RU2312334C2 - Method and device for testing pipelines - Google Patents

Method and device for testing pipelines Download PDF

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RU2312334C2
RU2312334C2 RU2003121265/28A RU2003121265A RU2312334C2 RU 2312334 C2 RU2312334 C2 RU 2312334C2 RU 2003121265/28 A RU2003121265/28 A RU 2003121265/28A RU 2003121265 A RU2003121265 A RU 2003121265A RU 2312334 C2 RU2312334 C2 RU 2312334C2
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pipe
sensor
emitters
pipeline
along
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RU2003121265/28A
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Russian (ru)
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RU2003121265A (en
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Вольфганг КРИГ (DE)
Вольфганг КРИГ
Ахим ХУГГЕР (DE)
Ахим ХУГГЕР
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Пии Пайптроникс Гмбх
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Abstract

FIELD: testing engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises emitting ultrasonic signals by means of converting members to the wall of the pipe, receiving the signals reflected from various interfaces, and processing the signals to detect damages in the pipe walls.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
31 cl, 10 dwg

Description

The invention relates to a method for monitoring pipelines, in particular, detection of defects in pipelines using ultrasound, in which, during a run through a pipeline, supersonic signals are emitted by the transducer elements into the pipe walls and the sound signals reflected from various interfaces are processed to determine defects in the pipe walls, and to a device for monitoring pipelines, in particular by using the method according to paragraphs 1-10 of the claims, in particular as an element of an apparatus moving through conduit pipe for tunneling, comprising at least one sensor carrier with a carrier disposed around the sensor transducer elements.
When operating laid pipelines, it is necessary to periodically carry out automatic non-destructive testing with respect to corrosion, through corrosion, etc. Such defects can be detected through changes in the pipe wall thickness and their physical properties caused by them.
When the walls of the pipeline are irradiated at a right angle, the difference in the transit time of signals reflected from the inner wall and the outer wall, as well as from the places in the pipeline where there are defects, is measured, as a rule, the measurement results are supplemented with information about the signal path and then if necessary, after measuring the signal path, the data is intermediate stored and / or processed in real time. In this case, as a rule, the device corresponding to this type in the apparatus for tunneling is connected to the pipeline, which includes at least a sealed housing for accommodating devices for processing and recording measurement results, as well as for power supply.
EP 0271670 B2 discloses a method for detecting corrosion or other similar defects in pipelines, in which a pipe wall monitoring device (Molch - “Triton”) moved through a pipeline emits ultrasonic signals whose difference in travel time is measured in depending on the reflection from the internal or external wall of the pipeline. Based on this difference in travel time, the thickness of the pipeline is determined. Slight pitting corrosion can hardly be detected.
With regard to the emission of ultrasonic signals in a device moved through the pipeline for its control, it is known from document EP 0255619 B1 that it is equipped with a circular carrier of ultrasonic measuring heads located at a uniform interval around the circumference of the carrier and constantly occupying a perpendicular angular position to the normal to the pipe wall relative to their sensor surfaces .
In the above-described prior art, it should be noted, in particular, as a disadvantage that only such corrosion and through corrosion, but not cracks, can be detected using such a method or such a device. To determine cracks extending to the upper side of the pipe, angularly directed radiation and, accordingly, an additional “triton” passage with differently oriented sensor sensors are necessary. It also allows you to detect only cracks extending to the surface of the pipe wall, but not cracks located inside the wall.
Therefore, the object of the invention is to provide a method and device with a simple structure for monitoring pipelines, which, along with surface corrosion and through corrosion, can also reliably detect cracks, and in particular, cracks, located inside the pipe wall by measuring penetration.
According to the invention, this problem is solved by the fact that in the claimed method, subregions formed as a plurality of transducer elements arranged in a row adjacent to each other in the direction along the circumference of the pipeline, as virtual sensors of group emitters, jointly emit ultrasonic signals in the same direction of incidence into the pipe walls and that these and / or other subregions of the respective group emitters receive signals reflected from the pipe wall interfaces. To solve the problem, in a device of this type, it is provided that at least one group emitter is formed comprising at least one plurality of transducer elements arranged in a row adjacent to each other in the direction along the circumference of the pipeline, controlling subregions jointly consisting of many separate transducer elements as virtual sensor sensors for emitting ultrasonic signals at a unidirectional angle and the same and / or other sub-bands of the group emitter for receiving acoustic their signals reflected from the pipe wall interfaces.
The arrangement of the converter elements in a row does not mean that the group emitters should be curved or to be located together around the circumference: they can also be made flat and for the coverage of the sensing zone should be at an angle to one another. Group emitters (sensor-arrays) are made of a number of separate transducer elements made of piezoelectric crystals, for example from 16 to 256, located in a joint housing, and in the direction along the circumference have a curvature corresponding to the curvature of the pipe wall being monitored. The individual converter elements have a preferred width in the direction of arrangement in a row (in a circumferential direction) from 0.3 to 2.5 mm, and perpendicular to this arrangement in a row, their length may be greater. For example, in a 24-inch pipe, approximately 6400 converter elements are provided around the entire circumference in the required number of group radiators, while group radiators can be located, partially overlapping, by two rings placed one next to the other in the direction of the pipe wall extension with an offset relative to each other in direction along the circumference.
The excitation frequency of the converter elements is preferably in the range of 1.0 to 2.5 MHz, typically 5 MHz. By joint or group control of a selected subset or selection of individual transducer elements, the radiation-dynamic synthesis of ultrasonic rays according to the invention is carried out, and thus virtual sensor sensors are created. In this case, joint or group control does not necessarily mean simultaneous control (although it is also not excluded for synthesizing an ultrasonic beam sent at right angles), but it also implies control of the transducer elements of the virtual sensor sensor (as blocks or subsets of the aggregate elements of the group emitter) in the time sequence so that, in particular, by appropriate phase regulation of supersonic waves of individual transducer elements, the virtual th sensor ultrasonic beams to create a tilted relative to the surface of the measurement phase controlled oscillator group wave front and thus deviating from the vertical direction of the radiation beam. Synthesizing ultrasonic rays involves focusing the fronts of sound waves with the same sound energy or with sound energy exceeding the useful threshold in a narrower difference range relative to, for example, a separate transducer propagating at an angle of the wave with identical sound energy (angular) wave front in the total spatial range . The formation of ultrasonic rays thus includes the total effect of the superposition of the acoustic waves of the individual transforming elements forming a virtual sensor sensor, or the so-called dynamic synthesis, in which the dynamic synthesized ultrasonic rays can be oriented in a direction deviating from radiation through time-offset control at right angles.
Thus, thanks to the invention, it is achieved that by means of perpendicular and inclined radiation, the latter being produced in two directions, both corrosion and through corrosion and cracks can be detected, and in particular cracks inside the pipe wall, by arranging the converter elements in a row in direction along the circumference, in particular longitudinal fields, as well as longitudinal cracks, and more accurate information about the position on the circle is obtained. The detection of corrosion and end-to-end corrosion is also carried out by determining the difference in propagation, since such changes in the pipe wall also cause changes in the difference in the propagation time of the signal. In this case, the magnitude of the subset of the jointly controlled converting elements and, therefore, the virtual sensor sensor can be varied, so that pitting corrosion can also be detected. The detection of cracks extending up to the upper side of the wall is carried out on the basis of the effect of an angular reflector there by means of a pulse echo method with an identical combination of detectors, in turn, the detection of cracks inside the wall is carried out by the method of sounding a combination of transmitting transducers by various transducers. At the same time, a better estimate of the occurrence depth is also achieved.
The invention proposes the use of an ultrasonic monitoring method using the so-called group emitters or phased arrays for monitoring material in pipelines, while due to the time-spaced individual control of individual transducer elements, a subset (or also all) of the transducer elements of the group emitter full high-resolution material control is provided. In addition, due to the individual spring-loaded suspension of the sensor sensor, which is preferably provided for each group emitter, for connection with the inner wall of the pipeline, a constant quality of the signal emitted into the pipe wall and a certain position of the group emitter relative to the pipe wall are achieved. This is of decisive importance, in particular, when working inside pipelines, which usually have ovality, convexity, and other non-circularities in extended sections.
In a preferred embodiment, the individual transducer elements of the group emitters, in particular the individual transducer elements forming the virtual sensor sensor subunit of the transducer elements of the group emitter, are controlled accordingly with a time shift, so that the propagation direction and / or the depth of focus of the emitted measuring pulse in the circumferential direction can be changed or, respectively, in the radial direction. Thus, by means of each group emitter, a plurality of signal emissions are realized in a pipeline with different radiation angles, the penetration depth of which into the pipe wall in a wide range meets the requirements for measurements.
Preferably, the radiation and reception of the signal is carried out in a finite interval relative to the inner wall of the pipe, which eliminates damage to the group emitter by irregularities of the pipe wall.
In order to obtain reliable and reproducible measurement results, it is further provided that the interval of signal emission, i.e. the distance between the group emitter and the inner wall of the pipeline during the measurement, essentially remains constant.
Since the detection of a crack located inside the pipe wall can be reliable only with oblique radiation of the signal relative to the normal of the pipe wall, in another embodiment of the invention, it is provided that the direction of radiation of the signal relative to the normal of the pipe wall with oblique radiation of the signal is selected so that the sound wave after refraction on the interface between the interior of the pipe and the pipe wall, it extends at an angle of about 45 ° relative to the normal to the pipe wall. With such a beam path inside the pipe wall, it is ensured that when a sound wave is reflected from the external or internal pipe wall, there is essentially a complete reflection of the sound wave in which the incident and reflected rays form a 90 ° angle relative to each other, and there is no refraction of the beam outward into the surrounding space, so that a significant part of the radiated sound energy is reflected in the direction of the inner space of the pipe or the inner wall of the pipe. This allows you to minimize the acoustic energy necessary for carrying out the control method.
Since cracks cannot always be detected with full certainty on the one hand, as this, for example, occurs when the crack is near the weld in the pipe wall, radiation should be produced from both sides. To this end, according to the invention, it is provided that the signal is emitted at a first angle and at a second angle, the second angle being the result of mirror reflection of the first angle to the normal to the pipe wall.
Preferably, the unit transducer elements of the group emitter are arranged in the form of a linear row or a linear antenna array (arrays), wherein the direction of propagation of the antenna array is perpendicular to the sensor surfaces, i.e. the surfaces of the transducer elements emitting a signal or receiving sound. In the best embodiment of the invention, the sensor arrays (sensorarrays) have, in the strike direction, a final curvature corresponding to the curvature of the pipe wall. Thus, for each unit transducer element, a substantially identical spacing with respect to the inner wall of the pipe can be provided.
In order to avoid collisions between adjacent group emitters during the individual spring-loaded connection of group radiators with the pipe wall, the invention in a preferred embodiment provides for the plurality of group radiators to be placed blockwise at intervals relative to each other in the direction along the circumference and so that they occupy a joint axial position. Moreover, it is preferable that the transducer elements of one block of group emitters are located on one concentric circle relative to the inner circumference of the pipe wall. To ensure coverage of the full signal propagation zone in the pipe wall in the direction along the circumference, a plurality of group emitter blocks displaced relative to each other in the axial direction can be provided, which partially overlap in the circumferential direction. In this case, the amount of overlap in the circumferential direction should be chosen so that, in connection with the above-described oblique radiation of the signal, the coverage of the signal propagation zone in the pipe wall in the circumferential direction is fully ensured.
In addition, in order to fully cover the signal propagation zone in the pipe wall, it is provided that for the radiation of signals, multiple sub-regions (virtual sensor sensors) of group emitters are repeatedly controlled, each of which consists, in particular, of the same number of converter elements, so that the sub-region radiation of group emitters virtually moves in time along the group emitter until at least one Ato, all converting elements of each individual group emitter. By such a separation of group emitters into virtual subunits and the above-described virtual displacement of these units, a pipe wall is scanned in a certain area in the direction along the circumference.
Further, in connection with the arrangement of the group emitters in the direction along the circumference of the pipe wall, it is preferable that when the signal is inclined, the signal reflected from the internal or external wall of the pipe is received by the subband of the transmitting group emitter, which nevertheless is not necessarily identical to the subband emitting the signal. Due to the above-described offset and overlapping arrangement of a plurality of group emitters according to the invention, a complete coverage of the signal propagation zone in the pipe wall in the circumferential direction is ensured due to the total radiation of all subbands or virtual sensor sensors of all group emitters.
From the above it follows that the full coverage of the signal propagation zone in the pipe wall is achieved due to the fixed geometric arrangement of the group emitters. According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, it can also be provided to achieve the possibility of rotation of group emitters in order to achieve full coverage of the signal propagation zone in the pipe wall in the direction along the pipe circumference. In such an embodiment, the invention implies the presence of only one block of group emitters spaced in the direction along the circumference, located in a certain axial position, which varies with time as the device moves. Sensor sensors rotate as a block around the axis of the pipe and simultaneously move in the axial direction in connection with the axial movement of the “newt”, so that at a suitable rotation speed, the signal propagation zone in the pipe wall is fully covered.
For mounting the group emitters according to a preferred embodiment of the invention, it is provided that the sensor carrier includes at least one central intermediate element in the form of a circular cylinder located coaxially with the group emitters. For the purpose of axial orientation of the device in the pipeline and to ensure sufficient stability in the event of a rollover, the sensor carrier can have a circular circular guide disk concentric with respect to the longitudinal axis with at least one elastic boundary zone, the maximum diameter of which corresponds to the internal diameter of the pipeline or slightly exceeds last. The guiding disk made in this way, while the device is in motion, is constantly in geometrical closure with the inner wall of the pipeline and due to the presence of an elastic edge zone, it can neutralize regularly occurring non-circularities of the pipeline, which ensures reliable direction of the sensor device. In order to ensure sufficient wear resistance according to the invention, it is provided that the guide disc is made of plastic, in particular polyurethane.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, in order to ensure an elastic individual connection of the group radiators with the inner wall of the pipeline, it is provided that the sensory suspension of the single group radiators consists of at least two articulated levers forming an articulation and which are respectively articulated at their free end to the mounting element of the sensor sensor slide in which the group emitter is placed, or, respectively, with an intermediate element but sensor holder. In this case, the hinge joints can be made preferably in the form of flat hinges. Thus, individual group emitters can move in the radial and axial direction relative to the inner wall of the pipe and, conversely, the position in the direction along the circumference is set relatively rigidly.
In order to provide a springy connection of the group emitters to the pipe wall and at the same time to prevent the articulated sensor suspension from bouncing at non-circularities of the pipeline, for example, bulges, and in particular to prevent radial beats of the sensor suspension, it is also provided according to the invention that the articulated lever pivotally connected to the intermediate element is made in the form telescopic spring element with additional damping properties. To improve the springy and damping properties, another telescopic springing element can be placed between the sensor sensor slides and the sensor suspension elements.
The sensor sensor slides are used to install arrays in the form of group emitters and, therefore, are preferably made in such a way that the curvature of the sensor sled surface facing the inner wall of the pipe along the circumference substantially corresponds to the curvature of the group emitters. In another embodiment, the sensor rails have a groove extending in the surface in the circumferential direction, into which the group emitters enter, the depth of the groove corresponding essentially to the size of the group emitter in the radial direction. According to another preferred embodiment of the device according to the invention, the sensor rails are oversized relative to the axial size of the group emitters, in the area of which, according to the most preferred embodiment, the spacers are installed. This ensures a reliable final interval of group emitters relative to the inner wall of the pipeline, which contributes, firstly, to improve the quality of the measurement results and, secondly, to protect group emitters, in particular, from harmful effects. In accordance with another feature, the apparatus made according to the invention implies the presence on the pipe wall of the upper side of the struts of a wear-resistant coating, which contributes to a longer service life of the invention. Wear-resistant coating can be made, for example, of wear-resistant plastic, for example polyurethane.
The control of the material according to the invention in pipelines is preferably carried out by means of longitudinal ultrasonic waves. In a most preferred embodiment, shear waves can also be used. Thus, all the variety of possibilities of signal emission and signal propagation in the pipe walls can be used for control purposes, which ensures reliable identification of defects in the material, which, if not detected, can lead to catastrophic consequences.
Below the invention is illustrated by a description of the options for its implementation with reference to the figures of the accompanying drawings, including:
figure 1 depicts a side view of the apparatus, passed through the pipeline with the device according to the invention for its control;
figure 2 is a perspective view of a device according to the invention for monitoring pipelines;
figa is a diagram of the formation propagating perpendicular to the touch surface of the front of the sound wave;
fig.3b is a diagram of the formation of the front of a sound wave propagating at an angle relative to the touch surface;
figa is a diagram of the division of the sensor sensor according to the invention into separate subregions (virtual sensor sensors);
fig.4b is a diagram of various possible directions of radiation of a virtual sensor sensor;
5 is a diagram in section of the arrangement of group emitters according to the invention inside the pipeline;
figa is a diagram of the path of sound path in the pipe wall without cracks;
Fig.6b is a diagram of the path of sound path in the wall of the pipe with a crack; and
Fig.7 is a diagram of the path of sound signals used to detect cracks, in particular to assess the depth of the crack.
The apparatus for driving the pipeline, called abbreviated as "Triton" 1, has in the embodiment shown in Fig. 1 three sequentially sealed enclosures 2, 3, 4. Cases 2, 3, 4 are provided with several cuffs 5 that are adjacent from the inside to the pipeline 6 and using the medium transported in the pipeline ensure the movement of the “newt” 1. In the case 2 are, for example, batteries for powering the apparatus. In addition, the housing 2 is provided with at least one roller 7 in the form of an odometer wheel for measuring the path. The second housing 2 includes devices for processing and recording data, while in the last housing 4 in the direction of movement 8 of the apparatus there is a measuring electronics for the sensor device, which is described below.
In the embodiment shown in FIG. 1, a device 9 for monitoring pipelines with a sensor carrier and a group emitter 16, 16 ′ located on it is suspended at the rear end of the “newt” (FIG. 2). The individual housings 2, 3, 4, as well as the sensor carrier are interconnected using hinges 10, 10 ′.
2 is a perspective view of a control device 9 according to the invention. On the front side, it includes a guide disc 11, which, at least in the marginal zone 12, is resilient and preferably consists of polyurethane. The guide disk 11 is mounted on the end of the intermediate element 13 in the form of a cylindrical rod, which at the same end has a hinge element 14, made to create a swivel with the corresponding mating part in the housing 4.
Around the intermediate element 13 in two planes are many sensory suspensions 15. Each of the sensory suspensions 15 includes employees for mounting the group emitters 16, 16 'of the slide 17. The group emitters 16, 16' are arranged in two consecutive blocks extending around the circumference, while the group radiators 16 of one block are partially overlapped by the group radiators 16 'of the other block in order to ensure full coverage of the entire circle with group radiators 16, 16' with regardless of the pipe diameter Enki pipe. The slide 17 of the sensor sensors is made with the corresponding curvature of the pipe wall with a surface 18 having in the axial direction, that is, in the direction of the longitudinal axis L of the device, an excess size relative to the corresponding length of the group emitters 16, 16 '. In the area of this excess size, on the curved surface 18 of the slide 17 of the sensor sensors, struts 19 are located having a wear-resistant coating on their upper side 20. The group emitters 16, 16 'are held in the slider 17 of the sensor sensors in a groove 21 provided on the upper side of the slide of the sensor sensors, the group emitters 16, 16' and the grooves 21 extend essentially in a circular direction.
In addition, the touch suspensions 15 include two hinge levers 22, 22 ′ for pivotally mounting the sensor slide 17 on the intermediate member 13. The hinge levers 22, 22 ′ are interconnected by means of a flat hinge 23 and, accordingly, form their free end the swivel connection is on the one hand with the fastening element 24 located on the slide 17 of the sensor sensor, then on the other hand with the intermediate element 13 of the device. A telescopic spring element is provided between the bottom side of the sensor sensor slide 17 and the lower hinge lever 22 ′ of the sensor suspension 15 for creating an individual spring-damping connection of the sensor sensor slide 17 with the inner wall of the pipe 6. In the shown embodiment, the lower hinge lever 22 ′ is also made telescopic spring element.
Due to their damping and springing properties, the sensor suspensions 15 are responsible for a certain, almost constant, interval during the measuring path between the group emitters 16, 16 'and the inner wall of the pipeline 6. In this case, the group emitters 16, 16' do not adjoin directly to the inner wall of the pipeline 6 , but are held by struts 19 at a certain finite distance. The group emitters 16, 16 'and the slide 17 of the sensor sensors on which they are located themselves are designed in such a way that the curvature of the pipe wall is taken into account.
As can be seen from figure 2, the group emitters 16, 16 'are located in two blocks, respectively, along a circle formed with the center along the axis L, while the group emitters 16, 16 inside the block are respectively spaced apart in a circular direction to prevent collisions of group emitters 16, 16 ', for example, on the constrictions in the cross section. Group emitters 16, 16 'of various circular formations are located at the same time relative to each other "with a margin", which provides a complete probing coverage in a circular direction. Group emitters send ultrasound in a narrow radially directed range and receive scattered ultrasonic signals from the pipe wall in it.
On figa shows a linear group emitter 16 (sensorarray) of the individual, forming a virtual touch sensor conversion elements 28, of which only a few are presented as an example.
If at the same time a subset forming a virtual sensor sensor 26 is controlled (which can also include all elements 28 of a group emitter 16) or also all converting elements 28 of such a group emitter 16, then a plane sound wave front 27 propagating perpendicular to the linear group emitter 16 is created, which the embodiment shown consists of the emissions of the individual transducer elements 28. If such a sound wave 27 is along the normal N shown in FIG. 7 to the pipe wall 32 water is emitted into the conduit, the wave is reflected from both the inner wall 33 of the conduit 6 and on the outer wall 34 of the conduit 6 and recorded with essentially the same radiating converting elements 28 (pulse-echo method). The measured difference in the travel time of both reflected signals allows us to determine the wall thickness of the pipe 32, while the decrease in the pipe wall relative to a given value is an indication of corrosion damage.
For reliable detection of cracks, which, as a rule, have a significant radial component of extension, the radial radiation of ultrasound into the pipe wall is unacceptable. Here you should apply radiation at a certain angle.
FIG. 3b, based on two examples, shows the generation of an obliquely transmitted plane wavefront 27 by means of a virtual sensor sensor 26 of a linear carrier of the sensor sensor 26 consisting of separate transducer elements 28. As can be seen from FIG. 3b, the virtual sensor sensors 26 emit an angle passing to the right to the right or at an angle α 'to the left, wave 27, when the individual converting elements 28 are controlled one relative to the other with a time shift. The control of the conversion elements 28 with a time shift is represented by arrows of different lengths above the individual conversion elements 28, the length of the individual arrows illustrating the elapsed time after controlling the corresponding conversion element 28. Also, in the case of a curved sensor sensor carrier 16 (Fig. 4a and the following) for generating a sound wave beam in the direction of radiation inclined relative to the radius (curved sensor sensor carrier 16 or pipe wall), the individual sensor elements 28 of the virtual sensor sensor 26 are controlled in such a way that the beam is formed with minimal divergence and the wavefront can be direct or flat, that is, quasi-“single beams” of individual transducers pass in parallel.
Numerous control options for the converting elements 28 are possible. For example, by sequentially controlling the converting elements 28 from the edges of the virtual sensor sensor 26 to its middle, a wave front 27, which is focused at a certain interval relative to the group emitter 16, is generated.
Fig. 4a shows a division into several subbands 26, i.e. virtual sensor sensors, a group emitter 16 according to the invention, having a curvature corresponding to the curvature of the pipe wall.
The group emitters 16 according to the invention can be constructed, for example, from 256 separate converting elements 28. Each 32 such converting elements 28 constitute, for example, a virtual sensor sensor 26, while the virtual sensor sensors 26 of both one group radiator 16 and two group radiators 16, located in a circular direction and adjacent to each other or located on a circle with mutual displacement, can partially overlap to provide a sufficient degree of resolution in the direction along circles, that is, the individual converting elements 28 can respectively relate to two virtual touch sensors.
FIG. 4b again shows the radiation previously selected with reference to FIGS. 3a and 3b of the virtual sensor sensor 26 formed of several converting elements 28 of the group emitter 16. A virtual sensor sensor 26 can be formed on each section of the group emitter 16 by which ultrasonic waves can be emitted into the pipe wall at any given angle to the normal N of this pipe wall. In the illustrated embodiment, radiation occurs at an angle of 0 °, as well as at two angles α, α ′ other than 0 °. Thus, the group emitters 16 according to the invention are applicable both for determining the wall thickness in accordance with a pulsed echo method, and for the crack detection shown in Fig. 7 (ringing method).
Figure 5 shows how, through the arrangement of group emitters 16, 16 'described on the basis of FIG. 2, full coverage of the signal propagation zone in the pipeline 6 is ensured. In FIG. 5, you can observe the overlap of group emitters 16 of the first circular arrangement with group emitters 16 'of the second circular arrangement in the direction along the circle U. Each of the group emitters 16, 16' sends, using a subband, that is, a virtual sensor in a dense time sequence, three over sound signal at the previously mentioned three angles of radiation 0 °, α, α 'usually in such a way that the advance of the wavefront in the pipeline occurs at an angle of 45 °, with α' = - α. Therefore, radiation occurs at positive and negative angles of inclination to the vertical, since a crack that is not detected in the first (positive) direction of radiation, located directly behind the weld of the pipe, can be detected with a different radiation direction with a (negative) angle of inclination, since it now in front of the pipe weld. Following this, the virtual sensor sensors in a circular direction are displaced in the direction of the arrow U by at least one transducer element 28, after which three ultrasonic signals are sent again. Thus, in the zone of group emitters 16, 16 ', the pipeline 6 is scanned in the direction along the circle U, which, together with the above-mentioned sensor overlap, provides a complete coverage of the signal propagation zone in the direction along the circle U. As can be seen from Fig. 5, group emitters 16 , 16 'are spaced relative to the pipe wall, and the remaining free space 29 between the group emitters 16, 16' and the inner wall of the pipe 6 is filled with the medium transported in the pipe 6.
6a and 6b illustrate a method according to the invention for detecting cracks 30 within a conduit 6.
Fig. 6a schematically shows the sound path 31 in the wall 32 of the pipe 6. The subrange (virtual sensor) of the group emitter 16 located inside the pipe 6 sends an ultrasonic wave to the pipe wall 32 at an end angle obliquely to the normal N of this pipe wall 32, so that the wave front after the first refraction of the inner wall 33 of the pipe 6 propagates in the wall of the pipe 32 at an angle of about 45 ° relative to the normal N. Due to this, there is essentially a complete reflection of the emitted sound wave from the outer wall 34 of the pipeline 6, so that the total radiated energy is reradiated in the direction of the inner wall 33 of the pipeline 6. The sound wave refracts on the inner wall 33 and after passing through the free space 29 in another subband comes to the group emitter 16, where it is received almost with intensity, appropriate radiation intensity.
Fig. 6b shows a variant similar to the embodiment of Fig. 6a, however, in the embodiment proposed here, the crack 30 is located close to the outer wall 34 of the pipe 6. In this case, part of the sound energy emitted similarly to Fig. 6a is reflected or diffracted from the crack 30 and registered in this way in the range of the emitting virtual sensor sensor of the group emitter 16. To identify a crack 30 'located in areas that are difficult to reach for ultrasonic waves, for example, near a seam in the pipe wall 35, it is necessary for each stke pipe wall 32 to produce radiation having two sides. This is ensured according to the invention by the geometry of the radiation and the overlapping arrangement of the group emitters.
Figure 7 shows in more detail the interaction of the sound wave a emitted into the wall 32 of the pipe 32 with a crack 30. The path of the abcd beam from the emitting virtual sensor sensor 26 of the group emitter 16 to the virtual sensor sensor 26 'essentially corresponds to the sound path 31 shown in Fig. 6a (although in contrast to FIG. 6 in FIG. 7, the signal emission is on the right side). If a crack 30 is present in the pipeline 6, then only a part of the emitted sound wave along the path abcd comes to the virtual sensor sensor 26, since part of the wave energy (e, f) diffracts or reflects from defect 30. This component is presented in the following example not taken into account. The component h of the emitted sound wave diffracting from the crack 30 comes according to the path of the path h-i shown in FIG. 7 to the subband 26 (virtual touch sensor) of the group emitter 16.
While longitudinal waves are usually used to measure wall thickness with perpendicular signal emission, transverse waves are also used for flaw detection of the pipe wall 32 according to FIGS. 6a, 6b or 7.

Claims (31)

1. A method of monitoring pipelines, in particular the detection of defects in pipelines using ultrasound, according to which ultrasonic signals are emitted by the converting elements into the pipe walls during passage through the pipeline and the sound signals reflected from various interfaces are processed to determine defects in the pipe walls, characterized in that formed from a plurality of converting elements of a group radiator subregion arranged in a row adjacent to each other in a circular direction of the pipeline minutes as virtual sensors together emit ultrasonic signals in at least one direction of incidence on the tube wall, said and / or other sub-areas corresponding group of radiators receive signals reflected from interfaces of the pipe wall.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the converting elements of the subregion or virtual sensor sensor for signal emission are controlled with a time delay relative to each other.
3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the interval of signal emission between the pipe wall and the group emitters when measuring the passage of the signal remains almost constant.
4. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the direction of radiation of the signal relative to the normal of the pipe wall when the signal is inclined is chosen so that the sound wave after refraction at the interface between the pipe’s inner space and the pipe wall propagates at an angle of about 45 ° relative to the normal pipe wall.
5. The method according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the signal is additionally emitted at a second angle that is specularly reflected relative to the first radiation angle to the normal to the pipe wall.
6. The method according to one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that for the emission of signals carry out repeated, sequential control of various subregions, or virtual sensor sensors of group emitters, each of which consists, in particular, of the same number of converting elements, so that the radiation subband of the group emitters is virtually shifted in time along the group emitter until the activation of at least one of all the conversion elements of each individual group of the radiator.
7. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that the pipe wall zones are irradiated from at least two directions.
8. The method according to one of claims 1 to 7, characterized in that the total radiation of all subbands of all group emitters provides full coverage of the signal propagation zone in the pipe wall.
9. The method according to claim 8, characterized in that the full coverage of the signal propagation zone in the pipe wall in a circular direction is achieved due to the constant geometric arrangement of the group emitters.
10. The method according to claim 8, characterized in that in order to achieve full coverage of the signal propagation zone in the pipe wall in the direction along the circumference of the pipeline group emitters can rotate.
11. A device for monitoring pipelines, in particular by using the method according to claims 1-10 of the claims, in particular as an element of the apparatus, moved along the pipeline for the passage of the pipeline, including at least a sensor sensor carrier arranged practically in a circle around the sensor sensor carrier by converting elements, characterized in that it comprises at least one converting elements located in a row adjacent to each other in a circular direction of the pipeline (28) g a group emitter (16, 16 ') that controls the subdomains consisting of many separate converting elements (28) as virtual sensor sensors for emitting ultrasonic signals at a unidirectional angle, and also controls the same and / or other subregions of the group emitter (16, 16') for receiving acoustic signals reflected from the walls of the pipe.
12. The device according to claim 11, characterized in that the group emitters (16, 16 ') include an individual spring-loaded sensory suspension (15) for connecting to the inner wall (33) of the pipeline.
13. The device according to p. 12, characterized in that the individual converting elements (28) of the group emitter (16, 16 ') are arranged in the form of a sequential linear row or a linear antenna array.
14. The device according to one of paragraphs.11-13, characterized in that the group emitters (16, 16 ') in the direction of their strike in the direction along the circumference have a finite curvature corresponding to the curvature of the pipe wall (32).
15. The device according to one of paragraphs.11-14, characterized in that the plurality of group emitters (16, 16 ') are located in the direction along the circumference (U) blockwise at intervals relative to each other and occupy a joint axial position.
16. The device according to p. 15, characterized in that the converting elements (28) of one block of group emitters (16, 16 ') are concentric with respect to the inner circumference of the pipe wall (32).
17. The device according to clause 16, wherein the group emitters (16, 16 ') are made to rotate in a circular direction (U) along a concentric circle relative to the inner circumference of the pipe wall (32).
18. The device according to p. 15 or 16, characterized in that there are many displaced relative to each other in the axial direction and in the direction along the circumference (U) of the group emitters (16, 16 '), partially overlapping in the direction along the circumference (U) .
19. The device according to one of claims 11-18, characterized in that due to the appropriate control with a time offset between a subset of the individual converting elements (28) of the virtual sensor sensor 26 of the group emitter (16, 16 '), the propagation direction and / or depth of focus of the measuring pulse in the direction along the circle (U) or in the radial direction.
20. The device according to one of paragraphs.11-19, characterized in that the sensor carrier is at least coaxial with respect to the group emitters (16, 16 ') and serves for their fastening by a central intermediate element in the form of a round cylinder (13) .
21. The device according to one of paragraphs.11-20, characterized in that it comprises a circular circular guide disk (11) located concentrically relative to the longitudinal axis (L), at least in its edge zone (12), with a maximum diameter which corresponds to the inner diameter of the pipeline (6) or slightly exceeds it.
22. The device according to item 21, wherein the guide disc (11) is made of plastic, in particular polyurethane.
23. The device according to one of paragraphs.11-22, characterized in that the suspension (15) of individual group emitters (16, 16 ') has at least two articulated arms (22, 22') located between each other in a swivel and respectively forming their free end with a swivel connection with the fastening element (24) of the slide (17) of the sensor sensor, on which the group emitter (16, 16 ') is mounted, or with the intermediate element (13) of the sensor sensor carrier.
24. The device according to item 23, wherein the hinge joints are made in the form of flat hinges (23).
25. The device according to item 23 or 24, characterized in that the pivot arm (22 ') connected pivotally to the intermediate element (13) is made as a telescopic spring element.
26. The device according to one of paragraphs.23-25, characterized in that between the slider (17) of the sensor and the elements (22, 22 ', 23) of the sensor suspension (15) is another telescopic spring element (25).
27. The device according to one of paragraphs.23-26, characterized in that the slide (17) of the sensor element is made in such a way that the curvature of their surface facing the pipe wall (32), in the direction along the circumference (U), essentially corresponds to the curvature of the group emitter (16, 16 ').
28. The device according to item 27, wherein the group emitters (16, 16 ') are included in the groove (21) extending in the direction along the circumference (U) in the surface (18) of the slide (17) of the sensor sensor, and the depth of the groove ( 21) essentially corresponds to the size of the group emitters (16, 16 ') in the radial direction.
29. The device according to p. 28, characterized in that the slider (17) of the sensor sensors have an excess size relative to the axial size of the group emitters (16, 16 ').
30. The device according to clause 29, wherein the spacers (19) are located in the zone of axial excess size on the rails (17) of the sensor sensors.
31. The device according to p. 30, characterized in that on the upper side (20) of the pipe (32) facing the pipe wall (20), the spacers (19) have a wear-resistant coating.
RU2003121265/28A 2003-07-09 2003-07-09 Method and device for testing pipelines RU2312334C2 (en)

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
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WO2013185064A1 (en) * 2012-06-07 2013-12-12 California Institute Of Technology Communication in pipes using acoustic modems that provide minimal obstruction to fluid flow
RU2514153C2 (en) * 2009-03-05 2014-04-27 Альстом Текнолоджи Лтд Low-profile ultrasonic control scanner
RU2573712C2 (en) * 2010-10-07 2016-01-27 Недерландсе Органисати Вор Тугепаст-Натююрветенсаппелейк Ондерзук Тно System and method to perform ultrasonic measurement of pipeline wall properties
RU2714868C1 (en) * 2019-06-04 2020-02-19 Публичное акционерное общество "Транснефть" (ПАО "Транснефть") Method of detecting pitting corrosion
RU2739144C1 (en) * 2020-06-22 2020-12-21 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "НТЦ "Нефтегаздиагностика" Acoustic-resonance method of non-destructive inspection of pipelines
RU2748702C2 (en) * 2016-12-19 2021-05-28 Сафран Device and method for non-destructive determination of material characteristics

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2514153C2 (en) * 2009-03-05 2014-04-27 Альстом Текнолоджи Лтд Low-profile ultrasonic control scanner
RU2573712C2 (en) * 2010-10-07 2016-01-27 Недерландсе Органисати Вор Тугепаст-Натююрветенсаппелейк Ондерзук Тно System and method to perform ultrasonic measurement of pipeline wall properties
WO2013185064A1 (en) * 2012-06-07 2013-12-12 California Institute Of Technology Communication in pipes using acoustic modems that provide minimal obstruction to fluid flow
US9418647B2 (en) 2012-06-07 2016-08-16 California Institute Of Technology Communication in pipes using acoustic modems that provide minimal obstruction to fluid flow
RU2748702C2 (en) * 2016-12-19 2021-05-28 Сафран Device and method for non-destructive determination of material characteristics
RU2714868C1 (en) * 2019-06-04 2020-02-19 Публичное акционерное общество "Транснефть" (ПАО "Транснефть") Method of detecting pitting corrosion
RU2739144C1 (en) * 2020-06-22 2020-12-21 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "НТЦ "Нефтегаздиагностика" Acoustic-resonance method of non-destructive inspection of pipelines

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