RU2286953C2 - Drinking water - Google Patents

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RU2286953C2
RU2286953C2 RU2004138606/15A RU2004138606A RU2286953C2 RU 2286953 C2 RU2286953 C2 RU 2286953C2 RU 2004138606/15 A RU2004138606/15 A RU 2004138606/15A RU 2004138606 A RU2004138606 A RU 2004138606A RU 2286953 C2 RU2286953 C2 RU 2286953C2
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water
calcium
drinking water
carbonate
polymer
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RU2004138606/15A
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RU2004138606A (en
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Александр Михайлович Фридкин (RU)
Александр Михайлович Фридкин
Николай Романович Гребенщиков (RU)
Николай Романович Гребенщиков
Валерий Мансурович Сафин (RU)
Валерий Мансурович Сафин
Станислав Михайлович Кочергин (RU)
Станислав Михайлович Кочергин
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Общество С Ограниченной Ответственностью "Акватория" (Ооо "Акватория")
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Abstract

FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of drinking water that can be used to prevent urolithiasis arising when consuming hard water saturated with magnesium salts and also osteoporosis developing at severe deficiency of calcium in body. Drinking water containing calcium in carbonate form is produced via passage of natural water having carbonate hardness at least 3 mg-equ/L through globular-structure polymer having permeability up to 8 L/min and structural matrix depicted by following formula:
Figure 00000003
. Thus obtained drinking water contains calcium carbonate in soluble form easily assimilated by human body and manifesting after boiling as aragonite, whose content constitutes 60-80% of the weight of calcium carbonate.
EFFECT: improved consumer's properties of water.
2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl

Description

The invention relates to the food industry, namely to biologically active additives (BAA) of general strengthening effect, and can be used for the prevention of urolithiasis that occurs when drinking hard water saturated with calcium carbonate, as well as osteoporosis, developing against the background of acute calcium deficiency in the body . Urolithiasis or urolithiasis is a very common disease, taking the second place after the occurrence of inflammatory non-specific diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract. The formation of stones can be a consequence of previous infections of the genitourinary system, malnutrition, delayed urine outflow, and congenital genetic disorders in the kidneys. Quite often, in the presence of these factors, a high content of mineral salts, primarily calcium salts in drinking water, contributes to the development of urolithiasis, accompanied by the formation of kidney stones.
Surgical intervention, as well as stone removal using lithotripsy and endoscopy, is invasive and expensive, requiring very clear indications. The use of dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of urolithiasis in many cases is effective and not so expensive.
The prior art knows a significant number of dietary supplements intended for the healing of the kidneys and urinary tract, used for pyelonephritis, cystitis, urethritis, urolithiasis.
So Herbamarin B is a diuretic containing mint, birch and lingonberry leaves, cleans the kidneys and prevents the development of stones (BAA Market No. 2 (2) 2001). Supplements, protected by RU 2165161, 7 A 23 L 1/30, has a beneficial effect on renal function, preventing, in particular, the formation of stones. Known dietary supplement contains flavonoids, carotenoids, polyunsaturated fatty acids. Herbal remedy "Nephrolith" (RU 2218179, 7 A 61 K 35/78) is specifically intended for the treatment and prevention of urolithiasis. The product contains the leaves of bearberry ordinary, rhizomes and roots of madder dye, grass of horsetail, bird grass, rose hips, peppermint leaves, leaves of kidney tea or birch hanging in a certain ratio of ingredients.
The agent used for urolithiasis in the presence of oxalate-calcium calculi is obtained by extracting the leaves of Eriobotrya japonica and subsequent purification (EP 0652761, 1995). It should be noted that all known dietary supplements intended to improve the functioning of the kidneys, as a rule, act comprehensively on the body - they increase resistance to infections and intensify metabolism. In those cases when stones have already formed in the kidneys, known additives affect the process of dissolution of stones, their removal from the body in a natural way, the elimination of inflammation.
Known devices for producing drinking water by purifying water from contaminants, including excess salts of iron, magnesium, calcium. Known devices are distinguished not only by a variety of designs, but also by a wide range of filter materials used.
Filter models FR04, FR05, FR04M from Foke, filters from Kontur-Aqua LLC, Nova-Terra LLC, Ekomarket LLC, Geyser-6 (Manufacturer of Aquatoria LLC) provide multi-stage filtration (see. Online store, sites www.foks.khar, www.aquafilter.ru, www.geiser.ru). All filters for water purification known to the applicant make it possible to obtain drinking water purified from various impurities, depending on which filter materials the filter contains. When using reverse osmosis, water is purified from virtually all impurities and, as a rule, is demineralized. As a result of this, additional mineralization of water is usually required. With artificial mineralization of the filtrate, the introduction of an excessive amount of calcite is not excluded.
The influence of calcium salts (hard water) on the formation of kidney stones has already been noted.
At the same time, calcium deficiency is also harmful to the body. With a lack of calcium, the likelihood of osteoporosis, caries, an increase in the content of mineral phosphates, which provoke stone formation during a neutral and slightly alkaline urine reaction, is high. In this regard, a large number of drugs and dietary supplements are created and produced that allow you to introduce a significant amount of calcium into the body, for example, food supplements in the form of capsules or tablets containing calcium formate. As sources of calcium, tablets contain lactate or calcium citrate and vitamin D-cholecalciferol, as well as green vegetables rich in calcium (US patent 6528542, A 61 K 31/19).
Moreover, most of the decisions in the area under discussion are aimed at ensuring the introduction of the greatest amount of calcium into the body. However, it is known that most of the calcium is excreted from the body, and the problem of calcium deficiency remains unresolved.
Obtaining calcium in a form that is absorbed to a large extent by the body is an expensive, difficult to implement biotechnology, and today this problem has not been solved by biologists and pharmacists.
The closest solution (prototype) of the claimed invention is drinking water, obtained in a device that allows you to make a variety of additives, both inorganic and organic, in a wide range of concentrations (patent RU 2212378, C 02 F 1/68 from 09/20/2003, owner which is LLC "Water Area", St. Petersburg). The device for producing drinking water according to patent RU 2212378 contains a housing and a container with a target additive placed therein. The container lid is perforated, and at least the upper part of the device body in contact with the perforated lid is made of a material of a spatially globular structure (ASG polymer). The additive in the form of a water-soluble tablet or powder is placed in a container so that there is free space for the formation of a saturated solution.
When the device is immersed in water, the liquid through the pores of the housing made of PGS polymer and the lid opening enters the container, fills it and dissolves the tablet. In the free space of the container, a saturated solution is formed containing the target additive, in particular calcium salts. The complex, with many distortions, the pore shape of the PGS polymer allows one to achieve the minimum rates of introduction of the additive into water and to obtain a predetermined concentration of elements necessary for health, in quantities easily absorbed by the body to the maximum extent. It should be noted that the known drinking water contains forced calcium in the form of calcite or another form, depending on the salt used to saturate the water. The calcium content can reach 60-100 mg / l (more than 100 mg / l is harmful to the body).
The task of the invention is to obtain drinking water with the properties of an effective calcium-containing dietary supplement.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that drinking water contains calcium carbonate in the form that manifests itself upon boiling in the form of aragonite, and is obtained by filtering natural water with a carbonate hardness of at least 3 mg eq / l through an ASG polymer with a permeability of up to 8 l per minute and the structure of the matrix corresponding to the formula:
Figure 00000004
In this case, calcium, which is present in the source water as carbonate, remains in the filtrate, but in a different, soluble form, easily absorbed by the human body. The features of this form are manifested during boiling of the filtrate - a significant part of the precipitate formed during boiling is aragonite - another polymorphic modification of calcium carbonate.
The structure and properties of the most famous PGS ion exchangers are known, for example, from the Encyclopedia of Polymers. M .: Publishing house Soviet Encyclopedia, 1972, p. 652-658. Various modifications of the method for producing ASG material, for example, in accordance with A. with. USSR 1378319 dated 05/23/1985, C 08 J 5/20, C 08 G 8/22, a.s. The USSR 1023788 from 10.24.1980, C 08 J 9/10 and others can significantly expand the range of sizes of its pores and thereby increase the permeability of the sorbent.
In such a system, almost all exchange groups are located on the surface of micropores; mass transfer is achieved not due to the diffusion of ions from the solution into the interior of the polymer body (as is the case in ordinary ion exchangers, including macroporous ones), but due to the forced leakage of solutions through the micropores of the polymer body. The exchange rate obeys the laws of film kinetics, and therefore the ion exchange on ASO-ion exchangers proceeds the more efficiently, the faster the solution is renewed in micropores, i.e. the exchange rate increases with increasing rate of transmission of the solution.
The authors of the claimed invention, when solving this problem, discovered previously unknown properties of an ASG polymer with a permeability of up to 8 liters per minute and a matrix structure corresponding to the formula:
Figure 00000004
allowing to obtain a filtrate with the properties of dietary supplements.
In the course of studies of the properties of the filtrate, carried out by the authors of the claimed invention together with specialists from Vienna State University, it was found that a significant part of the calcium carbonate of the source water in the filtration process through the specified ASG-polymer passes into the form, which gives boiling aragonite.
The mechanism of this phenomenon at this stage of work is explained as follows. Under the influence of the Coulomb forces of mutual attraction, dipoles of water molecules and ions of hardness salts form clusters - rather large metastable formations. ASG polymer is a special porous structure formed by many winding channels. Constant narrowing of the diameter of the channel when moving through the material compresses the clusters, and they are destroyed. Salts are released from the custody of water molecules and interact with the filter material. The special properties of the latter create the conditions for the conversion of dissolved carbonates to carbon dioxide. It is effectively sorbed by the pores of the channel walls. At the time of exit from the filter material, the pressure increases to a maximum and drops sharply to zero. Intensive formation of carbon dioxide occurs, and it quickly disappears from the water. The release of carbon dioxide increases the pH of the water, creating favorable conditions for the formation of calcium carbonates in the form that appears after boiling in the form of aragonite, and saturates the purified water with calcium ions, while the amount of hardness salts in the water does not decrease.
The formation of the aragonite structure of hardness salts is confirmed experimentally. Rhomboid crystals of aragonite (Figure 1), precipitating in the filtrate when it is evaporated, are clearly visible in the photographs of the precipitate and have clear differences from calcite crystals (Figure 2) obtained by evaporating water, artificially enriched with Ca (HCO 3 ) 2 salt and not subjected to filtration. An X-ray phase analysis of the sediment made it possible to identify areas of X-ray diffraction patterns corresponding to the structure of aragonite and to establish that the content of aragonite in the sediment varies in the range of 60-80% of the mass of the initial calcite, depending on the filtration conditions and the composition of the initial water. This is confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns of calcium carbonate samples isolated from the source water and the filtrate (see FIG. 3 and FIG. 4), where FIG. 3 is an X-ray diffraction pattern of Ca carbonate crystals in the precipitate obtained after boiling the source water, and FIG. 4 X-ray diffraction pattern of Ca carbonate crystals in a precipitate obtained after boiling water passing through an ASG filter.
Comparison of x-rays in figure 3 and figure 4 allows to identify diffraction maxima corresponding to crystalline calcium carbonate in the form of aragonite, which is in the sediment together with calcite. 4, these maxima are marked with a знаком. An approximate quantitative estimate of the percentage of crystalline forms of calcite / aragonite for one example gives 95/5 for the source water (Figure 3) and 60/40 (Figure 4) for the water that passed through the ASG filter.
The visual information obtained using an optical microscope made it possible to assume that aragonite is the determining structural form of calcium carbonate in these samples, because its needle crystals are clearly distinguishable in visible light from prismatic calcite crystals.
The parameters of the source water and the filtrate obtained by passing water for various periods of time through an ASG polymer with a permeability of up to 8 liters per minute and a matrix structure corresponding to the formula:
Figure 00000004
at a water pressure at the inlet of the filter equal to 0.3-0.5 atm, are presented in the Table.
The long-term effect of the filtrate on the state of the functional systems of the body was the subject of a study conducted at the Military Medical Academy, St. Petersburg, and the Ministry of Defense.
In experiments on white rats, drinking water with increased hardness, purified by the above-mentioned PGS-polymer, demonstrated the properties of a nutritional supplement - nutraceutical - a source of a balanced complex of ions necessary for the functioning of body systems. As a prototype used tap water from the city of Gatchina, purified by the specified PGS-polymer, and for comparison, untreated hard water from the city of Gatchina.
Figure 00000005
The study was conducted according to the standards provided for the study of nutraceuticals, according to MUK 2.3.2.721-98 "Determining the safety and effectiveness of biologically active food additives" and based on regulatory documents:
GOST 18963-73. Drinking water. Methods of sanitary and bacteriological analysis.
GOST 2874-82. Drinking water. Hygienic requirements and quality control.
GOST R 51232-98. Drinking water. General requirements for organization and quality control methods.
GOST R 51292-2000. Water. General sampling requirements.
Order of the Minister of Natural Resources dated June 15, 2001 No. 511 “On the Approval of Criteria for Classifying Hazardous Wastes as a Class of Environmental Danger”.
Drinking water and water supply in populated areas. Guidelines 2.1.4.783-99.
"Hygienic assessment of materials, reagents, equipment, technologies used in water supply systems." Approved by the Chief State Sanitary Doctor of the Russian Federation on October 23, 1999.
International standard. Water quality. Determination of inhibition of motility Daphnia magna Straus. Reg. ISO 6341-82.
When conducting the research, we proceeded from the assumption that tap water does not contain impurities that are harmful to health and does not adversely affect the body, since it is subjected to centralized processing and testing in accordance with sanitary standards.
The study was performed on outbred white male rats. To assess the subacute toxicity of water samples and their effect on the animal organism in the experimental group, drinking water was replaced by filtrate. In the comparison group (control group) for drinking, the animals were given untreated tap water.
Animals of both groups were kept under standard conditions, at the same ambient temperature (23-25 ° C) and relative humidity (40-50%). Observation was carried out for 28 days, after which the animals were taken out of the experiment by decapitation and blood and internal organs were taken for weighing, determining the dry residue and histological examination. The results of a comprehensive study of experimental animals have established that:
1. In both groups, the average daily water consumption indicator is practically the same.
2. The toxic effect of filtered water on the indicators of higher nervous activity of animals has not been identified.
3. Filtered water does not have a toxic effect on the blood system and blood formation.
4. In both groups, the values of biochemical blood parameters are within the normal range for a given animal species.
5. Unfiltered and filtered water used for drinking in both groups did not have a toxic effect on animal metabolism.
The effect of water samples on the processes of urine formation and urination was evaluated by standard methods. Animals were planted in special collecting cages for a day with a metered amount of water and food. The device of the cell allowed to collect daily urine in a refrigerated container. The amount of urine, its density, acidity, the presence of urobilinogen, bilirubin, ketones, glucose and protein were measured. Urine samples were centrifuged and sediment microscopy was performed by counting the number of cylinders and salt crystals. As a result of this stage of research, it was found:
1. In the group that received filtered water for drinking, the amount of urine was greater than in the group using unfiltered water, but there was no significant difference between the groups for this indicator.
2. Changes in the acidity and density of urine after the end of the experiment compared with the initial values were not detected. In both groups, a tendency to acidification of urine was observed, which persisted throughout the observation period.
3. During a histological examination, it was shown that the condition of most of the internal organs in animals of both the control and experimental groups corresponded to the physiological norm. The structure of the liver and bile ducts did not practically differ in different groups.
4. Changes were detected only in the kidneys. In the group that received unfiltered water (comparison group), a change in the structure of the renal convoluted tubules (narrowing of the lumens, a change in the structure of epithelial cells, thickening of the walls) and collecting tubes (the presence of protein, cellular detritus and erythrocytes in the lumen) was noted. In the experimental group, practically no changes in the structure of the collecting tubules were noted, narrowing of the lumen of the tubules was slightly expressed.
5. In rats of the control group, after the end of the experiment, ketones and altered red blood cells were detected in the urine, which indirectly could indicate a violation of the filtration function of the kidneys. In the experimental group, changes in these indicators were not noted.
6. Microscopy of urine sediment in animals treated with unfiltered hard water (comparison group) revealed a large number of tripelphosphates, which are large colorless prismatic crystals with obliquely descending planes. Along with them, crystals of phosphoric acid lime, capable of forming in slightly acidic urine, were also found. Such crystals lay isolated or were present in the form of needle-like inclusions in aggregates of triphenphosphates. In addition to phosphates, in the urine of this group of animals, the presence of calcium carbonate in amorphous or crystalline form, which is a large rounded form, was noted. In the presence of crystals of calcium carbonate, cysteine crystals were often detected. In animals of the experimental group, tripelphosphate crystals were noted in a significantly smaller amount. As a rule, they were located in isolation and combined with small crystals of oxalates. Calcium carbonate was found in animals of this group in an amorphous state and in most cases did not form crystals.
7. When studying the processes of urination and urination, it was shown that the concentration function of the kidneys, which is characterized by the parameters of density and amount of urine (with the same water consumption), does not change significantly during the entire observation period. In this case, there are differences in the biochemical parameters of urine in the experimental group and the comparison group after the end of the experiment. In animals that received unfiltered water for drinking, tubular readsorption disorders were noted, manifested by an increase in the amount of protein and the appearance of altered red blood cells in urine samples. In the study of mineral urine sediment, the prevalence of tripelphosphates and calcium carbonate in urine samples of rats treated with unfiltered water was established in comparison with experimental animals. Manifestations of increased phosphaturia may contribute to an increased risk of stone formation.
8. The use of unfiltered hard water for drinking animals for 28 days contributed to the development of tubulopathy and impaired reabsorption in the renal tubules. These abnormalities could determine the changes identified in the study of urine samples and urinary sediment. Pre-filtration of water helped to optimize kidney function and prevented changes in the renal tubules and collecting ducts.
According to the above research results, it can be concluded that hard tap water purified with a PGS polymer with a permeability of up to 8 liters of water per minute and a matrix structure corresponding to the formula:
Figure 00000004
It is harmless to use and fully complies with the requirements for drinking water. Long-term use of purified water helps to reduce the degree of phosphate and calcium, which reduces the risk of mineral deposits in the urinary tract.
Thus, it was experimentally proved that there is calcium carbonate in the form that appears after boiling in the form of aragonite in water subjected to purification by the indicated filtering material - PGS-polymer, and the feasibility of using such a filtrate for general healing and correction of metabolic disorders of the body, justified phosphate and calcium fortification.

Claims (2)

1. Drinking water containing calcium in a carbonate form and obtained by passing a spatially globular structure through a polymer, characterized in that it contains calcium carbonate in a form that appears after boiling in the form of aragonite, and is enriched by passing natural water with carbonate hardness of at least 3 mg · eq / l through a polymer of a spatially globular structure with a permeability of up to 8 l per minute and a matrix structure corresponding to the formula:
Figure 00000006
2. Drinking water according to claim 1, characterized in that the content of aragonite in the sediment is 60-80% by weight of calcium carbonate.
RU2004138606/15A 2004-12-29 2004-12-29 Drinking water RU2286953C2 (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102405193A (en) * 2009-04-21 2012-04-04 埃科莱布美国股份有限公司 Catalytic water treatment method and apparatus
RU2549291C1 (en) * 2014-01-24 2015-04-27 Константин Шарлиевич Убери Water for cats and dogs

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102405193A (en) * 2009-04-21 2012-04-04 埃科莱布美国股份有限公司 Catalytic water treatment method and apparatus
RU2549291C1 (en) * 2014-01-24 2015-04-27 Константин Шарлиевич Убери Water for cats and dogs

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