RU2115639C1 - Apparatus for processing waste to yield biohumus and vermiculture - Google Patents

Apparatus for processing waste to yield biohumus and vermiculture Download PDF

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Publication number
RU2115639C1
RU2115639C1 RU97104017A RU97104017A RU2115639C1 RU 2115639 C1 RU2115639 C1 RU 2115639C1 RU 97104017 A RU97104017 A RU 97104017A RU 97104017 A RU97104017 A RU 97104017A RU 2115639 C1 RU2115639 C1 RU 2115639C1
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RU
Russia
Prior art keywords
perforated
walls
casing
angle
worms
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RU97104017A
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Russian (ru)
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RU97104017A (en
Inventor
В.В. Тараторкин
В.Г. Матвейкин
В.И. Бодров
Е.В. Чекасина
В.Ф. Мещерет
А.В. Тараторкина
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Тараторкин Владимир Васильевич
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Priority to RU97104017A priority Critical patent/RU2115639C1/en
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Publication of RU2115639C1 publication Critical patent/RU2115639C1/en
Publication of RU97104017A publication Critical patent/RU97104017A/en

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    • Y02A40/208

Abstract

FIELD: waste processing. SUBSTANCE: apparatus contains casings with screen bottoms, side walls, and covers, which form a unit on common stay, and overflow pipe. In the bottom part of each casing, there are pan and support consisting of vertical legs and perforated plate. Side walls of casing are inclined inside at angle 5 deg. and provided with vertical ribs with guides made at angle 25 deg. Thickness of vertical ribs is 1-5 mm and distance between them 5 to 12 mm. Casings are perforated in one of their parts and have back protrusions and bearing bosses. Cover of each casing consists of upper pan with perforated bottom, loading cone, and suspended bosses. Screen bottom is executed in the form of continuous tape of air and moisture-impermeable cloth with side bulges. Perforated plate of the support is positioned at the same level with perforated part of casing. EFFECT: enhanced process efficiency due to eliminated wall-boundary drying of feed mixture. 9 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl

Description

 The invention relates to agriculture, namely, devices for the processing of organic waste, including natural origin, using specially derived vermiculture in a high-quality fertilizer - vermicompost.
 Due to its structure and properties, vermicompost is an environmentally friendly fertilizer, allows you to restore soil biocenosis, increases productivity. In the process of processing, a large amount of vermiculture is formed, which is used in the future as a valuable protein feed.
 The invention can be used in small farms and private households.
 Known box device for the processing of organic waste and biohumus using vermiculture. The device is made of removable drawer pallets with mesh walls and a bottom. The boxes are filled with the processed product and stacked one on top of the other (French Application, 2594434, CL C 05 F 9/04, 1987).
 A disadvantage of the known device is the presence of wall drying of the nutrient mixture, which reduces the yield of vermiculture and vermicompost, as well as difficulties arise in the separation of cocoons and vermicompost.
 Also known is a device for growing vermiculture in a garden plot with biohumus production (RU, patent 2033049, class A 01 K 67/033, C 05 F 3/06, 1995), in which cultivation of vermiculture is carried out in a substrate laid in suspended racks. boxes, moreover, aeration is carried out through holes in the bottom, watering the substrate with worms - by hand or shower, and to optimize production, humidity, temperature and density of vermiculture are regulated.
 The raw materials for growing worms are manure, litter, the organic part of household garbage and waste, sewage sludge, plant residues and waste (straw, dry hay, leaves, tops, sawdust, shavings).
 As the number of worms increases, they are divided into vermicompost, cocoons, and vermiculture with a substrate.
 However, this device, like the previous one, has a very significant drawback - the drying of the substrate near the walls of the boxes, which reduces the productivity of the process and reduces the yield of vermiculture per unit weight of the nutrient mixture.
 The closest in technical essence to the invention is a device for producing vermicompost, protein feed and vermiculture, containing housing with a mesh bottom, side walls and a cover, designed to form a module on a common rack (RF patent, 2054402, class C 05 F 3/06 , A 01 K 67/033, 02.20.96).
 Obtaining vermicompost and vermiculture in this device includes the operation of introducing worms with nutrient material into the lower case. As the nutritious material is eaten by the worms and settles, it is periodically added from above with layers, while moisturizing. Worms from the lower layers of the contents of the hulls move up to the feed, in the lower part there remains a processed substrate: the caprolites of the worms are vermicompost. As the first housing is filled, the next housing is installed, where the layer of nutrient material is again filled and where worms rush through the net bottom. As the second housing is filled, the third is installed. The lower case is retracted, the middle becomes lower, and the upper case - middle. The contents of the lower case - biohumus, ready for sale. A breeding worm population is shared for the purpose of regenerating the working population and isolating the worms for use as protein feed.
 A disadvantage of the known device is the near-wall drying of the nutrient mixture at the walls of the pallet body, which reduces the yield of vermicompost and worms per unit weight of the nutrient mixture.
 The objective of the invention is to increase the productivity of the process of processing waste into vermicompost and cultivation of worms. The invention also allows to improve the environmental situation of small cities, workers' villages, villages, private households by processing organic and inorganic waste generated during the life of people, waste generated earlier, located in dumps and not having useful use to produce highly effective organic fertilizer - biohumus given composition for growing any type of plant, increasing the yield of cocoons and vermicompost per unit weight of the nutrient mixture.
 The problem is solved in that the processing of waste into vermicompost, protein feed and vermiculture is carried out in the proposed device.
 The invention allows to separate worms, cocoons and vermicompost more efficiently than in known devices, as well as to increase the yield of target products.
 The proposed device for the cultivation of vermiculture and production of vermicompost consists of cases with a mesh bottom, side walls and a cover, designed to form a module on a common rack, and in the lower part of each case there is a pallet, overflow tube and stand, consisting of vertical supports and a perforated plate, the side walls of the casing are provided with vertical ribs with guides, the casing also has an inclined wall, a perforated part, a rear protrusion and support castings, and the cover consists of a top Oddone with a perforated bottom, the loading cone and suspended ebbs, the net bottom is designed as a continuous strip of fabric with lateral thickenings.
In addition, in the device, the perforated plate of the stand is located on the same level with the perforated part of the case, the side walls of the case are inclined inside the case at an angle of 5 o , and the vertical ribs have a thickness of 1 - 5 mm and the distance between them is 5 - 12 mm, and the guides on vertical ribs are made at an angle of 25 o .
The loading cone of the device consists of side walls, a rear vertical and front inclined walls, and the angle of inclination is 30 o relative to the horizontal bottom line.
 The continuous tape of the device is made of an air-permeable fabric that is not destroyed in a humid environment and impervious to worms.
 In the proposed device, the supporting and hanging outflows consist of metal tubes, T-shaped protrusions and a protective coating, the common rack has slots in the form of a T-shaped recess, and the module can consist of 2-7 cases attached to a common rack in the slots with supporting and hanging handsets.
 In FIG. 1 shows a diagram of one housing; in FIG. 2-section; in FIG. 3 - supporting tube with protrusions; in FIG. 4 - section of a common rack.
 The device comprises a housing 1, a stand 2, a cover 3, a tape 4, support tubes 5, hanging tubes 6; the device is equipped with a mesh bottom 7, a lower tray 8, also contains an overflow tube 9, a perforated part 10, a rear protrusion 11, an inclined wall 12, support casts 13, side walls 14 provided with vertical ribs 15 and guides on the ribs 16.
The inclined wall 12 has an angle of 5 to 75 o (optimally 30 o ) relative to the bottom 7 of the device. The side walls 14 are inclined inside the housing 1 by 5 o (possibly 1-15 o ) optimally.
The guides on the ribs 16 are inclined at an angle of 25 o (possibly 5-53 o ) optimally relative to the vertical ribs 15.
 The support 2 consists of vertical supports 17 and a perforated plate 18.
The cover 3 consists of an upper pallet 19 provided with a perforated bottom, upper side walls 21, a loading cone 22, and hanging castings 23, the loading cone 22 consisting of side walls 24, a rear vertical wall 25 and a front inclined wall 26 having an inclination angle of 30 ° (possibly 5-55 o ) optimally relative to the bottom 7.
 The continuous tape 4 has lateral thickenings 27. The support tubes 5 consist of metal tubes 28, protrusions 29 and a protective coating 30.
The suspension tubes 6 are similar in design to the support tubes 5
The common rack 31 has slots 32.
 The proposed device operates as follows.
Worms-producers in the amount of 13-25 thousand individuals, grown separately, together with the nutrient mixture are placed on tape 4 for the entire length of the pallet 8 and left for 24 hours alone. Then the worms and the substrate are watered with water at a temperature different from the temperature of the substrate of not more than ± 2 o , and again left alone. After 24 hours, a nutrient mixture in the form of granules with a diameter of 5-20 mm, consisting of chicken manure, manure, defecate from the production of sugar, sapropel, phosphoric acid, ammonia, ash, sand, phosphorite, overripe leaves, straw, is fed through discharge cone 22 sawdust, defecate from biological sewage treatment plants. The composition of the nutrient mixture (the percentage of the starting components) depends on the type of plants for which the resulting humus will be used as fertilizer.
 A decrease in the level of the nutrient mixture in the loading cone 22 indicates the beginning of the work of worms-producers, and, therefore, the beginning of the device. From this moment, it is necessary to advance the tape 4 every day in the direction of unloading by 7-10 cm or 14-20 cm every two days, or 21-30 cm every three days.
 Each artist selects the operating mode of the device individually.
 As the nutrient mixture is eaten, the worms-producers move in the direction of the loading cone 22, and the tape 4 moves them in the direction of unloading, as a result, the worms-producers are constantly in the area of the pallet.
 To maintain optimal moisture content of the system, 2-6 liters of water are poured onto the upper pan 19 of the lid every 3-5 days. Water flows from the upper pan 19 to a mixture of vermicompost, nutrient mixture and producer worms. Next, the water passes through the tape 4, the stand 2 and is collected in the pan 8 to the level of the overflow pipe 9. The excess water from the pan 8 through the pipe 9 enters the upper pan 19 of the housing located below. Further, the water passes below the housing and discharges into a collection tank, where, after adding fresh water, it again pours out after 3-5 days into the upper pan of the upper housing. Simultaneously with the supply of water to the upper pan 19, it is necessary to pour the nutrient mixture in the loading cones of all cases in an amount of 1 liter. on 1 case.
 The water in the pan partially evaporates, and the steam rises between the vertical fins 15, condenses and flows along the guides 16 onto the tape 4, constantly moistening the mixture of vermicompost, nutrient mixture and worms-producers, while maintaining the greenhouse effect. As a result, parietal drying of the soil is eliminated, and the worms-producers work evenly throughout the device, eating a daily amount of the nutrient mixture equal to the weight of their body, and the worms-mates mate and lay cocoons every 5-7 days. Thus, on tape 4, after the lower pan 8, there are producer worms, cocoons and vermicompost in the form of caprolites.
 Through the perforated part 10 and the side walls, the vermicompost begins to dry out and from it the worms-producers return to the head of the body to eat the nutrient mixture. Thus, at the exit from the housing in front of the rear protrusion 11 on the tape 4 are only cocoons and vermicompost in the form of a product mixture.
To speed up the drying, vermicompost and cocoons located on the tape 4 between the lower pan 8 and the rear protrusion 11 are mixed once or twice a day. Every day from 5 to 15 kg of the product mixture is unloaded from the tape, from which 2-3 thousand cocoons and three biohumus fractions are isolated: a fraction with a size of -0.5 mm is used as a litter to absorb the smell of droppings when keeping poultry in the cages; a fraction with a size of +2 mm is returned to obtain a nutrient mixture, a fraction with a particle size of +0.5 o C -2 mm is used as a commercial product (fertilizer) - vermicompost, which is used for growing seedlings, vegetables in greenhouses, as well as in gardening, floriculture, gardening. The resulting biomass can be used as protein feed in livestock, poultry, and fishing.
 The dependence of the caprolite yield on the conditions provided by the claimed device is presented in the table.
 Thus, the processing of waste into vermicompost and vermiculture, carried out in the claimed device, provides an increase in the efficiency of the process and the degree of output of marketable products per unit weight of the nutrient mixture.

Claims (9)

 1. A device for processing waste with biohumus and vermiculture containing enclosures with a mesh bottom, side walls and a cover, designed to form a module on a common rack, characterized in that in the lower part of each case there is a pallet, overflow tube and stand, consisting of vertical supports and perforated plates, the side walls of the casing are provided with vertical ribs with guides, while the casing also has an inclined wall, a perforated part, a rear protrusion and supporting castings, and the lid with Toit from the upper tray with a perforated bottom, the loading cone and suspended ebbs, the mesh bottom of the housing formed as a continuous strip of fabric with lateral thickenings.
 2. The device according to p. 1, characterized in that the perforated plate of the stand is located on the same level with the perforated part of the body.
3. The device according to p. 1, characterized in that the side walls of the housing are inclined into the housing at an angle of 5 o .
 4. The device according to p. 1, characterized in that the vertical ribs have a thickness of 1 to 5 mm, and the distance between them is 5 to 12 mm.
5. The device according to claim 1 or 4, characterized in that the guides on the vertical ribs are located at an angle of 25 o .
 6. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the loading cone consists of side walls, a rear vertical wall and a front inclined wall.
7. The device according to claim 1 or 6, characterized in that the angle of inclination of the front inclined wall of the loading cone is 30 o relative to the horizontal bottom line.
 8. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the continuous tape is made of breathable fabric, non-destructible in a humid environment and impervious to worms.
 9. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the supporting and hanging ebbs consist of metal tubes, T-shaped protrusions and a protective coating.
RU97104017A 1997-03-24 1997-03-24 Apparatus for processing waste to yield biohumus and vermiculture RU2115639C1 (en)

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RU97104017A RU97104017A (en) 1998-11-10

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2014024034A1 (en) 2012-08-08 2014-02-13 Choque Alberto Pati Composting of solid and liquid waste and biodegradable sludge by means of earthworm humus (eisenia fetida and similar species) and combinations of earthworm humus and stomach material with a high microorganism content
US8735141B2 (en) 2001-02-14 2014-05-27 M-I L.L.C. Vermiculture compositions
RU185289U1 (en) * 2018-07-17 2018-11-29 федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Санкт-Петербургский горный университет" MOBILE DEVICE FOR ORGANIC WASTE PROCESSING

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8735141B2 (en) 2001-02-14 2014-05-27 M-I L.L.C. Vermiculture compositions
WO2014024034A1 (en) 2012-08-08 2014-02-13 Choque Alberto Pati Composting of solid and liquid waste and biodegradable sludge by means of earthworm humus (eisenia fetida and similar species) and combinations of earthworm humus and stomach material with a high microorganism content
RU185289U1 (en) * 2018-07-17 2018-11-29 федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Санкт-Петербургский горный университет" MOBILE DEVICE FOR ORGANIC WASTE PROCESSING

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