RU2287686C1 - Method for extracting a bed of shale - Google Patents

Method for extracting a bed of shale Download PDF

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Publication number
RU2287686C1
RU2287686C1 RU2005123777/03A RU2005123777A RU2287686C1 RU 2287686 C1 RU2287686 C1 RU 2287686C1 RU 2005123777/03 A RU2005123777/03 A RU 2005123777/03A RU 2005123777 A RU2005123777 A RU 2005123777A RU 2287686 C1 RU2287686 C1 RU 2287686C1
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Russia
Prior art keywords
chamber
rock
shale
blocks
pillars
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RU2005123777/03A
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Russian (ru)
Inventor
Владимир Николаевич Гусев (RU)
Владимир Николаевич Гусев
Степан Александрович Резанко (EE)
Степан Александрович Резанко
Геннадий Петрович Грудинов (RU)
Геннадий Петрович Грудинов
Павел Кириллович Тулин (RU)
Павел Кириллович Тулин
Евгений Михайлович Волохов (RU)
Евгений Михайлович Волохов
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Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Санкт-Петербургский государственный горный институт им. Г.В. Плеханова (технический университет)"
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Priority to RU2005123777/03A priority Critical patent/RU2287686C1/en
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Abstract

FIELD: mining industry, possible use for underground extraction of mineral resources, for example, shale from Baltic shale basin.
SUBSTANCE: method includes driving ventilation, intake and lateral galleries for contouring panels, extraction of which is performed by driving long chambers while leaving inter-chamber ribbon blocks. Contouring and chamber mines are extracted selectively with extraction of shale by cuts and cutting of rock blocks of given dimensions and shape. after driving of first chamber simultaneously with extraction of second chamber inter-chamber ribbon block is formed from rock layer left in it during selective extraction of shale with addition of cut rock blocks from first chamber, then column-shaped blocks are stacked in first chamber using cut rock blocks of this chamber and contouring mines. Then process of extraction of next chambers in contoured panel, generation of inter-chamber of column-shaped blocks is repeated.
EFFECT: decreased shale losses during absence of movements and deformations of undermined rock massif, earth surface.
3 dwg

Description

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in the extraction of shale of the Baltic shale-bearing basin, as well as gently sloping coal seams having interlayers of rocks.
A known method of excavating shale in the "lava chambers", which consists in the use of paired lavas, united by one prefabricated conveyor drift. The length of the lava is 100 m. The width of the chamber is determined by the limiting span of the main roof and is usually 30-36 m. Maintaining the rocks of the main roof is done by leaving tape pillars between the lava chambers (and between the excavation sections) of 7-11 m in size. mines: Collection of tasks / A.V. Vasiliev, R.A. Azimov. Syktyvkar, 2003, p. 53-57).
The disadvantages of this method include large losses during the development of oil shale - up to 20-30%, time-limited bearing capacity of pillars, the destruction of which leads to the activation of the processes of displacement of rocks. The consequence of these processes is the formation in the array above the worked-out space of technogenic structural disturbances. As a result, the water mobility of shale mines and the cost of pumping mine water increase. The pumped mine water is unsuitable as drinking and household water, it needs to be treated before being discharged into water bodies or rivers. The subsidence of the earth's surface, changing the terrain, lead to bogging of the area. The disadvantage is the issuance on the mine surface in addition to the slate of the entire formation rock, the need for transportation, lifting and placing it on the mine surface. T.O. irreparable damage is caused due to violation of the groundwater regime, and there is a need for costs for the restoration of the mine surface for the elimination of waste dumps.
Known chamber-pillar development system. With this development method, cameras (with a width of 4-12 m) are first held in direct motion. Interchamber columns (6-15 m wide) are worked out in reverse, their excavation can be carried out completely (by a straight face) or by sunset. (A brief guide to the mining engineer. Coll. Authors. Ed.2, revised and supplemented, edited by A.A. Boyko. M .: Nedra, 1971, p. 76-77).
The disadvantages include the fact that the roof is completely collapsed, which, like in the case of the “lava-chamber” development system, leads to the activation of the processes of displacement and deformation of rocks, while these processes are more intense than when applied the mentioned system of "camera-lavas." Accordingly, the technogenic impact on the regime of groundwater, on the earth’s surface is even stronger than in the above-described method for extracting oil shale by “lava chambers”.
The disadvantage, as in the previous method, is the issuance on the mine surface, in addition to slate, of the entire rock included in the shale formation. And this necessitates its transportation, lifting and placing it on the mine surface. In turn, in the future, the problem of reclamation of waste dumps will arise.
A known method of mining mineral panels with the placement of the broken rock layer in the worked out space. In this method, the panel is divided into two parts, one of which is worked out by a long face with a complete collapse of the roof, and the second by a lava chamber with the rear pillars. In the lava chamber, mineral extraction and placement of the broken rock is carried out by erecting pillars from the cut rock layer into blocks. The space between the pillars in the lava chamber is laid by the destroyed rock layer from that part of the panel, which is developed by the long face (AS USSR No. 909178, IPC: E 21 C 41/04; E 21 C 41/08, 1982).
The disadvantages include the fact that the roof control in that part of the panel, which is worked out by a long face, is completely collapsed, and as a result, anthropogenic disturbance of the natural state of the rock mass and the earth's surface by the processes of displacement and deformation of the rocks. And this leads to irreversible processes of the formation of technogenic cracks in the rock mass, a change in the regime of groundwater, their pollution by mine waters, and a change in the relief of the earth's surface, which leads to its swamping.
A known method of excavating oil shale by a chamber development system with column pillars. Cleaning work begins with drilling and notching the face of the transverse (split) chamber. From the transverse chamber spend longitudinal chambers between which the pillars are left. After moving the longitudinal chambers to a distance exceeding the size of the inter-chamber pillars, form a new transverse chamber (Development of shallow seams in mines: Collection of tasks / A.V. Vasiliev, R.A. Azimov. Syktyvkar, 2003, pp. 53-57).
The disadvantages of this system are large losses of oil shale, reaching 40%, and spontaneous collapse of pillar pillars, since their strength characteristics are reduced due to loosening of the outer layer of pillars from all sides by blasting (approximately to a depth of 0.3 m). Additionally, the process of reducing the strength characteristics of pillars occurs due to the processes of wettability of oil shale in pillars from interaction with mine water. As a result, problems arise related to the violation of the groundwater regime, the swamping of underworked areas. The disadvantages include the fact that in the process of production, the rock must be transported to the earth's surface and stored there in dumps, which leads to the need to solve the problem of their reclamation.
A known method of a chamber system for the development of slate with pillar pillars, adopted as a prototype. The essence of this system is to conduct from the main or panel drifts of long workings (chambers) of a width of 8 m and a length of 100 m to the border of the mine field or panel (floor). In order to maintain the roof between the chambers, non-removable interchamber tape pillars of 3-5 m wide are left (Mining Engineer Quick Reference. Coll. Authors. 2nd ed., Revised and additional, edited by A.A. Boyko. M .: Nedra , 1971, p.76).
Since this system is a variant of the chamber development system with column pillars considered above, all the drawbacks of this system are also present in the chamber system for the development of slate with tape pillars. That is, large losses (up to 40%), spontaneous destruction of tape pillars for the same reasons as the destruction of column pillars, the need to issue rocks to the surface with the organization of dumps.
The technical result of the invention is to reduce losses during the extraction of oil shale and virtually no displacements and deformations of the undermined strata and the earth's surface, causing an increase in water inflows into the mine.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that in the method of extracting a shale formation, which consists in carrying out ventilation, recoil and side drifts for contouring panels, the mining of which is carried out by conducting long chambers with the inter-chamber tape pillars being left, according to the invention, contouring and chamber workings are worked out selectively with shale excavation and by cutting rock blocks of a given size and shape, after driving the first camera simultaneously with the second chamber mining, an interchamber tape is formed the whole pillar from the rock layers left in it during the selective extraction of oil shale with the addition of chopped rock blocks from the first chamber, then columnar pillars in the first chamber are laid out from the chopped rock blocks of this chamber and contouring workings, after which the process of working out the next chambers in the contoured panel, the formation of interchamber and columnar pillars are repeated.
These distinctive features of the proposed method are new actions and their sequence. Since these signs allow you to get a new positive effect, which consists in a significant reduction in shale losses, the absence of displacements and deformations of the undermined rock mass, the earth's surface and the need for transportation, delivery of the rock to the surface and dumping it into dumps, these signs, and therefore the proposed the method as a whole can be recognized as satisfying the criterion of "significant differences".
The method is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows in plan a proposed system for the development of oil shale; figure 2 is an enlarged fragment of a tape pillar with unbroken slate; figure 3 is an enlarged fragment formed from blocks of rock tape and column pillars.
The proposed development system includes the penetration of ventilation 1, haul-off 2 and two side drifts 3 for contouring the panel. The outlines of the excavation panel pass by selectively extracting the shale layers 4 by inserts, leaving rock layers 5 after each insertion, which are cut and broken into blocks of a given size and shape (a rectangular parallelepiped) either by an autonomous device or by a device specially mounted on the combine. Structurally, the shale layer of the Baltic field is divided by 2 layers of rock 5, represented by limestone, into three layers of shale 4, of industrial value. The bedding is almost horizontal. The internal structural structure of limestone allows the formation of blocks from it without disrupting the continuity of a given size and shape. For this purpose, a gap is cut in the upper planes of the interlayers of rock 5 along the bottom line at the distance of the set from the rock face, and then gaps are cut at the ends of the exposed rock layers perpendicular to the bottom line at regular intervals, for example, after 1.00 m , and a depth equal to the size of the sunset. Next, they make division into blocks through breaking off along cutting lines.
After the contouring of the panel, its development begins, cameras 6 are held by a roadheader 7 according to the same technology as ventilation 1, haulage 2 and side 3 drifts, i.e. selective extraction of oil shale 4 with cutting and breaking off of a given size and shape of rock blocks. When driving cameras 6, inter-chamber tape pillars 8 are left, equal to the double capture width of the shearer.
Interchamber tape pillars 8 work out with a shearer 9 in parallel with the passage of the chambers. Conducting treatment works is carried out according to the following flow chart. First, in the first chamber, the shearer 9 selectively removes the layers of shale 4 by the size of the input of the working body of the shearer, leaving the rock layers 5. The developed interbreed, over- and subbreed space is laid with rock blocks and thus an artificial tape pillar 10 is formed half its width (Fig. .one). Then the shearer 9 is rearranged to the opposite wall of the chamber and a selective extraction of slate 4 is carried out by the size of the input of the working body of the combine, that is, half the width of the tape pillar 8, leaving the rock layers 5 and laying the interbreed, above and subbreed rock blocks at that the same pattern as for mining along the first wall of the chamber. In parallel with this recess, along the first wall of the chamber, which has already been worked out and laid by rock blocks of a given size, form columnar pillars 11 with a height equal to the removed thickness of the formation. Figure 3 shows that the base of the columnar pillar is formed from cut rock blocks of a more powerful rock layer in the process of sinking contouring workings and chambers, and the rest is formed from cut rock blocks of a less powerful rock layer in the process of sinking the same workings. When forming columnar pillars 11, their long side is oriented parallel to the wall of the tape pillar 10 at a distance of about 1 m from it. The distance between adjacent columnar pillars 11 is selected from the condition of a stable state of the roof.
After the shearer 9 along the opposite wall reaches the end of the chamber, it is rearranged into the adjacent second chamber and all actions for selective excavation, leaving rock layers and laying out the worked out space with rock blocks are repeated in the second half of the tape pillar. The result is an artificial pillar 10, consisting of unbroken solid slabs of rock layers 5 and rock blocks of a given size and shape (figure 3). A feature of this pillar 10 is that it is reinforced with solid slabs of left unbroken rock 5 (Fig. 3). Columnar pillars 11 are laid out in the free space near the opposite wall of the previous chamber 11. At the same time, columnar pillars 11, while maintaining the orientation along the long side and the distance from the wall of the tape pillar of about 1 m, are placed between the formed columnar pillars 11 at the first wall of this chamber. As a result, the pillar pillars 11 in the chamber are staggered, improving the efficiency of maintaining the main roof (see figure 1). Further, the processes of working out the chambers 6 in the contoured panel, the formation of interchamber pillars 10, column pillars 11 are repeated according to the above mining schemes.
Approximately operational losses in the course of treatment works are 3-4%. Management of the roof - tape pillars, composed of rock blocks of a given size and left unbroken rock layers, and column pillars, composed of the same rock blocks. Abandoned such artificial tape and column pillars have sufficient long-term strength, because they are formed from rock, which, as a rule, in comparison with minerals has higher mechanical characteristics for destruction. So, for the considered conditions of the Baltic shale-bearing basin, the compressive strength of the rock is 30-31 MPa, and the strength of the shale layers is 9 MPa. In addition, pillars formed from rock blocks practically do not interact with mine water, maintaining their strength characteristics unchanged, while pillars formed from slate undergo wetting processes from the effects of mine water. As a result, the strength characteristics of oil shale are significantly reduced, which are also low in an unmoistened state. And last, pillars are formed from rock blocks of the correct form (in this case, a rectangular parallelepiped), which also increases their stability.
The advantage of the proposed method is a significant reduction in shale losses with virtually no displacement of rocks over the worked out space due to the maintenance of the main roof by formed tape pillars from rock blocks of predetermined sizes and unbroken whole slabs from the rock included in the structure of the slate formation structure and column pillars formed from the same rock blocks of a given size. At the same time, due to the use of the rock for the formation of such artificial pillars, there is no need to give it to the surface and dump it into dumps.
The proposed method is intended to be used in the development of a slate layer in the Baltic shale-bearing basin for more rational use of the subsoil, as well as in the development of horizontal and hollow inclined (up to 5 °) coal seams having rock layers.

Claims (1)

  1. A method of excavating a slate layer, which consists in carrying out ventilation, recoil and side drifts for contouring panels, which are mined by conducting long chambers with interchamber tape pillars remaining, characterized in that contouring and chamber workings are worked out selectively with shale excavation by inserts and cutting rock blocks of a given size and forms, after driving the first chamber simultaneously with the development of the second chamber, an interchamber tape pillar is formed from the rock layers left in it during the selective extraction of oil shale with the addition of chopped rock blocks from the first chamber, then columnar pillars in the first chamber are laid out from the chopped rock blocks of this chamber and contouring workings, after which the process of working out the next chambers in the contoured panel, the formation of interchamber and columnar pillars is repeated.
RU2005123777/03A 2005-07-26 2005-07-26 Method for extracting a bed of shale RU2287686C1 (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2744499C1 (en) * 2018-09-04 2021-03-10 Чайна Юниверсити Оф Майнинг Энд Текнолоджи Method for extraction of coal pulses in chamber development with internal filling

Non-Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
БУРЧАКОВ А.С. и др. Технология подземной разработки пластовых месторождений полезных ископаемых. - М.: Недра, 1983, с.315-316. *
Краткий справочник горного инженера, под ред. БОЙКО А.А., Москва, Недра, 1971, с.75-79. *

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2744499C1 (en) * 2018-09-04 2021-03-10 Чайна Юниверсити Оф Майнинг Энд Текнолоджи Method for extraction of coal pulses in chamber development with internal filling

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Effective date: 20070727