RU2287187C1  Method for determining standard coordinate model of railroad track and device for realization of said method  Google Patents
Method for determining standard coordinate model of railroad track and device for realization of said method Download PDFInfo
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 RU2287187C1 RU2287187C1 RU2005109793/28A RU2005109793A RU2287187C1 RU 2287187 C1 RU2287187 C1 RU 2287187C1 RU 2005109793/28 A RU2005109793/28 A RU 2005109793/28A RU 2005109793 A RU2005109793 A RU 2005109793A RU 2287187 C1 RU2287187 C1 RU 2287187C1
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 track
 coordinates
 satellite
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 railroad
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Abstract
FIELD: metrological equipment for navigational systems of railroad transport.
SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method, working sides of railroad track are coordinated with given stationing interval by means of measuringcomputing complex mounted on moving object. Measuringcomputing complex includes rover, gyroscopic indicator of Euler angles, indicators of track and width of track, controller, personal computer. To provide unity of measurements on railroad main, single threedimensional orthogonal system of coordinates is used in special projection. Abscissa axis on the surface of Earth ellipsoid is combined with geodesic line, coinciding with main direction of railroad main. As ordinates, geometrical perpendiculars to abscissa axis are used. Coordinates system base consists of system of temporary base stations of satellite radionavigation system. Satellite radionavigation system stations are positioned along the railroad with 50100km intervals for the time of movement of measuringcomputing complex. Continuous synchronous recording of indications of all devices and satellite receivers of base stations is performed. Coordinate models of railroad track having no substantial distortions of angles and distances are taken as standard. For compensating systematic errors, indications of Euler angle indicator on measuringcomputer complex are smoothed by sliding average filter on sliding interval, equal to length of wheel circle of moving object. Corrections for inclination of antenna are introduced to satellite coordinates of receipt of rover of measuringcomputing complex. Indications of course track indicator are calibrated by means of centeraffine transformations, converting to series of directional angles and scaled horizontal projections. Joint estimation of complex measurements and parameters of statistic model is performed by means of recurrent generalized method of least squares.
EFFECT: increased precision when determining standard coordinate model.
2 cl, 3 dwg
Description
The invention relates to metrological support for navigation systems of railway transport and the maintenance of the geometry of railway tracks.
Currently, navigation of all modes of transport is based on satellite radio navigation systems (SRNS) of the GLONASS type (Russia), GPS (USA) and others. Zheleznodorozhny has an advantage over other modes of transport, consisting in the fact that its moving path is fixed on the ground with high accuracy, which, in turn, allows you to determine the reference coordinate model of the track (EKMP) of the railway. This feature has not yet been used. The present invention is actually directed to the realization of such a possibility.
By ECMP we mean metrized reference functions (models) presented in the form of uniform (e.g., meter) point scales that conditionally fix the position of the working faces of the left and right rails in a threedimensional orthogonal coordinate system with the accuracy necessary for the diagnosis of path geometric parameters. Such a definition makes it possible to attribute the EQFM to group working standards that allow one to determine the basic geometric parameters of the path (coordinates, lengths of sections, longitudinal and transverse slopes, elevations of rails, bending arrows, subsidence, straightening, etc.), perform calibration and selfcalibration of angular and linear sensors navigation systems and their selftuning according to the reference model.
In the known method for determining the spatial parameters of the rail track and the device for its implementation / 1 /, the coordinates of the left and right rails are determined by measuring the Euler angles with a gyroscopic crosspointer and distances by track and gauge sensors mounted on the track trolley.
This way of coordinating the path is the closest in technical essence. He is taken as a prototype.
The prototype does not provide an accurate definition of a continuous reference coordinate model throughout the railway, i.e. does not satisfy the basic principle of metrology  ensuring the uniformity of measurements.
The technical result of the proposed facility is to create EKMP throughout the railway to ensure selfcalibration and selfadjustment of navigation systems of locomotives, diagnostic and alignment systems.
The essence of the claimed invention lies in the fact that to ensure the uniformity of measurements along the entire line, a unified orthogonal coordinate system in the projection of V.A. is established that does not give practically significant distortions of angles and distances. Kougia. The central line of projection and the abscissa axis on the surface of the earth's ellipsoid take a geodesic line that coincides with the main direction of the highway. The ordinates on the ellipsoid take the geodetic normals to the abscissa axis.
The position of any point M of the railway track on the ellipsoid (Fig. 1a) and on the plane (Fig. 1b) is determined by the same x and y coordinates, measured in the first case — along geodesics, in the second — along straight lines. If the path deviates from the abscissa axis to 50 km, the distortions of the angles and distances are negligible, therefore, the coordinate models of the path in such a coordinate system, determined with sufficient accuracy for diagnosing the geometry of the path, are standard. The third coordinate  height H  is determined in the generally accepted orthometric height system.
To improve the accuracy of the results, coordination is performed by jointly evaluating the parameters (coordinates of the model points) based on the results of integrated satellite, gyroscopic and rangefinding measurements. For this purpose, a system of temporary base stations of SRNS is created along the highway from twofrequency geodetic receivers installed 50100 km apart. The software is equipped with a measuring and computing complex (IVC), including a movable satellite receiver (rover), a Euler angle sensor, track and gauge sensors, a controller and a personal computer. When the software travels along the highway, the controller continuously records synchronously the readings of all the measuring devices of the IVK. At the same time, continuous recording of satellite information is conducted at temporary base stations that operate for the duration of the CPM throughout the main line.
To compensate for the influence of skews and eccentricity of the wheels, the readings of the Eulerian angle sensor are smoothed by a moving average filter on the sliding interval equal to the circumference of the wheel of the software. At the moments of receiving satellite measurements t _{i, the} values of the smoothed course angle a _{i} , the transverse q _{i} and the longitudinal ν _{i} inclination angles, the path sensor s _{i} and the satellite coordinates x _{i} , y _{i} obtained from the relative phase definitions are fixed. Corrections for longitudinal and transverse slopes are introduced into the coordinates. In accordance with figure 2, the formula for calculating the coordinates of the axis of the path are
where α _{i} is the directional angle of the software course at point i; δα = arctan (p / t); p = acos (ν) sin (k); t = acos (k) sin (ν); ; x _{a} ; y _{a} ; N _{a}  satellite coordinates of the center of the antenna; and  the length of the antenna.
Using the coordinates of the path axis, from the solution of inverse geodetic problems, successive directional angles α _{i} , horizontal distances are calculated and reference path picket
On straight sections of the path, they form a sequence of points j located at a considerable (about 0.5–2 km) distance from each other. For these points, the average weight values of the directional angles of the straight sections are calculated and then form twodimensional arrays of satellite M and m polar coordinates recorded from the sensors
calculate the average coordinates , , , Subtracting which of the corresponding elements of the arrays M and m, we obtain arrays of central coordinates and then calculate the matrix of centrifugal transformations A by the formula:
After that, the readings of the sensors s _{i} and a _{i} at all points i belonging to the interval of the path from point j1 to point j are recalculated into the reference ones by the formula:
With this conversion, scaling and calibration of the sensor readings occurs and calibration of heading readings In all the above formulas, the angular values are expressed in radian measure.
The readings of the longitudinal and transverse tilt angles are calibrated according to the readings of digital electronic levels oriented along the longitudinal and transverse axes of the software.
After calibration, all types of complex measurements: Euler angles, distances and satellite coordinates are almost independent random sequences. With their help they form two parallel and coincident in distance information flow:
 the sequence of vectors of satellite coordinates x _{i is} accompanied by covariance matrices K (x) _{i} . This sequence forms an extended confidence region with a diameter of 2050 mm;
 the corresponding increment of coordinates dx _{i} obtained by numerical integration of the polar coordinates p: gyro readings (directional angles and longitudinal tilt angles t) and track sensor (s) as
The increments, due to the previously performed filtration procedures, are highly accurate  on the order of 1 mm per 10 m of track.
Neglecting the curvature of the trajectory on the interval i (i + 1), and differentiating dx _{i} , with respect to all variables, we obtain
By the covariance theorem of the vector function, for the covariance matrix of increments K (dx) _{i} , we have
The joint processing of these flows by the recurrent generalized leastsquares method according to the principle of accounting for the errors of the initial data allows us to maintain the accuracy of satellite measurements at long distances and the mutual high accuracy of waypoints at distances of up to 100 and more meters.
From indirect measurements of x _{i} and dx _{i} coming from the controller to the PC, the GaussMarkov statistical model is formed:
with matrices A and K (l) of a quasidiagonal structure. The sixthorder diagonal blocks are of the form
where I are the unit matrices of the third order, K (l), K (x) _{ii} and K (dx) _{ii} are the covariance matrices of the measurement vectors , and .
To increase the estimation efficiency, system (7) is multiplied to the left by K (l) ^{1/2}
and they directly solve the quasidiagonal system (9) using plane Givens rotations, which make it possible to evaluate each measurement by the generalized recursive least squares method, perform the rejection of rough measurements, and accumulate the quadratic form of the correction vector ν ^{T} К (l) ^{1} ν. As a result, system (9) is reduced to an upper triangular ribbon form
whose solution (assessment ) are found by the reverse substitution method, after which the root mean square error of the unit of weight is calculated
To solve the issue of accuracy estimation, the covariance matrix of parameters is calculated
or only its diagonal elements, allowing to calculate the root mean square errors of the parameters .
Studies have shown that with high accuracy in determining increments, the accuracy of estimating x increases proportionally , where m is the number of satellite definition points, and the estimation results coincide with the Kalman filtering estimates.
For extended arteries, the principle of autoregressive transformations of the moving average is applied, when Givens rotations are performed on a moving interval of k точекm points without any noticeable loss of accuracy.
A device for determining the reference coordinate model of the path, including the CPM (see figure 3), consisting of a satellite dualfrequency GLONASS / GPS receiver (rover)  1, a gyroscopic sensor of Euler angles  2, sensors of track and track gauge  3, controller for synchronous recording the readings of these measuring devices by the clock of the rover  4 and the personal computer  5 installed on any software (for example, the TsNII4 travel measuring complex), and the system of temporary base stations from satellite receivers of the same type as the rover installed in ol railway through the 50100 km from each other.
The determination of the coordinates of the model points is carried out by the proposed device by the method described in paragraph 1 of the present invention. Other differences from the prototype are the presence of dualfrequency satellite receivers installed on software and temporary base station systems; the controller’s procedures for filtering Euler angles by a moving average filter on a sliding interval equal to the circumference of the software wheel wheel and synchronizing the readings of all measuring devices of the IVK according to the clock of the satellite receiver of the rover.
The claimed inventions are so interconnected that they form a single inventive concept. Indeed, for the proposed method for determining the reference coordinate model railways Ways a device was invented for its implementation. Therefore, the claimed invention satisfy the requirement of unity of invention.
The obtained reference coordinate models of the path are a new class of continuous reference geodetic networks for special purposes and can be effectively used instead of reference systems for controlling the plan and profile of the track created on highways.
On the basis of ECMP, strategically safe autonomous selfcalibrating and selfadjusting navigation systems of railway transport using reference coordinate models without the use of satellite technologies (dualuse technologies) can be created.
Information sources
1. Scherbakov V.V., Kruglov V.M. et al. Patent for an invention: A method for determining the spatial parameters of a rail track and a device for its implementation. Application No. 2003111110/11 (011816) dated 04/17/2003 (prototype).
2. Matveev S.I., Kougia V.A., Tsvetkov V.Ya. Geoinformation systems and technologies in railway transport.  M .: UMK MPS of Russia, 2002.  P.288.
Claims (2)
1. The method of determining the reference coordinate model of the railway track, which consists in coordinating the working faces of the rail track over a given picket interval using a measuring and computing complex (IVK) installed on a moving object (PO), characterized in that they take a single threedimensional orthogonal coordinate system in the projection of V.A. Kougius, whose abscissa axis on the surface of the earth's ellipsoid is combined with a geodesic line coinciding with the direction of the main route, and the ordinates take the geodetic normals to the abscissa axis, the basis of which is the system of temporary base stations of the SRNS located along the highway after 50100 km for the duration of the CPM travel with continuous synchronous recording of the readings of all devices and satellite receivers of base stations, coordinate models of the path that do not have significant distortions of angles and distances in such a system are taken as reference, to compensate for systematic errors, the readings of the sensor of Euler angles of the IVC smooth the filter ohms of the moving average on the slip interval equal to the circumference of the software wheel’s wheel, corrections for the antenna tilt are introduced into the satellite coordinates of the receiver of the IVC rover, and the heading angle and track sensor are calibrated by centrifugal transformations, translating them into a sequence of directional angles and scaled horizontal alignments necessary for numbering using a personal computer a random sequence of increments of coordinates, then perform a joint assessment of complex measurements ( computable satellite coordinates and increments the origin) and the parameters (coordinates) of the statistical model generalized recursive least squares method, and then the reference coordinate path model is used as a basis for selfcalibration of metrology and bootstrapping railroad navigation systems transport, as well as for automated diagnostics and alignment of the geometry of the railway track.
2. The device for implementing the method according to claim 1, characterized in that an IVC installed on any software is included, including a dualfrequency satellite receiver of the SRNS (rover), a gyroscopic sensor of Euler angles, track sensors and track gauges, a controller for synchronous recording of all measurements of the clock time of the receiver  rover, smoothing the reading of the heading angle and the longitudinal angle of inclination of the moving average filter on the sliding interval equal to the circumference of the software wheel, a personal computer for selfcalibration of the sensor readings in angles and distances, as well as the system of temporary base stations of the SRNS from twofrequency geodetic receivers, installed 50100 km apart from each other during the passage of the CPM along the entire highway.
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RU2569487C1 (en) *  20140919  20151127  Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Московский государственный университет путей сообщения" МГУПС (МИИТ)  Method of adaptive generation of unified global system of 3d coordinates directly on ellipsoid 
RU2580436C2 (en) *  20140829  20160410  Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Московский государственный университет путей сообщения" МГУПС (МИИТ)  Method of adaptive formation of single system of trajectories of russian railway motion according to global coordinates in new 3d rectangular system of coordinates directly on ellipsoid 
CN111597509A (en) *  20200519  20200828  中铁二院工程集团有限责任公司  Railway center line measuring and setting method based on reference ellipsoid 

2005
 20050406 RU RU2005109793/28A patent/RU2287187C1/en not_active IP Right Cessation
Cited By (4)
Publication number  Priority date  Publication date  Assignee  Title 

RU2580436C2 (en) *  20140829  20160410  Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Московский государственный университет путей сообщения" МГУПС (МИИТ)  Method of adaptive formation of single system of trajectories of russian railway motion according to global coordinates in new 3d rectangular system of coordinates directly on ellipsoid 
RU2569487C1 (en) *  20140919  20151127  Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Московский государственный университет путей сообщения" МГУПС (МИИТ)  Method of adaptive generation of unified global system of 3d coordinates directly on ellipsoid 
CN111597509A (en) *  20200519  20200828  中铁二院工程集团有限责任公司  Railway center line measuring and setting method based on reference ellipsoid 
CN111597509B (en) *  20200519  20210202  中铁二院工程集团有限责任公司  Railway center line measuring and setting method based on reference ellipsoid 
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