NL8701654A - Method and apparatus for compacting soil - Google Patents

Method and apparatus for compacting soil Download PDF

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Publication number
NL8701654A
NL8701654A NL8701654A NL8701654A NL8701654A NL 8701654 A NL8701654 A NL 8701654A NL 8701654 A NL8701654 A NL 8701654A NL 8701654 A NL8701654 A NL 8701654A NL 8701654 A NL8701654 A NL 8701654A
Authority
NL
Netherlands
Prior art keywords
weight
ground
guide
soil
falling weight
Prior art date
Application number
NL8701654A
Other languages
Dutch (nl)
Original Assignee
Ballast Nedam Groep Nv
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Ballast Nedam Groep Nv filed Critical Ballast Nedam Groep Nv
Priority to NL8701654 priority Critical
Priority to NL8701654A priority patent/NL8701654A/en
Priority claimed from DK389688A external-priority patent/DK389688A/en
Publication of NL8701654A publication Critical patent/NL8701654A/en

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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D3/00Improving or preserving soil or rock, e.g. preserving permafrost soil
    • E02D3/02Improving by compacting
    • E02D3/046Improving by compacting by tamping or vibrating, e.g. with auxiliary watering of the soil

Description

M Kon / hl / Schnell ι / 222 Inventors: H.G. Schnell in Hamburg T.A. Wolters in Zeist
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR COMPACTING SOIL
The invention relates to a method of compacting soil in which a falling weight is dropped onto the ground.
Such a method is known from 5 DE-A-2351713.
The object of the invention is to improve the compaction result of the strokes. According to the invention, the falling weight is guided with respect to guide means anchored to the ground. It has been found that the compaction result of a guided drop weight is considerably better, since an unconducted drop weight tends to tilt in an uncontrollable manner upon contact with the ground, so that the desired energy radiation is disturbed into the ground.
The invention also relates to and provides an apparatus for carrying out the method according to the invention, as indicated in claim 10.
The said and other features of the invention will be elucidated in the following description with reference to a drawing.
The drawing schematically shows:
Fig. 1 a preferred embodiment of a device according to the invention;
Fig. 2 detail II of FIG. 1 on a larger scale; FIG. 3 detail III of FIG. 1 on a larger scale;
Fig. 4 is a view corresponding with FIG. 3 in another position;
Fig. 5 is a variant of detail V of FIG. 1 on a larger scale; FIG. 6 on a larger scale part of a variant of the device of FIG. 1;
Fig. 7, 8 and 9 each show a schematic view of a variant of detail VII of fig. 1;
Fig. 10 and 11 each show a schematic representation of an 8701654 y - 2 - each different device according to the invention; and
Fig. 12 and 13 a schematic of a slightly different method according to the invention.
The device 1 of fig. 1 consists of a hoisting gear 2, of which a chassis 4 can pivot about a vertical axis 6 relative to a chassis 5 with tracks 3 resting on the ground 21. A boom 7 is pivotable about a horizontal axis 8. At the top end of the boom 7, a guide sleeve 9 is pivotable about a horizontal axis 11, in which a tubular post 12 is arranged to be slid vertically guided. Two pulleys 13 are pivotally mounted on the guide bush 9 on either side of the post 12 to guide two piling cables 14 carrying an engaging member 16. The engagement member 16 comprises a lifting frame 17 guided around the pile 12, on which two engagement members 18 are pivotally mounted about horizontal axes 19. Suspension links 20 of the piling cables 14 engage on the shafts 19.
Each engagement element 18 has an open jaw 22 at its outer end and a stop roller 23 at its inner end.
A tension spring 24 is arranged between a pin 25 of the lifting frame 17 and a pin 26 of the outer end of the engaging element 18, so that an engaging element 18 in the unloading position of Fig. 4 remains stable in this unloading position, since the tension spring 24 then is under axis 19. A locking member 27 which is movable vertically relative to the lifting frame 17 has on its outside locking elements 28 with vertical locking surfaces which cooperate with the stop rollers 23 of the engaging elements 18, as can be seen in the lifting position of fig.
The locking member 27 has a stop bracket 30 mounted on a slide rod. Between the bracket 30 and the lifting frame 17, prestressed compression springs 31 are included, which push the locking member 27 upwards into the locking position, which is determined by a transverse pin 32 of the sliding bar 29 against abuts a flange 33 of the lifting frame 17.
In the lifting position of Fig. 3, the jaws 22 of the engaging elements 18 engage horizontal tubes 34 of suspension frames 35 mounted on the top of a drop weight 36. When the drop weight 36 to the required 8701654
V
η - 3 - height of, for example, 10 or 15 m has been lifted, the stop bracket 30 collides with a stop ring 38 attached to the post 12 by means of cross pins 37, which grips around the post 12, with the result that the compression springs 31 are compressed, 5 and the lifting frame 17 moves slightly further relative to the locking member 27, until spring guide bushes 40 of compression springs 31 butt against each other. During the relative upward movement of the lifting frame 17 with respect to the locking member 27, the stop rollers 23 and thereby the engaging elements are released from the locking elements 28 and then pivot due to the hanging drop weight 36 into the release position shown in Fig. 4, so that the drop weight 36 falls down to the ground 21. The engaging member 16 can now be lowered again by celebrating piling cables 14, wherein the engaging elements 18 remain in their released position thanks to the tension springs 24. In that released position they then engage the tubes 34. Due to the weight of the lifting frame 17 of the order of magnitude of 900 kg, the engaging elements 18 tilt into the lifting position, wherein the stop rollers 23 press the locking member 27 downwards. After the stop rollers 23 have passed, the compression springs 31 push the locking member 27 into the locking position, after which the lifting of the drop weight 36 can commence for the next striking cycle.
In order to move the pile 12 from one compaction site to another, a transverse pin 40 is inserted through transverse openings of the pile 12 above the lifting frame 17, so that when lifting frame 17 is lifted, pile 12 can be pulled out of the ground can be lowered to another location on the ground. Then the transverse pin 40 is taken out, the lifting frame 17 is lifted somewhat further and the transverse pin 40 is again inserted under the lifting frame 17 in the post 12. Then the lifting frame 17 with the drop weight 36 hanging thereon is lowered, so that the pile 12 with this drop weight is pressed 1 to 2 m into the ground 21. It has been found that the falling weight 36 guided by the pile 12 anchored in the ground 21 achieves a considerably more efficient compaction action compared to an uncontrolled fall of a falling weight.
The pole 12 can also be used to receive the ground reaction that occurs as a result of the impact. For this purpose, in the variant of Fig. 5, a measuring sensor 42 is arranged at the bottom end of the pole 12. It consists of a vertically downwardly directed pin 43 with four circumferentially distributed acceleration sensors 44 and an acceleration sensor 44 arranged on the bottom surface. The pin 43 can be driven down into the ground as a plunger of a hydraulic cylinder 45 and is back to pull. In the radial direction, the cylinder 45 is spring-loaded with respect to the pole 12 with a rubber liner. This pole 12 can also be used to vibrate the ground 21, while dropping the drop weight 36. For this purpose, in the variant of Fig. 6, a vibration unit 47 is arranged at the top end of the pile 12, which is possibly loaded with a mass 49 via springs 48. At the bottom end of the pile 21, which penetrates into the ground 21, resonance plates 50 are preferably arranged.
The drop weight 36 is, for example, 15000 kg.
According to the variant of Fig. 7, the drop weight 51 can consist of three drop weight elements 52 which are mutually coupled by means of ears 53 and pins 54.
The drop weight 55 of Fig. 8 consists, for example, of two mutually coupled weight elements 56 and 57, whereby soil is first compacted with only weight element 56 and then with the two weight elements 56 and 57.
According to Fig. 8, preferably the lower weight element 57 has a smaller bottom surface. It has been found that an even more effective compaction can be achieved if 30 places selected at the same spaced apart distances are first hit on the ground with a large area of the falling weight and later with a considerably smaller area, for instance a fourth. Mushroom-shaped soil packages are then compacted, as it were. In this way, a foundation is formed that is, as it were, arched. The top layer is compacted in a conventional other manner. The whole then forms a good foundation, whereby a minimum amount of soil is compacted with the corresponding minimum energy consumption. It is also conceivable that first with a large bottom surface and later with a small bottom surface of 8701654 «- 5 - * a falling weight is processed in the same place.
Fig. 9 shows another form of a drop weight 58.
Examples of soil compaction:
Soil type Mass of Fall height Bottom surface Area number of fall weight drop weight strokes weight at densification * at densification up to 15 è 25 tilts up to 5 è m depth 10 m depth 1. sand 10,000 kg 10-20 m 2 m2 4-9 m2 15- 20 2. coarse sand 15,000 kg 10-20 m 2 m2 4-9 m2 15-20 _ _to_gravel_______________________ ___ 3. gravel up to 20,000 kg 10-20 m 2 m2 4-9 m2 15-20 stones 4. sand with 10,000 kg 10 -20 m 2 m2 4-9 m2 10-15 _ _ clay ____________________________ 5. clay with 20,000 kg 10-20 m 2 m2 4-9 m2 10-15 __ sand ____________________________ 6. clay 30,000 kg 10-20 m 2 m2 4-9 m2 10 -15 7. blast furnace- 10,000 kg 10 m 2 m2 4-9 m2 10 _ _ snail___________________________ 8. household waste 15,000 kg 5 è 10 m 2 m2 5-10 m2 5-10 ______ fl. * = Compaction 30 However, it is conceivable that other , for example, smaller or larger masses are used and that a somewhat smaller or larger fall height is used. However, a greater depth will be achieved with a smaller lower surface of the falling weight. The required number of strokes is to be determined experimentally and / or by acceleration measurement.
In the device 59 of Fig. 10, a drop weight 60 is attached to a pivot arm 61 which is pivotally mounted on a ground anchored post 62, the drop weight 60 being lifted by a piling cable 63 and then suddenly released by 8701654 f-6 by celebrate a winch 67 in question.
At the device 70 of FIG. 11, a drop weight 71 is guided into a ground anchored tubular post 72 and is lifted by a piling cable 74 from a winch (not shown) which is suddenly celebrated to drop the drop block. Although the drop weight 36 is preferably preferably guided vertically by arranging the pile 12 vertically, according to Fig. 12 the pole 12 is preferably anchored somewhat obliquely in the ground 21 in certain circumstances, for instance in case a soil package 78 is already compacted, the worked soil 21 is, as it were, compacted against the previously compacted soil package 78.
It should be noted that the present invention relates in particular to the soil compaction at considerable depth, for example 15 to 20 m. Afterwards, the top layer 79 is otherwise leveled and compacted.
The lower surface of the falling weight can have a flat or a concave shape, depending on whether one wishes to counteract or promote the lateral emission of energy. In general, people will strive for depth compaction and want to limit the lateral appearance.
In addition to the post 12, an acceleration sensor can also be mounted on the drop weight.
The method according to the invention is also applicable for compacting embankments, for example for dikes. This situation is shown in Fig. 13. Here, part of a slope forming soil package 81 is compacted. This slope is part of a dike 82, which protects an area not shown in the figure from water. In order to compact the soil package 81, a pile 12 is partially inserted into the ground, and preferably such that the pile 12 extends approximately perpendicular to the plane of the slope 80. The method known from the foregoing is then applied.
Naturally, this method is also suitable for compacting the foot of a dike. The pile is then placed in the transition area between the flat bottom and the slope.
8701654

Claims (22)

  1. Method for compacting soil, in which a falling weight is dropped onto the ground, characterized in that the falling weight is guided with respect to guide means anchored to the ground.
  2. Method according to claim 1, characterized in that the falling weight is guided with respect to guide means inserted into the ground.
  3. 3. Method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the falling weight is guided with respect to a pile inserted into the ground.
  4. Method according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the soil is vibrated, while the falling weight is dropped on the ground.
  5. 5. A method according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that a drop weight is dropped to the ground, which is composed of a plurality of weight elements.
  6. 6. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that after a soil compaction with a falling weight, an additional soil compaction with a greater falling weight is carried out.
  7. 7. A method according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that after a soil compaction with a falling weight, an additional soil compaction is carried out with a falling weight having a different, preferably smaller, bottom surface.
  8. 8. A method according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that after a soil compaction with a falling weight, an additional soil compaction is carried out with a falling weight having a bottom surface of a different shape.
  9. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that measurements are carried out on the soil during compaction by means of measuring means introduced into the soil by means of the guide means.
  10. Device for compacting soil according to the method of any of the preceding claims, comprising a lifting device and a falling weight, characterized by ground anchoring guides for guiding the falling weight.
  11. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the falling weight is made to perform an obliquely directed falling movement.
  12. 12. Device as claimed in claim 11, characterized in that the guide means consist of at least one guide element inserted into the ground.
  13. Device as claimed in claim 11, characterized in that the guiding means consist of a pile inserted into the ground, around which the drop weight is arranged.
  14. 14. Device as claimed in any of the claims 11-13, characterized in that a vibrating means are arranged on the guiding means 15.
  15. Device according to any one of claims 11-14, characterized in that the drop weight is composed of a plurality of weight elements that can be coupled together.
  16. 16. Device according to any of the preceding claims, characterized by a plurality of weight elements with different bottom surface sizes.
  17. 17. device as claimed in any of the claims 11-16, characterized by at least one gripping member which is carried by at least one lifting cable and which is movable from a lifting position to a unloading position.
  18. 18. Device as claimed in claim 17, characterized in that the engaging member is lockable in its lifting position by a locking member which, when the engaging element is lifted up, cooperates with a stop member fixed to the guide means in order to unlock it. position to be adjusted.
  19. Device according to any one of claims 11-18, characterized by measuring means arranged on the guide means for recording the ground reaction occurring during a stroke.
  20. 20. Device as claimed in claim 19, characterized in that at least one resonance plate is arranged at the bottom end of the guide means.
  21. Device according to any one of claims 11-20, characterized by an inclined guide element. 8701654 - 9 - "
  22. Device according to claim 21, characterized in that the guide element extends at least substantially perpendicular to the surface of the body to be compacted. 8701654
NL8701654A 1987-07-14 1987-07-14 Method and apparatus for compacting soil NL8701654A (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
NL8701654 1987-07-14
NL8701654A NL8701654A (en) 1987-07-14 1987-07-14 Method and apparatus for compacting soil

Applications Claiming Priority (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
NL8701654A NL8701654A (en) 1987-07-14 1987-07-14 Method and apparatus for compacting soil
EP19870202420 EP0299118A1 (en) 1987-07-14 1987-12-04 Method and device for compacting soil
DK389688A DK389688A (en) 1987-07-14 1988-07-12 Procedure for compacting earth and apparatus for exercising the procedure

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
NL8701654A true NL8701654A (en) 1989-02-01

Family

ID=19850308

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
NL8701654A NL8701654A (en) 1987-07-14 1987-07-14 Method and apparatus for compacting soil

Country Status (2)

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EP (1) EP0299118A1 (en)
NL (1) NL8701654A (en)

Families Citing this family (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE59104810D1 (en) * 1991-05-17 1995-04-06 Kurt Ellmer Transfer of the load of a building via steel girders to the surrounding area through the use of a special fall bear.
DE4409008C2 (en) * 1994-03-16 1999-08-19 Terramix Kg Schotterproduktion Depth compressors
GB2366819B (en) * 1997-08-20 2002-06-05 Roxbury Ltd Monitoring the degree of compaction achieved during ground treatment
GB2345509B (en) * 1997-08-20 2002-05-08 Roxbury Ltd Ground treatment
GB2364078B (en) * 2000-06-28 2004-06-09 Roxbury Ltd Ground treatment
SE0300564L (en) * 2003-03-04 2004-03-09 Karl Rainer Massarsch Method and device for driving an element
CN101627165A (en) * 2007-03-02 2010-01-13 弗拉克图姆公司 Releasable fully automatic mechanical coupling
CA2765947C (en) 2009-06-24 2014-08-12 Geopier Foundation Company, Inc. Ground improvement using impact driven tines
US9915050B2 (en) 2009-06-24 2018-03-13 Geopier Foundation Company, Inc. Apparatus and method for ground improvement
US8740501B2 (en) 2009-06-24 2014-06-03 Geopier Foundation Company, Inc. Apparatus and method for ground improvement
US8328470B2 (en) * 2009-06-24 2012-12-11 Geopier Foundation Company, Inc. Apparatus and method for ground improvement
RU2477769C2 (en) * 2010-06-22 2013-03-20 Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Российский университет дружбы народов" (РУДН) Device to ram pit
CN102021904B (en) * 2010-12-13 2012-06-27 杭州杭重工程机械有限公司 Mechanical and hydraulic integrated forced ramming machine
CN102635106B (en) * 2012-04-27 2015-05-20 中国一冶集团有限公司 Dynamic compaction buffer damping method of crawler crane
CN103912652B (en) * 2014-04-24 2017-02-15 北京中车重工机械有限公司 Transmission device of mechanical-hydraulic integrated dynamic compactor and transfer case thereof

Family Cites Families (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1650827A (en) * 1927-01-27 1927-11-29 Clyde N Friz Method of compacting earth
DE871903C (en) * 1951-06-09 1953-03-26 Hochtief Ag Hoch Tiefbauten Device for compressing embankments
US3088385A (en) * 1960-04-11 1963-05-07 Young Spring & Wire Corp Road working machine
US3500940A (en) * 1968-08-15 1970-03-17 Sprague & Henwood Inc Free fall hammer apparatus
NL7415157A (en) * 1974-11-20 1976-05-24 Int Technische Handelsondernem Ground compaction process - induces vibrations in earth simultaneously to stamping with punch
FR2528088B1 (en) * 1982-06-04 1985-03-01 Solcompact
SU1184902A1 (en) * 1983-07-22 1985-10-15 Respub Trest Proekt Vnedreniyu Arrangement for tamping-out pits
NL8303676A (en) * 1983-10-25 1985-05-17 Ballast Nedam Groep Nv Method and apparatus for compacting soil

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Publication number Publication date
EP0299118A1 (en) 1989-01-18

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