RU2186949C2 - Method of recovery of fluid and gas from well and sucker-rod pumping unit for method embodiment - Google Patents

Method of recovery of fluid and gas from well and sucker-rod pumping unit for method embodiment Download PDF

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RU2186949C2
RU2186949C2 RU2000108991A RU2000108991A RU2186949C2 RU 2186949 C2 RU2186949 C2 RU 2186949C2 RU 2000108991 A RU2000108991 A RU 2000108991A RU 2000108991 A RU2000108991 A RU 2000108991A RU 2186949 C2 RU2186949 C2 RU 2186949C2
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cylinder
plunger
gas
fluid
tubing
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RU2000108991A
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Russian (ru)
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RU2000108991A (en
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В.Л. Грабовецкий
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Грабовецкий Владимир Леонидович
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Abstract

FIELD: oil producing industry; applicable in operation of wells with high gas factor and of well operated at dynamic heads at sucker-rod pump suction. SUBSTANCE: method provides that at end of plunger upward motion, fluid from tubing string starts entering the cylinder internal cavity. In course of oil recovery, from beginning of plunger upward motion, free gas accumulating on well annulus is introduced into cylinder internal cavity for its pumping-out together with gas-fluid mixture. At end of plunger upward motion, in order to enhance coefficient of unit admission and provision of pumping of free gas, separated fluid is introduced from annulus under effect of pressure of fluid column in tubing into cylinder internal cavity. This fluid is directed to this space over tubing walls from ascending fluid flow under gravity. In this case, separated fluid is throttled for additional separation of gas from fluid and for gradual increase of pressure in cylinder internal cavity. Device consists of cylinder with suction valve, plunger with pressure valve and case. It is provided with filter having radial holes and longitudinal channels and connected cylinder having longitudinal conical channel. Plunger is installed for opening at end of its upward motion, of cylinder radial hole and longitudinal conical channel for communication of cylinder internal cavity with internal cavity of tubing and throttling of separated fluid. Plunger has upper valve cage accommodating safety valve, seat, pusher and spring. Case upper end is connected by means of coupling to tubing, and its lower end is connected by means of subs to cylinder and external filter having plug. End connected with external filter is also connected with valve cage where suction valve and seat are located. EFFECT: increased oil recovery and time between overhauls of producing wells. 2 cl, 3 dwg

Description

 The invention relates to the oil industry and is intended for the operation of wells with a high gas factor, as well as for wells where operation is carried out at dynamic levels at the intake of a sucker rod pump.
 A well-known deep-well pump for wells producing products with a high gas content, consisting of two injection stages made in a cylinder with a suction valve through the use of a plunger equipped with a hollow stem with radial holes and having two pressure valves: one in the lower part, the other in the upper part, and the hollow piston rod passes into the deep pump through the stuffing box seal of the pair: metal - metal (1).
The disadvantage of the submersible pump is as follows:
at low dynamic levels, the pump cannot pump free gas from the annulus of the well without the presence of fluid. This is due to the fact that the pump has a harmful space enclosed between the discharge valve of the plunger in its lowermost position and the suction valve.
 In addition, during operation, under the influence of many factors, the tightness of the suction valve is violated, and when the plunger in the cylinder moves downward, part of the liquid is squeezed back into the well, as a result, the pump flow decreases. If a pump instead of a liquid pumps out free gas, its leakage through a valve pair will be many times higher, since the viscosity of the gas is many times lower than that of a liquid.
 A well-known deep-well pump with a fixed cylinder and a plunger of a special design (2). There are no standard valves with seat and ball in the plunger. The plunger consists of two to five bushings of the corresponding diameter. One grooved guide nipple is installed between the bushings. All guide nipples are mounted on a rod connected to a string of pump rods. The diameter of the guide nipples is slightly smaller than the diameter of the bushings. The nipples at the ends have external chamfers, and the bushings have corresponding internal chamfers. The length of the stem between two consecutive guide nipples is slightly greater than the length of the sleeve. In addition, the sleeve has a longitudinal gap between two consecutive guide nipples, which ensures unhindered passage of fluid through the sleeve during half a pump cycle.
 With an upward stroke, the friction of the sleeve on the inner surface of the cylinder of the submersible pump causes its movement down to the lower guide.
 With a downward stroke, the friction of the sleeve in the cylinder causes its relative upward movement.
The disadvantage of the submersible pump is as follows:
at dynamic levels at the pump inlet and low gas pressures in the annular space, the pump cannot always pump out free gas, as there is a harmful space in the pump, in addition, during operation there are leaks through the suction valve, resulting in a downward stroke on the area of the bush ends the plunger has a high pressure drop, due to which they are tightly pressed against the nipples, so they do not move upward from the friction force until the total force on the pressure value of the compressed gas under the plunger and the force from friction of the bushings in the cylinder does not exceed the force acting on top of the ends of the bushings from the liquid column in the tubing.
 A known method of operating a well (3). The method includes lowering into the well a lifting column of pipes with a filter and a shank of variable cross-section in depth, unloading part of the weight of the lifting column with the liner resting on the bottom of the well, while the rocks in the reservoir are decompressed, in addition, the well is equipped with a deep pump and put into operation, moreover as a depth pump, a sucker-rod plunger pump is used, made in such a way that in the extreme upper position of the plunger its supra-plunger part is hydraulically connected to the sub-plunger part, and after the well’s hole in operation periodically with a frequency of 1-2 times a month block the flow line of the well at the wellhead for a time corresponding to 30-40 thousand strokes of the plunger and until the well production rate increases, in the future, when the well production rate decreases below the permissible value, the flow line overlap is repeated more often while the degree of unloading the weight of the lifting column to the bottom of the well is changed.
The disadvantages of the method of operating the well in the following:
1. At low dynamic levels in the noca cylinder cavity at the end of the upward stroke, when the sub-plunger part communicates with the supra-plunger, large dynamic shock loads are transmitted to the rod suspension, tubing, pumping unit and pump valves, resulting in a reduced service life this equipment, and in some cases their destruction can occur.
 2. At dynamic levels at the pump intake, the filling coefficient decreases, this is due to the fact that an unseparated liquid enters the subplunger part of the pump at the end of the upward stroke from above the plunger part, and since it enters the reduced pressure region, it is primarily gas will erupt, as a result of which, when the plunger moves upward from the bottom point, gas is released from the liquid that remains in the harmful space, occupying a certain volume in the cylinder. Thus, in each pumping cycle, the amount of liquid supplied from the annulus to the pump will decrease by the value of this volume.
 The technical task is to increase oil production and the overhaul period at production wells.
 The technical task is performed as follows.
 In production wells, in order to increase current oil production, the dynamic level is reduced until the sucker rod pump unit is received, and in this position, the gas-liquid mixture coming from the reservoir and the free gas accumulating in the annulus are pumped out, while the gas-liquid mixture and free gas are introduced into the inner the cavity of its cylinder from the beginning of the upward stroke of the plunger, and at the end of the upward stroke of the plunger to increase the filling factor of the installation and ensure pumping free gas and a separated liquid is introduced from the annular space into the internal cavity of the cylinder under the influence of the pressure of a liquid column located in the tubing from the annular space, which is directed into it along the walls of the tubing from the upward flow of fluid under the action of gravitational forces, while the separated fluid is throttled for additional gas evolution from it and a gradual increase in pressure in the inner cavity of the cylinder, while the sucker rod pump installation is characterized in that it is equipped with a morning filter with radial openings and longitudinal channels, and a cylinder connected to it with a longitudinal conical channel, and the plunger is installed with the possibility of opening at the end of the upward stroke of the radial hole of the cylinder and the longitudinal conical channel to communicate the internal cavity of the cylinder with the internal cavity of the tubing and provide throttling of the separated fluid, also the plunger has an upper valve cage, where the protective valve, seat, pusher and spring are located, while the casing is upper the end by means of a coupling is connected to the tubing, and the lower end is connected to the cylinder and the external filter with a plug by means of adapters, and the one that is connected to the external filter is also connected to the valve cage where the suction valve and seat are located.
 In FIG. 1-3 shows a sucker rod pump installation in the context - a General view.
 The sucker rod pump installation consists of a casing 10, which is placed, forming a hydraulic connection in the form of an annular space 6, an internal filter 4 with radial holes 3 and longitudinal channels 2 and a cylinder 9 connected to it, having a suction valve 23, a radial hole 15, a longitudinal conical channel 16 and a plunger 14, installed with the possibility of opening and closing these channels, through which the inner cavity 21 of the cylinder 9 through the annular space 6 communicates with the inner cavity of the tubing, while the plunger 14 sn is abused with a lower valve cage 17 with a pressure valve 18 and a saddle 19 with a fixed adapter 20, and an upper valve cage 8, where a protective valve 12, a seat 13, a pusher 11 and a spring 7 are located, while the upper valve cage 8 is connected to the pump rod 5, and the casing 10 with the upper end by means of the coupling 1 is connected to the tubing, and the lower end by means of the sub 25 and 26 with the cylinder 9 and the outer filter 27 with a plug 28, while the sub 26, which is connected to the outer filter 27, is also connected to the valve cell 22, where Suction valve 23 and seat 24 are still fitted.
 A method of producing liquid and gas from a well using a sucker rod pump unit is as follows.
 When underground repairs on tubing into the well to a given depth lower the sucker rod pump in assembled form, as shown in the accompanying drawings of figures 1, 2 and 3. Pumping the gas-liquid mixture coming from the reservoir and free gas accumulating in the annulus and forcing them to the earth's surface is carried out in the following sequence.
 During the course of the rods 5 and, consequently, the plunger 14 upwards, the protective valve 12 and the discharge valve 18 are closed under the action of their own weight, spring 7 and the pressure of the liquid column acting on them from above, and under the plunger 14 in the cylinder 9 a vacuum is created, resulting in annular space through an external filter 27, a sub 26, a seat 24 and a valve cage 22, lifting the suction valve 23 into the cylinder 9, the gas-liquid mixture and free gas begin to flow, at the same time from the cylinder 9 into the tubing string displaced etsya liquid mixture, located above the plunger 14. Lifting mixture accompanied by the growth of free gas (due to expansion and gas evolution) in the stream, so the tubing, depending on the intensity of gas evolution at different depths in series, there are several modes. In the lower part of the lifting pipes above the sucker rod pump, the gas-liquid mixture movement mode is usually bubble or cork, under these conditions, the liquid layer moves along the pipe walls, part of which gradually flows down due to gravitational forces and then enters the annular space 6 through the longitudinal channels 2 of the inner filter 4, while the gas, which is located in the annular space 6, is displaced through the radial holes 3 into the internal cavity of the internal filter 4, from where it is carried away by an upward flow of liquid bones. Thus, a separated liquid is accumulated in the annular space 6. At the end of the upward stroke, when the lower end of the plunger 14 in the cylinder 9 comes into contact with the longitudinal conical channel 16, a gap is formed through which the separated liquid begins to flow into the internal cavity 21 of the cylinder 9 from the annular space 6 under the action of the pressure of the liquid column present in the pump -compressor pipes, moreover, the liquid, passing through the slot, is throttled, which contributes to the additional release of gas from it directly in the internal cavity 21 of the cylinder 9, while the separated liquid three take lower position therein, and the gas - respectively top. Subsequently, as the plunger 14 moves upward along the longitudinal conical channel 16, the area of the slit passage section gradually increases, due to which the pressure in the inner cavity 21 of the cylinder 9 gradually increases to the pressure of the liquid column acting on the discharge valve 18 from above, while the free gas dissolves into the upper layers of the gas-liquid mixture, which usually consist of light fractions. As a result of the fact that during each cycle at the end of the upward stroke the separated liquid enters the cylinder 9, the pump filling factor increases, this is explained by the fact that when the plunger 14 moves upward from the liquid that is in the harmful space, practically no gas is released, therefore it increases net volume into which a gas-liquid mixture can come from the annulus.
 During the course of the rods 5 and, consequently, the plunger 14 downwards, the longitudinal conical channel 16 and the radial hole 15 connected to it gradually overlap, while the liquid displaced by the plunger 14 from the cylinder 9 enters the annular space 6 between the cylinder 9 and the casing 10. After the longitudinal cone is closed channel 16 and the radial hole 15 with the outer surface of the plunger 14, the gas-liquid mixture, lifting the discharge valve 18 and the protective valve 12, through the through channel of the sub 20, the seat 19, the lower valve cage 17, the hollow plunger 14 an upper valve cage 8 is supplied to the space above the plunger 14.
Thus, the application of the method of producing liquid and gas from a well and a sucker rod pump unit for its implementation will allow:
- increase the current oil production in wells with a high gas factor and in wells where operation is carried out at dynamic levels at the sucker rod pump intake due to the fact that free gas is pumped out from the annulus during operation, which leads to an increase in depression, and consequently, the flow of fluid from the reservoir into the well and due to the fact that the pumping of products is carried out continuously without interruptions in supply, since the sucker rod pump unit is not blocked by gas;
- to increase the overhaul period for wells with a low dynamic level due to the fact that at the end of the upward stroke from the inner cavity of the tubing and the annular space, a fluid flow enters the pump cylinder, which improves the efficiency of the pump valves in the gas environment;
- determine the tightness of the pump valves without the use of instruments.
SOURCES OF INFORMATION
1. N.D. Dragotescu. Deep pumping oil production. M., Nedra, 1966. "A submersible pump for wells producing products with a high gas content (tandem type)", p. 254.
 2. N.D. Dragotescu. Deep pumping oil production. M., Nedra, 1966. "Reynolds deep pump", p. 270, 271.
 3. Patent RU 2136851 C1, 6 E 21 V 43/00. "Method of operating the well" (prototype).

Claims (2)

 1. The method of producing liquid and gas from a well, carried out by means of a sucker rod pump unit, which is performed in such a way that, at the end of the upward stroke of the plunger, liquid from the tubing string begins to enter the internal cavity of the cylinder, characterized in that during the production process from the beginning upward plunger stroke, free gas accumulating in the annulus of the well is introduced into the internal cavity of the cylinder to pump it together with the gas-liquid mixture, and at the end of the upward stroke, the plunger and to increase the fill factor of the installation and ensure pumping of free gas into the internal cavity of the cylinder under the action of the pressure of a liquid column located in the tubing, a separated fluid is introduced from the annular space, which is sent to it along the walls of the tubing from the upward flow of fluid under the action of gravitational forces, while the separated liquid is throttled for additional gas evolution from it and a gradual increase in pressure in the internal her cylinder cavity.
 2. A sucker rod pump for producing liquid and gas from a well, consisting of a cylinder with a suction valve, a plunger with a discharge valve and a casing, characterized in that it is equipped with an internal filter with radial openings and longitudinal channels and a cylinder connected to it with a longitudinal conical channel and the plunger is installed with the possibility of opening at the end of its upward stroke the radial bore of the cylinder and the longitudinal conical channel for communicating the inner cavity of the cylinder with the inner cavity of the pump pressor tubes and to ensure throttling of the separated fluid, the plunger also has an upper valve cage where a protective valve, seat, pusher and spring are located, while the casing is connected to the tubing with the upper end of the sleeve and the cylinder and the external filter with the lower end with a plug by means of sub, and the one that is connected to the external filter is also connected to the valve cage, where the suction valve and seat are located.
RU2000108991A 2000-04-10 2000-04-10 Method of recovery of fluid and gas from well and sucker-rod pumping unit for method embodiment RU2186949C2 (en)

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Effective date: 20100411