RU2281257C2 - Method of production of highly demineralized water - Google Patents

Method of production of highly demineralized water Download PDF

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RU2281257C2
RU2281257C2 RU2004126914/15A RU2004126914A RU2281257C2 RU 2281257 C2 RU2281257 C2 RU 2281257C2 RU 2004126914/15 A RU2004126914/15 A RU 2004126914/15A RU 2004126914 A RU2004126914 A RU 2004126914A RU 2281257 C2 RU2281257 C2 RU 2281257C2
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water
reverse osmosis
purification
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Николай Андреевич Янковский (UA)
Николай Андреевич Янковский
Валерий Андреевич Степанов (UA)
Валерий Андреевич Степанов
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Открытое акционерное общество "Концерн Стирол"
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Abstract

FIELD: treatment of water by reverse osmosis method; chemical power engineering and other industries; production of water for power-generating boilers and steam generation systems in ammonia processes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method is based on use of industrial waste water, biologically cleaned waste water, shaft drainage water, catch basin water, regeneration and other effluents at total content of salt of 4-6 g/l and total hardness of up to 30 mg-eqv./l; then, de-mineralization is performed by reverse osmosis separation of water; concentrate thus obtained is subjected to secondary de-mineralization at additional reverse osmosis stage. Separation at membranes is carried out at filtration spectrum of from 0.0001 to 0.001 mcm at pressure of 22.5 Mpa, thus obtaining permeant and concentrate; permeant is directed de-carbonization and final de-mineralization in combined-action filters to total salt content of 0.2 mg/l. Proposed method increases productivity by permeant and reduces effluents. Provision is made for closed water consuming system. Quality of water satisfies requirements to feed water used in high- and medium-pressure steam generation systems in ammonia production process.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
2 dwg, 5 tbl, 2 ex

Description

The invention relates to the field of water treatment by the reverse osmosis method and can be used in the power industry, chemical and other industries to produce feed water for energy boilers and steam generation systems in ammonia production, provides environmental protection in the field of water consumption and protection of rivers from effluents containing harmful chemical substances.
The rational use of water resources, the search and implementation of new technologies for the purification of natural sources of water supply is one of the main problems of our time.
The long and trouble-free operation of the ammonia production unit depends on the vaporization system. Its effectiveness and reliability in operation is almost completely determined by the quality of the feed water.
There are various ways to clean the source water from impurities. In Ukraine, the main methods for producing highly demineralized water are ion exchange and distillation. Ion exchange is widely used in many industries for deep demineralization of water with salinity up to 2 g / l [1. Yu.S. Veselov, I.S. Lavrov, N.I. Rukobratsky, Water-purifying equipment, Leningrad, Mechanical Engineering, 1985, p.21-24].
The disadvantages of the ionic method of demineralization of water are the limited or inability to use natural waters with high salinity, significant costs of chemicals and the formation of a large volume of wastewater. The nature of ion exchange is such that it requires reagents (acid, alkali, salt) to restore the exchange ability of ion exchangers 3-5 times higher than stoichiometric costs, i.e. 3-5 gram equivalents of reagents are required per gram equivalent of absorbed salts. Simultaneously with the increase in reagent costs, the unit costs for own needs of water and electricity also increase. Water consumption for own needs in the form of highly saline wastewater is 25-30% of the total amount of demineralized water by the ionic method.
If the source water had a salt content above 2 g / l, the technology of demineralization of water using evaporative plants was provided [2. L.A. Kulsky, V.F.Nakorchevskaya, Water Chemistry, Kiev, Vishcha school, 1983, p.182-183].
For the distillate, two multistage evaporator units with I-1000 type evaporators were operated at Concern Stirol OJSC. The distillate of these plants with a salinity of up to 10 mg / L was supplied as feed water for mixed-action filters for the treatment of ammonia and was used as feed water for GM-50-1 boilers with a pressure of 4.0 MPa. A mixture of river and regeneration effluents of ion-exchange ammonia water treatment with a total mineralization of 3-4 g / l was used as the initial water for pre-treatment of the evaporation plants [3. The technological regulations of the chemical preparation workshop, OJSC Concern Stirol, Gorlovka, 1996, p.2-3].
The disadvantages of the evaporative technology of demineralization of water include, first of all, the high cost of producing distillate due to high energy costs and low mobility on load.
In light of the above drawbacks, the reagentless membrane method of water purification, reverse osmosis, is of great interest. Reverse osmosis is a universal method of desalination of sea water, which allows to obtain drinking water from solutions with different composition and concentration of salts [4. Russian Patent No. 2223919, IPC 7 C 02 F 1/00, C 02 F 1/44, publ. 02/20/2004], as well as for the preparation of highly pure water in the pharmaceutical and biological industries [5. Russian patent No. 2073359, IPC 7 C 02 F 9/00, publ. October 2, 1997]. However, this method has still not found industrial application in the preparation of feed water for vaporization systems in ammonia production.
The closest in technical essence and the achieved result to the claimed technical solution is a method for producing highly demineralized water for ammonia production vaporization systems, which consists in collecting river water, its reagent treatment in clarifiers with lime and a coagulant, preliminary filtration of mechanical and suspended particles at the first stage of treatment, final purification of suspended particles in cartridge filters of the second stage, partial demineralization in the third stage of cleaning, followed by removal of carbon dioxide in decarbonizers and final demineralization in mixed filters [6. Permanent process regulation No. 70 of the installation for deep desalination of water of the United Ammonia Plant, OJSC Concern Stirol, Gorlovka, 1997, pp.13-17].
In the known technology, the source water for water treatment is river water from the Seversky Donets-Donbass canal with a total salinity of up to 500 mg / l. The total intake of river water amounted to 1000 m 3 / hour. Partial demineralization of water is carried out by sequential, two-stage cationization and anionization with tertiary treatment in mixed-action filters, carrying out subsequent regeneration of the filters with solutions of sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide, the spent regeneration and washing waters are discharged into the wastewater tank.
The disadvantage of this method is the use of scarce river water from the channel "Seversky Donets-Donbass", the high cost of producing feed water, high unit costs for own needs of water, heat and electricity, high consumption of chemicals, discharge of acids and alkalis into the environment, which is negative affects the environmental situation in the region. The high cost of water leads to a decrease in the competitiveness of the company's products on the world market in the face of fierce competition.
The basis of the invention is the task of improving the method of producing deeply demineralized water for vaporization systems of ammonia production, excluding the intake of river water, using highly mineralized biologically treated waste water of chemical production, storm drains, mine water and other waters or mixtures thereof as source water, creating a closed water consumption system, using non-reagent reverse osmosis membrane technology to purify water from dissolved impurities, ensuring increasing water quality that meets the requirements for the quality of feed water for high and medium pressure steam generation systems, while increasing the efficiency of using source water, preventing, or significantly reducing, salinization of water sources, saving energy and at the same time creating conditions for the production of mineral raw materials, table salt and sodium sulfate.
The problem is solved in that in the method for producing deeply demineralized water for ammonia production vaporization systems, which consists in taking the initial water, treating it reagent in clarifiers with lime and a coagulant, pre-filtering mechanical and suspended particles in the first stage of cleaning, and final cleaning of suspended particles in cartridge filters of the second stage, partial demineralization in the third stage of purification, subsequent removal of carbon dioxide in decarbonizers and the final demin ralization in mixed-action filters according to the invention, biologically treated chemical wastewater, storm sewage, regenerative, mine sewage and other wastewater or mixtures thereof with a total salinity of 4-6 g / l, total hardness up to 30 mg are used as the source water -eq / l and a total microbial number of up to 10 thousand units per ml, reverse osmosis desalination of water is used as the third stage of purification, carrying out the separation process on membranes with a filtration spectrum from 0.0001 to 0.001 μm, at a pressure of 2-2.5 MPa, s Niemi permeate and concentrate, assigning first to decarbonization and final mixed bed demineralisation in steps up to a total salt content of 0.2 mg / l; the resulting concentrate is subjected to demineralization in an additional reverse osmosis stage under a pressure of 2.5-3.0 MPa to a salt content of the obtained permeate of 150 mg / l, while a flocculant and a solution of sodium hypochlorite are added to water before the 1st purification step; carry out disinfection of water by double chlorination and the introduction of oxidants; a solution of antiscale and a solution of sodium metabisulfate are introduced into clarified water; sulfuric acid is dosed in front of pre-filters to the amount necessary to maintain a pH of 5.0-7.0; the cleaning of membrane elements is carried out by circulation through the membranes of washing acidic and alkaline solutions.
The use of biologically treated wastewater of chemical production as the source water will allow to stop the intake of river water and help to solve the concern's problems associated with the lack of water resources in the Donbass.
The use of reverse osmosis water separation will make it possible to use storm drains, mine sewage and others, which differ from natural waters with high total salinity of 4-6 g / l and total hardness of up to 30 mEq / l, instead of scarce river water, for the needs of water treatment and get feed water with a total salt content of 0.2 mg / l, which meets the requirements of the standard of the enterprise STP 42-97 for steam generating plants of ammonia production, organize a closed water cycle, eliminate the use of chemical agents who contributed their share of harmful effects on the environment, creating a unique system of environmental protection in the field of water consumption and the protection of the Donbass rivers from polluted effluents.
The method of obtaining demineralized water by reverse osmosis is based on the process of filtering pure water molecules from a solution by creating a pressure exceeding the osmotic pressure in the direction from the solution to fresh water through a semipermeable partition. With a filtration spectrum from 0.0001-0.001, a baromembrane process of separation of substances with molecular weights of 100-200 daltons occurs. Water molecules pass through the pores and salt ions dissolved in water do not pass.
A distinctive feature of reverse osmosis plants is the simplicity of their design and operation. The main nodes of these installations are devices for creating pressure and separation cells with semiconductor membranes. This leads to the use of reverse osmosis for deep demineralization of industrial wastewater and natural pollution.
Demineralization of water by the reverse osmosis method occurs without phase transformations, while energy is mainly spent on creating the pressure of the source water. The working pressure in water desalination plants is maintained at a level of 2-2.5 MPa, since their productivity is determined by the difference between the working and osmotic pressure. The lower limit is limited by a decrease in filtration intensity, the upper limit is a violation of the directly proportional relationship between the applied pressure and the membrane performance.
The work of new equipment using a new technology based on reverse osmosis will allow decommissioning of water treatment for water demineralization by the ion exchange method and completely shut down one of the energy boiler houses, and reduce the emission of harmful substances into the environment.
The demineralization of the concentrate increases the degree of use of the source water, increases the productivity of the installation as a whole according to permeate, providing additional medium-pressure steam-generating plants with feed water, and reduces the volume of discharges. With a reduction in the volume of discharges and an increase in the concentration of salts in the concentrate, an additional stage of demineralization of water serves as a preparatory stage for the further isolation of these salts with the possibility of obtaining mineral raw materials, a commercial product, which will minimize the negative impact on the environment.
Preliminary reagent treatment of the source water will allow the osmotic installation to efficiently and reliably carry out the demineralization process.
The declared sequence of stages of wastewater treatment and their interconnection will allow creating an effective and reliable technology for the desalination of water in large volumes for vaporization systems with relatively low specific energy consumption, reduced volumes of effluents, and improved ecology.
Figure 1 presents a schematic diagram of the implementation of the claimed method.
The scheme includes a two-layer filter 1, a pre-filter 2, a reverse osmosis unit 3, a decarbonizer 4, a mixed-action filter 5, a post-treatment filter 6, a demineralized water collection 7, and a demineralization unit for the obtained concentrate by reverse osmosis 8.
The method is as follows.
Biologically treated wastewater with a total salt content of 4-6 g / l, a total hardness of up to 30 ml-eq / l and a total microbial number of up to 10 thousand units in ml, after preliminary purification from fine particles in clarifiers and mechanical filters, pipelines are fed to two-layer filters 1, designed to remove fine particles, suspended and colloidal particles from water after reagent water treatment. Before the water is supplied to the filters 1, it is coagulated, deferrized, chlorinated. To accelerate flocculation and precipitation of colloidal dispersed particles, a flocculant and a coagulant are added to the initial water: sodium hypochlorite solution.
Water is disinfected by double chlorination and the introduction of oxidants. When chlorine is introduced into water, organic compounds are oxidized, and coagulation improves. In addition, chlorine destroys iron-organic compounds that are in a dissolved state and cannot be removed by coagulation, and increases the oxidation rate of compounds F (II). To bind excess free chlorine, sodium metabisulfate is introduced into the water stream, as an oxidizing agent of organic compounds, chlorine, can destroy reverse osmosis membranes. A solution of antiscale is introduced into clarified water. All N filters 1 are connected in parallel and operate simultaneously.
Source water under pressure up to 0.6 MPa is pumped to the top of the filter 1 through an inlet switchgear. The mechanical impurities of the water are retained by the filter layers, and the clarified water passes through the drainage system located in the lower part of the apparatus. After filters 1, a solution of antiscale is introduced into the water stream, which neutralizes the substances that lead to the formation of scale, and a solution of sodium metabisulfate, designed to bind free chlorine in the water. Next, the water enters m nodes pre-filtration.
To prevent the precipitation of salts of iron and manganese in the sediment, to prevent carbonate deposits on the membranes of the reverse osmosis unit, sulfuric acid is dosed at the entrance to the filters 2 in an amount necessary to maintain a pH of 5.0-7.0. These filters serve as a mixing chamber and ensure uniform distribution of reagents in the water stream before it enters the reverse osmosis membrane. Cartridge pre-filters 2 are designed for the final purification of water from suspended particles larger than 5 microns. As a filtering material, cartridges made of porous polypropylene with a pore size of 5 μm are used.
From the pre-filters 2, water is supplied by pumps with pressure to the reverse osmosis unit 3, in which the mineralization of salts occurs at the separation stage under a pressure of 2-2.5 MPa. Water is purified from ions and molecules of dissolved substances. The process of reverse osmosis desalination takes place in a roll type apparatus. The source water is fed to the outer surface of the roll filter element, it moves along the separator turbolizer in a spiral towards the center of the element. The initial solution is divided into two streams: permeate depleted in dissolved substances and a concentrate with an increased, in comparison with the initial solution, content of dissolved substances.
After reverse osmosis installations 3, permeate with a pressure of up to 5.5 MPa is fed to decarbonizers 4 designed to remove carbon dioxide, after which they are mixed into filters of mixed action 5 for purification to remove any remaining positively or negatively charged ions from the water stream. After the post-treatment filters, deeply demineralized water with a salinity of up to 0.2 mg / L is sent to a collection of deeply demineralized water 7 and then to consumers to feed the vaporization systems of ammonia production.
The flow of concentrate from reverse osmosis plants 3 is directed to the next stage of demineralization - to the reverse osmosis unit 8, in which the separation process occurs under a pressure of 2.5-3.0 MPa to a salinity of the obtained permeate of 150 mEq / l. Next, the permeate is fed to medium-pressure boilers, and the concentrate with a high salt content is sent to physicochemical purification of nitrogen-containing compounds and complete biological purification. With a reduction in the volume of discharges and an increase in the concentration of salts, an additional stage of demineralization of water will make it possible to obtain an additional amount of feed water suitable for feeding medium-pressure boilers; it serves as a preparatory step for the complete further disposal of these discharges with the possibility of obtaining dry salts.
The membranes are cleaned as they become contaminated by circulation through the membranes of washing acidic and alkaline solutions.
After each stage of water purification, quality control is provided. Measurement and control of operating parameters is performed automatically.
Wastewater and concentrate treated at BWC to established standards are sent to a biological treatment pond. The clarified water from the pond is pumped to the concern for reuse. The water cycle closes.
Examples of the method.
Example 1 (Prototype). For deeply demineralized water of vaporization systems of three ammonia aggregates, two water treatments were used, in which the process of demineralization of water was carried out by the ion exchange method on H-cation exchange and OH-anion exchange filters in series with subsequent purification on mixed-action filters. The source water for these water treatments was river water with a total salinity of up to 500 mg / l. Moreover, the total volume of river water intake was about 1000 m 3 / h.
The productivity of each water treatment for partially demineralized water is 450 m 3 / hour, for deeply demineralized water - 20 m 3 / hour, for condensate - 120 m 3 / hour. The quality of the deep demineralized water obtained meets the requirements set forth in the standard of the enterprise STP-113-03-04-03.90-86.
During the operation of ion-exchange resins, 13.296 kg / t of chemicals (sulfuric acid and caustic soda for regeneration) were consumed in these water treatment plants. The discharge of liquid waste amounted to 72 m 3 / hour [6. Process Regulation No. 70 for the installation of deep desalination of water. box 651, OAZ, OJSC Concern Stirol, Gorlovka, 1997]. These two factors negatively affected the environmental situation in the region.
Electricity consumption amounted to 2.81 thousand kW per 1000 m 3 of purified water, steam: 0.9 t / tp. The cost of preparing 1 m 3 of deeply demineralized water by ion exchange was 1-1.2 US dollars. Comparative data are given in table 1.
Example 2 (The inventive method). At the concern, a plant was put into operation that implements a method for producing deeply demineralized water to power an ammonia vaporization system with a permeate capacity of 840 m 3 / h.
In full, the intake of river water from the Seversky Donets-Donbass canal for water treatment was stopped. The discharge of sewage outside the ecosystem is completely stopped.
As the initial water for water treatment using membrane reverse osmosis technologies, biologically treated chemical wastewater, storm drains, mine wastewater in the amount of 1000 m 3 / h with a total salt content of 4 g / l with a total hardness of 18 mEq / l were used.
The salt content of the source water from 4 to 6 g / l was selected from the actual conditions for the presence of an alternative water supply source with the indicated water quality, created due to the complete cessation of the intake of river water for technological needs.
With a salt content of the source water of more than 6 g / l, reverse osmosis plants may work, but additional measures and reserve capacities will be required to produce the same amount of permeate. The qualitative composition of the source water taken from an alternative source of concern, including waste water from the enterprise and the region, is shown in Table 2.
Before supplying water to the reverse osmosis unit 3 to prevent sedimentation and biofouling, it is pretreated (clarification, iron removal, chlorination), as well as adjusting the pH value.
Table 3 shows the consumption rates of the main types of raw materials for preliminary reagent water treatment.
To precipitate colloid-dispersed particles, a coagulant solution in the amount of 0.0459 tons per 1000 m 3 of desalted water is added to the source water.
A solution of sodium hypochlorite is used to disinfect water, as an aid in coagulation (0.0022 tons per 1000 m 3 of demineralized water).
The mixture is cleaned from suspensions due to their mechanical filtration through a layer of anthracite chips. Suspensions larger than 10 microns are removed.
To neutralize the substances leading to the formation of scale, in particular calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, antiscale in the amount of 4.0 l per 1000 m 3 of demineralized water is introduced into the water stream. To bind the excess of free chlorine, sodium metabisulfate is introduced into the water stream in order to avoid destruction of reverse osmosis membranes in an amount of 0.0045 tons per 1000 m 3 of desalted water.
For reliable operation of the reverse osmosis plant, it is necessary to maintain a mode in which impurities (iron salts, manganese) remained in solution and went away during filtration with a concentrate stream.
To prevent the precipitation of salts of iron and manganese in the sediment, to prevent carbonate deposits on the membranes of the reverse osmosis unit, sulfuric acid is dosed in the amount of 0.65 tons per 1000 m 3 of purified water to maintain a pH of 5.0-7.0. In the claimed pH range of 5.0-7.0, soluble substances do not precipitate on the surface of the membranes. When the solution is acidified, pH <5, reactions occur during the cleaning process, leading to the precipitation of these impurities on the surface of the membranes.
The water treatment included 10 mechanical filters loaded with manganese sand, six reverse osmosis machines, 4 decarbonizers, 6 mixed-action filters and auxiliary equipment. The total productivity of water treatment for deep demineralized water was 840 m 3 / h with a salinity of not more than 0.2 mg / l permeate after reverse osmosis machines, with a total hardness of up to 10 μg-eq / l, which meets the requirements set forth in the standard of the enterprise STP 42 -97.
The characteristics of manufactured products according to the regulations are given in table A.
Table A.
Name of indicator, units Indicator values
The concentration of hydrogen ions, pH 6.8-7.4
Conductivity, max., No more 0.2
Mass concentration of SiO 2 , mg / l No more than 0,03
Total iron, mg / l no more 0.02
Hardness, mg / l absent
Sodium, mg / l, no more 0.01
Total salinity, mg / l 0.2
Based on the requirements for the quality of purified water and the composition of the source water, a membrane material of cellulose acetate and polyamide in the form of a spiral module with a filtration spectrum of 0.0001-1.001 μm was selected. This range of the filtration spectrum provides for the separation of dissolved salts from the solution (See figure 2 - filter spectrum).
Such membranes are applicable to all types of industrial water in the concern; they can operate in the range of 90-95% recovery of purified water with 100% retention of all microbiology in water and 100% retention of suspended solids. Their retention on sodium chloride is 99.0-99.5%.
The choice of working pressure in the range of 2-2.5 MPa for the process of separation of salts on the membranes of installation 3 was carried out on the basis of ensuring the design performance of the membranes. Over time, even under optimal conditions, the productivity of reverse osmosis membranes slowly but decreases as they become contaminated. If the membrane elements are contaminated, more pressure is required to purify the same amount of water. The underproduction of permeate is compensated by an increase in operating pressure up to 2.5 MPa (from the condition that the productivity of the installation is constant for permeate). As the membranes become further contaminated, compensation for the underperformance of permeate by increasing the operating pressure in the installation above 2.5 MPa becomes ineffective due to an unjustified increase in energy consumption. With a decrease in installation productivity by 15%, the urgent need to bring installation 3 to flush the membranes, because filter clogged.
Table 4 shows examples of operating modes and quality of purification of the source water in a reverse osmosis installation.
The choice of working pressure in the range of 2.5-3.0 MPa in the reverse osmosis unit 8 for concentrate purification was carried out in a similar way on the basis of ensuring a constant design permeate productivity and minimal energy consumption. Table 5 shows examples of operating modes and quality of concentrate purification at an additional reverse osmosis unit.
The productivity of the membranes in plants 3 and 8 is completely resumed by periodic depressurization and recirculation of the initial solution with further processing with washing solutions. The frequency of membrane regeneration depends on the degree of contamination and is carried out at least 1 time in 30 days.
The permeate separated in the reverse osmosis unit 3 with a pressure of up to 5.5 MPa is fed to the decarbonizers 4, after which with a pressure of 6 MPa for purification, filters of mixed action 5 are removed to remove any remaining positively or negatively charged ions from the water stream. After the post-treatment filters, deeply demineralized water with a salinity of up to 0.2 mg / l is sent to consumers to feed the ammonia production vaporization systems.
The concentrate produced in the reverse osmosis unit with a salt content of 9-13.5 g / l was subjected to secondary demineralization in an additional reverse osmosis stage 8 at a pressure of 2.0-2.5 MPa in order to increase the production of demineralized water. According to this scheme, processing of 350-400 m 3 / h of concentrate was achieved with obtaining 180-200 m 3 / h of permeate with a salt content of 150 mg / l, which is sent as source water for water treatment with an energy boiler pressure of 4.0 MPa and a steam temperature of 440 ° FROM. The concentrate after the installation of reverse osmosis 8 with a salinity of 24 g / l serves for physico-chemical, biological treatment.
The inventive pressure range in the second stage of the reverse osmosis installation is selected from the optimal conditions for ensuring the nominal performance of the water treatment plant. As can be seen from table 4, an increase in reverse osmosis pressure above 2.5 MPa is impractical, because production of demineralized water is not maintained. Membrane productivity decreases. As the membrane elements become contaminated, more pressure is required to purify the same amount of water. The reverse osmosis unit urgently needs to be taken out to flush the membranes.
Maintaining the pressure in installation 8 below 2.0 MPa is also impractical due to a decrease in permeate production.
Table 1.
CONSUMPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WATER DEMINERALIZATION PROCESS
No. p / p Water Treatment Method Water source The flow coefficient of river water Number of chemicals kg per ton of water The number of discharged contaminated water, m 3 / h Electricity consumption (thousand kW) / steam (t / tp) Notes
one. Demineralization of water by ion exchange (prototype) River water 2.81
GOST 1.36 13,296 72 0.09
2. Osmosis demineralization of water Mixtures:
- biologically purified water
- storm drains Absent 3,173 Absent 2,051 / None
- mine wastewater, etc.
Table 2.
The quality of the source water from the wastewater storage company and the region
Name of impurities Dimensions 1996 year 2003 year I half of 2004
Min Max. Avg Min Max. Avg Min Max. Avg
Ammonia nitrogen mg / l 6.2 14.2 9.2 8.0 66.6 38,0 13.3 50.3 35.0
pH 7.4 11.5 8.4 6.5 8.5 8.3 5.7 9,4 7.8
Weigh. in va mg / l 31,0 248.0 85,2 40,0 587.0 281.0 42.0 99.0 71.7
Oil products mg / l 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.1 12.5 5.1 0.3 0.6 0.5
Dry residue mg / l 950 2220 1796 1371 2185 1844 1670 2776 2230
Sulphates mg / l 382 955 680 5300 1900 924 490 1440 969
Chlorides mg / l 183 316 264 108 428 289 263 433 328
BOD5 mgo / l 4.6 7.4 6.8 8.0 8.5 8.3 3,7 7.9 7.2
COD mgo / l 30.3 38.1 36,4 42.0 42.0 42.0 26.0 37.3 34.0
Phosphates mg / l 0.1 089 0.27 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.28 0.41 0.30
Sodium Cation mg / l 490.0 560.0 504.0 450 454.5 454 568 636 612
Calcium cation mg / l 24.0 328.0 98.0 110 120 115 38.5 104.0 71.3
Magnesium cation mg / l 17.0 135 41.0 45.0 79.6 79.2 63,2 89.0 76.1
Nitrite mg / l 4.6 8.1 6.8 11.7 69.0 16,2 9.8 46.0 18.8
Nitrates mg / l 18.6 37,2 29.9 13.3 243.0 99.9 101.0 324.0 210.2
Table 3
Annual consumption rates of reagents and materials per 1000 m 3 of demineralized water.
No. p / p Name of raw materials The project costs per 1000 m 3 of demineralized water. By year 2004
one 2 3 four
one. Sodium hypochlorite solution (NaOCl), concentration 12%, t fifty 0.0022
2. Antinakipin, concentration of 100%, l 0.00004 4.0
3. Coagulant, concentration of 100%, kg 5.54 0.0459 t
four. Sodium metabisulfate, l 3.0 0.0045 t
5. Sodium hydroxide (100%), t 0.171
6. Sulfuric acid, 100%, t 0.74 0.65
7. Membrane cleaner: phosphoric acid, kg 0.008 0.008
Caustic soda, kg 0,035 0,035
8. Reverse osmosis membranes, pcs 0,00178 0,00178
Table 4
OPERATING MODES AND RESULTS OF CLEANING THE SOURCE WATER FROM SALTS IN THE REVERSE OSMOTIC INSTALLATION
No. p / p The salt content of the source water, g / l Pressure in reverse osmosis unit 8, MPa Salt selectivity,% Productivity RO-machine, permeate,% Salt retention on the RO-machine, mg / l Salt content after FSD, mg / l Electricity consumption, thousand kW per 1000 m 3 permeate
one 2 3 four 5 6 7 8
Example 1 3.0 1,5 99.46 75 2.98 0.2 2,048
Example 2 3,5 1.8 99.48 75 3,482 0.2 2.05
Example 3 four 2.0 99.5 75 3.98 0.2 2,051
Example 4 4,5 2.2 99.5 75 4,477 0.2 2,052
Example 5 5,0 2,3 99.5 75 4.97 0.2 2,054
Example 6 5.5 2,4 99.5 75 5.4615 0.2 2,056
Example 7 6.0 2,5 99.5 75 5,972 0.2 2,058
Example 8 6.2 2.6 99.0 75 6.14 0.2 2.13
Example 9 6.4 2,8 98.0 75 6,272 0.2 2.16
Table 5
RESULTS OF CLEANING THE CONCENTRATE FROM SALTS AT THE ADDITIONAL STAGE OF THE REVERSE OSMOTIC SEPARATION
No. p / p The initial salt content of the concentrate on the RO unit 8, g / l Pressure in reverse osmosis unit 3, MPa The salt selectivity of the membranes,% Permeate productivity,% Salt retention on the RO-machine, mg / l Salt content of permeate fed to boiler water treatment, mg / l Electricity consumption, thousand kW per 1000 m 3 permeate
one 2 3 four 5 6 7 8
Example 1 9.0 2,3 98.47 fifty 8,874 150 1.97
Example 2 10.5 2,4 98.48 fifty 10,364 150 1.98
Example 3 12.0 2,5 98.5 fifty 11.05 150 2.0
Example 4 13.5 2.6 98.5 fifty 13,297 150 2.01
Example 5 15.0 2.7 98.5 fifty 14,775 150 2.02
Example 6 16.5 2,8 98.5 fifty 16.2525 150 2.03
Example 7 17.4 3.0 98.5 fifty 17,139 150 2.04
Example 8 18.0 3.2 98.2 fifty 17.64 150 2.12
Example 9 18.9 3.3 98.0 fifty 18,522 150 2.2

Claims (1)

  1. A method for producing deeply demineralized water for ammonia production vaporization systems, which consists in the intake of initial water, its reagent treatment in clarifiers, liming and coagulation, disinfection, preliminary filtration of mechanical and suspended particles in the first stage of purification, final purification of suspended particles in cartridge filters of the second stage of purification, partial demineralization in the third stage of purification, subsequent removal of carbon dioxide in decarbonizers and final demineralization in mixed-action filters, characterized in that biologically treated chemical wastewater, storm sewage, mine wastewater and other wastewater or mixtures thereof with a total hardness of up to 30 mEq / l and with a total salinity of 4-6 g are used as the source water / l with a total microbial number of up to 10 thousand units per ml, reverse osmosis desalination of water is used as the third stage of purification, conducting the separation process on membranes with a filtration spectrum from 0.0001 to 0.001 μm, at a pressure of 2-2.5 MPa, with permeate and concentrate that of the first for decarbonization and final demineralization in mixed filters to a total salt content of 0.2 mg / l, and concentrate for demineralization under a pressure of 2.5-3.0 MPa in an additional reverse osmosis stage to a salinity of the obtained permeate of 150 mg / l , a flocculant and a solution of sodium hypochlorite are added to the water before the 1st purification step, the water is disinfected by double chlorination and the addition of oxidizing agents, an antiscale solution and a solution are introduced into the clarified water in front of the preliminary filters sodium metabisulphite, sulfuric acid is dosed in an amount necessary to maintain the pH 5.0-7.0 water, as the membrane contamination is carried out by circulating their purification through membranes detergent acidic and alkaline solutions.
RU2004126914/15A 2004-07-13 2004-09-07 Method of production of highly demineralized water RU2281257C2 (en)

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UA20040705765A UA72057C2 (en) 2004-07-13 2004-07-13 A method for the preparation of heavily demineralized water

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2447026C2 (en) * 2010-06-11 2012-04-10 Игорь Семенович Балаев Method and apparatus for post-treatment of water during fine demineralisation
CN103043839A (en) * 2013-01-05 2013-04-17 国核电力规划设计研究院 System for removing total organic carbon for demineralization water system for nuclear power station and control method
CN103979697A (en) * 2014-05-30 2014-08-13 重庆德利欧环保有限公司 Small healthy direct-drinking water system
CN104291486A (en) * 2014-09-30 2015-01-21 深圳能源资源综合开发有限公司 High-power reuse technology for coal chemical industry strong brine and special equipment of high-power reuse technology

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2447026C2 (en) * 2010-06-11 2012-04-10 Игорь Семенович Балаев Method and apparatus for post-treatment of water during fine demineralisation
CN103043839A (en) * 2013-01-05 2013-04-17 国核电力规划设计研究院 System for removing total organic carbon for demineralization water system for nuclear power station and control method
CN103043839B (en) * 2013-01-05 2014-08-20 国核电力规划设计研究院 System for removing total organic carbon for demineralization water system for nuclear power station and control method
CN103979697A (en) * 2014-05-30 2014-08-13 重庆德利欧环保有限公司 Small healthy direct-drinking water system
CN103979697B (en) * 2014-05-30 2016-06-22 重庆德利欧环保有限公司 Small-sized type drinking water system capable of direct drinking
CN104291486A (en) * 2014-09-30 2015-01-21 深圳能源资源综合开发有限公司 High-power reuse technology for coal chemical industry strong brine and special equipment of high-power reuse technology
CN104291486B (en) * 2014-09-30 2016-09-14 深圳能源资源综合开发有限公司 Coal Chemical Industry strong brine high power reuse technology and special equipment

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UA72057C2 (en) 2005-01-17

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