RU2062346C1 - Unit-injector for internal combustion engine - Google Patents

Unit-injector for internal combustion engine Download PDF

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Publication number
RU2062346C1
RU2062346C1 RU93011512A RU93011512A RU2062346C1 RU 2062346 C1 RU2062346 C1 RU 2062346C1 RU 93011512 A RU93011512 A RU 93011512A RU 93011512 A RU93011512 A RU 93011512A RU 2062346 C1 RU2062346 C1 RU 2062346C1
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Russia
Prior art keywords
needle
plunger
nozzle
cavity
channel
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RU93011512A
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Russian (ru)
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RU93011512A (en
Inventor
Л.В. Грехов
Л.Н. Басистый
Е.Г. Пономарев
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Государственное малое научно-производственное предприятие "Агродизель"
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Priority to RU93011512A priority Critical patent/RU2062346C1/en
Publication of RU93011512A publication Critical patent/RU93011512A/en
Application granted granted Critical
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Abstract

FIELD: mechanical engineering; fuel devices of internal combustion engines. SUBSTANCE: unit-injector for internal combustion engine has housing, nozzle with needle valve to form above-needle and under-needle spaces, plunger with front and cutoff control edges which can travel axially and tangentially, plunger barrel with inlet and spill ports and charging port, delivery space formed by upper end face of plunger and plunger barrel and communicating with under-needle space. Charging port communicates through connecting channel with above-needle space of nozzle through check valve. Plunger has front control edge inclined opposite to cutoff edge. Given in description of invention are different versions of unit-injectors. EFFECT: enlarged operating capabilities. 4 cl, 4 dwg

Description

 The invention relates to engine building, namely to fuel supply equipment of internal combustion engines (ICE).
 Known pump nozzle containing a plunger with oblique control edges, driven from the cam of the camshaft, as well as a bushing of the plunger with inlet and shut-off windows, and the inlet and shut-off windows of the liner are offset relative to each other in the axial direction. The regularity of the distribution of fuel supply in phases is achieved by the corresponding profiling of two branches of the edge. The injection stroke starts from closing the inlet window with the end face of the plunger and ends when the edge of the shut-off window opens (USSR Author's Certificate N 74510 class F02 M 57/02, publ. 30.12.49).
 The disadvantages of pump nozzles of this type include the fact that the injection pressure is highly dependent on load and speed conditions. Moreover, at reduced cyclic feeds and rotational speeds, the injection pressure drops, the quality of atomization and mixture formation deteriorates, which leads to a deterioration in the economic and environmental performance of ICE.
 A known prototype pump nozzle containing a plunger with control edges, a plunger sleeve with inlet and shut-off windows, as well as windows for pre-charging, unloading and final charging, communicated with each other and with a needle cavity. Through these windows, the nozzle needle is hydraulically loaded at the beginning and end of the feed and unloaded during the injection period. The process carried out in this pump nozzle is characterized by steep leading and trailing edges of the injection characteristics and a high average injection pressure approaching the maximum. (Internal combustion engines. Piston and combined engine systems. Under the general editorship of Orlik A.S. Kruglov M.G. et al. - M. Mechanical Engineering, 1985, p. 177).
 The disadvantages of this pump nozzle can be attributed to an even greater dependence of the pressure and duration of injection on the operating modes of the diesel engine than the divided systems. This, in particular, leads to a sharp deterioration in atomization at low loads and especially at low engine shaft speeds. The considered design of the prototype in this regard has several better indicators, but does not eliminate them, especially at low speeds.
 The objective of the invention: increasing the intensity of injection at lower cyclic feeds and rotational speeds, improving the quality of mixture formation.
 The task is achieved by the fact that in the pump nozzle for an internal combustion engine comprising a housing, a spray gun with a locking needle placed therein with the formation of needle and needle cavities; a plunger equipped with front and cut-off control edges that can be moved in the axial and tangential directions, a plunger bushing with an inlet and cut-off windows and a charging window, formed by the upper end of the plunger and the plunger bushing, a discharge cavity communicated with the needle cavity, and the charging window is communicated by a connecting channel with a supra needle cavity according to the invention, the charging window is communicated with the supra needle cavity of the nozzle via a non-return valve, and the plunger is provided with a front control edge having an inclination opposite cutoff edge.
 The task is also achieved by the fact that the non-return valve is located in the place of communication of the connecting channel with the needle cavity.
 The task is also achieved by the fact that the connecting channel is equipped with a jet.
 This goal is also achieved by the fact that the nozzle is installed parallel to the check valve.
 In FIG. 1 shows a longitudinal section of a pump injector for supplying fuel to an internal combustion engine having a spool type pump element and a valve-nozzle type atomizer, the non-return valve being located in the supra needle cavity.
 In FIG. 2 shows the static hydraulic characteristics of the pump nozzle for internal combustion engines, figure 3 is a graph of Qf versus injection time.
 Figure 4 shows a check valve assembly in which a nozzle is mounted parallel to the check valve.
 The nozzle pump for an internal combustion engine, comprises a nozzle body, a nozzle 1 with a locking needle 2 located therein, pressing the needle against the landing cone, spring 3 with the formation of needle 4 and needle 5 cavities. The sprayer 1 is connected to the end face of the plunger sleeve through the intermediate plates 6. The plunger 7 is provided with a front 8 and a shut-off 9 control edges, which can be moved in the axial and tangential directions, a plunger with inlet 11 located in the sleeve 10 and cut-off (not shown in Fig.) the windows and the charging window 12. The upper end of the plunger 7 and the sleeve 10 of the plunger form a discharge cavity 13, in communication with the podnigolnoy cavity 5 channel 14, and the charging window 12 is communicated by the connecting channel 15 with nadigolnoy cavity 4 of the pump nozzle. In the first embodiment, the pump nozzle connecting channel 15 is equipped with a check valve 16, pressed against the landing cone by a spring 17, i.e. charging window 12 is communicated with supra needle cavity 4 through a non-return valve 16. Moreover, the non-return valve 16, in embodiments, may be used. placed in various places of the connecting channel 15: at the beginning (i.e., in the plug of the plunger), in the middle (i.e. in the intermediate plate 6) or at the place of communication (output) of the connecting channel 15 with a needle cavity 4, as shown in figure 1. An embodiment in which the non-return valve 16 is located in the supra-needle cavity 4 of the pump injector (FIG. 1) and is pressed against the saddle by a spring 17, the lower end of which abuts against the intermediate washer 18 with an opening for the passage of fuel placed in the supine needle cavity 4 between the intermediate the plates 6. The upper end of the needle spring 3 also abuts against the intermediate washer 18. In the embodiment of the pump nozzle (shown in Fig.), the check valve is equipped with a jet connected in series, which allows you to adjust the magnitude of the hydraulic loading pressure, depending on the speed and load conditions, and therefore, the magnitude of the pressure and duration of injection. A possible embodiment of the pump nozzle, in which the first control edge 8 is made on the plunger from the side of the inlet window 11, but the direction of inclination is opposite.
 In this embodiment, the nozzle 19 (FIG. 1) can be placed in the connecting channel 15 and connected in series with the check valve 16. If there is a nozzle in the connecting channel connected in series with the check valve, the cavity is reduced by increasing the speed due to fuel the reduction of time, respectively, decreases the pressure of the hydraulic loading, which leads to a decrease in injection pressures, and with a decrease in the n-filling of the supra needle cavity with fuel increases, which leads to an increase in pressure Nij gidrodogruzheniya needle and accordingly to increase the injection pressure.
In addition, charging the supra needle cavity increases the pressure at the start of injection. This changes the statistical hydraulic characteristic of the nozzle, as shown in FIG. 2. At the same time, at low frequencies in the region of relatively low volumetric fuel supplies: Qf = Qx. With a small pressure in the supra needle cavity Pf (which is observed in the simplest pump nozzle or GMC pump nozzle (prototype) with discharge for the duration of the injection), it has low-intensity injection at low pressures. If we have cavity charging for the injection time (curve 2), then in the region Qx, as is known, stable operation of the nozzle is impossible (Pf / dQf <0), crushing injection occurs. Moreover, the more we raise the hydraulic loading pressure Pfo, the greater the duty cycle will be the relative time of the “silence” of the nozzle. The accumulation of fuel between the injections and the increase in pressure contributes to a more forced injection at a time when it is possible. Calculations show that replacing continuous injection with a crushing one leads to a decrease in the average injection pressure if it is related to the period of time from its beginning to its end τ o .. However, such a calculation of the average injection pressure Ppr. Formally does not reflect its physical meaning. To assess the quality of atomization (for example, the average diameter of the droplets), the average injection pressure should be related to the time during which this process actually takes place. seen from figure 3
τ Σ = τ 1 + τ 2 + τ 3 + ...
In this case, for crushing injection, the average injection pressure is radiated higher than for continuous injection. Thus, the proposed pump nozzle provides a higher quality of mixture formation in partial engine modes.
 The throttle allows you to enhance this effect precisely at low speeds, and at large this is not necessary.
 The pump nozzle for the internal combustion engine operates as follows. The fuel from the fuel priming pump passes through the nozzle and the safety filter through the supply channels (not shown in Fig.) Into the cavity around the plunger sleeve. The drive mechanism of the plunger 7 (for example, a camshaft cam) acting on the plunger, activates the plunger 7, which is also affected by a return spring (not shown in Fig.), Which returns the plunger to its original (upper) position. When the plunger 7 moves upward, the fuel enters through the inlet window 11 into the subplunger cavity of the injection cavity 13. When the plunger moves downward when the inlet window is blocked by the straight edge of the plunger, the precharge window 12 is closed later by the first inclined control edge 8 of the plunger when decreasing cyclic feed. This is ensured by the very angle of inclination of the first control edge: moreover, the angle of inclination of the edge 8 has the opposite direction of inclination of the cutoff edge 9, i.e. as the cyclic supply decreases, the charging window 12 is closed later, the fuel 4 is recharged more, which leads to a higher fuel pressure in the supra needle cavity 4, which leads to an increase in pressure and a reduction in the duration of injection at lower cyclic feeds.
 With a decrease in the rotational speed n, the charge of the needle cavity 4 with fuel increases, since more fuel has time to flow through the filling valve and throttle, due to the time the injection starts later (with delay) and at a higher pressure. With increasing n, with a constant position of the staff, the charge of the needle cavity 4 with fuel is less, because less fuel has time to flow through the non-return (filling) valve to the cavity 4, the fuel pressure in the supra needle cavity is lower and the injection pressure decreases while its duration is reduced.
 With an increase in the cyclic feed, at a constant speed, the charging window 12 is closed earlier due to an increase in the angle of inclination of the edge 8, less recharging of the cavity 4 through the check valve 16 by the fuel, less fuel pressure in the needle cavity, and therefore less injection pressure. Installing a non-return valve 16 in the connecting channel facilitates the separation of the injection cavity 13 and the supra needle cavity 4 in the interval between the fuel injection. At the same time, an increased residual fuel pressure remains in the needle cavity 4, which contributes to an increase in the pressure of the beginning of injection. Moreover, this also changes the static hydraulic characteristic of the nozzle.
 The presence of a non-return valve 16 located in the connecting channel or the supra-needle cavity is necessary for guaranteed loading of the supra-needle space by supplying relatively small additional portions of fuel to it. The latter is sufficient in view of the preservation of pressure in the supra needle volume between injections. It is not possible to obtain large additional doses of recharging in partial modes due to a significant increase in leakage, and it is unacceptable to increase these doses by expanding the phase difference between the closing of the charging and inlet windows due to the overload of the needle cavity in the nominal mode.
 The presence of a non-return valve 16 located in the connecting channel or the supra-needle cavity is necessary for guaranteed loading of the supra-needle space by supplying relatively small additional portions of fuel to it. The latter is sufficient in view of the preservation of pressure in the supra needle volume between injections. It is not possible to obtain large additional recharging doses in partial modes due to a significant increase in leaks, and it is unacceptable to increase these doses by expanding the phase difference between the closing of the charging and intake windows due to the overload of the needle cavity in the nominal mode.
 In an embodiment, the pump nozzle, in which the check valve assembly (Fig. 4) is equipped with a jet mounted parallel to the check valve. In this case, after cutting off the fuel supply, a slow unloading of the supra needle cavity 4 occurs through a nozzle mounted parallel to the non-return valve. Moreover, the larger the nozzle diameter, the greater the discharge of the supra needle cavity and the lower the fuel pressure on the nozzle needle, which leads to a decrease in the injection intensity.
 Therefore, the technical and economic effect of the use of the pump nozzle is that with a slight structural change, (installation of a check valve in the connecting channel and execution of the front control screw edge on the plunger), an increase in the injection intensity at lower cyclic feeds and rotational speeds with an improvement the quality of the processes of mixture formation and combustion, which helps to improve the economic and environmental performance of the engine. YYY2

Claims (4)

 1. A nozzle pump for an internal combustion engine, comprising a housing with a connecting channel, a nozzle with a locking needle placed therein to form a needle and needle cavity, a plunger equipped with front and cut-off control edges, having the ability to move in axial and tangential directions, a plunger sleeve with an inlet and shut-off windows and a charging window, an injection cavity formed by the upper end of the plunger and the plug of the plunger communicating with the needle cavity, the charging window being communicated an outlet channel with a needle cavity, characterized in that it is provided with a non-return valve and a jet, the charging window being communicated with the nozzle needle cavity through the return channel, and the plunger is provided with a front control edge having an inclination opposite the cutoff edge.
 2. The nozzle pump according to claim 1, characterized in that the nozzle is installed parallel to the check valve.
 3. The nozzle pump according to claim 1, characterized in that the nozzle is installed in the connecting channel.
 4. The nozzle pump according to paragraphs. 1-Z, characterized in that the return channel is located in the place of communication of the connecting channel with the needle cavity.
RU93011512A 1993-03-04 1993-03-04 Unit-injector for internal combustion engine RU2062346C1 (en)

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Cited By (30)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2486365C2 (en) * 2012-07-30 2013-06-27 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method of fuel feed control and device to this end
RU2492347C2 (en) * 2012-06-04 2013-09-10 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to control fuel supply and device to control fuel supply
RU2492343C2 (en) * 2012-06-26 2013-09-10 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to control fuel supply and devices to control fuel supply
RU2492349C2 (en) * 2012-04-24 2013-09-10 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to control fuel supply and device to control fuel supply
RU2492344C2 (en) * 2012-06-28 2013-09-10 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to control fuel supply and device to control fuel supply
RU2492345C2 (en) * 2012-08-29 2013-09-10 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to control fuel supply and device to control fuel supply
RU2493424C2 (en) * 2012-09-13 2013-09-20 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to control fuel supply and device to control fuel supply
RU2493425C2 (en) * 2012-09-27 2013-09-20 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to control fuel supply and device to control fuel supply
RU2493420C2 (en) * 2012-07-31 2013-09-20 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to control fuel supply and device to control fuel supply
RU2493422C2 (en) * 2012-08-07 2013-09-20 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to control fuel supply and device to control fuel supply
RU2493421C2 (en) * 2012-07-31 2013-09-20 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to control fuel supply and device to control fuel supply
RU2493418C2 (en) * 2012-05-29 2013-09-20 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to control fuel supply and device to control fuel supply
RU2493419C2 (en) * 2012-07-30 2013-09-20 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to control fuel supply and device to control fuel supply
RU2493423C2 (en) * 2012-09-07 2013-09-20 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to control fuel supply and device to control fuel supply
RU2494276C2 (en) * 2012-09-10 2013-09-27 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method of fuel feed control and device to this end
RU2494279C2 (en) * 2012-10-09 2013-09-27 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method of fuel feed control and device to this end
RU2494280C2 (en) * 2012-11-07 2013-09-27 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method of fuel feed control and device to this end
RU2494277C2 (en) * 2012-09-20 2013-09-27 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method of fuel feed control and device to this end
RU2494278C2 (en) * 2012-10-08 2013-09-27 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method of fuel feed control and device to this end
RU2501969C2 (en) * 2012-09-17 2013-12-20 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to supply fuel and device to control fuel supply
RU2501971C2 (en) * 2012-09-27 2013-12-20 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to supply fuel and device to control fuel supply
RU2501970C2 (en) * 2012-09-26 2013-12-20 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to supply fuel and device to control fuel supply
RU2503844C1 (en) * 2012-07-13 2014-01-10 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Воронежский государственный аграрный университет имени императора Петра I" (ФГБОУ ВПО Воронежский ГАУ) Diesel high-pressure fuel feed system
RU2506448C2 (en) * 2012-10-15 2014-02-10 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method of fuel feed control and device to this end
RU2506449C2 (en) * 2012-05-04 2014-02-10 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method of fuel feed control and device to this end
RU2506450C2 (en) * 2012-07-02 2014-02-10 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method of fuel feed control and device to this end
RU2507411C2 (en) * 2012-10-29 2014-02-20 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method of fuel feed control and device to this end
RU2509912C2 (en) * 2008-06-27 2014-03-20 Роберт Бош Гмбх Fuel atomiser
RU2519922C2 (en) * 2013-06-26 2014-06-20 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method of fuel feed control and device to this end
RU2521696C2 (en) * 2013-07-15 2014-07-10 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method of fuel feed control and device to this end

Cited By (30)

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RU2509912C2 (en) * 2008-06-27 2014-03-20 Роберт Бош Гмбх Fuel atomiser
RU2492349C2 (en) * 2012-04-24 2013-09-10 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to control fuel supply and device to control fuel supply
RU2506449C2 (en) * 2012-05-04 2014-02-10 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method of fuel feed control and device to this end
RU2493418C2 (en) * 2012-05-29 2013-09-20 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to control fuel supply and device to control fuel supply
RU2492347C2 (en) * 2012-06-04 2013-09-10 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to control fuel supply and device to control fuel supply
RU2492343C2 (en) * 2012-06-26 2013-09-10 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to control fuel supply and devices to control fuel supply
RU2492344C2 (en) * 2012-06-28 2013-09-10 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to control fuel supply and device to control fuel supply
RU2506450C2 (en) * 2012-07-02 2014-02-10 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method of fuel feed control and device to this end
RU2503844C1 (en) * 2012-07-13 2014-01-10 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Воронежский государственный аграрный университет имени императора Петра I" (ФГБОУ ВПО Воронежский ГАУ) Diesel high-pressure fuel feed system
RU2486365C2 (en) * 2012-07-30 2013-06-27 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method of fuel feed control and device to this end
RU2493419C2 (en) * 2012-07-30 2013-09-20 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to control fuel supply and device to control fuel supply
RU2493421C2 (en) * 2012-07-31 2013-09-20 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to control fuel supply and device to control fuel supply
RU2493420C2 (en) * 2012-07-31 2013-09-20 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to control fuel supply and device to control fuel supply
RU2493422C2 (en) * 2012-08-07 2013-09-20 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to control fuel supply and device to control fuel supply
RU2492345C2 (en) * 2012-08-29 2013-09-10 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to control fuel supply and device to control fuel supply
RU2493423C2 (en) * 2012-09-07 2013-09-20 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to control fuel supply and device to control fuel supply
RU2494276C2 (en) * 2012-09-10 2013-09-27 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method of fuel feed control and device to this end
RU2493424C2 (en) * 2012-09-13 2013-09-20 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to control fuel supply and device to control fuel supply
RU2501969C2 (en) * 2012-09-17 2013-12-20 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to supply fuel and device to control fuel supply
RU2494277C2 (en) * 2012-09-20 2013-09-27 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method of fuel feed control and device to this end
RU2501970C2 (en) * 2012-09-26 2013-12-20 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to supply fuel and device to control fuel supply
RU2501971C2 (en) * 2012-09-27 2013-12-20 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to supply fuel and device to control fuel supply
RU2493425C2 (en) * 2012-09-27 2013-09-20 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method to control fuel supply and device to control fuel supply
RU2494278C2 (en) * 2012-10-08 2013-09-27 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method of fuel feed control and device to this end
RU2494279C2 (en) * 2012-10-09 2013-09-27 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method of fuel feed control and device to this end
RU2506448C2 (en) * 2012-10-15 2014-02-10 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method of fuel feed control and device to this end
RU2507411C2 (en) * 2012-10-29 2014-02-20 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method of fuel feed control and device to this end
RU2494280C2 (en) * 2012-11-07 2013-09-27 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method of fuel feed control and device to this end
RU2519922C2 (en) * 2013-06-26 2014-06-20 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method of fuel feed control and device to this end
RU2521696C2 (en) * 2013-07-15 2014-07-10 Погуляев Юрий Дмитриевич Method of fuel feed control and device to this end

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