NL2024495B1 - Novel atomic force microscopy probes with phononic crystals - Google Patents

Novel atomic force microscopy probes with phononic crystals Download PDF

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Publication number
NL2024495B1
NL2024495B1 NL2024495A NL2024495A NL2024495B1 NL 2024495 B1 NL2024495 B1 NL 2024495B1 NL 2024495 A NL2024495 A NL 2024495A NL 2024495 A NL2024495 A NL 2024495A NL 2024495 B1 NL2024495 B1 NL 2024495B1
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Prior art keywords
phononic
holes
afm
atomic force
membrane
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NL2024495A
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Dutch (nl)
Inventor
Leeuwenhoek Maarten
P Allan Milan
Groeblacher Simon
Alexander Norte Richard
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Univ Delft Tech
Univ Leiden
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01QSCANNING-PROBE TECHNIQUES OR APPARATUS; APPLICATIONS OF SCANNING-PROBE TECHNIQUES, e.g. SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY [SPM]
    • G01Q10/00Scanning or positioning arrangements, i.e. arrangements for actively controlling the movement or position of the probe
    • G01Q10/04Fine scanning or positioning
    • G01Q10/045Self-actuating probes, i.e. wherein the actuating means for driving are part of the probe itself, e.g. piezoelectric means on a cantilever probe
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01QSCANNING-PROBE TECHNIQUES OR APPARATUS; APPLICATIONS OF SCANNING-PROBE TECHNIQUES, e.g. SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY [SPM]
    • G01Q70/00General aspects of SPM probes, their manufacture or their related instrumentation, insofar as they are not specially adapted to a single SPM technique covered by group G01Q60/00
    • G01Q70/02Probe holders
    • G01Q70/04Probe holders with compensation for temperature or vibration induced errors
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01QSCANNING-PROBE TECHNIQUES OR APPARATUS; APPLICATIONS OF SCANNING-PROBE TECHNIQUES, e.g. SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY [SPM]
    • G01Q70/00General aspects of SPM probes, their manufacture or their related instrumentation, insofar as they are not specially adapted to a single SPM technique covered by group G01Q60/00
    • G01Q70/08Probe characteristics
    • G01Q70/14Particular materials
    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10KSOUND-PRODUCING DEVICES; METHODS OR DEVICES FOR PROTECTING AGAINST, OR FOR DAMPING, NOISE OR OTHER ACOUSTIC WAVES IN GENERAL; ACOUSTICS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G10K11/00Methods or devices for transmitting, conducting or directing sound in general; Methods or devices for protecting against, or for damping, noise or other acoustic waves in general
    • G10K11/16Methods or devices for protecting against, or for damping, noise or other acoustic waves in general
    • G10K11/162Selection of materials
    • G10K11/165Particles in a matrix
    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10KSOUND-PRODUCING DEVICES; METHODS OR DEVICES FOR PROTECTING AGAINST, OR FOR DAMPING, NOISE OR OTHER ACOUSTIC WAVES IN GENERAL; ACOUSTICS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G10K11/00Methods or devices for transmitting, conducting or directing sound in general; Methods or devices for protecting against, or for damping, noise or other acoustic waves in general
    • G10K11/16Methods or devices for protecting against, or for damping, noise or other acoustic waves in general
    • G10K11/172Methods or devices for protecting against, or for damping, noise or other acoustic waves in general using resonance effects
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01QSCANNING-PROBE TECHNIQUES OR APPARATUS; APPLICATIONS OF SCANNING-PROBE TECHNIQUES, e.g. SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY [SPM]
    • G01Q20/00Monitoring the movement or position of the probe
    • G01Q20/02Monitoring the movement or position of the probe by optical means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01QSCANNING-PROBE TECHNIQUES OR APPARATUS; APPLICATIONS OF SCANNING-PROBE TECHNIQUES, e.g. SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY [SPM]
    • G01Q20/00Monitoring the movement or position of the probe
    • G01Q20/04Self-detecting probes, i.e. wherein the probe itself generates a signal representative of its position, e.g. piezo-electric gauge

Abstract

The present invention is in the field of an atomic force microscopy probe, which probes generally consist of four cooperating elements, namely a sharp tip to sense the surface, an optical resonator usually being a cavity, a drive usually 5 being a piezoelectric, and a read out usually being a laser beam and a photodiode to measure deflection, a sensor comprising said probe, and a method of fabricating said probe.

Description

Novel atomic force microscopy probes with phononic crystals
FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention is in the field of an atomic force microscopy probe, which prior art probes often consist of four cooperating elements, namely a sharp tip to sense the surface, a mechanical resonator usually being a cantilever, a drive usually being a piezoelectric, and a read out usually being a laser beam and a photodiode to measure deflection, a sensor comprising said probe, and a method of fabricating said probe.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention is in the field of an atomic force microscopy probe. An atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a very high spatial resolution down to the order of Angstroms or better, e.g. nm scale. The microscope may be used for force measurement, such as for measurement of mechanical properties, for imaging, such as for imaging of topographic, electronic, mechanical, and other material properties, and for manipulation of e.g. individual atoms on a surface. So, an AFM can be used to measure the forces between the AFM probe and a sample, typically as a function of separation. For imaging a response of the probe to forces experienced by sald probe due to a sample under observation is calculated into a three-dimensional image of the sample surface. For manipulation the tip is used to change the sample or atoms on a sample in a controlled way. An AFM typically consists of a cantilever, a support for the cantilever, a piezoelectric element for oscillating the cantilever, a tip fixed to the cantilever, which tip in fact acts as the actual probe), and a detector for establishing deflection and motion of the cantilever. Further a typical microscope xyz drive, and a sample stage may be present. The interaction between tip and sample is typically on an atomic scale, whereas the relative motion of the cantilever is on a macro scale. The detector measures the deflection of the cantilever and typically converts said measurement into an electrical signal. The intensity thereof is proportional to the displacement of the cantilever. Various methods of detection can be used. AFM probes may use photonic crystals or a piezo-effect 40 based so-called gPlus sensor.
However, prior art probes typically have too much acoustic noise and/or vibrational noise, and is not sensitive enough in the readout, in particular for dedicated and sophisticated applications.
The present invention therefore relates to an improved atomic force microscope probe, which solves one or more of the above problems and drawbacks of the prior art, providing reliable results, without jeopardizing functionality and advantages.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is an object of the invention to overcome one or more limitations of the prior art probes and provide an improved probe. In a first aspect the present invention relates to an atomic force probe assembly, comprising (i) a tip for sensing surface characteristics, (ii) an mechanical resonator in contact with the tip or incorporated in the tip, wherein the resonator comprises at least one phononic crystal, and (iii) at least one read-out, wherein the resonator provides output to at least one read-out, preferably an optical read-out, a capacitive read-out, or a combination thereof. A photonic crystal relates to a periodic optical nanostructure that affects the motion of photons. A phononic crystal relates to a periodic optical nanostructure that affects the motion of phonons. They need not be crystalline or semi-crystalline, but could be. The present probe comprises three of the typical AFM elements integrated on a chip, using a suspended high-tension membrane to build some or all of the parts. The tip can be an overhanging (i.e. suspended) membrane with other layers on top. The membrane can be SiN, such as a high-tension SiN membrane.
The resonator can be a resonator based on phononic crystals, or shielded by phononic crystals. The read out can be made from optical waveguides, or from combined phononic and photonic crystals. It is noted for clarity that photonic crystals and phononic crystals are different from one and another. Both may comprise periodic nanopatterns. Photonic crystals give a material special optical (“photon”) properties, whereas phononic crystals influence vibrational modes (“phonons”). Phononic crystals can also be used to isolate the probe from unwanted vibrations. The fabrication process 1s considered 40 simple, and includes dry etch and dry release.
It is found that the present phononic resonators provide a higher Q and hence a better sensitivity, and a highest quality photonic/phononic coupling. Also, an integrated construction allows for simpler design, and a better sensitivity. The present probe can be used for existing AFM’s and industry, in in particular for speciality AFM, such as to characterize wafers for nanofabrication.
In a second aspect the present invention relates to an atomic force probe assembly, such as the present one, comprising at least one shield for acoustic noise and/or vibrational noise, wherein the shield preferably is at least one phononic crystal.
In a third aspect the present invention relates to a sensor comprising an atomic force probe assembly according to the invention, such as a surface profile sensor.
Advantages of the present description are detailed throughout the description.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION In an exemplary embodiment of the present atomic force probe assembly the resonator may be selected from photonic crystals.
In an exemplary embodiment of the present atomic force probe assembly the at least one shield for acoustic noise and/or vibrational noise may be at least one phononic crystal .
In an exemplary embodiment of the present atomic force probe assembly the optical read-out may be selected from an optical guide, and a combined phononic and photonic crystal.
In an exemplary embodiment of the present atomic force probe assembly the combined phononic and photonic crystal may comprise at least two periodic nanopatterns, one periodic nanopattern providing optical (photon) properties, and one periodic nanopattern providing vibrational (phonon) properties.
In an exemplary embodiment of the present atomic force probe assembly the combined phononic and photonic crystal may comprise one periodic nanopattern, simultaneously providing optical (photon) properties and vibrational (phonon) properties.
In an exemplary embodiment of the present atomic force probe assembly the phononic and photonic crystal may each be 40 independently provided as a layer, or may be a combined layer,
such as a layer with 10-500nm thickness.
In an exemplary embodiment of the present atomic force probe assembly the tip may comprise an overhanging, for example a suspended, membrane, such as a high-tension membrane, such as SiN, and optionally one or more layers on said membrane.
In an exemplary embodiment the present atomic force probe assembly may comprise (iv) a drive, such as a piezo drive.
In an exemplary embodiment of the present atomic force probe assembly the assembly may be integrated on a chip.
In an exemplary embodiment of the present atomic force probe assembly the dielectric structure (1) may be a large aspect ratio layer, such as with an aspect ratio of >104, preferably >10%, more preferably >107, such as >108, In an exemplary embodiment of the present atomic force probe assembly the dielectric layer may be selected from SiasN,, 5i0z, SiC, InGaP, Si, diamond, graphene, and combinations thereof.
In an exemplary embodiment of the present atomic force probe assembly the dielectric layer 12 may have a thickness of 3-300 nm, preferably 5-200 nm, more preferably 10-100 nm, such as 20-50 nm.
In an exemplary embodiment of the present atomic force probe assembly the dielectric layer may be provided with a tensile strength > 0.05 GPa.
In an exemplary embodiment of the present atomic force probe assembly the dielectric layer may have a hardness of >
3.5 Mohs.
In an exemplary embodiment of the present atomic force probe assembly the dielectric layer may be ultra clean with < 10 ppm impurities in the layer.
In an exemplary embodiment of the present atomic force probe assembly the dielectric layer may have a mechanical quality factor of > 106, In an exemplary embodiment of the present atomic force probe assembly the dielectric layer may have a specific mass of < 1 gr/m?, preferably < 0.1 gr/m2.
In an exemplary embodiment of the present atomic force probe assembly the dielectric layer may be deposited by at least one of sputtering, evaporating, plasma-enhanced chemical 40 vapor deposition (PECVD), and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD).
In an exemplary embodiment of the present atomic force probe assembly the dielectric layer may be provided with an etched patterned photonic crystal array having at least one n*m 5 array with holes, wherein a surface area of the holes and array of holes are adapted for reflecting light.
In an exemplary embodiment of the present atomic force probe assembly for a given wavelength or range of wavelengths the holes may have a cross-sectional length which is 0.25-0.50 * wavelength or 0.25-0.50 * weighted mean of said range of wavelengths, respectively.
In an exemplary embodiment of the present atomic force probe assembly a space area between the holes may be in a range of 35-97% of a surface area of the mirror, the remainder of the surface area of the mirror being formed by top surfaces of the holes.
In an exemplary embodiment the present atomic force probe assembly may comprise ie [2,21%] arrays with holes, wherein ni; and mi of each array i are chosen independently.
The invention will hereafter be further elucidated through the following examples which are exemplary and explanatory of nature and are not intended to be considered limiting of the invention. To the person skilled in the art it may be clear that many variants, being obvious or not, may be conceivable falling within the scope of protection, defined by the present claims.
SUMMARY OF THE FIGURES Figs. la-g and 2a-c show details of the present invention.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF FIGURES The figures are detailed throughout the description, and specifically in the experimental section below.
In the figures: 11 substrate 12 dielectric layer 13 photoresist 18 cavity Figure 1 shows a method of preparing an AFM probe tip. In fig. la SiN is deposited on a Si wafer. In fig. 1b a lithographic resist is spun on the SiN, and in fig. 1c the 40 resist is exposed and developed to provide a tip, optics and phononics. In fig. 1d the resist is used as mask to transfer patterns from the mask to the SiN. In fig. le the chip is diced into smaller portions, providing a pointed tip for AFM use. Then in fig. 1f the resist is removed and the chip is cleaned. The tip, optical readout, and phononics shield are undercut providing a cavity.
Fig. 2a shows a prior art AFM tip, with a light source, and a detector for detecting reflected light.
Fig. 2b shows an AFM tip according to the invention.
Therein two crystals, a top photonic crystal and a bottom phononic crystal, are capacitively coupled. The holes in the two crystals have different dimensions in terms of height and width. An optical beam is used to measure deflection in the photonic crystal, representing movement of the tip, which tip is attached to the phononic crystal.
Fig. 2Zc shows a further embodiment, wherein an phononic shield is used, such as at either side of the AFM tip.
Methods of preparation The method of preparation has been subject of a scientific paper by the present inventors and the paper and its contents are hereby incorporated by reference (Nanotechnology 30 (2019) 335702 https: //doi org/10.1088/1261-6528/albla7f). Therein, using SiN as a base for the present suspended STM tips has a number of key advantages. First, it has a large selectivity to the Si etch to suspend the tip, allowing for clear protrusions. On the contrary, making the tips solely out of metal without underlying SiN would limit the choice of metal to those compatible with the etch described below. Second, it has a high mechanical stiffness, vielding robust tips that are resistant to tip treatment, as detailed below. Also, it allows for a process where the metallic layer is added in a last step. This allows to avoid any contamination by chemicals such as etchants and resists.
The present process starts with a 500um thick Si (100) chip covered on both sides with a 200 nm thick layer of high stress low-pressure chemical vapor deposition silicon nitride. The initial pattern, consisting of the tip shape and two shields, is provided using electron beam lithography and then transferred into the SiN using a reactive-ion CHF; etch (see 40 figure 1{a) of the paper). The shields are slabs of SiN on both sides of the tip, which were included to minimize the undercut of the Si once the overhang is created: it is found that the 50 nm lines around the shields reduce the etch rate of the Si significantly compared to a large exposed region without 5 shields. Then the chip was cleaned in a piranha solution to remove all traces of resist and protect it in a new layer of photoresist that can be easily removed later by acetone. In order to bring the tip close to the edge inventors proceeded with dicing the chip along the lines depicted in figure 1(a) of the paper resulting in figure 1{b) of the paper. This step is typically precise to within a few micrometers, leaving a straight sidewall (roughness <3 um). The residue created by the dicing process is washed away with the removal of the protective photoresist layer. After this cleaning step, inventors isotropically removed part of the Si substrate using a dry reactive-ion etch (SF6). For improved selectivity of the SiN over the Si the chip is cooled to -50 °C. During a typical etch the thickness of the SiN reduces from 200 to 120 nm. The exposed Si sidewalls are removed at a rate of around 4 um min! until both the tip and the two shields protrude by about 10-12 um, causing the shields to fall off (figure 1(c) of the paper). The straight sides next to the tip can be made very small or even rounded to avoid accidental touches when aligning to a sample, this would not have been possible using an anisotropic KOH wet etch. The final step in fabricating the STM tip involves depositing a metal on the chip through sputtering to ensure proper coverage of both the top and the side of the SiN tip (figure 1{(d) of the paper). In this study, inventors deposited 20 nm of gold using a Leica ACE200 as the tip material; it is found relatively straightforward to use other interesting materials for the tip.
Images of a typical device are shown in figures 2(a)-(c) of the paper. The diameter of the apex of the tip depends on the initial thickness of the SiN, the electron beam spot size and dose, the SF¢ etch time and temperature, and the metal film thickness. However, as can be seen from figure 2(c) of the paper, the tip diameter is found to be mostly determined by the grain size of the metal film. The present tips achieve radii of a few nanometers, which is comparable to specialized 40 commercially available metal wire tips. The overall yield of the fabrication as described in this section is around 80%.
For the sake of searching the following section is added which represents embodiments of the invention and of which a translation into Dutch is provided in the subsequent section.
1. Atomic force probe assembly, comprising (i) a tip for sensing surface characteristics, (ii) an mechanical resonator in contact with the tip or incorporated in the tip, wherein the resonator comprises at least one phononic crystal, and (iii) at least one read-out, wherein the resonator provides output to at least one read-out, preferably an optical read-out.
2. Atomic force probe assembly according to claim 1, wherein the mechanical resonator is selected from phononic crystals and at least one cavity, and/or comprising at least one shield for acoustic noise and/or vibrational noise selected from phononic crystals.
3. Atomic force probe assembly according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the optical read-out is selected from an optical guide, and a combined phononic and photonic crystal.
4. Atomic force probe assembly according to claim 3, wherein the combined phononic and photonic crystal comprises at least two periodic nanopatterns, one periodic nanopattern providing optical (photon) properties, and one periodic nanopattern providing vibrational properties, and/or wherein the combined phononic and photonic crystal comprise one periodic nanopattern, simultaneously providing optical (photon) properties and vibrational (phonon) properties, and/or wherein the phononic and photonic crystal each individually are provided as a layer, such as a layer with 5-500nm thickness.
5. Atomic force probe assembly according to any of claims 1-4, wherein the tip comprises an overhanging membrane, such as a high-tension membrane (12), such as SiN, and opticnally one or more layers on said membrane.
6. Atomic force probe assembly according to any of claims 1-5, comprising (iv) a drive, such as a piezo drive.
7. Atomic force probe assembly according to any of claims 1-6, wherein the assembly is integrated on a chip, and/or comprising a membrane layer (12) with a large aspect ratio layer, such as with an aspect ratio of >10%, preferably >10¢, more preferably >107, such as >108, and/or wherein the material of the membrane layer is selected from dielectric materials, such as SisN4, SiOz, SiC, InGaP, Si, from metals, from superconducting materials, from diamond, from graphene, and combinations thereof, and/or wherein the membrane layer (12) has a thickness of 3-10000 nm, preferably 10-3000 nm, more preferably 100-1000 nm, such as 500-750 nm, and/or wherein the membrane layer has a mechanical quality factor of > 10%, and/or wherein the membrane layer is deposited by at least one of sputtering, evaporating, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD), and/or wherein the membrane layer is provided with an etched patterned photonic crystal array having at least one n*m array with holes, wherein a surface area of the holes and array of holes are adapted for reflecting light, and/or wherein for a given wavelength or range of wavelengths the holes have a cross-sectional length which is 0.25-0.50 * wavelength or 0.25-0.50 * weighted mean of said range of wavelengths, respectively, and/or wherein a space area between the holes is in a range of 35- 97% of a surface area of the mirror, the remainder of the surface area of the mirror being formed by top surfaces of the holes, and/or comprising ie [2,21%] holes,.
8. Atomic force probe assembly comprising at least one shield for acoustic noise and/or vibrational noise selected from phononic crystals.
9. Sensor comprising an atomic force probe assembly according to any of claims 1-8, such as a surface profile sensor.

Claims (9)

CONCLUSIESCONCLUSIONS 1. Atoomkrachtsonde (AFM) -samenstel, omvattende i} een punt voor het voelen van oppervlakeigenschappen, ii) een mechanische resonator die in contact is met de punt of daarin is opgenomen, waarbij de resonator ten minste één fononisch kristal omvat, en iii} ten minste één uitlezing, waarbij de resonator uitvoer aan de ten minste één uitlezing verschaft, bij voorkeur een optische uitlezing.An Atomic Force Probe (AFM) assembly comprising i} a tip for sensing surface properties, ii) a mechanical resonator in contact with or contained therein, the resonator comprising at least one phononic crystal, and iii} at least one readout, wherein the resonator provides output to the at least one readout, preferably an optical readout. 2. AFM-samenstel volgens conclusie 1, waarbij de resonator is gekozen uit fotonische kristallen en ten minste een holte, en/of omvattend ten minste één afscherming voor akoestische ruis en/of trillingsgeluiden gekozen uit fononische kristallen.An AFM assembly according to claim 1, wherein the resonator is selected from photonic crystals and at least one cavity, and/or comprising at least one shielding for acoustic noise and/or vibrational sounds selected from phononic crystals. 3. AFM-samenstel volgens conclusie 1 of 2, waarbij de optische uitlezing is gekozen uit een optische geleider, en een gecombineerd fononisch en fotonisch kristal.The AFM assembly of claim 1 or 2, wherein the optical readout is selected from an optical guide, and a combined phononic and photonic crystal. 4. AFM-samenstel volgens conclusie 3, waarbij het gecombineerde fononische en fotonische kristal ten minste twee periodieke nanopatronen omvat, een periodiek nanopatroon met optische (foton)eigenschappen, en een periodiek nanopatroon met vibrerende (fononon) eigenschappen, en/of waarbij het gecombineerde fononische en fotonische kristal een periodieke nanopatroon omvat, dat gelijktijdig optische (foton)eigenschappen en een vibrerende (fononon} eigenschappen verschaft, en/of waarbij het fononisch en fotonisch kristal elk onafhankelijk van elkaar als een laag worden geleverd, zoals een laag met een dikte van 10 tot 500 nm.The AFM assembly of claim 3, wherein the combined phononic and photonic crystal comprises at least two periodic nanopatterns, a periodic nanopattern with optical (photon) properties, and a periodic nanopattern with vibratory (phonon) properties, and/or wherein the combined phononic and photonic crystal comprises a periodic nanopattern, which simultaneously provides optical (photon) properties and vibratory (phonon) properties, and/or wherein the phononic and photonic crystal are each independently provided as a layer, such as a layer having a thickness from 10 to 500 nm. 5. AFM-samenstel volgens een van de conclusies 1-4, waarbij de punt een overhangend membraan omvat, zoals een hoge- spanningsmembraan (12), zoals SiN, en optioneel een of meer lagen op dat membraan.An AFM assembly according to any one of claims 1-4, wherein the tip comprises an overhanging membrane, such as a high tension membrane (12), such as SiN, and optionally one or more layers on that membrane. 6. AFM-samenstel volgens een van de conclusies 1-5, omvattende (iv) een aandrijving, zoals een piëzo-aandrijving.6. AFM assembly as claimed in any of the claims 1-5, comprising (iv) a drive, such as a piezo drive. 7. AFM-samenstel volgens een van de conclusies 1-6, waarin het samenstel is geïntegreerd op een chip, en/of omvattend een membraan laag (12) met een grote hoogte- breedteverhouding, bijvoorbeeld met een hoogte- breedteverhouding van >104, bij voorkeur >10%, bij voorkeur >107, zoals >10%, en/of waarbij de membraan laag is gekozen uit diëlektrische materialen, zoals Si3N4, Si0:, SiC, SiC, InGaP, Si, uit metalen, uit supergeleidende materialen, uit diamant, uit grafeen, en combinaties daarvan, en/of waarin de membraan laag (12) een dikte heeft van 3-10000 nm, bij voorkeur 10-3000 nm, liever 100-1000 nm, zoals 500-750 nm, en/of waarin de membraan laag een mechanische kwaliteitsfactor > 106 heeft, en/of waarin de membraan laag wordt afgezet door ten minste één van sputteren, verdampen, plasma-versterkte chemische dampdepositie (PECVD), chemische dampdepositie (LPCVD) onder lage druk, en/of waarin de membraan laag is voorzien van een geëtste fotonische kristallenserie met een geëtst patroon en ten minste één n*m- array (9) met gaatjes, waarbij een oppervlak van de gaatjes (5) en een reeks gaatjes is aangepast voor de reflectie van licht, en/of waarin voor een bepaalde golflengte of golflengtebereik de gaten een dwarsdoorsnedelengte hebben die respectievelijk 0,25- 0,50 * golflengte is of 0,25-0,50 * gewogen gemiddelde van dit golflengtebereik is, en/of waarin een ruimte (8) tussen de gaten 35-97% van een oppervlak van de spiegel (13) bedraagt, terwijl de rest van het oppervlak van de spiegel gevormd wordt door de bovenste oppervlakken van de gaten, en/of omvattende ie[2-2122] gaten.An AFM assembly according to any one of claims 1-6, wherein the assembly is integrated on a chip, and/or comprising a membrane layer (12) with a high aspect ratio, e.g. with an aspect ratio of >104, preferably >10%, preferably >107, such as >10%, and/or wherein the membrane layer is selected from dielectric materials, such as Si3N4, SiO2 , SiC, SiC, InGaP, Si, from metals, from superconducting materials, from diamond, from graphene, and combinations thereof, and/or wherein the membrane layer (12) has a thickness of 3-10000 nm, preferably 10-3000 nm, more preferably 100-1000 nm, such as 500-750 nm, and/ or wherein the membrane layer has a mechanical quality factor > 106, and/or wherein the membrane layer is deposited by at least one of sputtering, evaporation, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD), and/ or wherein the membrane layer is provided with an etched photonic crystal array having an etched pattern and at least one n*m array (9) with holes, wherein a surface of the holes (5) and a series of holes is adapted for the reflection of light, and/or wherein for a particular wavelength or wavelength range the holes have a cross-sectional length which is 0.25-0.50 * wavelength or 0.25-0.50 * weighted average of this wavelength range, respectively, and/or wherein a space (8) between the holes is 35-97% of a surface of the mirror (13), while the remainder of the surface of the mirror is formed by the upper surfaces of the holes, and/or comprising ie[2-2122] holes. 8. AFM-samenstel omvattende ten minste één afscherming voor akoestisch geluid en/of trillingsgeluid gekozen uit fononische kristallen.An AFM assembly comprising at least one acoustic and/or vibratory sound shield selected from phononic crystals. 9. Sensor omvattende een AFM-samenstel volgens een van de conclusies 1-8, zoals een oppervlakteprofielsensor.A sensor comprising an AFM assembly according to any one of claims 1-8, such as a surface profile sensor.
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