RU2151331C1 - Centrifugal stepless transmission - Google Patents

Centrifugal stepless transmission Download PDF

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Publication number
RU2151331C1
RU2151331C1 RU97120647A RU97120647A RU2151331C1 RU 2151331 C1 RU2151331 C1 RU 2151331C1 RU 97120647 A RU97120647 A RU 97120647A RU 97120647 A RU97120647 A RU 97120647A RU 2151331 C1 RU2151331 C1 RU 2151331C1
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Russia
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coupling
clutch
continuously variable
variable transmission
blades
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RU97120647A
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Russian (ru)
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RU97120647A (en
Inventor
М.Н. Хабибуллин
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Хабибуллин Минзадит Навширванович
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Abstract

FIELD: mechanical engineering. SUBSTANCE: transmission is shaped as a centrifugal clutch. It has units of generation and transformation and rectification of pulses. Pulse generation and transformation unit includes the first half-clutch with sealed cavity and the second half-clutch positioned coaxially. Hydraulic resistors are located in peripheral part of sealed cavity. Pulse rectification unit contains overrunning clutch connected rigidly to the second half-clutch. Overrunning clutch may be connected to power consumer through flexible coupling. Hydraulic resistors are made of working blades mounted on the first half-clutch for rotation. Each of blades is coupled to the second half-clutch by gear transmission. Sealed cavity may be irregularly shaped. It may consist of sectors, edges of each sector corresponding to curves described by ends of rotating working blades. Sealed cavity is filled with working fluid to at least points of overlapping of sector edges. Blades are connected rigidly to gears engaged with central gear connected rigidly to the second half-clutch. Weights mounted on axle of rotation of blades for free rolling are suspended from pendulum holder. Blades are made integral with balancing parts positioned opposite to their working parts. Overrunning clutch may be coupled to power consumer by means of flexible coupling through flywheel. Flexible coupling is made of one or several Archimedean spirals. One of ends of every spiral is coupled to external casing of overrunning clutch and other, to flywheel. Flexible coupling may also comprise at least two discs with arched slots. EFFECT: higher wear resistance. 13 cl, 11 dwg

Description

 The invention relates to mechanical engineering, the creation of vehicles, and more specifically to devices for transmitting rotational motion, and can be used to transmit torque in machines and mechanisms, in particular in cars and tractors.
 Known centrifugal clutch containing a block for creating and transforming pulses, including coaxially mounted first coupling half with a sealed cavity, the second coupling half, hydraulic resistance installed in the peripheral part of the sealed cavity [1]. The coupling contains the loads placed on the levers, the elements of interaction with the driven coupling half mounted on the shoulders of the levers opposite to the loads. The coupling is equipped with eccentrics rigidly fixed to the second coupling half. The elements of interaction of the levers with the second coupling half are made in the form of rollers mounted on the axes. The rollers are in contact with the cam, and the levers are spring-loaded to the cam.
 High contact stresses at the contact points of the eccentrics with the rollers limit the increase in the durability of the coupling. Such a clutch can only be used as a safety clutch due to the occurrence of negative impulses created by two-arm levers in certain phases of the clutch rotation. The clutch could not be used as a continuously variable transmission for this reason.
 A centrifugal clutch is known comprising a pulse generation and transformation block, wherein the pulse generation and transformation block contains coaxially mounted first half coupling with a sealed cavity, a second half coupling, hydraulic resistance (hydraulic dampers with throttling means). The coupling contains eccentrics rotatably mounted, two-arm levers pivotally mounted on the first half-coupling in contact of one of the arms with the corresponding cam, weights placed on the other arm of each arm, and hydraulic dampers with throttling means. This clutch is equipped with a planetary gear, the carrier of which with the satellites installed on it is rigidly connected to the first coupling half by means of an overrunning clutch. Eccentrics are installed on the hub of the inner central wheel, hydraulic dampers are made in the form of two types of partitions located in the first coupling half, dividing the sealed cavity into parts. The partitions of the first type are made of different arms and installed by means of an axis parallel to the axis of the coupling and the axis of rotation of the levers, with the possibility of contact of the larger shoulder with the surface of the coupling half, which limits the sealed cavity, and the smaller shoulder with the lever, partitions of the second type are located with a throttling clearance relative to the lever [2] .
 Hydraulic dampers with throttling means have only a limited range of adaptability to different operating modes, in particular to changes in shaft rotation speed. At high speeds, the liquid does not have time to enter and withdraw from the throttling means at a speed corresponding to the operation of the mechanism. The presence of valves (rotary partitions) in this tool, in addition, complicates the device.
 This clutch also cannot be used in the form of a continuously variable transmission due to the lack of an efficiently operating pulse rectification unit.
 Further studies showed that a centrifugal clutch can be effectively used as a centrifugal continuously variable transmission only if there is a rectification unit for pulses arising from the operation of the device.
 This problem was partially solved in a centrifugal continuously variable transmission made in the form of a centrifugal clutch containing pulses for creating and transforming and rectifying pulses, and the pulsing block for creating and transforming pulses contains coaxially mounted first coupling half with a sealed cavity, a second coupling half, hydraulic resistors installed in the peripheral part of the tight cavity, and the pulse rectification unit contains an overrunning clutch, rigidly connected to the second coupling half, and the overrunning clutch is configured to pressure through elastic coupling with a power consumer. The coupling contains eccentrics mounted rotatably in the first coupling half, two shoulders levers pivotally mounted on the first coupling coupling with the contact of one of the arms with a corresponding cam, the other arms of which are centrifugal weights, and a hydraulic damping unit including partitions installed in the peripheral part of the sealed cavity with a gap in relation to goods, and a planetary gear, which drove with the satellites installed on it is rigidly connected to the second coupling half. The inner central wheel of the planetary gear is rigidly connected to the eccentrics. In this coupling, at least one of the end walls delimiting the cavity of the first coupling half, predominantly in the sections of these walls coinciding with the zone of location and possible movement of goods, is made of grooves. The loads are connected by an elastic connection with either partitions or with peripheral wall sections defining the cavity of the first coupling half [3].
 The creation of such a coupling allows you to use it in the form of a continuously variable transmission. However, the operation of such a clutch causes problems associated with the transmission of shocks arising at the joints of nodes during their operation. These shocks, transmitted to other parts of the system, increase noise and vibration during the operation of the coupling. In addition, as practice has shown, when using the above-described partitions in the coupling as the hydraulic resistances, at some angles of rotation the movement of goods does not completely obey the sinusoidal law, which complicates the complete smoothing of negative impulses and increases noise and vibration during the operation of the coupling. In addition, when a torque occurs on the output shaft, eccentrics and loads experience significant loads, which can lead to premature wear and breakdown of the device, even at engine speeds less than the maximum (for example, to obtain 1 kGm torque on a GAZ-24 when using This clutch required a load on the clowns up to 100 kg, and the car after transformation can take a torque of up to 80 kg). Therefore, the massive use of such couplings in cars with high-speed engines is not possible. In addition, this device uses ineffective coil springs that do not correspond to the loads, which also leads to premature failure of the coupling.
 The task was to create such a centrifugal continuously variable transmission, which would completely eliminate the appearance of negative impulses during the operation of the system, eliminate the excessive load on its parts when the engine is operating at high speeds, and have increased wear resistance, in particular, of its elastic element. Thus, the transmission service life would increase to values that meet the requirements of the global automotive industry.
 The problem was solved by the present invention.
 In a centrifugal continuously variable transmission, made in the form of a centrifugal clutch, containing blocks for creating and transforming, as well as for rectifying pulses, moreover, the block for creating and transforming pulses contains coaxially mounted first half-coupling with a sealed cavity, a second half-coupling, hydraulic resistance installed in the peripheral part of the sealed cavity, and the pulse rectification unit comprises an overrunning clutch rigidly connected to the second coupling half, the overrunning clutch being able to be connected by means of an elastic communication with the power consumer, according to the invention, the hydraulic resistance is made in the form of mounted on the first coupling half with the possibility of rotation of the working blades, each of which is connected via a gear transmission with the second coupling half.
 The sealed cavity is preferably made in the form of a figured cavity consisting of sectors, the edges of each of which correspond to the curves described by the ends of the working blades during their rotation.
 The cavity sectors are preferably identical and their edges are equally distant from the center of rotation of the cavity. The sectors of the cavity are preferably made with a cylindrical lateral surface, and the cavity is made in the form of half-cylinders.
 The sealed cavity is filled with the working fluid at least to the points of overlapping of the edges of the sectors.
 In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the rotor blades are rigidly connected to the gears meshing with the central gear rigidly connected to the second coupling half.
 On the axis of rotation of the rotor blades, loads suspended on a pendulum holder are preferably mounted with free swinging.
 The working blades are preferably made integral with the balancing parts mounted opposite to their working parts.
 The freewheel is preferably adapted to be coupled by means of an elastic connection with a power consumer via a flywheel.
 In this case, the elastic connection can be made in the form of one or more Archimedean spirals, one of the ends of each of which is connected to the outer clip of the freewheel, and the other end to the flywheel.
 The elastic connection is preferably made in the form of at least two disks with arcuate slots located therein.
 In a preferred embodiment of the invention, each disk is rigidly mounted on the flywheel and mounted on its own separate eccentric, mounted with the possibility of rolling in the disk, and the eccentrics are rigidly connected to the outer race of the freewheel.
 The centrifugal continuously variable transmission is equipped with a reversing mechanism, which is rigidly connected to the flywheel.
 The functions of these features and their relationship with the technical effect achieved by the invention are described below.
 An impulse generation and transformation unit is ultimately needed to increase engine torque.
 The specified block contains the first coupling half with a sealed cavity, the second coupling half, hydraulic resistance (made in the form of working blades mounted on the first coupling half with the possibility of rotation, each of which is connected via a gear to the second coupling half. The blades are installed in the peripheral part of the tight cavity). Impellers are needed to create pulses. When the blades interact with the working fluid, pulses occur, and when the blades interact through a gear with the second coupling half, the torque is transformed. Thus, these features provide an increase in the amplitude of the oscillation of the pulses.
 The sealed cavity is preferably made in the form of a figured cavity consisting of sectors, the edges of each of which correspond to the curves described by the ends of the working blades during their rotation. This is necessary for the formation of "vessels" to collect the working fluid under the action of centrifugal force during the operation of the coupling, as well as to ensure a minimum clearance between the end of the blade and the periphery of the sealed cavity.
 The sealed cavity is filled with the working fluid at least to the points of overlapping of the edges of the sectors. This is necessary to ensure maximum resistance of the working fluid to the movement of the blades and to ensure the possibility of fluid transfer from one "vessel" to another according to the principle of communicating vessels. This prevents the possibility of an imbalance due to the difference in the volume of liquid in the vessels.
 The rotor blades are rigidly connected to the gears meshed with the central gear gear rigidly connected to the second coupling half. This is necessary to ensure that the rotor blades are brought into rotation and the impulse moment is transmitted from the first coupling half to the output shaft.
 On the axis of rotation of the rotor blades mounted with the possibility of free rolling suspended on a pendulum holder loads. This additionally increases the resistance to rotation of the blades due to the action of centrifugal force on the loads and thereby increases the momentum transmitted to the rectification unit.
 The working blades are preferably made integral with the balancing parts mounted opposite to their working parts. This prevents imbalance during the rotation of the blades even at high speeds.
 The pulse rectification unit is necessary to increase the duration of the pulse and, as a result, to rectify the torque, which is necessary to move the vehicle from its place and accelerate it. The pulse rectification unit comprises an overrunning clutch rigidly connected to the second coupling half, the overrunning clutch being able to be connected via elastic coupling with a power consumer.
 An overrunning clutch, rigidly connected to the second coupling half, prevents possible rolling during transmission of rotation, preventing the shaft from returning. The freewheel is preferably adapted to be coupled by means of an elastic connection with a power consumer via a flywheel. A flywheel and an elastic coupling (spring) provide approximately constant torque to the chassis of the machine. They smooth out the sharp pulses created during the operation of the clutch, thereby preventing their propagation through the joints of the gears.
 In practice, it was shown that the most effective elastic connection can be realized in the form of one or more Archimedean spirals, one of the ends of each of which is connected to the outer clip of the freewheel, and the other end to the flywheel.
 In addition (most preferably), the elastic bond can be made in the form of at least two disks with arcuate slots located in them (each such disk resembles an annular spring). The presence of two or more disks provides mutual balancing of this node.
 Each disk is rigidly mounted on the flywheel and mounted on its own individual eccentric with the possibility of rolling, and the eccentrics are rigidly connected to the outer race of the freewheel. The centers of the eccentrics are located symmetrically to the center of rotation of the freewheel. This is necessary to ensure that disc eccentric systems operate in the same phase.
 The reversing mechanism, which is rigidly connected to the flywheel, provides the possibility of forward, reverse and neutral position during engine operation.
 For a better understanding of the invention below is an example of its implementation with reference to the accompanying drawings.
 In FIG. 1 shows an electrical circuit (electrical analogue) simulating the operation and principle of operation of the proposed mechanism and given for a better understanding of its operation.
 In FIG. 2 shows a General view in longitudinal section of the proposed device.
 FIG. 3 illustrates a cross-section of a sealed cavity (AA in FIG. 2) in one embodiment of the device.
 FIG. 4 illustrates a cross-section of a sealed cavity (A-A in FIG. 2) in another preferred embodiment of a device with weights suspended on a pendulum holder on the axis of rotation of the blades.
 In FIG. 5 shows in detail the working blade and the load suspended on a pendulum holder on the axis of rotation of the working blade.
 In FIG. 6 separately shows a cross section of the working blade and the load (A-A in FIG. 5).
 In FIG. 7 shows a cross section of an overrunning clutch (B-B in FIG. 2) and part of a flywheel.
 In FIG. 8 illustrates the implementation of an elastic bond in the form of Archimedean spirals (section C-C in FIG. 2).
 In FIG. Figure 9 shows the execution of an elastic bond in the form of disks with arched slots located in them, the relative position of the disks and eccentrics.
 In FIG. 10 shows a cross section of the disks (A-A in FIG. 9).
 In FIG. 11 shows a reversing mechanism and gear blocks with a power take-off shaft (section D-D in FIG. 2).
 Centrifugal continuously variable transmission contains blocks for creating and transforming pulses (pulser) 1, as well as block 2 for rectifying pulses. The pulsator 1 contains coaxially mounted first (leading) coupling half 3 with a sealed cavity 4 and a second (driven) coupling half 5. The second coupling half 5 is installed (being simultaneously an output shaft) by means of bearings 6. In the peripheral part 7 of the sealed cavity 4 are mounted on bearings 8 symmetrically the axis of rotation of the first half-coupling 3 is four working vanes 9. Each of the working vanes 9 is rigidly connected to the gear 10. Each of the gears 10 is engaged with the gear 11, rigidly connected with the second half-coupling 5 (Fig. 2 and 3). As can be seen from FIG. 3, the sealed cavity 4 is made in the form of a figured cavity consisting of sectors 7, the edges 12 of each of which correspond to the curves described by the ends 13 of the blades 9 during their rotation. As can be seen from FIG. 3, sectors 7 of the cavity 4 are made with a cylindrical lateral surface, in the form of half-cylinders. The sealed cavity 4 is filled with a working fluid at least to the points 14 of overlapping the edges of the sectors 7 (during the operation of the coupling). On the axes 15 of rotation of the rotor blades 9 are installed (in the preferred embodiment, see Fig. 4, 5, 6) with the possibility of free rolling on the pendulum holder 16 loads 17. The rotor blades 9 are made integral with the balancing parts 18 mounted opposite (relative to the axis of rotation working blades) to their working parts 13.
 The pulse rectification unit 2 contains an overrunning clutch 19 (Fig. 7), the ferrule of which by means of a spline connection 20 is rigidly connected to the second coupling half 5. The overrunning clutch 19 is connected to the flywheel 21 by means of elastic coupling (Archimedean spirals 22 (Fig. 8) or disks 23 ( Fig. 9 and 10) with the arcuate slots located 24). In the latter embodiment, each disk 23 is rigidly mounted on the flywheel 21 and mounted on its own separate eccentric 25 with the possibility of rolling, and the eccentric 25 is rigidly connected to the outer cage of the freewheel 19.
 The device is equipped with a reversing mechanism 26 (Fig. 11), which is rigidly connected with the flywheel 21 and the power take-off shaft 27. The reversing mechanism 26 includes a gear unit 28, a reverse gear 29, a reverse and forward gear lever 30.
 The device operates as follows.
 When the motor shaft rotates (the shaft is not indicated in the drawing), the pulsator 1 rotates and, therefore, the first coupling half 3 with working blades 9 located in the sealed cavity 4. The working fluid (oil) located in the sealed cavity 4 rushes to the peripheral part of the sealed cavity 4, filling sectors 7. To the second half-coupling 5 (the output shaft of the pulser 1) some resistance moment is applied, associated with the vehicle being at rest. In this case, the gear 11, made at the same time with the output shaft, also remains at rest. Therefore, the associated gears 10 (satellites) rotate around its axis, involving working blades 9 in the rotation. The blades 9, trying to remove the liquid from the sectors ("vessels") 7, experience fluid resistance. At engine speeds lower than the workers, fluid is transfused from one “vessel” to another. In this case, the output shaft experiences a pulsed effect from the satellites 10 through the central gear wheel 11. Since the amplitude of the pulse fluctuation is lower than the moment of resistance of the vehicle, the latter cannot move. With boosting the engine speed, it is possible to achieve a high amplitude of oscillation of the pulse on the impulse by increasing the resistance of the liquid using centrifugal force. These pulses are transmitted to the output shaft and then through the overrunning clutch 19 to the elastic coupling - element 22 or 23. In this case, the elastic elements 22 or 23 are deformed and their position is fixed by the overrunning clutch 19. If the elastic element is made in the form of an Archimedean spiral 22 (Fig. 8), its deformation occurs due to the twisting of the spring tape from a large radius to a small one. In this case, the small radius is determined by the radius of the shank of the overrunning clutch, and the large diameter is determined by the radius of the flywheel cavity 21.
 In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the elastic element is disks 23 with arcuate slots 24, rigidly fixed in the cavity of the flywheel 21. Due to the action of eccentrics rigidly mounted in the freewheel, the disk is clamped in the radial direction. The walls of the slots 24, closing with each other, with great resistance, make it possible to make an eccentric angular movement. At the same time, with the same force, the disks 23 tend to rotate the flywheel elastically. Due to the small amplitude of the oscillations of the size of the slots 24, such an elastic element can last longer.
 Due to the fixation in the housing of the reversing mechanism of the input end of the elastic element by means of the overrunning clutch, the release of the force stored by the elastic element 22 or 23 occurs through the reversing mechanism 26. Depending on the position of the lever 30, the vehicle starts to move forward or backward. As the speed increases, the vehicle accelerates. Finally, there comes a time when the working blades 9 can not overcome the resistance of the working fluid due to excessive exposure to centrifugal force, the blades 9 stop moving and the system becomes quasi-rigid, behaves as a whole.
 In a preferred embodiment of the invention, containing loads 17 mounted on the axis of rotation 15 of the blades 9 with the possibility of free rolling, you can get more powerful pulses with the same overall dimensions of the pulser 1. This is achieved by the appearance of additional resistance to the movement of the blades 9, caused by the action of centrifugal forces on loads 17. When the working blades 9 remove the loads 17 from the periphery to the center, when they move, work is performed against the action of centrifugal forces. In this case, a more powerful pulse appears on the output shaft 5 of the second coupling half than that associated only with the liquid. When the loads 17 together with the blades 9 move from the center to the periphery, the loads 17 freely break away from the blades and rush to the periphery of the sealed cavity 4 independently, without any impact on the blades 9. Due to the free rolling of the load 17, the latter cannot carry along the blade 9, and a negative impulse cannot occur. Due to the presence of liquid inside the mechanism (oil), when the cargo and the blade are again brought together, the liquid is a kind of gasket (hydraulic damper) between them, preventing a shock. The next impulse takes place in a similar way.
 When the speed is reduced to the minimum value, the system switches off again and the vehicle stops. In such a pulsator, negative pulses are not generated associated with the rotation of the input shaft in the opposite direction, therefore, all the disadvantages that are characteristic of known solutions are eliminated completely.
 Due to the lack of large contact stresses at the nodes, such a centrifugal stepless transmission can be developed with a large margin of safety, therefore, make it durable.
 The most clear and concise understanding of the foregoing will contribute to the description of the electrical "analog" of the proposed device (Fig. 1). In this drawing, the letter P stands for the converter, the letters TR for the transformer, the letter C for the current rectifier.
 For example, the voltage from a direct current source (12V - battery) needs to be increased to 36 V (welding machine).
 An analogue of this task is the transmission of torque supplied to the input shaft and its removal from the output shaft.
 As you know, to increase the DC voltage with a transformer, it must first be converted to alternating current, and rectified before being supplied to the consumer. These tasks are performed in an analog electrical device through two blocks: the creation and transformation of pulses 1 (including the converter P and transformer TR) and the pulse rectification unit 2 (including the rectifier).
 The same, in fact, happens in the proposed device. A conditionally constant torque is supplied to the input shaft from the engine. The rotor blades associated with the second coupling half transform this moment into a variable one. Since the amplitude of the oscillations of the pulses is higher than the moment developed by the engine, a transformation of the torque occurs. An overrunning clutch, an elastic element and a flywheel, in turn, play the role of a torque rectifier.
Literature
1. USSR author's certificate N 1516645, cl. F 16 D 43/14, 1989.
 2. RF patent N 2006711, cl. F 16 D 43/14, 1992.
 3. RF patent N 2089763, cl. F 16 D 43/14, September 1997.

Claims (13)

 1. Centrifugal continuously variable transmission, made in the form of a centrifugal clutch, containing blocks for creating and transforming, as well as rectifying pulses, and the block for creating and transforming pulses contains coaxially mounted first half coupling with a sealed cavity, a second half coupling, hydraulic resistance installed in the peripheral part of the sealed cavity, and the pulse rectification unit comprises an overrunning clutch rigidly connected to the second coupling half, the overrunning clutch being able to be connected by means of an elastic connection with the consumer of power, characterized in that the hydraulic resistance is made in the form of installed on the first coupling half with the possibility of rotation of the working blades, each of which is connected via a gear to the second coupling half.
 2. The centrifugal continuously variable transmission according to claim 1, characterized in that the sealed cavity is made in the form of a figured cavity consisting of sectors, the edges of each of which correspond to the curves described by the ends of the blades during their rotation.
 3. Centrifugal continuously variable transmission according to claim 2, characterized in that the sectors of the cavity are made identical, and their edges are equally distant from the center of rotation of the cavity.
 4. Centrifugal continuously variable transmission according to claim 3, characterized in that the sector sectors are made with a cylindrical lateral surface, and the cavity is made in the form of half cylinders.
 5. Centrifugal continuously variable transmission according to claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the sealed cavity is filled with a working fluid at least to the points of overlapping of the edges of the sectors.
 6. The centrifugal continuously variable transmission according to claim 1, characterized in that the rotor blades are rigidly connected to the gears meshed with the central gear gear rigidly connected to the second coupling half.
 7. Centrifugal continuously variable transmission according to claim 1, characterized in that on the axis of rotation of the rotor blades installed freewheeling suspended on a pendulum holder loads.
 8. Centrifugal continuously variable transmission according to claims 1 to 7, characterized in that the working blades are made in one piece with balancing parts installed opposite to their working parts.
 9. The centrifugal continuously variable transmission according to claim 1, characterized in that the overrunning clutch is made with the possibility of connection by means of elastic coupling with the power consumer through the flywheel.
 10. The centrifugal continuously variable transmission according to claim 9, characterized in that the elastic connection is made in the form of one or more Archimedean spirals, one of the ends of each of which is connected to the outer race of the freewheel, and the other end to the flywheel.
 11. Centrifugal continuously variable transmission according to claim 9, characterized in that the elastic connection is made in the form of at least two disks with arcuate slots located in them.
 12. The centrifugal continuously variable transmission according to claim 11, characterized in that each disk is rigidly mounted on the flywheel and mounted on its own eccentric with the possibility of rolling, and the eccentrics are rigidly connected to the outer race of the freewheel.
 13. The centrifugal continuously variable transmission according to claim 9, characterized in that it is equipped with a reversing mechanism, which is rigidly connected to the flywheel.
RU97120647A 1997-12-10 1997-12-10 Centrifugal stepless transmission RU2151331C1 (en)

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RU2151331C1 true RU2151331C1 (en) 2000-06-20

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