович Коровин (RU)
Константин Владимирович Коровин
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Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Научно-производственное предприятие "Резонанс"
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Priority to RU2007113419/11A priority Critical patent/RU2345944C1/en
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Abstract

FIELD: transport.
SUBSTANCE: method envisages preliminary determining or setting of admissible values of parameters characterising loading and/or attitude position of outrigger or crane cargo-handling device, memorising this data, measuring of these parameters during crane operation, comparing of measured values with admissible values, and further forming of control signals or blocking of control by execution units in order to prevent exceeding of admissible values. Prior to commencement of crane work or in process of lifting and movement of cargoes crane-operator additionally performs preliminary visual control of crane operation condition or presence of people along way of crane or cargo movement or automatic control of correctness of slinging (securing) of cargo, or automatic check of correctness of crane installation on outriggers or optical measurement of crane performance parameters or automatic change of coordinate parity parameters using GPS receivers, radio-frequency or inertial determination of position devices located on obstacles, clothing or equipment of people. Results of this check or control ensue implementation of additional control or information signals.
EFFECT: enhancement of safety of crane operation and of crane efficiency.
24 cl, 1 dwg

Description

The invention relates to hoisting and transport machinery and can be used in control systems and protection of hoisting cranes to prevent accidents and prevent injury to staff.
There is a method of protecting a crane against overload by setting the permissible load values for various angular positions of its boom, monitoring the current values of these parameters during the operation of the crane, comparing the current load value with the permissible value for the current position of the boom and generating warning signals and control signals for the crane operating devices in depending on the results of this comparison [1].
Its disadvantage is the lack of protection of the crane against collisions with obstacles (coordinate protection) when the crane is in cramped conditions.
Closest to the proposed one is a way to increase the safety of a crane by pre-determining and remembering the permissible values of the crane operation parameters characterizing the load and the spatial position of its boom or load-gripping organ, measuring these parameters during the crane operation, comparing the measured values with the permissible values and subsequent formation, taking into account the results of this comparison, warning signals and control signals of actuating devices of the crane, aimed at preventing these parameters from exceeding their permissible values [2, 3].
The disadvantage of this method is the reduced safety of the crane due to the lack of control:
- carrying out by the crane operator a visual check of the technical condition of the crane before starting work and identifying defects in the crane;
- finding people on the way to move the crane, its mechanisms or cargo;
- the spatial position of obstacles and people in the working area of the crane, taking into account the possible changes in this position;
- the correctness of slinging or strapping of cargo;
- the correct installation of the crane on the outriggers;
- load parameters and coordinate protection before the process of lifting / moving cargo by crane.
The main technical problem to be solved by the claimed invention is directed is to increase the safety of a crane, including the safety of maintenance personnel. This problem is solved by eliminating at least one of these disadvantages.
Additional technical tasks are:
- improving the performance of the crane by reducing time losses by automatically entering the parameters of coordinate protection and preventing attempts to perform cycles of lifting and / or moving cargo, during which it is possible to exceed the permissible values of the parameters of the crane and, accordingly, stop the crane;
- expanding the functionality of the security system;
- simplification of the input device parameters coordinate protection and improving the working conditions of the crane operator by automatically entering these parameters.
In the first version of the proposed method to increase the safety of a crane by pre-determining or setting acceptable values for parameters characterizing the load and / or spatial position of its boom or load-gripping member, storing them, measuring during the crane's operation using the direct or indirect method of these parameters, comparing the measured values with valid and subsequent formation, depending on the results of this comparison, control signals or blocking is controlled by executive devices of the crane aimed at preventing the parameters from exceeding the permissible values, the technical tasks are solved by the fact that before starting the crane using the automated control system, it is additionally detected that the crane operator conducts a visual check of the technical condition of the crane and, after this check is completed, generate a warning signal or a signal to enable the crane to start to work. For this, the automated control system is equipped with a device for determining the position of the crane operator relative to the crane and / or on the crane, and the visual inspection by the crane operator of the technical condition of the crane is detected by monitoring the crane operator in areas from which it is possible to visually observe the nodes and structural elements of the crane to be checked. The parameters and / or coordinates of the visual observation zones can be determined from the condition that the crane operator can visually verify from these zones the technical condition of the chassis, and / or the metal structures of the tower and / or boom, and / or the joints of individual sections of the tower and / or boom, and / or boom suspension elements, and / or executive drives, and / or ropes and their fastening, and / or load-lifting body, and / or brakes, and / or crane tracks and end stops, and / or anti-theft grips, and / or flexible current-carrying cable and / or cash splendens and health protections mechanisms and crane electrical equipment.
In this case, the position of the crane operator is determined, in particular, using the signal receivers of the satellites of the global positioning system, for example GPS (Global Position System) of the Navstar or Glonas system (global navigation system), contactless radio frequency identification tags (RFID), radio frequency or inertial devices location determination.
In the second variant of the method, which implements the similar principle of preventing exceeding the permissible values of the crane operation parameters, in the process of its operation, the presence of people in the path of moving the crane and / or its mechanisms and / or cargo is additionally detected, the risk of injury to people is detected through an automated monitoring system, and , if available, generate a warning signal for the crane operator about the need to stop the crane or a signal blocking the movements of the crane, or automatically transmit warning people about the need to use caution or leave the area of the crane operation. Identification of the presence of people is carried out by controlling their location relative to the crane using the signal receivers of the satellites of the global positioning system, for example GPS (Global Position System) of the Navstar or Glonas system (global navigation system), contactless radio frequency identification tags (RFID), radio frequency or inertial devices location determination.
The location of people can be carried out using their cell phones equipped with devices for determining their location, such as GPS or Glonas, and transmitting data about this location to an automated control system using the wireless interface of a cell phone, such as Bluetooth, or Wi-Fi, or ZigBee , or cellular networks, such as GSM / GPRS or CDMA. The same cell phone can be used to transmit sound and / or voice warning signals from a crane operator and / or from an automated control system.
In the third embodiment of the method with the same principle of preventing exceeding the permissible values of the crane operation parameters, the stated technical problem is solved in that the permissible and / or forbidden parameter values characterizing the spatial position of the crane or the load-gripping organ of the crane are set by installing it on moving or stationary obstacles, on clothes or on the equipment of people in the working area of the crane, radio frequency positioning devices, radio frequency identification RFID tags, satellite receivers for a global positioning system, such as GPS (Global Position System) of the Navstar or Glonas system (global navigation system), or inertial positioning devices, the output signals of which are transmitted to an automated crane monitoring system. These devices are made, in the General case, with the possibility of determining their angular positions and the formation of permissible and / or forbidden values of the parameters of the spatial position of the boom or crane body in the form of areas of the working space of the crane depending on these angular positions. These areas can be specified in the form of restrictions of maximum or minimum height (restrictions of the “ceiling” or “roof” type), position in the horizontal plane (restrictions of the type “wall”) and / or angular position (restrictions of the type “left rotation” and “rotation” to the right ").
The indicated radio-frequency or inertial positioning devices, radio-frequency identification tags (RFIDs), satellite receivers of the global positioning system, with the aim of automatically changing the parameters of the crane working area, can be attached to the surface of a building / structure and transferred as it is being built or attached to structural elements of a building under construction / structures prior to their installation with subsequent transfer by crane together with these elements. They can be configured to transmit signals to automated control systems for two or more cranes working with intersecting work areas.
In the fourth embodiment of the method with the same principle of preventing exceeding the permissible values of the crane operation parameters, the stated technical problem is solved by the additional automatic control of the parameters characterizing the pre-set requirements for safe slinging or strapping of the lifted and / or transported load. In case of violation of these requirements, a warning signal is generated for the crane operator and / or for the slinger and / or a signal to block the lifting and / or movement of the load.
For the specified requirement for safe slinging or strapping of the lifted and / or transported cargo, the lifting capacity of the slings can be taken as the weight of the cargo, limiting the pre-set maximum angle between the branches of the slings, the absence of knots and loops on the slings, the pre-established requirement for the uniform tension of the slings and / or location load gripping body over the center of gravity of the load to be lifted, and as a parameter characterizing the fulfillment of this requirement, the diameter of the slings, the number and / or directly ineynost lanyards, the angle between the branches of the sling, the slings difference in effort and / or average angle of inclination relative to gravity vertical lines. These parameters are measured by means of diameter and / or angle sensors of the slings, forces in the slings, etc. or form a video image of the sling or strapping of the cargo and determine these parameters by processing the video image in the automatic control device.
In the fifth embodiment of the method of improving the safety of the crane with the aforementioned principle of preventing exceeding the allowable values of the parameters of the crane, the technical task is solved by the additional control of parameters characterizing the pre-established requirements for the safe installation of the crane on the outriggers and in case of violation of any requirements form a warning signal for the crane operator and / or a signal to block the lifting and / or movement of the load. These requirements are, in particular, the extension and installation of all available outriggers, a predetermined minimum distance between the rotary part of the crane at any position and buildings or other objects, the presence of linings or base plates under the outriggers, a predetermined minimum distance between the supports and the edge of the slope of the pit or ditch, and / or a predetermined maximum slope value of the crane installation site. The number of extended and installed outriggers, the distance between the rotary part of the crane and buildings or other objects, the number of linings or base plates under the outriggers, the distance between the outriggers and the edge of the slope of the pit or ditch and / or slope angle of the crane installation site. The system can monitor the specified parameter (or several parameters in various combinations) using the sensor of the spatial position of the outriggers, the sensor of the spatial position or the presence of linings or base plates, the distance sensor from the crane to the structure or to another object and / or distance sensor from outriggers to the edge of the slope of the pit or ditch. Any of the sensors can be radar or optical. In the latter case, a video image of the installation of the crane on the outriggers is formed, and the parameters characterizing the requirements for its safe installation on the supports are determined by processing this video image. The slope angle of the crane installation site can be determined using the output signals of the spatial position sensors of the outriggers, pads or base plates in height.
In the sixth embodiment of the method, using the same principle of preventing exceeding the permissible values of the crane operation parameters, the stated technical problem is solved by the measurement of these parameters by the optical method, for this a crane is equipped with a technical vision system by means of which a video image of the process of lifting and / or moving the cargo is formed then determine the value of this parameter by processing the video image. The vision system is made, in particular, with the possibility of determining the mass of the lifted and / or transported cargo, its dimensions, the distance from the cargo to buildings or other objects and / or the distance to people in the working area of the crane. If a decrease in the distance from the load to buildings, other objects and people in the crane operating area to a pre-set value is detected, an additional warning signal can be generated for the crane operator or for people in the crane operating area.
In any version of the proposed method, to achieve the specified technical result, parameters characterizing the load and / or spatial position of the boom or load-gripping body of the crane, control signals, warning signals, a video image of the process of lifting and / or moving cargo, slinging the cargo and / or installing the crane on retractable supports, signals about the location of the crane operator and people in the working area of the crane, if any, are recorded in the non-volatile memory of the automated system crane control with readability if necessary.
The implementation of the crane protection and control system with the indicated distinctive features of the independent claims allows to prevent the crane from starting up without a visual inspection of the technical condition of the crane, to prevent injury to people by moving crane mechanisms or the load, to automatically change the boundaries of the crane working area directly during its operation taking into account changes in the spatial position of obstacles and people in this zone, to verify the correctness tropovki strapping or cargo and the installation of the crane on outriggers, and also define the parameters load and coordinate protection process before lifting / moving cargo crane without approaching the limit values of these parameters. This allows you to increase the safety of the crane, including the safety of staff.
Distinctive features of the proposed method in all variants of its implementation lead to the expansion of the functionality of the security system - additionally, video recording of the process of lifting and moving the cargo, transmission of coordinate protection parameters to a group of cranes, control of the actions and location of maintenance personnel, transmission of warning signals to maintenance personnel, etc. .
At the same time, a reduction in time losses is achieved by automatically entering the coordinate protection parameters and preventing attempts to carry out lifting and moving load cycles with unacceptable crane operation parameters, which leads to an increase in crane operation productivity. Automatic input of coordinate protection parameters also simplifies the input device for these parameters and improves the working conditions of the crane operator.
Accordingly, these distinguishing features of the method are in direct causal connection with the achievement of the main and additional technical results.
In the drawing, as an example, shows one of the possible functional diagrams of the crane protection system.
The protection system, which can also be called an automated control and management system, safety device or device, etc., contains an information-control unit 1 made on the basis of a microcontroller 2 and load sensors 3 connected to this unit using a wired or wireless interface and / or the spatial position of the boom and / or the load gripping body of the crane and actuators 4.
The information-control unit 1, which may also be referred to as a data processing unit, an indication unit, a controller, etc., may include system controls 5, an indication device 6, a memory unit / parameter recorder 7, a wireless data reception / transmission device 8, an input / output device for information 9 and, if necessary, other devices, for example, a real-time clock, connected directly to the microcontroller 2 or to an input / output device for information 9. Some of these devices may not be included information and control unit 1. These devices can be connected to the input / output device information 9 as external devices information and control unit 1.
Additionally, the system, depending on the options for its implementation, may include a technical vision system 10, position sensors of the outriggers 11, position sensors of the crane 12 and, if necessary, other sensors.
To monitor the presence of people on the path of moving the crane, its boom or cargo, control the location of people, as well as control the spatial position of obstacles in the crane operating area, these position sensors 13 are installed on these obstacles, on clothes or on people's equipment. They are made in the form of receivers signals from satellites of the Global Positioning System GPS (Global Position System) of Navstar or Glonas systems, contactless radio frequency identification tags (RFID), radio frequency or inertial devices for determining locations Provisions made with the possibility of transmitting data to a wireless device for receiving / transmitting data 8.
The input / output device information 9 provides coordination of the logical levels of the input and output signals of the microcontroller 2 with other functional devices of the system. Data transfer in the system, depending on the version of the information input-output device 9 and interface circuits of the devices connected to it, is carried out according to the radial scheme using separate wires, via the multiplex data exchange channel (CAN, UN, RS-485, etc. .) and / or over the air (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee, GSM, CDMA, etc.). In the latter case, in all connected devices, including sensors 3, 10-12, transceivers with corresponding antennas are installed.
The wireless data receiving / transmitting device 8 and the information input / output device 9 can be combined.
Actuators 4, as a rule, are combined into a single output or by force unit, expansion unit, output controller, etc. and made in the form of a set of power electromagnetic relays or power electronic keys connected to the control inputs of electro-hydraulic or electromechanical drives of the mechanisms of the crane. This unit, if necessary, may contain a microcontroller and an interface circuit for wired or wireless communication with the information-control unit 1.
If the crane uses manual control of its mechanisms, then the actuators 4 provide blocking of the work (shutdown) of the actuators (drives) of the crane in dangerous modes of operation. It is also possible electrical control of the actuators of the crane, for example, using controls 6. In this case, the actuators generate the control signals of the actuators (drives) of the crane.
The set of sensors 3 depends on the implementation of the proposed protection system and on the type of crane - a bridge or jib crane, a crane with a telescopic or trellised boom, with a hydraulic or cable drive of the boom lifting mechanism, etc. In general, they include a boom angle (tilt) sensor, a boom length sensor, a load or load mass sensor (a force or pressure sensor), a crane angle sensor (azimuth sensor), a load limiting organ maximum lifting sensor, and an proximity sensor to power lines, position sensors of manual controls of actuators and other sensors.
These sensors 3 can be combined into groups according to their location on a crane, for example, on the head of a telescoping boom, on its root section, on a fixed part of a crane, etc. In this case, each group of sensors is equipped with a controller implemented on the microcontroller and performing level conversion, amplification, normalization and / or processing of their output signals - filtering, thermal compensation, lanerization, etc. before transmitting these signals to the information control unit 1.
The vision system 10 is made in the form of video cameras - one or more stereo pairs located on the boom or on the crane cabin with the ability to view the crane working area, and a digital signal processor that processes and analyzes the video image.
The position sensors of the outriggers 11 are made, as a rule, in the form of limit switches, and the location sensor of the crane 12 is in the form of a GPS receiver, a radio-frequency or inertial device for determining location. In the latter case, the sensor contains at least a single-axis or multi-axis accelerometer and an integrator connected to its output.
The system, if necessary, can have contact (lead) or non-contact sensors of the diameter of the ropes of the lines, the number of branches of the lines, the angle between the branches of the lines, the angle of inclination of the lines relative to the gravity vertical, strain gauges of effort in the branches of the lines, etc., connected to the input device / output information 9.
The controls 5 are made in the form of a set of buttons / keys, switches, a touch screen display - display device 6, etc. If necessary, an additional controller 5 is used, for example a keyboard controller.
The indicating device 6 may include both symbolic and graphic, for example, liquid crystal TFT, an indicator (display) and / or LED indicators. Its structure, if necessary, includes a sound or speech annunciator.
The system may further comprise a memory unit (parameter logger) 7 integrated in the information-control unit 1 and / or removable (external). It is performed mainly in the form of a non-volatile Flash memory block connected to microcontroller 2 and / or to information input-output device 9. (The first embodiment is conventionally shown in the drawing). This block may further comprise a real-time clock.
Wireless device for receiving / transmitting data 8 is made using Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee, GSM, CDMA, etc. technologies, or as a reader of contactless radio frequency identification tags (RFID). This device can be configured to determine the distance to the signal source and the direction to this source using the time-pulse or phase principle of construction of such devices.
The protection system (automated control and management) works as follows.
In the memory of microcontroller 2 or in memory block 7 in the form of formulas - subprograms of the microcontroller developed using the mathematical model of the crane, or in the form of tables, the permissible values of the crane loads in various modes of its operation are pre-recorded (with a full or incomplete reference contour, with various jib loops equipment, etc.) and at various positions of the boom or load-gripping body.
Before starting the operation of the crane, the crane operator, using the controls 5, sets the parameters of the crane characterizing its geometry, conditions and operating mode. The number and type of these parameters are determined by the design of the crane and the requirements for its safe operation. These include the type of boom equipment used (presence, length and angle of inclination of the jib), characteristics of the support contour, restrictions on coordinate protection, etc. If necessary, the crane operator using the controls 5 enters into the microcontroller 2 the parameters of the restrictions of the working area of the crane for coordinate protection. The entered parameters are stored in the memory of microcontroller 2.
In the first embodiment of the proposed method, the described system implements automated control by the crane operator of a visual check of the technical condition of the crane. To do this, in the memory of the microcontroller 2 or in the memory unit 7 are pre-recorded parameters (coordinates) of the zones of the position of the crane operator relative to the crane or on the crane, from which the crane operator has the ability to visually check its technical condition. The crane operator is equipped with a device for determining its location 13.
During the visual inspection by the crane operator of the running gear, the metal structures of the tower and the boom, the joints of individual sections of the tower and the boom, the suspension components of the boom, actuators, ropes and their fastening, the load gripping body, brakes, crane tracks and end stops, anti-theft grips, flexible current-carrying cable , fencing mechanisms and electrical equipment of the crane and, if necessary, other mechanisms of the crane moving it are fixed by the device for determining the location 13, the signals from which through the wire device for receiving / transmitting data 8 is transmitted to the microcontroller 2. Next, the microcontroller 2, comparing the received data with the recorded parameters (coordinates) of the crane position zones in which it should be located during this visual inspection, confirms its implementation. After the test is completed, the microcontroller 2, using the indicating device 6, generates a warning signal for the crane operator and transmits a signal to the input / output device 9, allowing the crane to start operation. Accordingly, the launch of the crane is possible only after a visual inspection by the crane operator of his technical condition, or at least after confirming that the crane operator was in those areas near the crane or on the crane, from which it is possible to check the mentioned components and mechanisms of the crane.
After the crane is put into operation and the operations of lifting and moving the load are performed, the microcontroller 2 operates according to the program recorded in its built-in program memory or in the memory unit 7 and, through the input / output device 9, exchanges information with the sensors 3, 10-12 according to the general multiplex communication lines, through individual wires and / or over the air. After receiving information from the sensors, the microcontroller 2 determines the actual values of the operating parameters - the current load of the crane, the stock of its cargo stability and the actual position of its boom or load-gripping body. If necessary, to determine the current values of these parameters, the output signals of the sensors 3 are converted. This takes place when the current load of the crane and / or the position of its boom are measured indirectly, for example, when determining the load of a hydraulic crane using pressure in the rod and piston the cavities of the hydraulic cylinder lifting the boom. The algorithms of these transformations are implemented by software microcontroller 2.
Next, the microcontroller 2, working according to the program, compares the current values of the parameters characterizing the load and the spatial position of the boom or load-gripping organ of the crane with the permissible values of these parameters and forms, depending on the results of this comparison, control signals or blocking the control of actuating devices 4 of the crane aimed at preventing exceeding the permissible values of these parameters. Due to this, the crane is protected from overload and from collisions with obstacles (coordinate protection).
In the system that implements the second version of the proposed method, the presence of people (workers) in the process of moving the crane, its mechanisms or cargo (load-gripping body) is additionally revealed during the operation of the crane. For this, people in the crane operating area are equipped with proximity sensors for monitoring their location 13, the signals from which are transmitted through the wireless data receiving / transmitting device 8 to the microcontroller 2.
The microcontroller 2, analyzing the output signal of the sensor 12, determines the location of the crane, using the output signals of the sensors 3 calculates the trajectory of the boom and the load, and then using the location data of people received from the device 8, reveals the risk of injury from a crane or moving cargo .
In the presence of such a danger, the microcontroller 2, using the indicating device 6, generates a warning signal for the crane operator about the need to stop the crane or a signal blocking the movements of the crane, which is sent to actuators 4, or automatically, using devices 8 and 13, transmits a warning signal to people about the need be careful or leave the crane operating area. To transmit such warning signals and, at the same time, as non-contact sensors for determining the location of people (workers), it is convenient to use their cell phones equipped with GPS receivers or other means of determining the location. This transfer is carried out using the wireless interface of the cell phone - Bluetooth, or Wi-Fi, or ZigBee, or a cellular network, such as GSM / GPRS or CDMA. The transmitted warning signals can be either sound or speech. In the latter case, the microcontroller 2 implements the synthesis of the corresponding voice warning messages. The transmission of voice warning signals is also possible from a crane operator, for which the system is additionally equipped with a microphone connected to an information input / output device 9 (not shown conventionally in the drawing).
In a system that implements the third version of the proposed method, the permissible and / or forbidden parameter values characterizing the spatial position of the boom or load-gripping organ of the crane are set by installing non-contact people on the moving or stationary obstacles, on clothes or on equipment of the crane sensors 13 determine their location.
These devices can be configured to determine their angular positions in the horizontal and / or vertical plane (using inclinometers, magnetic compasses, etc.). In this case, the microcontroller 2 generates allowable and / or forbidden values for the parameters or zones (areas) of the spatial position of the boom or crane body, depending on these angular positions. In particular, in the form of restrictions of the maximum or minimum height (restrictions of the "ceiling" or "roof" type), position in the horizontal plane (restrictions of the "wall" type) and / or angular position (restrictions of the type "turn left" and "turn right" )
The transfer or rotation of the sensors (devices) determining the location 13 leads to an automatic change in the allowable zone of operation of the crane, which makes it possible to quickly (dynamically) change the parameters of this zone, including during the lifting and moving of cargo by the crane.
These sensors (devices) 13 can be attached to the surface of the building / structure and be transferred as it is being built, or attached to the structural elements of the building / structure under construction prior to their installation, followed by crane transfer along with these elements. Due to this, during the construction of the building / structure, an automatic change in the parameters or zones of coordinate protection is implemented, which leads to time savings and the elimination of errors of such an installation. At the same time, the operation of the crane operator is facilitated and the simplification of the control elements 5 is provided, with the help of which coordinate protection parameters are traditionally introduced in protection systems.
The output signals of the sensors 13 can be transmitted to the information and control units of automated control systems for two or more cranes working with intersecting work areas, which reduces the cost of implementing a protection system.
Another way to increase the safety of the crane is to automatically control the correctness of the slinging or strapping of the load to be lifted and moved. For its implementation, the parameters characterizing the established requirements for this sling or strapping are previously determined and recorded in the memory of the microcontroller 2 or in the memory block 7. These include, in particular, the correspondence of the load-carrying capacity of the slings to the weight of the cargo, the limitation of the pre-set maximum angle between the branches of the lines, the absence of knots and loops on the lines, the requirement of uniform tension of the lines and the location of the load-gripping body above the center of gravity of the load to be lifted. To control the parameters reflecting these requirements, mainly on the load-gripping body, sensors are installed for the diameter of the sling ropes, the slope angle of the slings and the efforts in the slings, and other sensors connected to the input / output device information 9. Another option for monitoring these parameters is based on the formation of a video image of the sling or cargo strapping using the technical vision system 10 and the subsequent determination of these parameters, including the detection of the absence of nodes and loops on the slings, microcontroller 2 video processing The images or digital signal processor itself vision system 10.
Next, the microcontroller 2 compares the previously stored values of the parameters characterizing the correctness of the slinging or strapping of the cargo, obtained with the help of sensors or the technical vision system 10 and, if inconsistencies are detected, generates a warning signal for the crane operator (signal to the indicating device 6) and / or for the slinger (signal to the device 13) transferred to his disposal, and / or the signal for blocking the lifting and / or movement of the load, arriving at the actuators 4.
Another possibility to increase the safety of the crane is realized by preventing the crane from being installed improperly on the outriggers. For this, the parameters characterizing the established requirements for the safe installation of the crane are also pre-determined and recorded in the memory of the microcontroller 2 or in the memory block 7. These include, in particular, the extension and installation of all available outriggers, compliance with a predetermined minimum distance between the rotary part of the crane at any position and buildings or other objects (e.g. 1.0 m), the presence of linings or base plates under outriggers , compliance with a predetermined minimum distance between the supports and the slope edge of the pit or ditch (for example, 1.5 m), and / or compliance with a predetermined maximum inclination angle of the platform on which the crane is installed.
To control the parameters characterizing the fulfillment of these requirements, the system is equipped with appropriate sensors connected to the information input / output device 9. These include sensors for the spatial position (extension) of the outriggers 11, sensors for the spatial position or the presence of pads for supports or base plates, distance sensors from a crane to a structure or to another object and distance sensors from outriggers to the edge of a slope of a foundation pit or ditch. It is possible to use both one sensor and several sensors of various types in any combination.
To control the spatial position (extension) of the outriggers, limit switches - sensors 11 can be used. It is also possible to use positioning devices (radio frequency, inertial or GPS receivers) as sensors 11 directly on the supports. The signals from these devices can be received both on the input / output device information 9, and on the wireless device for receiving / transmitting data 8.
This technical solution can also be used to control the presence of linings or base plates under the outriggers. Another option for implementing this control can be based on the use of radio frequency identification tags (RFIDs) installed on the pads or base plates, and readers of these tags placed on retractable supports or at other points of the crane.
The distance sensors (rangefinders) from the crane to the structure or to another object, as well as the distance sensors from the outriggers to the edge of the slope of the pit or ditch, can be of radio-frequency, ultrasonic or optical type. It is also possible to use a vision system 10 with monitoring the extension of the supports and the presence of pads or base plates by analyzing the video image by the microcontroller 2 or the digital signal processor of the vision system 10 itself.
The slope angle of the crane installation site is determined based on the height difference of the spatial position sensors of the outriggers, pads or base plates.
Microcontroller 2, controlling the output signals of these sensors and the parameters recorded in its memory that characterize the requirements for the safe installation of the crane on the outriggers, performs the correctness of this installation and, if a violation is detected, generates a warning signal for the crane operator and / or a signal for blocking the operation of the crane.
Another effective way to increase the safety of the crane is based on the principle of non-contact optical "weighing" of the cargo lifted by the crane and determining its dimensions, as well as optical control of the distance from the cargo to buildings, other objects and people (workers) located in the crane operating area. For this, the technical vision system 10 forms a video image of the process of lifting / moving the load, and these parameters are determined by processing this video image by the microcontroller 2 or the technical vision system 10 itself.
The algorithm for determining these parameters is based, in particular, on the formation of a three-dimensional video image and pattern recognition using a database stored in the memory unit 7 or in the technical vision system 10. In particular, images of various loads lifted by a crane are stored in this database.
Before lifting the load, the system, using the specified database, recognizes (identifies) the type of cargo and determines its dimensions by analyzing a three-dimensional image. Then, using the data on the parameters of this cargo - its specific gravity, mass, etc., determines the possibility of lifting and moving this cargo. If the mass of the load exceeds the load capacity of the crane, then the load is blocked by the microcontroller 2. This eliminates attempts to lift loads exceeding the load capacity of the crane, which increases the safety of its operation.
A similar approach is used to prevent collisions of a crane or cargo with obstacles (buildings, structures, moving and stationary machines, etc.), as well as to prevent injury to people in the area of operation of the crane. Such protection is implemented taking into account the overall dimensions of the cargo and its orientation in space. When detecting a decrease in the distance from the cargo to buildings or people to a pre-set value, the microcontroller 2 generates a warning signal for the crane operator (signal to the indicating device 6) or for people in the crane operating area (signal to the wireless data receiving / transmitting device 8 and then to their devices 13, in particular to personal cell phones), and / or a signal for blocking dangerous movements of the crane, which arrives at the actuators 4.
To document the operation of the crane, the system may include an internal or external parameter recorder, implemented on the basis of the memory unit 7, in which the microcontroller 2 records the values of the crane operation parameters (load, spatial position of the boom, etc.), warning signals and crane control signals, video image the process of lifting and moving the cargo, slinging the cargo and installing the crane on retractable supports, signals about the location of the crane operator and people in the working area of the crane for the purpose of their subsequent chityvaniya for analysis on a computer to evaluate the effectiveness of using a crane, monitor compliance with the established rules of its operation and to investigate the causes of possible failures and accidents.
In this description, only particular embodiments of the proposed crane protection system are schematically shown. The invention encompasses its other possible embodiments and their equivalents without departing from the spirit of the invention set forth in its claims.
Literature
1. SU 1654256 A1, IPC5 B66C 23/90, 06/07/1991.
2. US 5730305 A, IPC6 B66C 13/16, 13/18, 03.24.1998.
3. RU 2282577 C2, B66C 23/88, 15/00, 08/27/2006.

Claims (24)

1. A way to increase the safety of a crane by pre-determining or setting acceptable values for the parameters characterizing the load and / or spatial position of its boom or load-gripping member, storing them, measuring during the operation of the crane using the direct or indirect method of at least one of the specified parameters, comparing its measured value with the permissible and subsequent formation, depending on the results of this comparison, control signals or blocking control of at least one actuating device of the crane, aimed at preventing this parameter from exceeding the permissible value, characterized in that before starting the operation of the crane using the automated control system, it is additionally revealed that the crane operator conducts a visual check of the technical condition of the crane and after this check is completed generate an information signal for the crane operator or a signal to enable the launch of the crane in y.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the automated control system is equipped with a device for determining the position of the crane operator relative to the crane and / or on the crane, and the visual inspection of the crane operator by its technical condition is detected by monitoring the crane operator in areas of which visual observation of nodes and structural elements of the crane subject to this test.
3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the parameters and / or coordinates of the zones of visual observation are preliminarily determined from the condition that the crane operator can visually verify from these zones the technical condition of the chassis and / or metal structures of the tower and / or boom, and / or connections of individual sections of the tower and / or boom, and / or suspension elements of the boom, and / or executive drives, and / or ropes and their fastening, and / or load-lifting body, and / or brakes, and / or crane tracks and end stops, and / or anti-theft seizures, and / and whether a flexible current-carrying cable, and / or the presence and serviceability of fencing mechanisms and electrical equipment of a crane.
4. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the determination of the position of the crane operator relative to the crane and / or crane in the automated control system is carried out using the signal receivers of the satellites of the global positioning system, for example GPS (Global Position System) of Navstar or Glonas ”(global navigation system), or contactless radio frequency identification tags (RFID), or radio frequency positioning devices, or inertial positioning devices dix.
5. The method according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the signals about the location of the crane operator during the visual inspection of the technical condition of the crane is recorded in the non-volatile memory of the automated control system with the ability to read if necessary.
6. A way to increase the safety of a crane by pre-determining or setting acceptable values for the parameters characterizing the load and / or spatial position of its boom or load-gripping body, memorizing them, measuring during the operation of the crane using the direct or indirect method of at least one of the specified parameters, comparing its measured value with the permissible and subsequent formation, depending on the results of this comparison, control signals or blocking control of at least one actuating device of the crane, aimed at preventing this parameter from exceeding the permissible value, characterized in that during the operation of the crane additionally detect the presence of people in the way of moving the crane, and / or its mechanisms, and / or cargo, by means of an automated control system, there is a risk of injury to people and, if any, a warning signal is generated for the crane operator to stop the crane, or a signal blocking the movements of the crane, or automatically give people a warning signal about the need to be careful or leave the crane's working area, and detecting the presence of people is carried out by monitoring their location relative to the crane using satellite receivers from a global positioning system, for example GPS (Global Position System ) Navstar or Glonas systems (global navigation system), or contactless radio frequency identification m etc. (RFID), or radio frequency positioning devices, or inertial positioning devices.
7. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that the location of people is carried out using their cell phones equipped with devices for determining their location, such as GPS or Glonas.
8. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that the location data of people is transmitted to an automated control system using a wireless interface of a cell phone, for example Bluetooth, or Wi-Fi, or ZigBee, or a cellular network, for example GSM / GPRS or CDMA .
9. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that the cell phone is used to transmit sound and / or voice warning signals from the crane operator and / or from an automated control system.
10. The method according to one of claims 6 to 9, characterized in that the signals about the location of people in the area of operation of the crane are recorded in non-volatile memory of an automated control system with the ability to read if necessary.
11. A way to increase the safety of a crane by pre-defining or setting permissible and / or prohibited values of parameters characterizing the load and / or spatial position of its boom or load-gripping body, memorizing them, measuring during the operation of the crane using direct or indirect method, at least at least one of the specified parameters, comparing its measured value with a permissible or forbidden and subsequent formation, depending on the results of this comparison control signals or control blocking by at least one actuating device of the crane, aimed at preventing this parameter from exceeding the permissible value or preventing the value of this parameter from being in the forbidden values region, characterized in that the allowed and / or forbidden parameter values characterizing the spatial position of the boom or load-lifting body of the crane is set by installing it on moving or fixed obstacles, or on clothing or equipment of people in the working area of the crane, radio frequency positioning devices, or radio frequency identification tags (RFIDs), or satellite receivers of a global positioning system, for example GPS (Global Position System) of Navstar or Glonas (global navigation system ), or inertial positioning devices, the signals from which are transmitted to an automated crane control system.
12. The method according to claim 11, characterized in that the radio frequency positioning device, or radio frequency identification tags (RFID), or signal receivers of the satellites of the global positioning system, or inertial positioning devices, are configured to determine their angular positions and form acceptable and / or forbidden values of the parameters of the spatial position of the boom or the load-gripping body of the crane depending on these angular positions in the form of Astey working space of a crane.
13. The method according to p. 12, characterized in that the areas of the working space of the crane, determining the allowable and / or forbidden values of the spatial position of its boom or load-gripping body, are set in the form of restrictions on the maximum or minimum height (restrictions such as "ceiling" or " roof ”), and / or position in the horizontal plane (restrictions of the“ wall ”type), and / or angular position (restrictions of the type“ turn left ”and“ turn right ”).
14. The method according to one of claims 10 to 13, characterized in that the radio frequency positioning devices, or radio frequency identification tags (RFID), or satellite receivers of the global positioning system, or inertial positioning devices, are attached to the surface of the building / structure and transferred as it is being built, or attached to structural elements of a building / structure under construction and transferred with a crane along with these elements during their installation.
15. The method according to one of paragraphs.10-13, characterized in that the radio frequency positioning devices, or radio frequency identification tags (RFID), or signal receivers of the satellites of the global positioning system, or inertial positioning devices, are configured to transmit signals to automated control systems for two or more hoisting cranes.
16. A way to increase the safety of a crane by pre-determining or setting acceptable values for the parameters characterizing the load and / or spatial position of its boom or load-gripping body, memorizing them, measuring during the operation of the crane directly or indirectly, at least one of the specified parameters, comparing its measured value with the permissible and subsequent formation, depending on the results of this comparison, control signals or blocking control of at least one actuating device of the crane, aimed at preventing this parameter from exceeding the permissible value, characterized in that they additionally carry out automatic control of at least one parameter characterizing at least one preset safety requirement slinging or tying of the load being lifted and / or transported, and, in case of violation of this requirement, a warning signal is generated for the crane operator and / and whether for the slinger, and / or a signal blocking the lifting and / or movement of the load.
17. The method according to clause 16, characterized in that for the specified requirement for safe slinging or strapping of the load to be lifted and / or transported, take the line loading capacity according to the load weight and / or limit the predetermined maximum angle between the branches of the lines, and / or the absence of nodes and loops on slings, and / or a pre-established requirement for uniform tension of the slings, and / or the location of the load gripping body above the center of gravity of the load to be lifted, and as a parameter characterizing the fulfillment of this requirement niya, take the diameter of the rope slings, and / or the number of branches of the lines, and / or the straightness of the lines, and / or the angle between the branches of the lines, and / or the difference in effort in the lines, and / or the average angle of inclination of the lines relative to the gravitational vertical, and the specified parameter measured by at least one sensor of the diameter of the lines and / or the angle of inclination of the lines and / or the force in the lines, or form a video image of the sling or strapping of cargo and determine the specified parameter by processing this video image in the said device automatically of control.
18. A way to increase the safety of a crane by pre-determining or setting acceptable values for the parameters characterizing the load and / or spatial position of its boom or load-gripping member, storing them, measuring during the operation of the crane using the direct or indirect method of at least one of the specified parameters, comparing its measured value with the permissible and subsequent formation, depending on the results of this comparison, control signals or blocking control of at least one actuating device of the crane, aimed at preventing this parameter from exceeding the permissible value, characterized in that they additionally monitor at least one parameter characterizing at least one pre-installed requirement for safe installation the crane on the outriggers and, if a violation of this requirement is detected, generate a warning signal for the crane operator and / or a signal to block the lifting and / or cargo, and for the specified requirement for the safe installation of the crane on the outriggers take the extension and installation of all available outriggers, and / or a predetermined minimum distance between the rotary part of the crane in any position and buildings or other objects, and / or the presence of linings or base plates under the outriggers, and / or a predetermined minimum distance between at least one outrigger and the edge of the slope of the pit or ditch, and / or a predetermined maximum value the slope of the installation site of the crane, and as a parameter characterizing the fulfillment of this requirement, take the number of extended and installed outriggers, and / or the distance between the rotary part of the crane and buildings or other objects, and / or the number of linings or base plates under the outriggers, respectively supports, and / or the distance between the outriggers and the edge of the slope of the pit or ditch, and / or the angle of the slope of the installation site of the crane.
19. The method according to p, characterized in that the parameter characterizing the fulfillment of the requirements for the safe installation of the crane on the outriggers. measured by at least one corresponding sensor of the spatial position of the outriggers, and / or the presence of linings or base plates, and / or the distance from the crane to the structure or to another object, and / or the distance from the at least one outrigger support to the edge of the slope of the pit or ditch.
20. The method according to claim 19, characterized in that at least one of these sensors use a radar type or form a video image of the installation of the crane on the outriggers and determine a parameter that characterizes at least one pre-installed requirement for safe installation outrigger crane by processing this video image.
21. The method according to claim 19, characterized in that the slope angle of the crane installation site is determined using the output signals of the spatial position sensors of the outriggers, and / or the pads or base plates in height.
22. A way to increase the safety of a crane by pre-determining or setting acceptable values for the parameters characterizing the load and / or spatial position of its boom or load-gripping body, storing them, measuring during the operation of the crane, at least one of these parameters, comparing its measured value with acceptable and subsequent formation, depending on the results of this comparison, control signals or control blocking, at least at least one actuating device of the crane aimed at preventing this parameter from exceeding the permissible value, characterized in that as one of these parameters use the mass of the lift and / or move the load, which is measured by the optical method, for which the crane is equipped with a vision system, by which a video image of the cargo is formed and by processing this video image, the mass of the cargo is determined.
23. The method according to p. 22, characterized in that the vision system is configured to determine the size of the cargo, and / or the distance from the cargo to buildings or other objects, and / or the distance to people in the working area of the crane.
24. The method according to p. 22 or 23, characterized in that the video image of the cargo and the parameters characterizing the load and / or spatial position of the boom or load-gripping body of the crane, control signals and warning signals are recorded in non-volatile memory with the possibility of reading if necessary.
RU2007113419/11A 2007-04-10 2007-04-10 Method of improvement of safety of work of erecting crane (versions) RU2345944C1 (en)

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2448037C1 (en) * 2010-09-07 2012-04-20 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Научно-производственное предприятие "Резонанс" Hoisting or construction machine load limiter (versions)
CN106744332A (en) * 2016-12-29 2017-05-31 华中科技大学 A kind of visual crane hangs and takes alignment system
RU2719509C1 (en) * 2015-09-29 2020-04-20 Олько-Машинентехник Гмбх Hoisting and transport unit equipped with drum winch with rope monitoring device
RU2728920C2 (en) * 2015-12-23 2020-08-03 Либхерр-Верк Биберах Гмбх Crane mounting method

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2448037C1 (en) * 2010-09-07 2012-04-20 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Научно-производственное предприятие "Резонанс" Hoisting or construction machine load limiter (versions)
RU2719509C1 (en) * 2015-09-29 2020-04-20 Олько-Машинентехник Гмбх Hoisting and transport unit equipped with drum winch with rope monitoring device
RU2719509C9 (en) * 2015-09-29 2020-07-21 Олько-Машинентехник Гмбх Hoisting and transport unit equipped with drum winch with rope monitoring device
RU2728920C2 (en) * 2015-12-23 2020-08-03 Либхерр-Верк Биберах Гмбх Crane mounting method
CN106744332A (en) * 2016-12-29 2017-05-31 华中科技大学 A kind of visual crane hangs and takes alignment system
CN106744332B (en) * 2016-12-29 2018-01-02 华中科技大学 A kind of hanged alignment system of visual crane

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