RU2230593C2 - Rectifying column containing a panel of fractionating trays, a complete set of fractionating trays for installation in a column of fractional distillation and a method of installation of the fractionating trays in the column of fractional distillation - Google Patents

Rectifying column containing a panel of fractionating trays, a complete set of fractionating trays for installation in a column of fractional distillation and a method of installation of the fractionating trays in the column of fractional distillation Download PDF

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RU2230593C2
RU2230593C2 RU2000119917/15A RU2000119917A RU2230593C2 RU 2230593 C2 RU2230593 C2 RU 2230593C2 RU 2000119917/15 A RU2000119917/15 A RU 2000119917/15A RU 2000119917 A RU2000119917 A RU 2000119917A RU 2230593 C2 RU2230593 C2 RU 2230593C2
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plate
column
plates
fractionation
supported
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RU2000119917/15A
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Russian (ru)
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RU2000119917A (en
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Мохамед С. ШАКУР (US)
Мохамед С. ШАКУР
Николас Ф. УРБАНСКИ (US)
Николас Ф. УРБАНСКИ
Майкл Р. РЕЗЕТАРИТС (US)
Майкл Р. РЕЗЕТАРИТС
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Юоп Ллк
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Abstract

FIELD: petroleum refining industry.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a rectifying column (1) including a complete set of the fractionating trays, in which the upper trays are supported} by the lowermost tray of the set, that is a single tray of the set, which is supported by a wall of the column. It is preferable, that escape channels (13) or free plates of the top tray are supported by the upper parts of the escape channels (13) located under the following tray. Only the lower tray is supported by a ring (12) fixed to the column. The invention ensures reduction of time required for assembly or repair of a column and decrease of the cost of the whole system and its installation.
EFFECT: reduction of time required for assembly or repair of a column, decrease of the cost of the whole system and its installation.
11 cl, 7 dwg

Description

Technical field
The present invention relates to a distillation column consisting of a set of two or more fractionation plates of the same design, arranged one above the other to form a stack of plates, a set of fractionation plates for installation in a fractional distillation column, and a method for installing plates in a fractional distillation column.
State of the art
Fractionation plates are widely used in the petrochemical and refining industries to provide multi-stage vapor-liquid contacting in distillation columns. A typical distillation column design includes from about 10 to 120 individual plates. Typically, the design of each plate in the column is the same. Plates are installed horizontally with the same vertical distances in accordance with the gaps between the plates in the column. This distance can be changed in different parts of the column, but is usually considered constant. The plates are supported by a ring welded or bolted to the inner surface of the column. From time to time, it is necessary or desirable to change the number or type of plates used in the column, which, in turn, may lead to the need for the movement of the support rings at different distances.
Previous technical solutions
The continued and widespread use of fractionation plates has led to the development of many different plate designs and various ways of maintaining them in the column. Examples of distillation column plates include a plurality of drain channel designs described in US Pat. No. 3,410,540 to W.Bruckert. This patent describes the preferred box-like design of the drain channel used in the device, as well as several different mechanical devices for sealing means for an outlet located at the bottom of the drain channel. 2, 3, and 5 of US Pat. No. 5,547,617 to A.T. Lee, other devices of the elements of a fractionating plate having parallel rectangular drain channels extending through the plate are described and shown. This link also describes the details of the supporting means used to secure each individual plate to the column wall.
The details of one of the plate mounting methods are described in an article in Hydrocarbon Processing, October 1991. The design features described in the article include the use of mounting rings attached to the side walls of the column to support the plates. The article describes how a mounting ring for one plate can be supported by another ring rather than being attached to the column wall. Such a device can be used when it is necessary to increase the number of plates in the column without attaching new support rings to the wall of the column.
One type of distillation device manufactured by the industry is a "cartridge" or "cassette" plate system, which is usually used in columns of relatively small diameter, with low flow rates. Such a system is described in US Pat. No. 3,139,389 to I.E. Nutter. Plates are assembled into groups held together by elongated rods and spacer tubes, and mounted on top of the column. The first group is mounted on a support located below the first plate, and the other group is mounted on this lower group. It does not seem that these plates rest on one another. The perimeters of the plates are sealed relative to the inner surface of the column wall by means of gaskets made of rubber or polymeric materials. The mechanical details of one embodiment of this system are described in Nutter Engineering's Bulletin PT-1.
U.S. Patent No. 5,244,604 to R.J. Miller describes a distillation column containing fractionation plates with a plurality of drain channels. The lower edges of the drain channels of the upper plate are attached to the upper edge of the inlet of the drain channel located below. However, this connection is intended solely for the purpose of directing the liquid downward and preventing the liquid from entering the drain channel of the next plate below. As shown, the connection does not support the upper plate with the support rings 8 provided for each plate.
In US Pat. No. 5,383,390 to M.R. Resetarits, an unfastened lock plate or “tipping prevention” baffle is described and shown in FIG. 10, centered inside the drain channel and protruding upward in the direction of the next plate above. The partition can be connected to the drain channel to give additional rigidity to the partition, however, the device according to this patent provides a distance between the upper and lower part of the partition.
US Pat. No. 5,407,605 to M.R. Resetarits describes alternative designs for parallel drain channels that can be used on fractionating plates with multiple drain channels, including the use of V-shaped drain channels separated by flat overlap areas.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The subject of the invention is a device for use in a distillation column used to separate volatile chemical compounds. The present invention is characterized in that small groups of vertically adjacent adjacent fractionation plates are stacked on top of each other, with each plate resting on the next lower plate. The drain channels of the upper tray are preferably supported on the lower tray. Such a device provides several advantages, including reducing the time for assembly or repair of the column and reducing the cost of the entire system and its installation. The present invention is characterized in that the fractionation plates are divided into groups of two or more plates, with only the bottommost plate in the group being supported by a ring or other support mechanically attached to the column wall. The upper plates of the group are supported by the lowest plate. The second distinctive feature of the invention is the presence of a small but important annular gap between the outer edge of the upper fractioning plates and the inner surface around the circumference of the column.
One of the important variations of the subject invention can be characterized as a device for providing fractional distillation, which contains a closed cylindrical column having upper and lower end parts and a cylindrical inner surface; the upper first and lower second plates of the distillation column of the same design, and the fractionation plates have drain channels that have a side wall that extends beyond the vapor-liquid contact area formed by a perforated overlap, while the upper first plate is supported in place inside the column by a lower second plate, and the lower second plate is supported by a support attached to the column.
The upper plate may be supported by the drain (s) channel (s) of the lower plate or vertical partitions protruding from the drain (s) channel (s) of the lower plate.
Brief Description of the Drawings
Figure 1 is a simplified drawing in partial section, showing a distillation column 1 containing two groups of three fractionation plates and a group of four fractionation plates. In each group, only the bottom plate is supported by a support ring 12 attached to the inner surface of the column.
Figure 2 is an enlarged and more detailed image of a group of fractionation plates with several drain channels, shown in figure 1.
Figure 3 is another embodiment of the present invention, in which the fractionation plates contain V-shaped drain channels, separated by sections of perforated flat floors 14.
Figure 4 shows a plate with two drain channels, having two arches for supporting the extreme parts of the overlap of the next plate located above.
Figure 5 shows a view, visible from top to bottom, in the direction of the fractionation plate having two parallel rectangular drain channels.
6 is a detailed view of the end portion of the drain channels of three stacked plates.
7 is a simplified view of an embodiment in which the drain channels of the upper plates are supported by a lock-like loose plate 27.
Detailed Description of Preferred Options
Distillation columns are used in the refining, petrochemical and chemical industries to separate a wide variety of chemical compounds. They are used, for example, in the separation of various paraffin hydrocarbons, such as the separation of butanes and pentanes, in the removal of contaminants, including water, from hydrocarbon streams, and in the separation of various aromatic hydrocarbons of the alkyl series, such as the separation of toluene from xylene. Fractional trays are also used to separate oxygenates, such as ethers or alcohols from hydrocarbons, to separate inorganic compounds such as halogenated compounds, fluorocarbons and elemental gases, and other types of separation that are numerous enough to list them. In this regard, distillation columns and plates are widely used in many industries.
In the process of fractional distillation, the vapor formed at the bottom of the column rises through a large number of small holes located over the area of the partition walls of the plates containing a certain amount of liquid. As steam passes through the liquid, a layer of bubbles forms called foam. The large surface area of the foam contributes to the rapid establishment of equilibrium of the compositions of the liquid and vapor phases on the plate. Steam leaves less volatile substances in the liquid and, thus, acquires a slightly greater volatility as it passes upward through each plate. The concentration of less volatile compounds in the liquid increases as it moves down from plate to plate. The liquid separates from the foam and passes down to the plate below. Such formation and separation of foam occurs on each plate. Thus, the plates perform two functions: contacting the rising steam with the liquid, and then ensure the separation of the two phases and their passage in different directions. When the steps are performed a sufficient number of times, the process can ensure the separation of chemical compounds with high efficiency.
Distillation columns are often refitted in order to increase the productivity or separation efficiency of the column. If the column contains fractionation plates, then refurbishment usually involves modifying the system of fractionation plates. This modification may include the installation of fractionation plates of a completely different type or the installation of a different number of fractionation plates, or a combination of these settings when an increased number of plates of a different type are installed in the column.
In any case, such a refurbishment of a distillation column is a time-consuming operation, which must be performed in a short period of time and in the confined space of the column. The fact that the removal of old plates and the installation of new plates must be carried out in this cramped space increases the time required for this conversion operation. This in turn leads to a standstill of the column for a long time, and in general the entire petrochemical or oil refinery in which the column is used will also stand idle for at least the same period of time. Therefore, it is necessary to develop systems that provide faster and more cost-effective conversion of distillation columns, and the present invention is the creation of such a system. Another objective of the present invention is to provide the minimum amount of work that needs to be done to attach or move support elements attached to the inner surface of the distillation column at the same time that the fractionation plates are installed or replaced inside the column. Other tasks are to simplify the design of the column and reduce the cost of installing fractionation plates.
In accordance with the present invention, systems with two or more vapor-liquid contacting means such as trays are inserted together into a single device, characterized in that only the lowermost of these vapor-liquid contacting trays is supported by attaching to the inner surface of the outer wall of the distillation column or by attaching to a wall of a support. Each individual contacting plate or subgroup contains at least one drain channel. Preferably, they comprise a plurality of discharge channels. More preferably, they comprise several parallel drain channels separated by sections of perforated overlap, the overlap having a single horizontal flat surface that defines the level of the plate.
According to the present invention, each of the plates in a subgroup or group of plates preferably has the same design. However, in accordance with the subject matter of the invention, it is not required that each of the adjacent vertically arranged plates have the same design. The plates may differ slightly, such as the relative size of the overlap area compared to the area of the inlet of the drain channel at the plate or the size and distribution of perforated holes or passages for steam on the overlap area, the design of the overlap area due to the need for the upper plates to be made semi-supporting (without using support from the column), or the presence or absence of various stiffeners, means of connection, etc. The vertically adjacent plates of any group can also vary significantly so that the lowermost plate can include a preferred rectangular or gutter-like drain channel, while the upper plates can have alternative V-shaped drain channels.
An additional distinctive feature of one embodiment of the present invention is the presence of a special loose seal between the outer edge of the upper fractioning plates of each group of plates and the inner surface of the column wall. In previous technical solutions, some space is left between these elements to facilitate the installation of the plate in the column, to provide some freedom of movement for the plate when fitting it to the wall inside the column. The gap is then sealed with overlap. According to the present invention, there is a significant uncompressed gap left in this place. In addition, this annular gap is characterized in that it is not intended to close the gap by overlapping between the plate edge and any supporting element attached to the column wall. That is, the inner surface of the wall of the column is essentially smooth, without means of attachment to it to maintain the upper (their) plate (lock) or seal the gap between the inner surface of the column and the edge of the column.
However, this advantage in the presence of a gap does not preclude the possibility of using several adjustable extenders such as rods that pass through the gap to stabilize the entire structure of the group within the column. That is, three or more pins such as rods can protrude from the plate in various places and touch the wall of the column to prevent the plate from swinging or moving from side to side.
The invention provides a particular advantage of plates with several drain channels, for at least two reasons. Firstly, the design of a plate of this type with its parallel drain channels extending along the surface of the plate, as a result, represents a structure that is well adapted to the configuration in the form of a stack without adding significant additional elements. It may be necessary to install the lower (their) plate (lock) in case of increased load, but the number of plates and their overall design may remain unchanged. Secondly, the large length of the existing inlets of the drain channels leads to plates with several drain channels, usually operating at a lower foam height. This and the lower pressure drop that accompanies it ensures the installation of plates with several drain channels at shorter intervals between the plates. This facilitates the use of a stack configuration.
The present invention includes the use of plates of a fully known design in a stacked configuration. However, it is believed that this can lead to undesirably small gaps between the plates, and it is possible to reconstruct the plates to increase the distance between the plates. For example, you can increase the height of the side wall of the drain channels. The height of the wall section of the drain channels, which protrudes above the floor, can be increased by providing holes in the wall to compensate for the increase in height. You can also increase the height of the loose lock-like plate.
Next, figure 1 shows a distillation column 1, which can be performed in a well-known manner in accordance with the previous technical solutions. The column contains a vertical working capacity of a cylindrical shape of a well-known structure having a closed upper and lower parts and connected with pipelines for steam and liquid. Pipelines include a feed channel 2, through which a mixture of hydrocarbons or other chemical compounds is supplied to the distillation column for separation. Although the drawing shows the feed channel 2, passing in the middle of the column, it can pass into the column closer to both the upper and lower parts. In some examples, the feed stream from channel 2 may even be mixed into the return flow channel or pass into the column overhead collector. The essence of the invention lies in the construction of a device containing steam-liquid used inside the column, and thus, external pipelines, external container and external equipment are not part of the present invention or limitation of the invention. They are shown only to provide an understanding of the design and operation of the present invention.
After entering the distillation column, chemical compounds passing through the feed channel 2 are separated, while lighter volatile compounds form a vapor phase that rises to the top of the column. The most volatile (s) compound (s) are concentrated in the steam stream of the overhead which leaves the top of the fractionation column 1 through the overhead channel 7. The overhead steam stream passes through the overhead condenser 8, in which indirect heat exchange condenses at least a significant portion of this stream before the overhead stream is released to the overhead receiver 9. The liquid is removed from the overhead receiver 9 and sent to the clean overhead product stream removed from the column through channel 10, and the reflux stream is returned to the column through channel 11. The returning liquid phase reflux is uniformly distributed over the column cross section through the distributor 24.
Liquid phlegm enters the uppermost fractionation plate, and then enters the drain channels 13 dispersed over the plate. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 1, on one support ring 12 near the top of the column, three separate fractionation plates are mounted. Each of these three plates has four drain channels 13. Each plate has five horizontal platforms of perforated overlap 14 of the usual type of plate, with the column overlap between the side walls 18 of the drain channels 13 and the side on the last drain channel. Figure 1 shows two sets of three plates and one set of four plates.
The liquid phase passes down through the column with a gradual change in composition as the components of the vapor and liquid phases exchange. After passing through the third set of plates, shown in FIG. 1, the downward flowing liquid is mixed with the liquid phase components of the feedstock supplied through channel 2. The resulting liquid phase can continuously pass downward through the lower part of the column 1. The plates in the lower part of the column are not shown to simplify. These plates may be the same as those used at the top of the column, or they may be different from them. They can be almost completely of a different type, such as plates with a transverse reflux, or plates can be of the same type, that is, plates with several drain channels, but each plate has an individual support in the column. Alternatively, packing material may be contained in the bottom of the column instead of plates. With the exception of the structure of the devices (a) for contacting the vapor-liquid located in the lower part of the distillation column 1, in its lowest part through the channel 4, the flow of the liquid phase, called liquid undercoupling, is removed. This liquid contains a minimum amount of volatile components from the feedstock. Liquid bottoms are divided into the first part, produced through channel 5, which is removed from the rectification process as a stream of pure bottoms, and the second part, which flows through channel 6 to reboiler 3. In the reboiler, this stream heats up, causing, as a rule, at least , partial evaporation and some heating of the fluid passing through this channel. Re-evaporated in this way, the substance then passes to the lower part of the distillation column through channel 6, giving up the necessary heat and vapors in the lower part of the column for fractional distillation.
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a horizontal cross section viewed through a small portion of a distillation column containing three plates, similar to those shown in FIG. This figure shows three fractionation plates with several drain channels, with two plates stacked on the bottom plate. The design of each of the plates is almost identical. That is, each of the three plates has three rectangular box-shaped drain channels 13 of the same design, separated by a flat ceiling 14 through which rising steam passes. Each drain channel is formed by two parallel flat side walls 18, two flat end walls 20 and one lower plate 21 of the drain channel. In the embodiment shown in this figure 2, the side walls and end walls are not perforated, and only the bottom plate has openings for fluid flow when the column is in operation. All perforated or outlet openings 15 in the bottom plate are large enough to allow all of the current to flow down through the liquid column when the column is in operation. These openings therefore differ from the others in significantly smaller sizes and fewer times, sometimes provided in fractionation plates, in order to provide drainage from low places of the plate when the operation of the plate and distillation column is completely stopped. Likewise, the more numerous openings in the plate overlap are sized to allow the entire steam stream to pass upward. Options having other designs of drain channels can also have the same fluid throughput.
The main essence of the present invention lies in the implementation of the upper fractionation plates from the group or stack of plates based on the reinforcement of the upper part of the lower plate of the group. Preferably, this upper portion structure is an upwardly protruding portion of the side walls forming the drain channel of the next lower plate. As can be seen in FIG. 2, there is no support ring or protrusion 12 for supporting the middle fractionation tray, or for the upper fractionation tray. These plates rely only on the next lower plate, and there is no attachment to the distillation column. Although, as noted above, the means for connecting the plates to each other and / or to prevent their movement from side to side inside the column can be provided, the plates are not attached to the conventional support means installed in the fractionating column.
It is preferable to leave an annular gap 23 of a significant size between the outer edge of the plate overlap 14 and the inner surface of the fractionation column. Although the fractionation plate must be smaller than the inside diameter of the column to allow it to be installed and moved, this gap 23 is larger than the required gap. In addition, as noted above, in previous technical solutions, any gap can be completely sealed using a ring located below the support. In the present invention, this gap is on the order of 1.5 to 5 cm, and more preferably at least 2 cm wide, measured from the end of the overlap to the inner surface of the cylindrical outer wall of the column. Since the cylindrical wall of the column often does not have the correct cylindrical shape, the width of the gap between the outer edge of the plate and the inner surface of the column can vary significantly. The clearance may in some places exceed tolerances due to the fact that the column is not completely round. In prior art ring support systems, the width of the ring compensates for this dimensional variation. This problem can be solved by using movable floor sections that can protrude in the direction of the column wall. The gap may be unstable due to fluctuations in both the size of the plate edge and the shape of the column. It is believed that the gap cannot significantly affect the performance of the plate due to leakage of liquid down. Any incidental leakage of liquid or vapor is collected at the wall supported by the plate.
Figure 2 also shows that the holes 15, made in the bottom of the sealing plate of the drain channels, have gaps distributed and located so that the liquid passing down from the drain channel, fell on the overlap 14, and not in the drain channel located below the plate.
Figure 2 shows two of the many possible mechanical means that can be used to support the floor 14 located in two end holes, or recesses, of the parts of the plate; that is, these parts of the plates are located between the farthest drain channels and the wall of the column. Since only one side of this part of the floor is supported by the side wall of the drain channel, additional support is required. In previous technical solutions, the overlap is usually maintained through the ring 12 through the column. The absence of such a ring in the present invention eliminates this type of support. As shown in FIG. 2, various strut structures can be used to support the floor and prevent its movement, such as a strut 16 similar to a lever or a threaded support rod 17. The support rods 17 in the plates can also protrude above and below the corresponding plate, thus connecting the three plates and preventing their movement. To support the two end parts of the ceiling, it is preferable to use a single arch-type support having two struts attached near the end of the side walls of the drain channel and the ridge attached to the ceiling.
Figure 3 shows an image similar to that shown in figure 2, except that another type of fractionation plates was used. The plates shown in FIG. 3 do not have the drain channels of the rectangular structure shown in FIG. 2. On the contrary, they have a V-shape formed by two flat side walls 18, which are connected together along their lower edge. The sealed outlet of the liquid drain channels is preferably not located at the very bottom of the drain channels, but instead is formed in the side wall of the drain channel. It has been found that in some embodiments this provides an excellent effect, including increased ability to drain or eject fluid from the drain channel to the outside for a better location on the surface of the ceiling 14 of the next lower plate. The liquid passes down to the floor 14 and is in contact with steam rising upward through the openings 22 in the floor, thereby forming a foam.
In the same way as shown in FIG. 2, the end parts of the plate overlap 14 can be attached in place to one or more supports, such as threaded rods 17 or vertical support posts 19. The threaded rods can join together three or more fractionation plates. For example, figure 3 shows the upper group of three fractionation plates and the lower group of two fractionation plates, both times using a threaded rod 17 on the left side and vertical struts 19 on the right side. It should be noted that these rods and racks hold only the end part on both sides of the plate. Therefore, it is preferable to use an arch type support. This support may include a horizontal spacer attached to the side wall of the drain channel, and the racks may be attached to end support plates protruding outward beyond the ends of the drain channels to provide a tighter fit to the walls of the column. They are not a pillar of the column itself. The lower group rests on the L-shaped protrusion 12, which surrounds the inner surface of the column. The upper group is shown resting on a simple rectangular rod 12 ’attached to the inner surface of the column. This figure shows two narrow centering rods 25 in the upper part of the plate.
The rods extend into the gap 23 to prevent the movement of the group of plates. These rods can be attached to the plate after the installation of the group and can have a threaded part to ensure their regulation along the length.
In previous technical solutions, the edge or crescent parts of the plate jumpers located between the extreme drain channels and the column wall are partially supported by attaching to the column wall using a support ring. The absence of a support ring for the upper (s) plate (lock) requires replacement of the support system. Of the many options, it is preferable to use an arch fixed to the bottom plate. Figure 4 shows the various designs of the arch support 31 of the plate. On the left side of the plate shown is a parabolic arch 31 attached to the upper part of the two drain elements 32 of the outlet openings of the two drain channels 13 of the plate. The drainage elements of the outlet openings actually protrude upward from the side wall of the drainage channel 13. A trapezoidal arch 31 having straight support parts is shown on the right side of the plate. The plate contains three parts of the overlap 14, two of which are the extreme parts of the crescent-shaped on two sides of the plate. Regardless of the number of drain channels on the plate, when these two extreme parts of the overlap are installed in the column, they are placed on opposite sides of the plate, between the end drain channel and the inner surface of the cylindrical wall of the column. Arches can be attached in other ways, in other places, for example, to the ceiling next to the drain channels.
It is preferable to attach to the straight part of the end support plate 26, using this method of connection, so that the pillars of the arch could not rotate relative to the connection.
Figure 4 shows that the upper part or crest of the arches 31 can be horizontal at a considerable distance and can be connected to the supported crescent part of the ceiling using several means of connection 33. The oblique, or inclined, parts of each arch (compared to the horizontal part of the crest ) can be located completely above the end support plates 26 or above the inlets of the drain channels so that the length of the horizontal part between the racks can be equal to the distance between two adjacent drain channels lamas. In this embodiment, an extended horizontal span of the upper part of the support 31 makes it more like a bridge than an arch. At the top of the support 31, a support bar or support 34 is preferably installed. This element extends perpendicular to the arch 31 and preferably reaches the side wall of the next drain channel of the plate above. The upper surface of the backup 34 may be located on the lower side of the overlap of the supported crescent. However, it is preferable that the support is inclined, so that its inclination downward in the direction of the drain channel makes an angle of 8-20 ° relative to the horizontal. The arc is preferably made from separate pieces of metal, similar to the metal used to make the side walls of the drain channel.
Figure 5 shows a variant of the present invention, in which the fractionating plate comprises two parallel drain channels 13 and three adjustable overlap areas containing perforated overlap plates 14. This is applicable when the column wall is not a regular cylinder, and provides some advantages when installing new plates, since it allows the clearance between the plate edge and the column wall to be adjusted. Therefore, as necessary, you can adjust the periphery of the plate. This figure shows the mechanical parts related to one of the many fastening mechanisms that can be used for fastening in place of floor plates with sliding ability. The layout and shape of the plate components shown in this and other figures are subject to change. The number, size and shape of the plate elements depend on many factors. For example, the required flow volumes will largely determine the diameter of the column, the size of the drain channels and the intervals between the drain channels and the number of drain channels used in the plate.
The degree to which you need to adjust the perimeter of the plate will lead to a change in the size and number of sliding parts of the floor. If only minimal regulation is necessary, the number of slipable parts of the floor can be reduced. The drawing shows that each of the two parts of the overlap between the drain channels is movable in the direction of the edge of the plate. However, you can also use a single movable part of the floor with adjacent stationary parts. In addition, changes in the location of the joints between the moving parts and any "fixed" parts of a known type located between the same drain channels are possible. The device shown in the drawing is preferred for plates of small diameter, and for plates of large diameter between the drain channels can be located several parts of the overlap, some of which are fixed and only two end parts are movable.
Each drain channel 13 contains two end walls 20 and two parallel side walls 18. These walls preferably extend above and below the level of the plate bounded by the floor 14. Each floor area includes several floor plates that engage with sliding contact angles 30 of the floor extending along the outside of the side wall 18 of the drain channels. The size of the overlap parts is determined from practical considerations such as the size of existing openings in the wall surrounding the distillation column through which these parts pass. This is necessary because the plates are usually collected inside the distillation column after it is installed at the production site. In addition to the perforated parts of the overlap, a plate of this type, as a rule, may contain non-perforated end plates 26 located between the end wall 20 of the drain channel 13 and the other edge of the plate.
The overlap in the Central part of the plate in figure 5 contains two overlap plates, while the overlap located on each of the extreme or crescent sections on the periphery of the plate, consists of three parts of the overlap. In previous technical solutions, the corresponding fixed parts of the ceiling are placed on supports of a known type, which were stationary, and then fixed in place by means of bolts or other suitable fixing means. In the subject matter of the present invention, the movable overlapping parts preferably have engagement grooves 25 located at their abutting edge so that the overlapping parts can be moved and positioned in a position corresponding to the inside diameter of the column. In this case, the parts (plates) of the overlap extend outward in the direction of the arrowheads shown on the parts of the overlap, which provides regulation usually in the direction of increasing the diameter of the fractioning plate. The moving parts of the overlap on the two extreme parts of the overlap on opposite sides of the plate thereby move perpendicular to the drain channel. Thus, the gap 23 between the inner surface of the column and the outer edge of the fractionation plate is adjustable.
The parts of the floor are laid on the support 30 of the floor and other structural means provided for their support of the movable (s) of the part (s), and move if necessary. These supports are absent on the periphery of the plates. They are then fixed in place by fastening means 6. The fastening means 6 can usually be nuts with bolts with suitable washers or gaskets to communicate with the overlap and to secure them in place by tightening the nut. The joints between the parts of the overlap are preferably overlapped with the backing plates 28 located below the overlap. More extensive information on the use of backing plates for supporting the overlap can be found in US Pat. No. 5,537,714, which is incorporated herein by reference, to take into account essentially the nature of its overlap structure of the fractionation plate and the fractionation plate itself. Shim plates or other structural elements can be located between adjacent drain channels in many places. Parts of the ceiling located in the central area of the plates can be fixed in place by conventional fastening means for the ceiling.
This preferred embodiment, when using mobile parts of the ceiling to control the periphery of the upper plate, is combined with a unique method of supporting the upper plate, which results in an installation method that includes: installing the first plate in the column, the first plate being supported at least partially by a ring, attached to the inner surface of the column; the installation of the second plate in the column by placing the second plate in the column, the second plate is fully supported only by the first plate, and the first plate contains a horizontal overlap made with the possibility of sliding, located between and near several parallel drain channels; adjusting the shape of the periphery of the second plate to bring it into line with the shape of the column by moving the ceiling in the direction of the wall of the column or back from it; and fixing the overlap in place.
Figure 6 shows in detail the end parts of the drain channels 13 at three stacked plates. Also shown are parts of the floor 14 at one of the two end parts of the floor. This figure shows the preferred structure of the end support plate 26, which extends from the end wall of the drain channels to the plate edge and can be supported by any support ring (not shown) provided inside the column to support the plates. The base plate has flanged sides having a height equal to the distance to the side wall 18 extending above the floor 14. As a rule, a drain hole 29 is provided. Preferably, the base plate is attached to the end of all drain channels, including those drain channels that are not supported by a ring attached to the column.
Fig. 7 is a simplified side view of an embodiment of the present invention in which the upper plate is supported by sickle-shaped, unfastened, lock-like plates (preventing the septum from tipping over), 27. Preferably, the number of plates is equal to the number of drain channels on the plate. These plates are centrally located in the drain channels and extend upward in a vertical plane above the drain channel, preferably parallel to the lateral side 18 of the rectangular drain channel 13. The bottom plate 21 of the drain plate of the upper plate is supported by the upper edge of the groove cut in each loose plate. This flat loose plate 27 shown in FIG. 7 extends across the width of the drain channel 13 and is held in place by four holders 35 that extend through the entrance of the drain channel perpendicular to the loose plate.
The variant shown in Fig. 7 finds application when it is necessary to create a larger space in the column without resorting to increasing the depth of the drain channels, as required to create this space in the configuration of stacked plates. It is believed that this will reduce the cost, while increasing the depth of the drain channels. Vertical plates 27 may be attached to the end walls of the drain channels. Therefore, they in the drain channel pass down a considerable distance. When used in combination with holders 35, which are perpendicular to the side wall 18 and preferably extend into the drain channel, they can significantly increase the rigidity of the drain channel, thereby increasing their functionality as a support element located across the column. Further information on the plates 27 can be found in the aforementioned US Pat. No. 5,383,390.
In the proposed invention, plates with several drain channels can also be used, such as those described in the aforementioned US Patent No. A-3410540. Plates with many drain channels have several distinctive physical characteristics. For example, a plate with several drain channels does not have a “receiving pan”. It is usually a non-perforated portion located below the outlet of the drain channel. It is the non-perforated area of the plate, on which the liquid passing from the drain channel acts horizontally before the passage to cover the plate. In a preferred embodiment of the fractionation plate with several drain channels, the horizontal surface area of the floor is divided into recessed areas that function as drain channels, and a flat area called the floor, where vapor-liquid contact usually occurs. There are no non-perforated surfaces designed to receive the liquid passing down from the plate located directly above.
Another distinguishing feature of the conventional type of fractionation plate with several drain channels is the presence of a relatively large number of parallel drain channels, evenly spaced on the plate. One to fifteen or more drain channels can be used on each plate. These drain channels are located at relatively narrow gaps in comparison with the drain channels of the plates with transverse reflux, since they are really located on the surface of the plate, and not just on its periphery. The distance between adjacent drain channels (measured between their side walls) in a plate with several drain channels should be from 0.2 to 2.0 m, and preferably less than 0.5 m. However, in a significant number of cases, you may need only one drain channel .
The drain channel of a plate with several drain channels is also unique in comparison with the drain channels used in plates with a transverse reflux. The drain channel usually does not go down all the way to the next fractionation plate. Rather, it reaches a level well above the middle of the free volume between the two plates. A drain channel extending downward from a plate located above generally reaches a level well above the overlap surface of the lower plate and the inlet in the drain channels of the lower plate. Thus, the inlet at the bottom of the plate is not closed, as is the case with a plate with transverse reflux. In accordance with the present invention, stacked plates may reduce this feature.
Another distinctive feature of a plate with several drain channels is the presence of means for sealing the fluid outlet near the bottom of the drain channel. The bottom of the drain channel partially closes to slow the direct passage of liquid downward outward from all drain channels. This causes the intentional accumulation and retention of a sufficient amount of foam to ensure that the foam is separated into a clean liquid and vapor. This seal protects the drain channel from upstream steam. This sealed fluid outlet is much higher than the overlap of the tray located immediately below, and is preferably at a level above the inlet of the drain channels associated with this next lower tray. Pure liquid accumulated in the lower part of the drain channel passes out onto the next plate through the holes in the bottom of the drain channel. Some of the fluid, if necessary, may also exit through openings in the side walls of the drain channels. Details of various designs of means for sealing liquid outlets for rectangular drain channels can be found in US Pat. No. 4,159,291, which is incorporated herein by reference to take into account mainly its design of rectangular drain channels, overlap material and sealed liquid outlet openings for drain channels.
In embodiments using V-shaped drain channels, openings 15 in the side walls of the drain channel are preferably arranged in one or more rows extending along the central axis of the drain channel. Preferably, the holes are located in the side walls, and not in the bottom of the V-shaped drain channel. As with rectangular drain channels, the holes should not be located directly above the drain channels located below the plate or when released into it. A suitable round hole diameter is about 0.5-2.5 cm. This is mainly important for good work efficiency and plate performance. This size should also provide a sufficient amount of liquid overhead to prevent upward passage of steam through openings in the drain channels. Such a desired arrangement of openings in the drain channels can be defined as being in the lower third of the drain channel.
The overlap portions between any drain channels on the tray are preferably substantially flat to be flat and oriented horizontally. These overlapping portions are preferably provided with uniformly distributed openings in accordance with the total cross-sectional area of the openings in order to ensure a completely predetermined flow of steam that passes upward through the plate at an appropriate speed. The same round openings are preferred, as with a standard mesh plate, but can be supplemented with guide grooves for steam flow. The area of the holes formed by the perforated holes on the overlap can range from 5% up to 30-45% of the overlap area of the plate. Round holes typically have a diameter of about 0.3 to 0.6 cm, but can be up to 1.87 cm in diameter.
The device according to the present invention may be new in shape or modified existing device. That is, the existing tray-equipped column can be modified to use the present invention.
The gap between the plates, that is, the vertical distance between the plates, according to the present invention should be less. Plates with multiple drain channels are often set at a distance between plates of approximately 25 to 50 cm (10-20 inches). Intervals of less than 25 cm (10 inches) are not applicable, and the gap between the plates of the present invention may be as low as, for example, 17 cm (7 inches). The gap between the plates inside the sets of stacked plates of plates may differ from the gaps between the sets of plates.
One embodiment of the present invention can therefore be described as a set of fractionation plates for installation in a vertical distillation column having an upper first end part and a lower second end part, and used to separate volatile chemical compounds by fractional distillation, in which the set of plates contains a first fractionation plate having many parallel drainage channels extending below the upper surface of the plate bounded by a perforated overlap m trays, drainage channels have sealing the liquid outlet and separated by a perforated ceiling; a lower second fractionation plate of substantially identical construction with a first fractionation plate, wherein the drain channels of the first fractionation plate extend downwardly and are supported by the second fractionation plate such that the upper first fractionation plate rests completely on the lower second fractionation plate.
Another embodiment of the present invention can be described as a distillation column, which contains a closed cylindrical outer column having upper and lower end parts and attached reboiling and condensation systems for the overhead; and many sets of plates containing the upper first and lower second plate of the same design, and the upper first plate is fully supported by the lower second plate. It should be noted that this column is an external and thereby closed technological capacity of a cylindrical shape. It therefore differs from any cylindrical shell installed in the outer cylindrical column as part of the cartridge system described above. Thus, according to the present invention, a gap 23 is made between the plate overlap 14 and this cylindrical external process vessel.

Claims (11)

1. A distillation column containing a set of fractionation plates made in the form of a closed cylindrical outer column (1) having a) an upper and lower end portion and a cylindrical inner surface, b) an upper first and lower second fractionation plate of the same design, and the fractionation plates have a drain channel (13), which has a side wall (18) extending outward from the vapor-liquid contact area formed by the overlap (14), the upper first plate being supported in place inside to Lonna (1) of the bottom of the second plate and the bottom plate with the second support pillar attached to the outer column (1).
2. The column according to claim 1, characterized in that the drain channel (13) of the upper first plate is supported by the upper part of the drain channel (13) of the lower second plate.
3. The column according to claim 1, characterized in that the drain channel (13) of the upper first plate is supported by the overlap (14) of the second plate.
4. The column according to claim 1, characterized in that the drain channel (13) of the first plate is supported by a vertical partition (27) extending outward from the drain channel (13) of the lower second plate.
5. The column according to claim 1, characterized in that both side walls (18) of the drain channel extend above and below the vapor-liquid contact area.
6. The column according to claim 1, characterized in that the perforated overlap of the upper first plate has a substantially circular periphery, which is separated from the inner surface of the column by an unsealed annular gap (23), which allows liquid to pass downward from the ceiling (14) of the upper first plates on the lower second plate.
7. The column according to claim 1, characterized in that the upper first plate has two extreme parts of the overlap (14) located between the drain channel (13) and the outer column (1), and both extreme parts are partially supported by the structure (31) in the form an arch having a ridge close to the ceiling (14) and two racks attached to the lower second plate.
8. A set of fractionation plates for installation in the column (1) of fractional distillation having an upper first end part and a lower second end part and used to separate volatile chemical compounds by fractional distillation, containing a) a first fractionation plate having many parallel drain channels (13 ), passing below the upper surface of the plate, limited by a perforated overlap (14) of the plate having an unsealed round periphery with drain channels (13) having sealed fluid outlets and separated by a perforated overlap (14); and b) a lower second fractionation plate having a substantially identical design with the first fractionation plate, the drain channels (13) of the first fractionation plate extend downwardly and supported by the second fractionation plate so that the upper first fractionation plate is fully supported by the lower second fractionation plate.
9. A set of fractionation plates according to claim 8, characterized in that the drain channels (13) of the first plate are supported by the drain channels (13) of the second plate.
10. A set of fractionation plates according to claim 8, characterized in that the upper first plate is supported, at least in part, by a vertical loose wall (27) extending outward from the drain channel (13) of the lower second plate.
11. A method of installing plates in a column (1) for fractional distillation, comprising a) installing a first plate in a column (1), the first plate being supported at least partially by a ring (12) attached to the inner surface of the column (1), b) installing the second plate in the column (1) by assembling the second plate inside the column, the second plate being supported only by the first plate, and the first plate having a horizontal overlap is sliding so that the horizontal overlap is between c) by adjusting the shape of the periphery of the second plate to match the shape of the column (1) by moving the ceiling (14) in the direction of the wall of the column or away from the wall, and d) fixing the ceiling (14) in place.
RU2000119917/15A 2000-07-25 2000-07-25 Rectifying column containing a panel of fractionating trays, a complete set of fractionating trays for installation in a column of fractional distillation and a method of installation of the fractionating trays in the column of fractional distillation RU2230593C2 (en)

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2497567C1 (en) * 2012-06-06 2013-11-10 ОТКРЫТОЕ АКЦИОНЕРНОЕ ОБЩЕСТВО "СИБУР Холдинг" Gas-fluid reactor
RU2500462C2 (en) * 2009-03-31 2013-12-10 Юоп Ллк Perfected feed of fluid to parallel-flow trays for vapour-fluid contact
RU2559961C2 (en) * 2010-11-10 2015-08-20 Кох-Глич, Лп Device for fluid collection and distribution for mass-transfer column and method using above device
RU2562482C1 (en) * 2014-09-10 2015-09-10 Игорь Анатольевич Мнушкин Fractionator
RU2597098C2 (en) * 2011-05-16 2016-09-10 Кох-Глич, Лп Use of downcomer beam to support adjacent cross-flow trays in mass-transfer columns and method related therewith
RU2618042C2 (en) * 2011-08-30 2017-05-02 Эвоник Дегусса Гмбх Method of producing methionine salts
RU2638846C2 (en) * 2013-02-21 2017-12-18 ДжиТиСи ТЕКНОЛОДЖИ ЮЭс ЭлЭлСи Separation processes using columns with partition walls

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2500462C2 (en) * 2009-03-31 2013-12-10 Юоп Ллк Perfected feed of fluid to parallel-flow trays for vapour-fluid contact
RU2559961C2 (en) * 2010-11-10 2015-08-20 Кох-Глич, Лп Device for fluid collection and distribution for mass-transfer column and method using above device
RU2597098C2 (en) * 2011-05-16 2016-09-10 Кох-Глич, Лп Use of downcomer beam to support adjacent cross-flow trays in mass-transfer columns and method related therewith
RU2618042C2 (en) * 2011-08-30 2017-05-02 Эвоник Дегусса Гмбх Method of producing methionine salts
US9346033B2 (en) 2012-06-06 2016-05-24 Public Joint Stock Company “SIBUR Holding” Gas-liquid reactor
RU2497567C1 (en) * 2012-06-06 2013-11-10 ОТКРЫТОЕ АКЦИОНЕРНОЕ ОБЩЕСТВО "СИБУР Холдинг" Gas-fluid reactor
RU2638846C2 (en) * 2013-02-21 2017-12-18 ДжиТиСи ТЕКНОЛОДЖИ ЮЭс ЭлЭлСи Separation processes using columns with partition walls
RU2562482C1 (en) * 2014-09-10 2015-09-10 Игорь Анатольевич Мнушкин Fractionator

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