NL2017295B1 - Antisense oligomeric compound for Pompe disease - Google PatentsAntisense oligomeric compound for Pompe disease Download PDF
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Title: Antisense oligomeric compound for Pompe disease
Field of the invention
The invention is related to antisense oligonucleotide that are useful for the treatment of Pompe disease and to pharmaceutical compositions comprising the antisense oligonucleotides. The invention is also related to a method to modulate the splicing of pre-mRNA of the GAA gene and to treatment of Pompe disease.
Background of the invention
Pompe disease, also known as acid maltase deficiency or Glycogen storage disease type II, is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder which damages muscle and nerve cells throughout the body. It is caused by an accumulation of glycogen in the lysosome due to a deficiency of the lysosomal acid α-glucosidase enzyme. The build-up of glycogen causes progressive muscle weakness (myopathy) throughout the body and affects various body tissues, particularly in the heart, skeletal muscles, liver and nervous system.
In Pompe disease, a protein, acid α-glucosidase (EC 184.108.40.206), also known as acid maltase, which is a lysosomal hydrolase, is defective. The protein is an enzyme that normally degrades the a -1,4 and a -1,6 linkages in glycogen, maltose and isomaltose and is required for the degradation of 1-3% of cellular glycogen. The deficiency of this enzyme results in the accumulation of structurally normal glycogen in lysosomes and cytoplasm in affected individuals. Excessive glycogen storage within lysosomes may interrupt normal functioning of other organelles and lead to cellular injury. The defective protein is the result of alternative splicing which is caused by mutations in the GAA gene on long arm of chromosome 17 at 17q25.2-q25.3 (base pair chrl7:80,101,526 to 80,119,882 build GRCh38/hg38). The gene spans approximately 20 kb and contains 20 exons with the first exon being noncoding.
Although over 460 GAA mutations have been described (http://clusterl5.erasmusmc.nl/klgn/pompe/mutations.html), only a few splicing mutations have been characterized. Severe mutations that completely abrogate GAA enzyme activity cause a classic infantile disease course with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, general skeletal muscle weakness, and respiratory failure and result in death within 1.5 years of life. Milder mutations leave partial GAA enzyme activity which results in a milder phenotype with onset varying from childhood to adult. In general, a higher residual enzyme activity in primary fibroblasts is associated with later onset of Pompe disease.. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been developed for Pompe disease, in which recombinant human GAA protein is administered intravenously every two weeks. This treatment can rescue the lives of classic infantile patients and delay disease progression of later onset patients, but the effects are heterogeneous.
Antisense oligonucleotides (antisense oligomeric compounds) are currently being tested in clinical trials for their ability to modulate splicing. A classical example is (treatment of) Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In this disease, mutation hotspots are present in certain exons. Using antisense oligomeric compounds, the mutated exon is skipped and the mutation is bypassed. This results in a slightly shorter protein that is still partially functional. It is straightforward to induce exon skipping using antisense oligomeric compounds, because it is evident that the antisense oligomeric compound must be targeted to the relevant splice site. Also in Epidermolysis bullosa (WO2013053819) and in Leber congenital amaurosis symptoms (WO2012168435) antisense oligonucleotides are used for exon skipping.
However, for a very common mutation in Pompe Disease, the so-called IVSl mutation, such a strategy does not work. The IVSl mutation causes a skipping of exon 2 resulting in the deletion of the canonical translation start side and leads to non-sense mediated decay and thus no protein is transcribed. For antisense therapy to work for the IVSl mutation in Pompe disease, it needs to induce exon inclusion, i.e. an effect strongly contrasting with exon skipping. However, it is very difficult to induce exon inclusion, because it relies on targeting a splicing repressor sequence, which cannot be reliably predicted. Splicing repressor sequences may be present anywhere in the gene, either in an exon (termed exonic splicing silencer or ESS) or in an intron (termed intronic splicing silencer or ISS) and maybe close to the mutation or far away or maybe close to the affected splice site or far away from it.
Another mutation, c.546G>T, is common under Asian patients, is a silent mutation and is known to cause aberrant splicing (Maimaiti, et al., 2009). Maimaiti et al. also describe another mutation, 546G>A which was attributed to Hermans et al. A further variant, 546G>C has been described in Gort et al. From these studies it was known that there was leaky wild type splicing and reduced mRNA expression of the enzyme. However, the factor or splice site that caused the aberrant splicing was not elucidated.
Although a number of antisense compounds that are capable of modulating splicing of a target gene in vitro have been reported (e.g. in WO 2015/190922), there remains a need to identify compounds that may modulate the splicing of the GAA gene.
It is therefore an object of the invention to provide an antisense compound that is capable of restoring wild type splicing of GAA,, especially for the treatment of Pompe disease caused by mutation c.546G>T. Another object of the invention is to identify the utilization of natural cryptic splice sites in human disease, which can then be used to design AONs that prevent their utilization and force the splicing machinery to utilize the canonical splice site (which has been weakened by a mutation). Yet another object of the invention is to provide an antisense compound that is capable of targeting cryptic splicing due to the c.546G>T mutation. The present invention meets one or more of the objects.
Summary of the invention
In one aspect the present invention comprises an antisense oligomeric compound targeting the region around the natural cryptic splice site that is used due to the c546G>T mutation in the GAA gene, more specifically the sequence SEQ ID NO: 1, or more specifically a sequence selected from SEQ ID NO: 2 - 90. More specifically, said antisense oligomeric compound is capable of binding to SEQ ID NO: 1
In a specific embodiment, the invention comprises an antisense oligomeric compound according to the invention comprising a non-natural chemical backbone, preferably selected from the group consisting of phosphoramidate, phosphorodiamidate, morpholino, peptide, a locked nucleic acid (LNA), a phosphorothioate oligomer, a tricyclo-DNA, a tricyclo-phosphorothioate, a 2'0-Me-phosphorothioate, or any combination thereof.
In a further embodiment, said antisense oligomeric compound according to the invention comprises 10 to 40 nucleotides or nucleotides analogs.
More specifically, the antisense oligomeric compound according to the invention has a sequence selected from the sequences of the group consisting of SEQ ID NOS: 91 - 179, wherein any thymine (T) residue may be replaced by uracil (U). In another embodiment of the present invention, the antisense oligomeric compound according to the invention has at least 80% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS: 91 - 179. In a further embodiment, the antisense oligomeric compound according to the invention is an analog of a sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 91 -179.
In a further aspect, the invention relates to an antisense oligomeric compound according to the invention for use in the treatment Pompe disease.
In a further aspect, the invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising an antisense oligomeric compound according to the invention and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. Preferably, said pharmaceutical composition further comprises a delivery agent.
In a further aspect, the invention comprises a compound capable of binding to a genomic nucleic acid sequence of a GAA gene and targeted to SEQ ID NO: 1, more preferably targeted to one or more of the sequences of SEQ ID NO: 2 - 90..
In a further aspect, the present invention is related to a method for the treatment of a patient with Pompe disease comprising administration of an antisense oligomeric compound according to the invention or a pharmaceutical composition according to the invention..
Brief description of the drawings
Figure 1 A), flanking exon RT-PCR of all GAA exons. This revealed two aberrant splice products (36 and 37) of exon 2 that were not present in cells from healthy controls (Bergsma et al., Hum. Mutat. 36(1):57-68, 2015). B) Sequence analysis identified product 37 as a full skip of exon 2, and product 36 as a partial skip of exon 2 via utilization of a cryptic splice acceptor site at c.486. Product 35 represented wild type splicing of exon 2. C) Exon-internal RT-qPCR of coding exons 2-20 D), flanking exon RT-PCR of all GAA exons after treatment of cells with cycloheximide. E) Product 38 represented intron 2 retention and utilization of a cryptic splice donor site at c.546+184. Product 39 represented wild type exon 2 splicing, derived from the c.1798C>G allele. The same aberrant splicing was detected from amplification of exon 3. Product 40 was the counterpart of product 38 with the same partial retention of intron 2, and product 41 represented wild type exon 3 splicing. F), splice prediction of the splice donor site of exon 2 in the context of the c.546G>T variant. G), AON intron 2 was designed that targeted the identified cryptic splice donor at c.546+184. The sequence of the AON is shown. The genomic region is also shown, along with a splice prediction of the region around c.546+184.. H) GAA enzymatic activity in primary fibroblasts from patient 4 that were either untreated, treated with endo-porter only, or with endo-porter plus AON intron 2. Data are expressed relative to mock transfection and represent the mean +/- SD of three biological replicates (*** p = 0,001).
Figure 2. A) Sequencing analysis of splice junctions in products 38. B) Analysis of the products 40 and 40’. Product 40’ is visible when the PCR sample is cooled down quickly, but disappears when the sample is slowly cooled down, indicating secondary structure formation. C) In silico predictions of the region containing the natural cryptic splice site present at c.546+184 using Alamut.
The principle behind antisense technology is that an antisense compound that hybridizes to a target nucleic acid modulates gene expression activities such as transcription, splicing or translation. This sequence specificity makes antisense compounds extremely attractive as tools for target validation and gene functionalization, as well as therapeutics to selectively modulate the expression of genes or gene products involved in disease.
Although some eukaryotic mRNA transcripts are directly translated, many contain one or more regions, known as "introns," which are excised from a transcript before it is translated. The remaining (and therefore translated) regions are known as "exons" and are spliced together to form a continuous mRNA sequence, resulting in exon-exon junctions at the site where exons are joined. Targeting exon-exon junctions can be useful in situations where aberrant levels of a normal splice product are implicated in disease, or where aberrant levels of an aberrant splice product are implicated in disease. Targeting splice sites, i.e., intron- exon junctions or exon-intron junctions can also be particularly useful in situations where aberrant splicing is implicated in disease, or where an overproduction of a particular splice product is implicated in disease. Aberrant fusion junctions due to rearrangements or deletions are also suitable targets. mRNA transcripts produced via the process of splicing of two (or more) mRNAs from different gene sources are known as "fusion transcripts" and are also suitable targets. It is also known that introns can be effectively targeted using antisense compounds targeted to, for example, DNA or pre-mRNA. Single-stranded antisense compounds such as oligonucleotide compounds that work via an RNase H mechanism are effective for targeting pre-mRNA. Antisense compounds that function via an occupancy-based mechanism are effective for redirecting splicing as they do not, for example, elicit RNase H cleavage of the mRNA, but rather leave the mRNA intact and promote the yield of desired splice product(s).
It is also known in the art that alternative RNA transcripts can be produced from the same genomic region of DNA. These alternative transcripts are generally known as "alternative splice transcripts." These are transcripts produced from the same genomic DNA that differ from other transcripts produced from the same genomic DNA in either their start or stop position and contain both intronic and exonic sequence. Upon excision of one or more exon or intron regions, or portions thereof during splicing, pre-mRNA transcripts produce smaller mRNA transcripts. Consequently, mRNA alternative splice transcripts are processed pre-mRNA transcripts and each unique pre-mRNA transcript must always produce a unique mRNA transcript as a result of splicing. If no splicing of the pre-mRNA transcript occurs then the pre-mRNA transcript is identical to the mRNA transcript.
It is also known in the art that such alternative splice transcripts can be produced through the use of alternative signals to start or stop transcription and that pre-mRNAs and mRNAs can possess more than one start codon or stop codon. Alternative splice transcripts that originate from a pre-mRNA or mRNA that use alternative start codons are known as "alternative start transcripts" of that pre-mRNA or mRNA. Those transcripts that use an alternative stop codon are known as "alternative stop transcripts" of that pre-mRNA or mRNA. One specific type of alternative stop transcript is the "polyA transcript" in which the multiple transcripts produced result from the alternative selection of one of the "polyA stop signals" by the transcription machinery, thereby producing transcripts that terminate at unique polyA sites. It is also known in the art that such alternative splice transcripts can be produced through the use of alternative signals to start or stop transcription and that pre-mRNAs and mRNAs can possess more than one start codon or stop codon. Alternative splice transcripts that originate from a pre-mRNA or mRNA that use alternative start codons are known as "alternative start transcripts" of that pre-mRNA or mRNA. Those transcripts that use an alternative stop codon are known as "alternative stop transcripts" of that pre-mRNA or mRNA. One specific type of alternative stop transcript is the "polyA transcript" in which the multiple transcripts produced result from the alternative selection of one of the "polyA stop signals" by the transcription machinery, thereby producing transcripts that terminate at unique polyA sitesAs used herein, "antisense mechanisms" are all those involving hybridization of a compound with target nucleic acid, wherein the outcome or effect of the hybridization is either target degradation or target occupancy with concomitant stalling of the cellular machinery involving, for example, transcription or splicing.
As used herein, "to comprise" and its conjugations is used in its nonlimiting sense to mean that items following the word are included, but items not specifically mentioned are not excluded. In addition the verb “to consist” may be replaced by “to consist essentially of’ meaning that a compound or adjunct compound as defined herein may comprise additional component(s) than the ones specifically identified, said additional component(s) not altering the unique characteristic of the subject invention. As used herein, the terms "include" and "comprise" are used synonymously.
The articles “a” and “an” are used herein to refer to one or to more than one (i.e., to at least one) of the grammatical object of the article. The use of the alternative (e.g., "or") should be understood to mean either one, both, or any combination thereof of the alternatives.
The terms “individual” , “patient”, and “subject” are used interchangeably herein and refer to mammals, in particular primates and preferably humans.
The term “exon” refers to a portion of a gene that is present in the mature form of mRNA. Exons include the ORF (open reading frame), i.e., the sequence which encodes protein, as well as the 5’ and 3’ UTRs (untranslated regions). The UTRs are important for translation of the protein. Algorithms and computer programs are available for predicting exons in DNA sequences (Grail, Grail 2 and Genscan and US 20040219522 for determining exon-intron junctions).
As used herein, the term “protein coding exon” refers to an exon which codes (or at least partially codes) for a protein (or part of a protein). The first protein coding exon in an mRNA is the exon which contains the start codon. The last protein encoding exon in an mRNA is the exon which contains the stop codon. The start and stop codons can be predicted using any number of well-known programs in the art.
As used herein, the term “internal exon” refers to an exon that is flanked on both its 5’ and 3’ end by another exon. For an mRNA comprising n exons, exon 2 to exon (n-1) are the internal exons. The first and last exons of an mRNA are referred to herein as “external exons”. A “natural cryptic splice site” or “natural pseudo splice site” is a site that is normally not used in pre-mRNA splicing, but can be utilized when canonical splicing has been weakened. It can be located either in an intron or an exon.The term “induced splice site” refers to an RNA sequence that is changed by an (induced) mutation, resulting in the generation of a novel splice site that is used in pre-mRNA splicing. The term “natural pseudo-exon” or “natural cryptic exon” refers to a region in the pre-mRNA that could function as an exon during splicing and is located in an intronic region of the pre-mRNA. The natural pseudo exon is not utilized in normal, healthy cells, but is utilized in diseased cells that carry a mutation in the gene. The strength of the natural cryptic splice sites is usually not affected by the presence or absence of such a mutation, although in some cases its predicted strength can change due to a nearby mutation.
The term “intron” refers to a portion of a gene that is not translated into protein and while present in genomic DNA and pre-mRNA, it is removed in the formation of mature mRNA.
The term “messenger RNA” or “mRNA” refers to RNA that is transcribed from genomic DNA and that carries the coding sequence for protein synthesis. Pre-mRNA (precursor mRNA) is transcribed from genomic DNA. In eukaryotes, pre-mRNA is processed into mRNA, which includes removal of the introns, i.e., “splicing”, and modifications to the 5’ and 3’ end (e.g., polyadenylation). mRNA typically comprises from 5’to 3’; a 5’cap (modified guanine nucleotide), 5’ UTR (untranslated region), the coding sequence (beginning with a start codon and ending with a stop codon), the 3’ UTR, and the poly(A) tail.
The terms "nucleic acid sequence" or “nucleic acid molecule” or “nucleotide sequence” or “polynucleotide” are used interchangeably and refer to a DNA or RNA molecule (or non-natural DNA or RNA variants) in single or double stranded form. An "isolated nucleic acid sequence" refers to a nucleic acid sequence which is no longer in the natural environment from which it was isolated, e.g. the nucleic acid sequence in a cell. A "mutation" in a nucleic acid molecule is a change of one or more nucleotides compared to the wild type sequence, e.g. by replacement, deletion or insertion of one or more nucleotides. A "point mutation" is the replacement of a single nucleotide, or the insertion or deletion of a single nucleotide.
Sequence identity" and "sequence similarity" can be determined by alignment of two peptide or two nucleotide sequences using global or local alignment algorithms. Sequences may then be referred to as "substantially identical" or "essentially similar" when they are optimally aligned by for example the programs GAP or BESTFIT or the Emboss program "Needle" (using default parameters, see below) and share at least a certain minimal percentage of sequence identity (as defined further below). These programs use the Needleman and Wunsch global alignment algorithm to align two sequences over their entire length, maximising the number of matches and minimising the number of gaps. Generally, the default parameters are used, with a gap creation penalty = 10 and gap extension penalty = 0.5 (both for nucleotide and protein alignments). For nucleotides the default scoring matrix used is DNAFULL and for proteins the default scoring matrix is Blosum62 (Henikoff & Henikoff, 1992, PNAS 89, 10915-10919). Sequence alignments and scores for percentage sequence identity may for example be determined using computer programs, such as EMBOSS (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/psa/emboss_needle/). Alternatively sequence similarity or identity may be determined by searching against databases such as FASTA, BLAST, etc., but hits should be retrieved and aligned pairwise to compare sequence identity. Two proteins or two protein domains, or two nucleic acid sequences are “highly homogenous” or have "substantial sequence identity" if the percentage sequence identity is at least 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 98%, 99% or more, preferably at least 90%, 95%, 98%, 99% or more (as determined by Emboss "needle" using default parameters, i.e. gap creation penalty = 10, gap extension penalty = 0.5, using scoring matrix DNAFULL for nucleic acids an Blosum62 for proteins). Such sequences are also referred to as ‘homologous sequences’ herein, e.g. other variants or homologues of antisense oligomeric compounds. It should be understood that sequences with substantial sequence identity do not necessarily have the same length and may differ in length. For example sequences that have the same nucleotide sequence but of which one has additional nucleotides on the 3’- and/or 5’-side are 100% identical when relating to the shared sequence part.
The term " hybridisation" as used herein is generally used to mean hybridisation of nucleic acids at appropriate conditions of stringency as would be readily evident to those skilled in the art depending upon the nature of the probe sequence and target sequences. Conditions of hybridisation and washing are well known in the art, and the adjustment of conditions depending upon the desired stringency by varying incubation time, temperature and/or ionic strength of the solution are readily accomplished. See, for example, Sambrook, J. et al., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 2nd edition, Cold Spring Harbor Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, 1989. The choice of conditions is dictated by the length of the sequences being hybridised, in particular, the length of the probe sequence, the relative G-C content of the nucleic acids and the amount of mismatches to be permitted. Low stringency conditions are preferred when partial hybridisation between strands that have lesser degrees of complementarity is desired. When perfect or near perfect complementarity is desired, high stringency conditions are preferred. For typical high stringency conditions, the hybridisation solution contains 6X S.S.C., 0.01 M EDTA, IX Denhardt's solution and 0.5% SOS. Hybridisation is carried out at about 68°C for about 3 to 4 hours for fragments of cloned DNA and for about 12 to about 16 hours for total eukaryotic DNA. For lower stringencies the temperature of hybridisation is reduced to about 42°C below the melting temperature (TM) of the duplex. The TM is known to be a function of the G-C content and duplex length as well as the ionic strength of the solution.
The term "allele(s)" means any of one or more alternative forms of a gene at a particular locus, all of which alleles relate to one trait or characteristic at a specific locus. One allele is present on each chromosome of the pair of homologous chromosomes. These may be identical alleles of the gene (homozygous) or two different alleles (heterozygous). “Mutant allele" refers herein to an allele comprising one or more mutations in the sequence (mRNA, cDNA or genomic sequence) compared to the wild type allele. Such mutation(s) (e.g. insertion, inversion, deletion and/or replacement of one or more nucleotide(s)) may lead to the encoded protein having reduced in vitro and/or in vivo functionality (reduced function) or no in vitro and/or in vivo functionality (loss-of-function), e.g. due to the protein e.g. being truncated or having an amino acid sequence wherein one or more amino acids are deleted, inserted or replaced. Such changes may lead to the protein having a different conformation, being targeted to a different sub-cellular compartment, having a modified catalytic domain, having a modified binding activity to nucleic acids or proteins, etc.; it may also lead to a different splicing event. A "fragment" of the gene or nucleotide sequence or antisense oligomeric compound refers to any subset of the molecule, e.g., a shorter polynucleotide or oligonucleotide.
An "AON derivative" refers to a molecule substantially similar to the antisense oligomeric compound or a fragment thereof, such as a nucleotide substitution variant having one or more substituted nucleotides, but which maintains the ability to hybridize with the particular gene. Preferably the AON derivative comprises the mutations as identified by the invention. Derivatives may also include longer sequences.
An "analogue" refers to a non-natural molecule substantially similar to or functioning in relation to either the entire molecule, a derivative or a fragment thereof.
As used herein, the terms "precursor mRNA" or "pre-mRNA" refer to an immature single strand of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) that contains one or more intervening sequence(s) (introns). Pre-mRNA is transcribed by an RNA polymerase from a DNA template in the cell nucleus and is comprised of alternating sequences of introns and coding regions (exons). Once a pre-mRNA has been completely processed by the splicing out of introns and joining of exons, it is referred to as "messenger RNA" or "mRNA," which is an RNA that is completely devoid of intron sequences. Eukaryotic pre-mRNAs exist only transiently before being fully processed into mRNA. When a pre-mRNA has been properly processed to an mRNA sequence, it is exported out of the nucleus and eventually translated into a protein by ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
As used herein, the terms "splicing" and "(pre-)mRNA processing" refer to the modification of a pre-mRNA following transcription, in which introns are removed and exons are joined. Pre-mRNA splicing involves two sequential biochemical reactions. Both reactions involve the spliceosomal transesterification between RNA nucleotides. In a first reaction, the 2'-OH of a specific branch-point nucleotide within an intron, which is defined during spliceosome assembly, performs a nucleophilic attack on the first nucleotide of the intron at the 5' splice site forming a lariat intermediate. In a second reaction, the 3'-OH of the released 5' exon performs a nucleophilic attack at the last nucleotide of the intron at the 3' splice site thus joining the exons and releasing the intron lariat. Pre-mRNA splicing is regulated by intronic silencer sequence (ISS), exonic silencer sequences (ESS) and terminal stem loop (TSL) sequences.
As used herein, the terms "intronic silencer sequences (ISS)" and "exonic silencer sequences (ESS)" refer to sequence elements within introns and exons, respectively, that control alternative splicing by the binding of trans-acting protein factors within a pre-mRNA thereby resulting in differential use of splice sites. Typically, intronic silencer sequences are less conserved than the splice sites at exon- intron junctions.
As used herein, "modulation of splicing" refers to altering the processing of a pre-mRNA transcript such that there is an increase or decrease of one or more splice products, or a change in the ratio of two or more splice products. Modulation of splicing can also refer to altering the processing of a pre-mRNA transcript such that a spliced mRNA molecule contains either a different combination of exons as a result of exon skipping or exon inclusion, a deletion in one or more exons, or additional sequence not normally found in the spliced mRNA (e.g., intron sequence).
As used herein, "splice site" refers to the junction between an exon and an intron in a pre-mRNA (unspliced RNA) molecule (also known as a "splice junction"). A "cryptic splice site" is a splice site that is not typically used but may be used when the usual splice site is blocked or unavailable or when a mutation causes a normally dormant site to become an active splice site. An "aberrant splice site" is a splice site that results from a mutation in the native DNA and pre-mRNA.
As used herein, "splice products" or "splicing products" are the mature mRNA molecules generated from the process of splicing a pre-mRNA. Alternatively spliced pre-mRNAs have at least two different splice products. For example, a first splicing product may contain an additional exon, or portion of an exon, relative to a second splicing product. Splice products of a selected pre-mRNA can be identified by a variety of different techniques well known to those of skill in the art (e.g. Leparc, G.G. and Mitra, R.D. Nucleic Acids Res. 35(21): el46, 2007).
As used herein "splice donor site" refers to a splice site found at the 5' end of an intron, or alternatively, the 3' end of an exon. Splice donor site is used interchangeably with "5' splice site." As used herein "splice acceptor site" refers to a splice site found at the 3' end of an intron, or alternatively, the 5' end of an exon. Splice acceptor site is used interchangeably with "3' splice site."
As used herein, "targeting" or "targeted to" refer to the process of designing an oligomeric compound such that the compound hybridizes with a selected nucleic acid molecule or region of a nucleic acid molecule. Targeting an oligomeric compound to a particular target nucleic acid molecule can be a multistep process. The process usually begins with the identification of a target nucleic acid whose expression is to be modulated. As used herein, the terms "target nucleic acid" and "nucleic acid encoding GAA" encompass DNA encoding GAA, RNA (including pre-mRNA and mRNA) transcribed from such DNA, and also cDNA derived from such RNA. For example, the target nucleic acid can be a cellular gene (or mRNA transcribed from the gene) whose expression is associated with a particular disorder or disease state, or a nucleic acid molecule from an infectious agent. As disclosed herein, the target nucleic acid encodes GAA. The GAA protein may be any mammalian enzyme, but it preferably is the human GAA.
The targeting process usually also includes determination of at least one target region, segment, or site within the target nucleic acid for the antisense interaction to occur such that the desired effect, e.g., modulation of expression, will result.
As used herein, "target mRNA" refers to the nucleic acid molecule to which the oligomeric compounds provided herein are designed to hybridize. In the context of the present disclosure, target mRNA is usually unspliced mRNA, or pre-mRNA. In the context of the present invention, the target mRNA is GAA mRNA or GAA pre-mRNA. "Region" is defined as a portion of the target nucleic acid having at least one identifiable structure, function, or characteristic. Target regions may include, for example, a particular exon or intron, or may include only selected nucleotides within an exon or intron which are identified as appropriate target regions. Target regions may also be splicing repressor sites. Within regions of target nucleic acids are segments. "Segments" are defined as smaller or sub-portions of regions within a target nucleic acid. "Sites," as used in the present invention, are defined as unique nucleobase positions within a target nucleic acid. As used herein, the "target site" of an oligomeric compound is the 5'-most nucleotide of the target nucleic acid to which the compound binds.
Target degradation can include (performance of) an RNase H, which is a cellular endonuclease which cleaves the RNA strand of an RNA:DNA duplex. It is known in the art that single-stranded antisense compounds which are "DNA-like" elicit cleavage by RNAse H. Occupancy-based antisense mechanisms, whereby antisense compounds hybridize yet do not elicit cleavage of the target, include inhibition of translation, modulation of splicing, modulation of poly(A) site selection and disruption of regulatory RNA structure. For the present invention "RNA-like" antisense compounds for use in occupancy-based antisense mechanisms are preferred.
In the context of the present disclosure, an oligomeric compound "targeted to a splice site" refers to a compound that hybridizes with at least a portion of a region of nucleic acid encoding a splice site or a compound that hybridizes with an intron or exon in proximity to a splice site, such that splicing of the mRNA is modulated.
The term "oligomeric compound" refers to a polymeric structure capable of hybridizing to a region of a nucleic acid molecule. This term includes oligonucleotides, oligonucleosides, oligonucleotide analogs, oligonucleotide mimetics and chimeric combinations of these. Oligomeric compounds are routinely prepared linearly but can be joined or otherwise prepared to be circular. Moreover, branched structures are known in the art. Oligomeric compounds can be introduced in the form of single-stranded, double-stranded, circular, branched or hairpins and can contain structural elements such as internal or terminal bulges or loops. Oligomeric double-stranded compounds can be two strands hybridized to form double-stranded compounds or a single strand with sufficient self complementarity to allow for hybridization and formation of a fully or partially double-stranded compound.
The term "antisense oligonucleotide, AON, or antisense oligomeric compound" refers to an oligonucleotide that is capable of interacting with and/or hybridizing to a pre-mRNA or an mRNA having a complementary nucleotide sequence thereby modifying gene expression and/or splicing. Enzyme-dependent antisense oligonucleotides include forms that are dependent on RNase H activity to degrade target mRNA, and include single-stranded DNA, RNA, and phosphorothioate antisense. Steric blocking antisense oligonucleotides (RNase-H independent antisense) interfere with gene expression or other mRNA-dependent cellular processes by binding to a target sequence of mRNA. Steric blocking antisense includes 2'-0 alkyl antisense oligonucleotides, morpholino antisense oligonucleotides, and tricyclo-DNA antisense oligonucleotides. Steric blocking antisense oligonucleotides are preferred in the present invention.
As used herein, antisense oligonucleotides that are "RNase H-independent" are those compounds which do not elicit cleavage by RNase H when hybridized to a target nucleic acid. RNase H-independent oligomeric compounds modulate gene expression, such as splicing, by a target occupancy-based mechanism. RNase H-independent antisense oligonucleotides are preferred in the present invention.
As used herein, "hybridization" means the pairing of complementary strands of oligomeric compounds. In the context of the present disclosure, an oligomeric compound is specifically hybridizable when there is a sufficient degree of complementarity to avoid non-specific binding of the oligomeric compound to nontarget nucleic acid sequences. One of skill in the art will be able to determine when an oligomeric compound is specifically hybridizable.
As used herein, "complementary" refers to a nucleic acid molecule that can form hydrogen bond(s) with another nucleic acid molecule by either traditional Watson-Crick base pairing or other non-traditional types of pairing (e.g., Hóógsteen or reversed Hóógsteen hydrogen bonding) between complementary nucleosides or nucleotides. In reference to the antisense oligomeric compound of the present disclosure, the binding free energy for a antisense oligomeric compound with its complementary sequence is sufficient to allow the relevant function of the antisense oligomeric compound to proceed and there is a sufficient degree of complementarity to avoid non-specific binding of the antisense oligomeric compound to non-target sequences under conditions in which specific binding is desired, i.e., under physiological conditions in the case of ex vivo or in vivo therapeutic treatment. Determination of binding free energies for nucleic acid molecules is well known in the art (see e.g., Turner et ah, CSH Symp. Quant. Biol. 1/7:123-133 (1987); Frier et al, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 83:9373-77 (1986); and Turner et al, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109:3783-3785 (1987)). Thus, "complementary" (or "specifically hybridizable") are terms that indicate a sufficient degree of complementarity or precise pairing such that stable and specific binding occurs between a antisense oligomeric compound and a pre-mRNA or mRNA target. It is understood in the art that a nucleic acid molecule need not be 100% complementary to a target nucleic acid sequence to be specifically hybridizable. That is, two or more nucleic acid molecules may be less than fully complementary. Complementarity is indicated by a percentage of contiguous residues in a nucleic acid molecule that can form hydrogen bonds with a second nucleic acid molecule. For example, if a first nucleic acid molecule has 10 nucleotides and a second nucleic acid molecule has 10 nucleotides, then base pairing of 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 nucleotides between the first and second nucleic acid molecules represents 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% complementarity, respectively. Percent complementarity of an oligomeric compound with a region of a target nucleic acid can be determined routinely using BLAST programs (basic local alignment search tools) and PowerBLAST programs known in the art (Altschul et al., J. Mol. Biol., 1990, 215, 403-410; Zhang and Madden, Genome Res., 1997, 7, 649-656). Percent homology, sequence identity or complementarity, can be determined by, for example, the Gap program (Wisconsin Sequence Analysis Package, Version 8 for Unix, Genetics Computer Group, University Research Park, Madison Wis.), using default settings, which uses the algorithm of Smith and Waterman (Adv. Appl. Math., 1981, 2, 482-489). "Perfectly" or "fully" complementary nucleic acid molecules means those in which all the contiguous residues of a first nucleic acid molecule will hydrogen bond with the same number of contiguous residues in a second nucleic acid molecule, wherein the nucleic acid molecules either both have the same number of nucleotides (i.e., have the same length) or the two molecules have different lengths.
As used herein, "uniformly modified" or “fully modified” refers to an oligomeric compound, an antisense oligonucleotide, or a region of nucleotides wherein essentially each nucleoside is a sugar modified nucleoside having uniform modification.
As used herein, a "chimeric oligomeric compound", "chimeric antisense compound" or "chimeric antisense oligonucleotide compound" is a compound containing two or more chemically distinct regions, each comprising at least one monomer unit (i.e. a nucleotide in the case of an oligonucleotide compound). The term "chimeric antisense compound" specifically refers to an antisense compound, having at least one sugar, nucleobase and/or internucleoside linkage that is differentially modified as compared to the other sugars, nucleotides and internucleoside linkages within the same oligomeric compound. The remainder of the sugars, nucleotides and internucleoside linkages can be independently modified or unmodified. In general a chimeric oligomeric compound will have modified nucleosides that can be in isolated positions or grouped together in regions that will define a particular motif. Chimeric oligomeric compounds typically contain at least one region modified so as to confer increased resistance to nuclease degradation, increased cellular uptake, and/or increased binding affinity for the target nucleic acid. In the context of the present disclosure, a "chimeric RNase H-independent antisense compound" is an antisense compound with at least two chemically distinct regions, but which is not susceptible to cleavage by RNase H when hybridized to a target nucleic acid.
As used herein, a "nucleoside" is a base-sugar combination and "nucleotides" are nucleosides that further include a phosphate group covalently linked to the sugar portion of the nucleoside.
As used herein, a nucleoside with a modified sugar residue is any nucleoside wherein the ribose sugar of the nucleoside has been substituted with a chemically modified sugar moiety. In the context of the present disclosure, the chemically modified sugar moieties include, but are not limited to, 2'-0-methoxyethyl, 2'-fluoro, 2'-dimethylaminooxyethoxy, 2'-dimethylaminoethoxyethoxy, 2'-guanidinium, 2'-0-guanidinium ethyl, 2'-carbamate, 2'-aminooxy, 2'-acetamido and locked nucleic acid.
As used herein, compounds "resistant to RNase H degradation" are antisense compounds having a least one chemical modification that increases resistance of the compound to RNase H cleavage. Such modifications include, but are not limited to, nucleotides with sugar modifications. As used herein, a nucleotide with a modified sugar includes, but is not limited to, any nucleotide wherein the 2'-deoxyribose sugar has been substituted with a chemically modified sugar moiety. In the context of the present invention, chemically modified sugar moieties include, but are not limited to, 2'-0-(2-methoxyethyl), 2'-fluoro, 2'-dimethylaminooxyethoxy, 2'-dimethylaminoethoxyethoxy, 2'-guanidinium, 2'-0-guanidinium ethyl, 2'-carbamate, 2'-aminooxy, 2'-acetamido, locked nucleic acid (LNA) and ethylene bridged nucleic acid (ENA). Modified compounds resistant to RNase H cleavage are thoroughly described herein and are well know to those of skill in the art.
In the context of the present disclosure, "cellular uptake" refers to delivery and internalization of oligomeric compounds into cells. The oligomeric compounds can be internalized, for example, by cells grown in culture (in vitro), cells harvested from an animal (ex vivo) or by tissues following administration to an animal (in vivo).
By "subject" is meant an organism, which is a donor or recipient of explanted cells or the cells themselves. "Subject" also refers to an organism to which the nucleic acid molecules of this disclosure can be administered. In one embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, a subject is a mammal or mammalian cell. In another embodiment, a subject is a human or human cell.
As used herein, the term "therapeutically effective amount" means an amount of antisense oligomeric compound that is sufficient, in the subject (e.g., human) to which it is administered, to treat or prevent the stated disease, disorder, or condition. The antisense oligomeric compound of the instant disclosure, individually, or in combination or in conjunction with other drugs, can be used to treat diseases or conditions discussed herein. For example, to treat a particular disease, disorder, or condition, the antisense oligomeric compound can be administered to a patient or can be administered to other appropriate cells evident to those skilled in the art, individually or in combination with one or more drugs, under conditions suitable for treatment. In the present invention the disease is preferably Pompe disease.
As used herein, the phrase "pharmaceutically acceptable" refers to molecular entities and compositions that are physiologically tolerable and do not typically produce an allergic or similar untoward reaction, such as gastric upset, dizziness and the like, when administered to a human. Preferably, as used herein, the term "pharmaceutically acceptable" means approved by a regulatory agency of the Federal or a state government or listed in the U.S. Pharmacopeia or other generally recognized pharmacopeia for use in animals, and more particularly in humans.
As used herein, the term "isolated" means that the referenced material is removed from its native environment, e.g., a cell. Thus, an isolated biological material can be free of some or all cellular components, i.e. components of the cells in which the native material occurs naturally (e.g., cytoplasmic or membrane component).
The term "purified" as used herein refers to material that has been isolated under conditions that reduce or eliminate the presence of unrelated materials, i.e. contaminants, including native materials from which the material is obtained (e.g. a tissue culture). For example, a purified DNA antisense oligomeric compound is preferably substantially free of cell or culture components, including tissue culture components, contaminants, and the like. As used herein, the term "substantially free" is used operationally, in the context of analytical testing of the material. Preferably, purified material substantially free of contaminants is at least 50% pure; more preferably, at least 90% pure, and more preferably still at least 99% pure. Purity can be evaluated by chromatography, gel electrophoresis, immunoassay, composition analysis, biological assay, and other methods known in the art.
In the present description, any concentration range, percentage range, ratio range, or integer range is to be understood to include the value of any integer within the recited range and, when appropriate, fractions thereof (such as one tenth and one hundredth of an integer), unless otherwise indicated. Also, any number range recited herein relating to any physical feature, such as polymer subunits, size or thickness, are to be understood to include any integer within the recited range, unless otherwise indicated.
The term "about" or "approximately" means within a statistically meaningful range of a value. Such a range can be within an order of magnitude, preferably within 50%, more preferably within 20%, more preferably still within 10%, and even more preferably within 5% of a given value or range. The allowable variation encompassed by the term "about" or "approximately" depends on the particular system under study, and can be readily appreciated by one of ordinary skill in the art.
In one aspect, the invention is directed to an antisense oligomeric compound targeting SEQ ID NO: 1, wherein said SEQ ID NO: 1 is 5’-agcagtggggacaccacggtgacaggtactccagaaggcagggctcgggg-3’ or the RNA equivalent of this sequence (i.e. where the thymine residues are replaced by uracil or a mixed DNA/RNA sequence, where such a replacement has been performed for only a few of the thymine residues, and more specifically this target site is 5’-acggtgacaggtactccagaaggca-3’ (SEQ ID NO: 2).
Previous work by others has resulted in the design of antisense oligomeric compounds that promote exon exclusion in several human disorders including Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). The strategy is simple and straightforward and relies on blocking a well-defined splice site. This results in exon skipping, thereby removing the exon containing the pathogenic gene variant. The resulting mRNA is a little bit shorter resulting in expression of a truncated protein with considerable residual activity, sufficient to at least partially alleviate the disease. The strategy is simple because canonical splice sites are known for virtually all genes. The only requirement is to design an antisense oligomeric compound that binds to the canonical splice site in the pre-mRNA, which will result in blocking of that site and skipping of the exon involved. A much more difficult task is the reverse process: to promote inclusion rather than exclusion of an exon. To promote exon inclusion, a splice repressor may be blocked using an antisense oligomeric compound. It is however unknown where splice repressors are located. These can be present in introns or in exons and are named intronic or exonic splice silencers (ISSs or ESSs, respectively). There is software available to predict the presence of such silences but these are very unreliable.
Previous work by others have shown that it is straightforward to block canonical or cryptic splice sites to modulate splicing. For example, blocking of a canonical splice site can induce exon skipping, and this can be beneficial if the skipped exon contains a pathogenic mutation. The net result of such skipping can be restoration of the reading frame. For example in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, such strategy has entered clincial trials. Another example is provided by blocking of a cryptic splice site that is formed by a pathogenic mutation. The simple prevention of such newly formed cryptic splice site can restore canonical splicing. A less straightforward scenario is weakening of a canonical splice site, which then leads to utilization of a natural cryptic splice site that is normally not used. It is not obvious that blocking the natural cryptic splice site would restore canonical splicing, because the canonical splice site is weakened by the mutation, and it may well be non-functional or alternative natural cryptic splice sites may be stronger. There are two challenges that need to be taken in such case. First, it is necessary to identify the aberrant splicing events accurately. This can be very difficult, because aberrantly spliced transcripts may be degraded by abundant RNases present in cells, resulting in very low abundance of such transcripts. Second, AONs need to be designed that prevent utilization of cryptic splice sites, and it would depend on the gene of interest and possibly also the cell type of interest what the effect would be on canonical splicing. A combination of careful identification of aberrant splicing with AON-mediated interference and splicing analysis is needed in each case. In the case mutations at the c.546 position, it was not obvious what the aberrant splicing events would be, if any. We detected low abundant aberrant splicing, and identified a novel splicing event, which was the utilization of a natural cryptic acceptor splice site, resulting in the inclusion of part of the intron. It was then also not obvious that blocking of this cryptic site would restore canonical exon 2 splicing, as the canonical splice site was severely weakened by the mutation. Surprisingly, canonical splicing was promoted by preventing utilization of the natural cryptic splice site using an AON.
In addition, we found that the mutation at c.546 also induces skipping of exon 2. Such events are also known to occur to to another mutation, IVSl, but they were not known to occur for c.546 mutations (which are located at a quite different location: IVSl is located in the pY tract that precedes exon 2, c.546 is located in exon 2 at the splice donor site. In another patent that we recently filed, we describe that skipping of exon 2 due to the IVSl mutation result in utilization of a natural pseudo exon that is present in intron 1. Blocking of the pseudo exon with AONs restores canonical exon 2 splicing. We anticipate that the combination of AONs that block the pseudo exon and AONs that block the natural cryptic splice site at c.546+184 would further improve canonical exon 2 splicing in the context of mutations around c.546.
An antisense oligonucleotide (AON) that is feasible of targeting SEQ ID NO: 1 is 5’-TGCCTTCTGGAGTACCTGTCACCGT-3’ (SEQ ID NO: 106). It was found that this AON was able to enhance inclusion of GAA exon 2 and thus correct expression of the GAA enzyme. It is to be noted that targeting means that at least part of the sequence SEQ ID NO: 1 is targeted, e.g. by a sequence that hybridizes with at least a part or by the sequence SEQ ID NO: 1, or that binds to at least a part of SEQ ID NO: 1. Sequences that target may be shorter or longer than the target sequence.
Suitably the sequences targeting SEQ ID NO: 1 hybridize with at least a part of SEQ ID NO: 1. Sequences that hybridize may be shorter or longer than the target sequence.
In one aspect or embodiment of aspects and/or embodiments thereof, the invention is directed to an antisense oligomeric compound (AON) that is capable of binding to a target sequence selected from the group comprising SEQ ID NO: 2-27 as shown in Table 1 and variants and fragments having at least 80% identity thereof.
Table 1. 25 bp TARGET sequence 5' -> 3'
It should be noted that it may not necessary to target the full length of SEQ ID NO: 2-27, fragments having a shorter or longer sequence are also envisioned. In particular shorter fragments such as fragments with 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, or 24 nucleotides of SEQ ID NO: 2-27 are envisioned, such as depicted in below Tables 2 and 3.
Table 2. 21 bp TARGET sequence 5' -> 3'.
As indicated above the mutation causing this specific disease is the c.546G>T point mutation. The nomenclature of the mutation identifies the location of the mutation that weakens the splice donor of exon 2. It is understood that the antisense oligomeric compound targets the location of the mutation, and the mutation does not need to be present in the genomic sequence or in the pre-mRNA. The location of the mutation is thus the location of the mutated nucleotide, or the location of the wild type nucleotide of the mutation. The antisense oligomeric compound may be targeted to a sequence comprising nucleotides upstream and nucleotides downstream of the location of the mutation. Suitably the antisense oligomeric compound target a sequence comprising 2-50 nucleotides upstream, and/or 2-50 nucleotides downstream of the location of the mutation, more suitably the antisense oligomeric compound target a sequence comprising 3-45 nucleotides upstream, and/or 3-45 nucleotides downstream of the location of the mutation, more suitably the antisense oligomeric compound target a sequence comprising 5-40 nucleotides upstream, and/or 5-40 nucleotides downstream of the location of the mutation, more suitably the antisense oligomeric compound target a sequence comprising 6-35 nucleotides upstream, and/or 6-35 nucleotides downstream of the location of the mutation, more suitably the antisense oligomeric compound target a sequence comprising 7-33 nucleotides upstream, and/or 7-33 nucleotides downstream of the location of the mutation, more suitably the antisense oligomeric compound target a sequence comprising 8-30 nucleotides upstream, and/or 8-30 nucleotides downstream of the location of the mutation, more suitably the antisense oligomeric compound target a sequence comprising 9-28 nucleotides upstream, and/or 9-28 nucleotides downstream of the location of the mutation, more suitably the antisense oligomeric compound target a sequence comprising 10-25 nucleotides upstream, and/or 10-25 nucleotides downstream of the location of the mutation, more suitably the antisense oligomeric compound target a sequence comprising 11-22 nucleotides upstream, and/or 11-22 nucleotides downstream of the location of the mutation, more suitably the antisense oligomeric compound target a sequence comprising 12-20 nucleotides upstream, and/or 12-20 nucleotides downstream of the location of the mutation, more suitably the antisense oligomeric compound target a sequence comprising 13-18 nucleotides upstream, and/or 13-18 nucleotides downstream of the location of the mutation, more suitably the antisense oligomeric compound target a sequence comprising 14-16 nucleotides upstream, and/or 14-16 nucleotides downstream of the location of the mutation.
Since the above described mutation results in splicing from the next available splice site, it would also be advantageous to block this next available splice site, which turns out to be the natural cryptic splice site at c.546 +184. So the region around c.546 +184 (natural region, unchanged due to the mutation) may additionally be the region to target using an AON.
It can also be seen in the figure that exon 2 is skipped (fully and partially). It is therefore likely that a combination of AONs that target the c.546+184 sequence and AONs that target the pseudo exon (see co-pending NL2017294)) will work better than single AONs
The nomenclature is well known to a skilled person and can be found in Dunnen and Antonarakis Human mutation 15:7-12(2000) and Antonarakis SE, the Nomenclature Working Group. 1998. Recommendations for a nomenclature system for human gene mutations. Hum Mutat 11:1—3 and on the website (http://www.dmd.nl/mutnomen.html. Genomic positions may also be found on www.pompecenter.nl. All of these are incorporated by reference.
Preferably the genomic nucleic acid sequence is pre-mRNA.
These antisense oligomeric compounds are useful in the treatment of glycogen storage disease type II /Pompe disease.
Preferably the target sequence is the sequence of SEQ ID NO:l: 5’- agcagtggggacaccacggtgacaggtactccagaaggcagggctcgggg- 3’. Antisense oligomeric compounds targeting SEQ ID NO: 1 and in particular SEQ ID NO: 2 -90 are very suitable to treat Pompe patients. Exemplary antisense oligomeric compounds targeting SEQ ID NO: 1 - 90 are SEQ ID NO: 91 - 179 provided below and in particular SEQ ID NO: 106. However the invention is not limited to these sequences. A skilled person is capable of designing antisense oligomeric compounds against target sequence SEQ ID NO: 1 - 90. The antisense oligomeric compounds against target sequenced SEQ ID NO: 1-90 may have length of 10 to 100 nucleotides , preferably 11 to 75 nucleotides, preferably 12 to 73 nucleotides, preferably 13 to 70 nucleotides, preferably 14 to 65 nucleotides, preferably 15 to 60 nucleotides, preferably 16 to 55 nucleotides, preferably 17 to 50 nucleotides, preferably 18 to 45 nucleotides, preferably 19 to 40 nucleotides, preferably 20 to 38 nucleotides, preferably 21 to 35 nucleotides, preferably 22 to 33 nucleotides, preferably 23 to 30 nucleotides, preferably 24 to 29 nucleotides, preferably 25 to 28 nucleotides, preferably 26 to 27 nucleotides.
Hereunder exemplary antisense oligomeric compounds targeting SEQ ID NO: 1 - 90 are given
In these antisense oligonucleotides, each or all occurrences of a thymine (T) residue may be replaced by a uracil (U) residue. The binding affinity towards one or more of the sequences of SEQ ID NO: 1 - 90 of such a derivative oligonucleotide of one of the SEQ ID NO: 91 - 179 will not differ from the oligonucleotide mentioned in the Table above.
In the above examples the sequences are 18, 21 and 25 nucleotides long however longer derivatives or shorter fragment are also envisioned. In a preferred embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof of the present invention and/or embodiments thereof the antisense oligomeric compounds are selected from the group of SEQ ID NO: 91 - 179 and fragments and derivatives thereof having at least 80% sequence identity. In a preferred embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof of the present invention and/or embodiments thereof the antisense oligomeric compounds are selected from the group of SEQ ID NO: 91 -179and fragments and derivatives thereof having at least 80%,83%, 85%, 87%, 90%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, 99.2%, 99.3%, 99.4%, 99.5%, 99.6%, 99.7% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 91 - 179.
Or sequences that are at least 80% identical to SEQ ID NO: 91 - 179. Preferably at least 85% identical to SEQ ID NO: 91 - 179, more preferably at least 88% identical to SEQ ID NO: 91 - 179, more preferably at least 90% identical to SEQ ID NO: 91 - 179. more preferably at least 91% identical to SEQ ID NO: 91 -179, more preferably at least 92% identical to SEQ ID NO: 91 - 179, more preferably at least 93% identical to SEQ ID NO: 91 - 179, more preferably at least 94% identical to SEQ ID NO: 91 - 179, more preferably at least 95% identical to SEQ ID NO: 91 - 179, more preferably at least 96% identical to SEQ ID NO: 91 -179, more preferably at least 97% identical to SEQ ID NO: 91 - 179, more preferably at least 98% identical to SEQ ID NO: 91 - 179, more preferably at least 99% identical to SEQ ID NO: 91 - 179.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof of the present invention and/or embodiments thereof the antisense oligomeric compounds are selected from the group of fragments SEQ ID NO: 91 - 179, wherein the fragment is 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, or 24 nucleotides long. In a preferred embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof of the present invention and/or embodiments thereof the antisense oligomeric compounds are selected from the group of fragments SEQ ID NO: 91 - 179, wherein the fragment is 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, or 22 nucleotides long. In a preferred embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof of the present invention and/or embodiments thereof the antisense oligomeric compounds are selected from the group of fragments SEQ ID NO: 91 - 179, wherein the fragment is 19, 20, or 21 nucleotides long.
Most preferred are antisense oligomeric compounds that are complementary to a genomic nucleic acid sequence of GAA gene targeting SEQ ID NO: 1. agcagtggggacaccacggtgacaggtactccagaaggcagggctcgggg (SEQ ID NO: 1).
In a preferred embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, the antisense oligomeric compound are 8 to 80 nucleotides in length, 9 to 50 nucleotides in length, 10 to 30 nucleotides in length, 12 to 30 nucleotides in length, 15 to 25 nucleotides in length or about 20 nucleotides in length. One of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that this comprehends antisense compounds of 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, or 80 nucleotides.
In one embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, the antisense compounds comprise 13 to 80 nucleotides. One having ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that this embodies antisense compounds of 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, or 80 nucleotides.
In one embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, the antisense compounds comprise 13 to 50 nucleotides. One having ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that this embodies antisense compounds of 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, or 50 nucleotides.
In one embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, the antisense compounds comprise 13 to 30 nucleotides. One having ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that this embodies antisense compounds of 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29 or 30 nucleotides.
In one embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, the antisense compounds comprise 20 to 30 nucleotides. One having ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that this embodies antisense compounds of 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30 nucleotides.
In one embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, the antisense compounds comprise 15 to 25 nucleotides. One having ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that this embodies antisense compounds of 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 or 25.
In one embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, the antisense compounds comprise 20 nucleotides.
In one embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, the antisense compounds comprise 19 nucleotides.
In one embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, the antisense compounds comprise 18 nucleotides.
In one embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, the antisense compounds comprise 17 nucleotides.
In one embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, the antisense compounds comprise 16 nucleotides.
In one embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, the antisense compounds comprise 15 nucleotides.
In one embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, the antisense compounds comprise 14 nucleotides.
In one embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, the antisense compounds comprise 13 nucleotides.
In one embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, compounds include oligonucleotide sequences that comprise at least 8 consecutive nucleotides from one of the antisense compounds as claimed, preferably at least 9 consecutive nucleotides from one of the antisense compounds as claimed, more preferably at least 10 consecutive nucleotides from one of the antisense compounds as claimed, more preferably at least 11 consecutive nucleotides from one of the antisense compounds as claimed, more preferably at least 12 consecutive nucleotides from one of the antisense compounds as claimed, more preferably at least 13 consecutive nucleotides from one of the antisense compounds as claimed, more preferably at least 14 consecutive nucleotides from one of the antisense compounds as claimed, more preferably at least 15 consecutive nucleotides from one of the antisense compounds as claimed, more preferably at least 16 consecutive nucleotides from one of the antisense compounds as claimed, more preferably at least 17 consecutive nucleotides from one of the antisense compounds as claimed, more preferably at least 18 consecutive nucleotides from one of the antisense compounds as claimed, more preferably at least 19 consecutive nucleotides from one of the antisense compounds as claimed, more preferably at least 20 consecutive nucleotides from one of the antisense compounds as claimed.
Any remaining nucleotides from the oligonucleotides may be oligonucleotides that improve resistance to Rnase H, cell-targeting sequences, cell penetrating sequences, marker sequences or any other sequences.
One having skill in the art armed with the antisense compounds disclosed herein will be able, without undue experimentation, to identify further antisense compounds.
In order for an antisense oligonucleotide to achieve therapeutic success, oligonucleotide chemistry must allow for adequate cellular uptake (Kurreck, J. (2003) Eur. J. Biochem. 270:1628-1644). Splicing oligonucleotides have traditionally been comprised of uniform modifications that render the oligonucleotide RNA-like, and thus resistant to cleavage by RNase H, which is critical to achieve modulation of splicing. Provided herein are antisense compounds for modulation of splicing.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, the antisense compounds are chimeric, with regions of RNA-like and DNA-like chemistry. Despite regions of DNA-like chemistry, the chimeric compounds are preferably RNase H-resistant and effectively modulate splicing of target mRNA in vitro and in vivo. In another preferred embodiment the disclosed antisense oligomeric compounds show enhanced cellular uptake and greater pharmacologic activity compared with uniformly modified oligonucleotides.
One skilled in the art recognizes that the inclusion of mismatches is possible without eliminating the activity of the antisense compound. Compounds provided herein are therefore directed to those antisense compounds that may contain up to about 20% nucleotides that disrupt base pairing of the antisense compound to the target. Preferably the compounds contain no more than about 15%, more preferably not more than about 10%, most preferably not more than 5% or no mismatches. The remaining nucleotides do not disrupt hybridization (e.g., universal bases).
It is understood in the art that incorporation of nucleotide affinity modifications may allow for a greater number of mismatches compared to an unmodified compound. Similarly, certain oligonucleotide sequences may be more tolerant to mismatches than other oligonucleotide sequences. One of the skill in the art is capable of determining an appropriate number of mismatches between oligonucleotides, or between an oligonucleotide and a target nucleic acid, such as by determining melting temperature.
It is known by a skilled person that hybridization to a target mRNA depends on the conditions. "Stringent hybridization conditions" or "stringent conditions" refer to conditions under which an oligomeric compound will hybridize to its target sequence, but to a minimal number of other sequences. Stringent conditions are sequence-dependent and will be different in different circumstances, and "stringent conditions" under which oligomeric compounds hybridize to a target sequence are determined by the nature and composition of the oligomeric compounds and the assays in which they are being investigated.
Antisense compounds, or a portion thereof, may have a defined percent identity to a SEQ ID NO. As used herein, a sequence is identical to the sequence disclosed herein if it has the same nucleobase pairing ability. For example, an RNA which contains uracil in place of thymidine in the disclosed sequences would be considered identical as they both pair with adenine. This identity may be over the entire length of the oligomeric compound, or in a portion of the antisense compound (e.g., nucleotides 1-20 of a 27-mer may be compared to a 20-mer to determine percent identity of the oligomeric compound to the SEQ ID NO.) It is understood by those skilled in the art that an antisense compound need not have an identical sequence to those described herein to function similarly to the antisense compound described herein. Shortened versions of antisense compound taught herein, or nonidentical versions of the antisense compound taught herein are also contemplated. Non-identical versions are those wherein each base does not have the same pairing activity as the antisense compounds disclosed herein. Bases do not have the same pairing activity by being shorter or having at least one abasic site. Alternatively, a non-identical version can include at least one base replaced with a different base with different pairing activity (e.g., G can be replaced by C, A, or T). Percent identity is calculated according to the number of bases that have identical base pairing corresponding to the SEQ ID NO or antisense compound to which it is being compared. The non-identical bases may be adjacent to each other, dispersed through out the oligonucleotide, or both.
For example, a 16-mer having the same sequence as nucleotides 2-17 of a 20-mer is 80% identical to the 20-mer. Alternatively, a 20-mer containing four nucleotides not identical to the 20-mer is also 80% identical to the 20-mer. A 14-mer having the same sequence as nucleotides 1-14 of an 18-mer is 78% identical to the 18-mer. Such calculations are well within the ability of those skilled in the art.
The percent identity is based on the percent of nucleotides in the original sequence present in a portion of the modified sequence. Therefore, a 30 nucleobase antisense compound comprising the full sequence of the complement of a 20 nucleobase active target segment would have a portion of 100% identity with the complement of the 20 nucleobase active target segment, while further comprising an additional 10 nucleobase portion. The complement of an active target segment may constitute a single portion. In a preferred embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, the oligonucleotides are at least about 80%, more preferably at least about 85%, even more preferably at least about 90%, most preferably at least 95% identical to at least a portion of the complement of the active target segments presented herein.
It is well known by those skilled in the art that it is possible to increase or decrease the length of an antisense compound and/or introduce mismatch bases without eliminating activity. For example, in Woolf et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:7305-7310, 1992, incorporated herein by reference), a series of antisense oligomeric compounds of 13-25 nucleotides in length were tested for their ability to induce cleavage of a target RNA. Antisense oligomeric compounds of 25 nucleotides in length with 8 or 11 mismatch bases near the ends of the antisense oligomeric compounds were able to direct specific cleavage of the target mRNA, albeit to a lesser extent than the antisense oligomeric compounds that contained no mismatches. Similarly, target specific cleavage was achieved using a 13 nucleobase antisense oligomeric compounds, including those with 1 or 3 mismatches. Maher and Dolnick (Nuc. Acid. Res. 16:3341-3358,1988, incorporated herein by reference) tested a series of tandem 14 nucleobase antisense oligomeric compounds, and a 28 and 42 nucleobase antisense oligomeric compounds comprised of the sequence of two or three of the tandem antisense oligomeric compounds, respectively, for their ability to arrest translation of human DHFR in a rabbit reticulocyte assay. Each of the three 14 nucleobase antisense oligomeric compounds alone were able to inhibit translation, albeit at a more modest level than the 28 or 42 nucleobase antisense oligomeric compounds. It is understood that antisense compounds can vary in length and percent complementarity to the target provided that they maintain the desired activity. Methods to determine desired activity are disclosed herein and well known to those skilled in the art. In a preferred embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, the antisense oligomeric compounds have at least 80% complementarity to the target mRNA, more preferably at least 85% complementarity to the target mRNA, more preferably at least 90% complementarity to the target mRNA, more preferably at least 95% complementarity to the target mRNA, more preferably at least 96% complementarity to the target mRNA, more preferably at least 97% complementarity to the target mRNA, more preferably at least 98% complementarity to the target mRNA, more preferably at least 99% complementarity to the target mRNA, more preferably at least 100% complementarity to the target mRNA.
As is known in the art, a nucleoside is a base-sugar combination. The base portion of the nucleoside is normally a heterocyclic base (sometimes referred to as a "nucleobase" or simply a "base"). The two most common classes of such heterocyclic bases are the purines and the pyrimidines. Nucleotides are nucleosides that further include a phosphate group covalently linked to the sugar portion of the nucleoside. For those nucleosides that include a pentofuranosyl sugar, the phosphate group can be linked to the 2', 3' or 5' hydroxyl moiety of the sugar. In forming oligonucleotides, the phosphate groups covalently link adjacent nucleosides to one another to form a linear polymeric compound. Within oligonucleotides, the phosphate groups are commonly referred to as forming the internucleoside backbone of the oligonucleotide. The normal linkage or backbone of RNA and DNA is a 3' to 5' phosphodiester linkage. It is often preferable to include chemical modifications in oligonucleotides to alter their activity. Chemical modifications can alter oligonucleotide activity by, for example: increasing affinity of an antisense oligonucleotide for its target RNA, increasing nuclease resistance, and/or altering the pharmacokinetics of the oligonucleotide. The use of chemistries that increase the affinity of an oligonucleotide for its target can allow for the use of shorter oligonucleotide compounds.
Antisense compounds provided herein may also contain one or more nucleosides having modified sugar moieties. The furanosyl sugar ring of a nucleoside can be modified in a number of ways including, but not limited to, addition of a substituent group, bridging of two non-geminal ring atoms to form a bicyclic nucleic acid (BNA) and substitution of an atom or group such as -S-, -N(R)-or -C(R1)(R2) for the ring oxygen at the 4'-position. Modified sugar moieties are well known and can be used to alter, typically increase, the affinity of the antisense compound for its target and/or increase nuclease resistance. A representative list of preferred modified sugars includes but is not limited to bicyclic modified sugars (BNA's), including LNA and ENA (4'-(CH2)2-0-2' bridge); and substituted sugars, especially 2'-substituted sugars having a 2'-F, 2'-OCH2 or a 2'-0(CH2)2-0CH3 substituent group. Sugars can also be replaced with sugar mimetic groups among others. Methods for the preparations of modified sugars are well known to those skilled in the art. Suitable compounds can comprise one of the following at the 2' position: OH; F; O-, S-, or N-alkyl; O-, S-, or N-alkenyl; 0-, S- or N-alkynyl; or 0-alkyl-O-alkyl, wherein the alkyl, alkenyl and alkynyl may be substituted or unsubstituted Ci to Cio alkyl or C2 to C10 alkenyl and alkynyl. Also suitable are 0((CH2)n0)mCH3, 0(CH2)n0CH3, 0(CH2)nNH2, 0(CH2)nCH3, 0(CH2)n0NH2, and 0(CH2)n0N((CH2)nCH3)2, where n and m are from 1 to about 10. Other oligonucleotides comprise one of the following at the 2' position: Cl to CIO lower alkyl, substituted lower alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, alkaryl, aralkyl, O-alkaryl or 0-aralkyl, SH, SCH3, OCN, Cl, Br, CN, CF3, OCF3, SOCH3, S02CH3, 0N02, N02, Ns, NH2, heterocycloalkyl, heterocycloalkaryl, aminoalkylamino, poly-alkylamino, substituted silyl, an RNA cleaving group, a reporter group, an intercalator, a group for improving the pharmacokinetic properties of an oligonucleotide, or a group for improving the pharmacodynamic properties of an oligonucleotide, and other substituents having similar properties. One modification includes 2'-methoxyethoxy (2'-0-CH2CH20CH3, also known as 2'-0-(2-methoxyethyl) or 2'-MOE) (Martin et al., Helv. Chim. Acta, 1995, 78, 486-504), i.e., an alkoxyalkoxy group. A further modification includes 2'-dimethylaminooxyethoxy, i.e., a 0(CH2)20N(CH3)2 group, also known as 2'-DMA0E, and 2'- dimethylaminoethoxyethoxy (also known in the art as 2'-0-dimethyl-amino-ethoxy-ethyl or 2'-DMAE0E), i.e., 2'-0-(CH2)2-0-(CH2)2-N(CH3)2. Other modifications include 2'-methoxy (2'-0-CH3), 2'-aminopropoxy (2'-OCH2CH2CH2NH2), 2'-allyl (2'-CH2-CH-CH2), 2'-0-allyl (2'-0-CH2-CH-CH2) and 2'-fluoro (2'-F). The 2'-modification may be in the arabino (up) position or ribo (down) position. One 2'-arabino modification is 2'-F. Similar modifications may also be made at other positions on the oligonucleotide, particularly the 3' position of the sugar on the 3' terminal nucleotide or in 2'-5' linked oligonucleotides and the 5' position of 5' terminal nucleotide. Antisense compounds may also have sugar mimetics such as cyclobutyl moieties in place of the pentofuranosyl sugar. Representative United States patents that teach the preparation of such modified sugar structures include, but are not limited to, U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,981,957; 5,118,800; 5,319,080; 5,359,044; 5,393,878; 5,446,137; 5,466,786; 5,514,785; 5,519,134; 5,567,811; 5,576,427; 5,591,722; 5,597,909; 5,610,300; 5,627,053; 5,639,873; 5,646,265; 5,658,873; 5,670,633; 5,792,747; 5,700,920; and, 6,147,200.
In one aspect of the present invention oligomeric compounds include nucleosides modified to induce a 3'-endo sugar conformation. A nucleoside can incorporate modifications of the heterocyclic base, the sugar moiety or both to induce a desired 3'-endo sugar conformation. These modified nucleosides are used to mimic RNA-like nucleosides so that particular properties of an oligomeric compound can be enhanced while maintaining the desirable 3'-endo conformational geometry.
In the present invention there is a preference for an RNA type duplex (A form helix, predominantly 3'-endo) as they are RNase H resistant. Properties that are enhanced by using more stable 3'-endo nucleosides include but are not limited to: modulation of pharmacokinetic properties through modification of protein binding, protein off-rate, absorption and clearance; modulation of nuclease stability as well as chemical stability; modulation of the binding affinity and specificity of the oligomer (affinity and specificity for enzymes as well as for complementary sequences); and increasing efficacy of RNA cleavage.
Nucleoside conformation is influenced by various factors including substitution at the 2', 3' or 4'-positions of the pentofuranosyl sugar. Electronegative substituents generally prefer the axial positions, while sterically demanding substituents generally prefer the equatorial positions (Principles of Nucleic Acid Structure, Wolfgang Sanger, 1984, Springer-Verlag.) Modification of the 2' position to favor the 3'-endo conformation can be achieved while maintaining the 2'-OH as a recognition element (Gallo et al., Tetrahedron (2001), 57, 5707-5713. Harry-O'kuru et al., J. Org. Chem., (1997), 62(6), 1754-1759 and Tang et ah, J. Org. Chem. (1999), 64, 747-754.) Alternatively, preference for the 3'-endo conformation can be achieved by deletion of the 2'-OH as exemplified by 2' deoxy-2'F-nucleosides (Kawasaki et ah, J. Med. Chem. (1993), 36, 831-841), which adopts the 3'-endo conformation positioning the electronegative fluorine atom in the axial position. Representative 2'-substituent groups amenable to the present invention that give A-form conformational properties (3'-endo) to the resultant duplexes include 2'-0-alkyl, 2'-0-substituted alkyl and 2'-fluoro substituent groups. Other suitable substituent groups are various alkyl and aryl ethers and thioethers, amines and monoalkyl and dialkyl substituted amines.
Other modifications of the ribose ring, for example substitution at the 4'-position to give 4'-F modified nucleosides (Guillerm et al., Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters (1995), 5, 1455-1460 and Owen et ah, J. Org. Chem. (1976), 41, 3010-3017), or for example modification to yield methanocarba nucleoside analogs (Jacobson et ah, J. Med. Chem. Lett. (2000), 43, 2196-2203 and Lee et al., Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2001), 11, 1333-1337) also induce preference for the 3'-endo conformation. Along similar lines, one or more nucleosides may be modified in such a way that conformation is locked into a C3'-endo type conformation, i.e. Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA, Singh et al, Chem. Commun. (1998), 4, 455-456), and ethylene bridged Nucleic Acids (ENA(TM), Morita et al, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2002), 12, 73-76.)
Preferred modification of the sugar are selected from the group consisting of 2'-0-methyl 2'-0-methoxyethyl, 2'-fluoro, 2'-dimethylaminooxyethoxy, 2'-dimethylaminoethoxyethoxy, 2'-guanidinium, 2'-0-guanidinium ethyl, 2'-carbamate, 2'-aminooxy, 2'-acetamido and locked nucleic acid. In one preferred embodiment, the sugar modification is 2'-0-methyl or 2'-0-methoxyethyl.
Oligomeric compounds can also include nucleobase (often referred to in the art as heterocyclic base or simply as "base") modifications or substitutions. As used herein, "unmodified" or "natural" nucleotides include the purine bases adenine (A) and guanine (G), and the pyrimidine bases thymine (T), cytosine (C) and uracil (U). A "substitution" is the replacement of an unmodified or natural base with another unmodified or natural base. "Modified" nucleotides mean other synthetic and natural nucleotides such as 5-methylcytosine (5-me-C), 5-hydroxymethyl cytosine, xanthine, hypoxanthine, 2-aminoadenine, 6-methyl and other alkyl derivatives of adenine and guanine, 2-propyl and other alkyl derivatives of adenine and guanine, 2-thiouracil, 2-thiothymine and 2-thiocytosine, 5-halouracil and cytosine, 5-propynyl (-C[identical to]C-CH3) uracil and cytosine and other alkynyl derivatives of pyrimidine bases, 6-azo uracil, cytosine and thymine, 5-uracil (pseudouracil), 4-thiouracil, 8-halo, 8-amino, 8-thiol, 8-thioalkyl, 8-hydroxyl and other 8-substituted adenines and guanines, 5-halo particularly 5-bromo, 5-trifluoromethyl and other 5-substituted uracils and cytosines, 7-methylguanine and 7-methyladenine, 2-F-adenine, 2-amino-adenine, 8-azaguanine and 8-azaadenine, 7-deazaguanine and 7-deazaadenine and 3-deazaguanine and 3-deazaadenine. Further modified nucleotides include tricyclic pyrimidines such as phenoxazine cy tidine (1H -pyrimido(5,4-b) (1,4)benzoxazin- 2(3H) - one), phenothiazine cytidine (lH-pyrimido(5,4-b)(l,4)benzothiazin-2(3H)-one), G-clamps such as a substituted phenoxazine cytidine (e.g. 9-(2-aminoethoxy)-H-pyrimido(5,4- b)(l,4)benzoxazin-2(3H)-one), carbazole cytidine (2H-pyrimido(4,5-b)indol-2-one), pyridoindole cytidine (H-pyrido(3',2':4,5)pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one). Modified nucleotides may also include those in which the purine or pyrimidine base is replaced with other heterocycles, for example 7-deaza-adenine, 7-deazaguanosine, 2-aminopyridine and 2-pyridone. Further nucleotides include those disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,687,808, those disclosed in The Concise Encyclopedia Of Polymer Science And Engineering, pages 858-859, Kroschwitz, J. I., ed. John Wiley & Sons, 1990, those disclosed by Englisch et al., Angewandte Chemie, International Edition, 1991, 30, 613, and those disclosed by Sanghvi, Y. S., Chapter 15, Antisense Research and Applications, pages 289-302, Crooke, S. T. and Lebleu, B., ed., CRC Press, 1993. Certain of these nucleotides are known to those skilled in the art as suitable for increasing the binding affinity of the compounds of the invention.
These include 5-substituted pyrimidines, 6-azapyrimidines and N-2, N-6 and 0-6 substituted purines, including 2-aminopropyladenine, 5-propynyluracil and 5-propynylcytosine. 5-methylcytosine substitutions have been shown to increase nucleic acid duplex stability by 0.6-1.2°C. and are presently suitable base substitutions, even more particularly when combined with 2'-0-methoxyethyl sugar modifications. It is understood in the art that modification of the base does not entail such chemical modifications as to produce substitutions in a nucleic acid sequence.
Representative United States patents that teach the preparation of certain of the above noted modified nucleotides as well as other modified nucleotides include, but are not limited to, the above noted U.S. Pat. No. 3,687,808, as well as U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,845,205; 5,130,302; 5,134,066; 5,175,273; 5,367,066; 5,432,272; 5,457,187; 5,459,255; 5,484,908; 5,502,177; 5,525,711; 5,552,540; 5,587,469; 5,594,121, 5,596,091; 5,614,617; 5,645,985; 5,830,653; 5,763,588; 6,005,096; 5,681,941; and 5,750,692.
Oligomeric compounds of the present invention may also include polycyclic heterocyclic compounds in place of one or more of the naturally-occurring heterocyclic base moieties. A number of tricyclic heterocyclic compounds have been previously reported. These compounds are routinely used in antisense applications to increase the binding properties of the modified strand to a target strand. The most studied modifications are targeted to guanosines hence they have been termed G-clamps or cytidine analogs. Representative cytosine analogs that make 3 hydrogen bonds with a guanosine in a second strand include 1,3-diazaphenoxazine-2-one (Kurchavov, et al., Nucleosides and Nucleotides, 1997, 16, 1837-1846), 1,3-diazaphenothiazine-2-one, (Lin, K.-Y.; Jones, R. J.; Matteucci, M. J. Am. Chem.
Soc. 1995, 117, 3873-3874) and 6,7,8,9-tetrafluoro-l,3-diazaphenoxazine-2-one (Wang, J.; Lin, K.-Y., Matteucci, M. Tetrahedron Lett. 1998, 39, 8385-8388). Incorporated into oligonucleotides these base modifications were shown to hybridize with complementary guanine and the latter was also shown to hybridize with adenine and to enhance helical thermal stability by extended stacking interactions (also see U.S. Pre-Grant Publications 2003/0207804 and 2003/0175906).
Further helix-stabilizing properties have been observed when a cytosine analog/substitute has an aminoethoxy moiety attached to the rigid 1,3-diazaphenoxazine-2-one scaffold (Lin, K.-Y.; Matteucci, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1998, 120, 8531-8532). Binding studies demonstrated that a single incorporation could enhance the binding affinity of a model oligonucleotide to its complementary target DNA or RNA with a ATm of up to 18°C. relative to 5-methyl cytosine, which is a high affinity enhancement for a single modification. On the other hand, the gain in helical stability does not compromise the specificity of the oligonucleotides.
Further tricyclic heterocyclic compounds and methods of using them that are amenable to use in the present invention are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,028,183, and 6,007,992.
The enhanced binding affinity of the phenoxazine derivatives together with their uncompromised sequence specificity makes them valuable nucleobase analogs for the development of more potent antisense-based drugs. In fact, promising data have been derived from in vitro experiments demonstrating that heptanucleotides containing phenoxazine substitutions are capable to activate RNase H, enhance cellular uptake and exhibit an increased antisense activity (Lin, K-Y; Matteucci, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1998, 120, 8531-8532). The activity enhancement was even more pronounced in case of G-clamp, as a single substitution was shown to significantly improve the in vitro potency of a 20 mer 2'-deoxyphosphorothioate oligonucleotides (Flanagan, W. M.; Wolf, J. J.; Olson, P.; Grant, D.; Lin, K.-Y.; Wagner, R. W.; Matteucci, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1999, 96, 3513-3518).
Further modified polycyclic heterocyclic compounds useful as heterocyclic bases are disclosed in but not limited to, the above noted U.S. Pat. No. 3,687,808, as well as U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,845,205; 5,130,302; 5,134,066; 5,175,273; 5,367,066; 5,432,272; 5,434,257; 5,457,187; 5,459,255; 5,484,908; 5,502,177; 5,525,711; 5,552,540; 5,587,469; 5,594,121, 5,596,091; 5,614,617; 5,645,985; 5,646,269; 5,750,692; 5,830,653; 5,763,588; 6,005,096; and 5,681,941, and U.S. Pre-Grant Publication 20030158403.
The compounds described herein may include internucleoside linking groups that link the nucleosides or otherwise modified monomer units together thereby forming an antisense compound. The two main classes of internucleoside linking groups are defined by the presence or absence of a phosphorus atom. Representative phosphorus containing internucleoside linkages include, but are not limited to, phosphodiesters, phosphotriesters, methylphosphonates, phosphoramidate, and phosphorothioates. Representative non-phosphorus containing internucleoside linking groups include, but are not limited to, methylenemethylimino (-CH2-N(CH3)-0-CH2-), thiodiester (-O-C(O)-S-), thionocarbamate (-0-C(0)(NH)-S-); siloxane (-0-Si(H)2-0-); and N,N'-dimethylhydrazine (-CH2-N(CH3)-N(CH3)-). Modified internucleoside linkages, compared to natural phosphodiester linkages, can be used to alter, typically increase, nuclease resistance of the antisense compound. Internucleoside linkages having a chiral atom may be prepared racemic, chiral, or as a mixture. Representative chiral internucleoside linkages include, but are not limited to, alkylphosphonates and phosphorothioates. Methods of preparation of phosphorous-containing and non-phosphorous-containing linkages are well known to those skilled in the art.
Suitable modified internucleoside linking groups are for example, phosphorothioates, chiral phosphorothioates, phosphorodithioates, phosphotriesters, aminoalkyl-phosphotriesters, methyl and other alkyl phosphonates including 3'-alkylene phosphonates, 5'-alkylene phosphonates and chiral phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphoramidates including 3'-amino phosphoramidate and aminoalkylphosphoramidates, thionophosphoramidates, thionoalkyl-phosphonates, thionoalkylphosphotriesters, phosphonoacetate and thiophosphonoacetate (see Sheehan et al., Nucleic Acids Research, 2003, 31(14), 4109-4118 and Dellinger et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2003, 125, 940-950), selenophosphates and boranophosphates having normal 3'-5' linkages, 2'-5' linked analogs of these, and those having inverted polarity wherein one or more internucleotide linkages is a 3' to 3', 5' to 5' or 2' to 2' linkage. Oligonucleotides having inverted polarity comprise a single 3' to 3' linkage at the 3'-most internucleotide linkage, i.e., a single inverted nucleoside residue which may be abasic (the nucleobase is missing or has a hydroxyl group in place thereof). Various salts, mixed salts and free acid forms are also included. N3'-P5'-phosphoramidates have been reported to exhibit both a high affinity towards a complementary RNA strand and nuclease resistance (Gryaznov et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1994, 116, 3143-3144). N3'-P5'-phosphoramidates have been studied with some success in vivo to specifically down regulate the expression of the c-myc gene (Skorski et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 1997, 94, 3966-3971; and Faira et al., Nat. Biotechnol., 2001, 19, 40-44).
Representative United States patents that teach the preparation of the above phosphorus-containing linkages include, but are not limited to, U.S. Pat.
Nos. 3,687,808; 4,469,863; 4,476,301; 5,023,243; 5,177,196; 5,188,897; 5,264,423; 5,276,019; 5,278,302; 5,286,717; 5,321,131; 5,399,676; 5,405,939; 5,453,496; 5,455,233; 5,466,677; 5,476,925; 5,519,126; 5,536,821; 5,541,306; 5,550,111; 5,563,253; 5,571,799; 5,587,361; 5,194,599; 5,565,555; 5,527,899; 5,721,218; 5,672,697 and 5,625,050.
In some embodiments of the invention, oligomeric compounds may have one or more phosphorothioate and/or heteroatom internucleoside linkages, in particular -CH2-NH-O-CH2-, -CH2-N(CH3)-0-CH2- (known as a methylene (methylimino) or MMI backbone), -CH2-0-N(CH3)-CH2-, -CH2-N(CH3)-N(CH3)-CH2-and -0-N(CH3)-CH2-CH2- (wherein the native phosphodiester internucleotide linkage is represented as -0-P(-0)(0H)-0-CH2-). The MMI type internucleoside linkages are disclosed in the above referenced U.S. Pat. No. 5,489,677. Amide internucleoside linkages are disclosed in the above referenced U.S. Pat. No. 5,602,240.
Some oligonucleotide backbones that do not include a phosphorus atom therein have backbones that are formed by short chain alkyl or cycloalkyl internucleoside linkages, mixed heteroatom and alkyl or cycloalkyl internucleoside linkages, or one or more short chain heteroatomic or heterocyclic internucleoside linkages. These include those having morpholino linkages (formed in part from the sugar portion of a nucleoside); siloxane backbones; sulfide, sulfoxide and sulfone backbones; formacetyl and thioformacetyl backbones; methylene formacetyl and thioformacetyl backbones; riboacetyl backbones; alkene containing backbones; sulfamate backbones; methyleneimino and methylenehydrazino backbones; sulfonate and sulfonamide backbones; amide backbones; and others having mixed N, O, S and CH2 component parts.
Representative United States patents that teach the preparation of the above oligonucleosides include, but are not limited to, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,034,506; 5,166,315; 5,185,444; 5,214,134; 5,216,141; 5,235,033; 5,264,562; 5,264,564; 5,405,938; 5,434,257; 5,466,677; 5,470,967; 5,489,677; 5,541,307; 5,561,225; 5,596,086; 5,602,240; 5,610,289; 5,602,240; 5,608,046; 5,610,289; 5,618,704; 5,623,070; 5,663,312; 5,633,360; 5,677,437; 5,792,608; 5,646,269 and 5,677,439.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof the internucleoside linkage is phosphorothioate, or phosphorodiamidate
It is further intended that multiple modifications can be made to one or more of the oligomeric compounds of the invention at multiple sites of one or more monomeric subunits (nucleosides are suitable) and/or internucleoside linkages to enhance properties such as but not limited to activity in a selected application.
The synthesis of numerous of the modified nucleosides amenable to the present invention are known in the art (see for example, Chemistry of Nucleosides and Nucleotides Vol 1-3, ed. Leroy B. Townsend, 1988, Plenum press). The conformation of modified nucleosides and their oligomers can be estimated by various methods routine to those skilled in the art such as molecular dynamics calculations, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and CD measurements.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, the oligomeric compounds of the present invention are morpholino phosphorothioates, or phosphorodiamidate morpholino.
Another group of oligomeric compounds includes oligonucleotide mimetics. As used herein the term "mimetic" refers to groups that are substituted for a sugar, a nucleobase, and/or internucleoside linkage. Generally, a mimetic is used in place of the sugar or sugar-internucleoside linkage combination, and the nucleobase is maintained for hybridization to a selected target. Representative examples of a sugar mimetic include, but are not limited to, cyclohexenyl or morpholino. Representative examples of a mimetic for a sugar-internucleoside linkage combination include, but are not limited to, peptide nucleic acids (PNA) and morpholino groups linked by uncharged achiral linkages. In some instances a mimetic is used in place of the nucleobase. Representative nucleobase mimetics are well known in the art and include, but are not limited to, tricyclic phenoxazine analogs and universal bases (Berger et al., Nuc Acid Res. 2000, 28:2911-14, incorporated herein by reference). Methods of synthesis of sugar, nucleoside and nucleobase mimetics are well known to those skilled in the art. The heterocyclic base moiety or a modified heterocyclic base moiety is preferably maintained for hybridization with an appropriate target nucleic acid.
The compounds described herein may contain one or more asymmetric centers and thus give rise to enantiomers, diastereomers, and other stereoisomeric configurations that may be defined, in terms of absolute stereochemistry, as (R) or (S), [alpha] or [beta], or as (D) or (L) such as for amino acids et al. The present disclosure is meant to include all such possible isomers, as well as their racemic and optically pure forms.
One such oligomeric compound, an oligonucleotide mimetic that has been shown to have excellent hybridization properties, is referred to as a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) (Nielsen et al., Science, 1991, 254, 1497-1500). PNAs have favorable hybridization properties, high biological stability and are electrostatically neutral molecules. PNA compounds have been used to correct aberrant splicing in a transgenic mouse model (Sazani et al., Nat. Biotechnol., 2002, 20, 1228-1233). In PNA oligomeric compounds, the sugar-backbone of an oligonucleotide is replaced with an amide containing backbone, in particular an aminoethylglycine backbone. The nucleotides are bound directly or indirectly to aza nitrogen atoms of the amide portion of the backbone. Representative United States patents that teach the preparation of PNA oligomeric compounds include, but are not limited to, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,539,082; 5,714,331; and 5,719,262. PNA compounds can be obtained commercially from Applied Biosystems (Foster City, Calif., USA). Numerous modifications to the basic PNA backbone are known in the art; particularly useful are PNA compounds with one or more amino acids conjugated to one or both termini. For example, 1-8 lysine or arginine residues are useful when conjugated to the end of a PNA molecule. A polyarginine tail may be a suitable for enhancing cell penetration.
Another class of oligonucleotide mimetic that has been studied is based on linked morpholino units (morpholino nucleic acid) having heterocyclic bases attached to the morpholino ring. A number of linking groups have been reported that link the morpholino monomeric units in a morpholino nucleic acid. One class of linking groups have been selected to give a non-ionic oligomeric compound. Morpholino-based oligomeric compounds are non-ionic mimetics of oligonucleotides which are less likely to form undesired interactions with cellular proteins (Dwaine A. Braasch and David R. Corey, Biochemistry, 2002, 41(14), 4503-4510). Morpholino-based oligomeric compounds have been studied in zebrafish embryos (see: Genesis, volume 30, issue 3, 2001 and Heasman, J., Dev. Biol., 2002, 243, 209-214). Further studies of morpholino-based oligomeric compounds have also been reported (Nasevicius et al., Nat. Genet., 2000, 26, 216-220; and Lacerra et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 2000, 97, 9591-9596). Morpholino-based oligomeric compounds are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,034,506. The morpholino class of oligomeric compounds have been prepared having a variety of different linking groups joining the monomeric subunits. Linking groups can be varied from chiral to achiral, and from charged to neutral. U.S. Pat. No. 5,166,315 discloses linkages including -0-P(-0)(N(CH3)2)-0-; U.S. Pat. No. 5,034,506 discloses achiral intermorpholino linkages; and U.S. Pat. No. 5,185,444 discloses phosphorus containing chiral intermorpholino linkages. A further class of oligonucleotide mimetic is referred to as cyclohexene nucleic acids (CeNA). In CeNA oligonucleotides, the furanose ring normally present in a DNA or RNA molecule is replaced with a cyclohexenyl ring. CeNA DMT protected phosphoramidite monomers have been prepared and used for oligomeric compound synthesis following classical phosphoramidite chemistry. Fully modified CeNA oligomeric compounds and oligonucleotides having specific positions modified with CeNA have been prepared and studied (Wang et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2000, 122, 8595-8602). In general the incorporation of CeNA monomers into a DNA chain increases its stability of a DNA/RNA hybrid. CeNA oligoadenylates formed complexes with RNA and DNA complements with similar stability to the native complexes. The study of incorporating CeNA structures into natural nucleic acid structures was shown by NMR and circular dichroism to proceed with easy conformational adaptation. Furthermore the incorporation of CeNA into a sequence targeting RNA was stable to serum and able to activate E. coli RNase H resulting in cleavage of the target RNA strand. A further modification includes bicyclic sugar moieties such as "Locked Nucleic Acids" (LNAs) in which the 2'-hydroxyl group of the ribosyl sugar ring is linked to the 4' carbon atom of the sugar ring thereby forming a 2'-C,4'-C-oxymethylene linkage to form the bicyclic sugar moiety (reviewed in Elayadi et al., Curr. Opinion Invens. Drugs, 2001, 2, 558-561; Braasch et ah, Chem. Biol., 2001, 8 1-7; and Orum et ah, Curr. Opinion Mol. Ther., 2001, 3, 239-243; see also U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,268,490 and 6,670,461). The linkage can be a methylene (-CH2-) group bridging the 2' oxygen atom and the 4' carbon atom, for which the term LNA is used for the bicyclic moiety; in the case of an ethylene group in this position, the term ENA(TM) is used (Singh et ah, Chem. Commun., 1998, 4, 455-456; ENA(TM): Morita et ah, Bioorganic Medicinal Chemistry, 2003, 11, 2211-2226). LNA and other bicyclic sugar analogs display very high duplex thermal stabilities with complementary DNA and RNA (Tm=+3 to +10[deg.] C.), stability towards 3'-exonucleolytic degradation and good solubility properties. LNAs are commercially available from ProLigo (Paris, France and Boulder, Colo., USA).
An isomer of LNA that has also been studied is alpha-L-LNA which has been shown to have superior stability against a 3'-exonuclease. The alpha-L-LNAs were incorporated into antisense gapmers and chimeras that showed potent antisense activity (Frieden et al., Nucleic Acids Research, 2003, 21, 6365-6372).
Another similar bicyclic sugar moiety that has been prepared and studied has the bridge going from the 3'-hydroxyl group via a single methylene group to the 4' carbon atom of the sugar ring thereby forming a 3'-C,4'-C-oxymethylene linkage (see U.S. Pat. No. 6,043,060). LNA has been shown to form exceedingly stable LNA:LNA duplexes (Koshkin et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1998, 120, 13252-13253). LNA:LNA hybridization was shown to be the most thermally stable nucleic acid type duplex system, and the RNA-mimicking character of LNA was established at the duplex level. Introduction of 3 LNA monomers (T or A) significantly increased melting points (Tm=+15/+ll °C.) toward DNA complements. The universality of LNA-mediated hybridization has been stressed by the formation of exceedingly stable LNA:LNA duplexes. The RNA-mimicking of LNA was reflected with regard to the N-type conformational restriction of the monomers and to the secondary structure of the LNA:RNA duplex. LNAs also form duplexes with complementary DNA, RNA or LNA with high thermal affinities. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra show that duplexes involving fully modified LNA (esp.LNA:RNA) structurally resemble an A-form RNA:RNA duplex. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) examination of an LNA:DNA duplex confirmed the 3'-endo conformation of an LNA monomer. Recognition of double-stranded DNA has also been demonstrated suggesting strand invasion by LNA. Studies of mismatched sequences show that LNAs obey the Watson-Crick base pairing rules with generally improved selectivity compared to the corresponding unmodified reference strands. DNA-LNA chimeras have been shown to efficiently inhibit gene expression when targeted to a variety of regions (5'-untranslated region, region of the start codon or coding region) within the luciferase mRNA (Braasch et al., Nucleic Acids Research, 2002, 30, 5160-5167).
Potent and nontoxic antisense oligonucleotides containing LNAs have been described (Wahlestedt et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sc U.S.A., 2000, 97, 5633-5638). The authors have demonstrated that LNAs confer several desired properties. LNA/DNA copolymers were not degraded readily in blood serum and cell extracts. LNA/DNA copolymers exhibited potent antisense activity in assay systems as disparate as G-protein-coupled receptor signaling in living rat brain and detection of reporter genes in Escherichia coli. Lipofectin-mediated efficient delivery of LNA into living human breast cancer cells has also been accomplished. Further successful in vivo studies involving LNA's have shown knock-down of the rat delta opioid receptor without toxicity (Wahlestedt et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 2000, 97, 5633-5638) and in another study showed a blockage of the translation of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (Fluiter et al., Nucleic Acids Res., 2003, 31, 953-962).
The synthesis and preparation of the LNA monomers adenine, cytosine, guanine, 5-methyl-cytosine, thymine and uracil, along with their oligomerization, and nucleic acid recognition properties have been described (Koshkin et al., Tetrahedron, 1998, 54, 3607-3630). LNAs and preparation thereof are also described in WO 98/39352 and WO 99/14226.
Analogs of LNA, phosphorothioate-LNA and 2'-thio-LNAs, have also been prepared (Kumar et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 1998, 8, 2219-2222). Preparation of locked nucleoside analogs containing oligodeoxyribonucleotide duplexes as substrates for nucleic acid polymerases has also been described (Wengel et al., WO 99/14226). Furthermore, synthesis of 2'-amino-LNA, a novel conformationally restricted high-affinity oligonucleotide analog has been described in the art (Singh et al., J. Org. Chem., 1998, 63, 10035-10039). In addition, 2'-amino- and 2'-methylamino-LNA's have been prepared and the thermal stability of their duplexes with complementary RNA and DNA strands has been previously reported.
Another oligonucleotide mimetic that has been prepared and studied is threose nucleic acid. This oligonucleotide mimetic is based on threose nucleosides instead of ribose nucleosides. Initial interest in (3',2')-alpha-L-threose nucleic acid (TNA) was directed to the question of whether a DNA polymerase existed that would copy the TNA. It was found that certain DNA polymerases are able to copy limited stretches of a TNA template (reported in Chemical and Engineering News, 2003, 81, 9). In another study it was determined that TNA is capable of antiparallel Watson-Crick base pairing with complementary DNA, RNA and TNA oligonucleotides (Chaput et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2003, 125, 856-857).
In one study (3',2')-alpha-L-threose nucleic acid was prepared and compared to the 2' and 3' amidate analogs (Wu et al., Organic Letters, 2002, 4(8), 1279-1282). The amidate analogs were shown to bind to RNA and DNA with comparable strength to that of RNA/DNA.
Further oligonucleotide mimetics have been prepared to include bicyclic and tricyclic nucleoside analogs (see Steffens et al., Helv. Chim. Acta, 1997, 80, 2426-2439; Steffens et ah, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1999, 121, 3249-3255; Renneberg et ah, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2002, 124, 5993-6002; and Renneberg et al., Nucleic acids res., 2002, 30, 2751-2757). These modified nucleoside analogs have been oligomerized using the phosphoramidite approach and the resulting oligomeric compounds containing tricyclic nucleoside analogs have shown increased thermal stabilities (Tm's) when hybridized to DNA, RNA and itself. Oligomeric compounds containing bicyclic nucleoside analogs have shown thermal stabilities approaching that of DNA duplexes.
Another class of oligonucleotide mimetic is referred to as phosphonomonoester nucleic acids which incorporate a phosphorus group in the backbone. This class of oligonucleotide mimetic is reported to have useful physical and biological and pharmacological properties in the areas of inhibiting gene expression (antisense oligonucleotides, sense oligonucleotides and triplex-forming oligonucleotides), as probes for the detection of nucleic acids and as auxiliaries for use in molecular biology. Further oligonucleotide mimetics amenable to the present invention have been prepared wherein a cyclobutyl ring replaces the naturally occurring furanosyl ring.
Another modification of the oligomeric compounds of the invention involves chemically linking to the oligomeric compound one or more moieties or conjugates which enhance the properties of the oligomeric compound, such as to enhance the activity, cellular distribution or cellular uptake of the oligomeric compound. These moieties or conjugates can include conjugate groups covalently bound to functional groups such as primary or secondary hydroxyl groups. Conjugate groups of the invention include intercalators, reporter molecules, polyamines, polyamides, polyethylene glycols, polyethers, groups that enhance the pharmacodynamic properties of oligomers, and groups that enhance the pharmacokinetic properties of oligomers. Typical conjugate groups include cholesterols, lipids, phospholipids, biotin, phenazine, folate, phenanthridine, anthraquinone, acridine, fluoresceins, rhodamines, coumarins, and dyes. Groups that enhance the pharmacodynamic properties, in the context of this invention, include groups that improve uptake, enhance resistance to degradation, and/or strengthen sequence-specific hybridization with the target nucleic acid. Groups that enhance the pharmacokinetic properties, in the context of this invention, include groups that improve uptake, distribution, metabolism or excretion of the compounds of the present invention. Representative conjugate groups are disclosed in International Patent Application PCT/US92/09196, filed Oct. 23, 1992, and U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,287,860 and 6,762,169.
Conjugate moieties include but are not limited to lipid moieties such as a cholesterol moiety, cholic acid, a thioether, e.g., hexyl-S-tritylthiol, a thiocholesterol, an aliphatic chain, e.g., dodecandiol or undecyl residues, a phospholipid, e.g., di-hexadecyl-rac-glycerol or triethyl-ammonium 1,2-di-O-hexadecyl-rac-glycero-3-H-phosphonate, a polyamine or a polyethylene glycol chain, or adamantane acetic acid, a palmityl moiety, or an octadecylamine or hexylamino-carbonyl-oxycholesterol moiety. Oligomeric compounds of the invention may also be conjugated to drug substances, for example, aspirin, warfarin, phenylbutazone, ibuprofen, suprofen, fenbufen, ketoprofen, (S)-(+)-pranoprofen, carprofen, dansylsarcosine, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, flufenamic acid, folinic acid, a benzothiadiazide, chlorothiazide, a diazepine, indomethicin, a barbiturate, a cephalosporin, a sulfa drug, an antidiabetic, an antibacterial or an antibiotic. Oligonucleotide-drug conjugates and their preparation are described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,656,730.
Representative United States patents that teach the preparation of such oligonucleotide conjugates include, but are not limited to, U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,828,979; 4,948,882; 5,218,105; 5,525,465; 5,541,313; 5,545,730; 5,552,538; 5,578,717, 5,580,731; 5,580,731; 5,591,584; 5,109,124; 5,118,802; 5,138,045; 5,414,077; 5,486,603; 5,512,439; 5,578,718; 5,608,046; 4,587,044; 4,605,735; 4,667,025; 4,762,779; 4,789,737; 4,824,941; 4,835,263; 4,876,335; 4,904,582; 4,958,013; 5,082,830; 5,112,963; 5,214,136; 5,082,830; 5,112,963; 5,214,136; 5,245,022; 5,254,469; 5,258,506; 5,262,536; 5,272,250; 5,292,873; 5,317,098; 5,371,241, 5,391,723; 5,416,203, 5,451,463; 5,510,475; 5,512,667; 5,514,785; 5,565,552; 5,567,810; 5,574,142; 5,585,481; 5,587,371; 5,595,726; 5,597,696; 5,599,923; 5,599,928 and 5,688,941.
Oligomeric compounds can also be modified to have one or more stabilizing groups that are generally attached to one or both termini of an oligomeric compound to enhance properties such as for example nuclease stability. Included in stabilizing groups are cap structures. By "cap structure or terminal cap moiety" is meant chemical modifications, which have been incorporated at either terminus of oligonucleotides (see for example Wincott et al., WO 97/26270). These terminal modifications protect the oligomeric compounds having terminal nucleic acid molecules from exonuclease degradation, and can improve delivery and/or localization within a cell. The cap can be present at either the 5'-terminus (5'-cap) or at the 3'-terminus (3'-cap) or can be present on both termini of a single strand, or one or more termini of both strands of a double-stranded compound. This cap structure is not to be confused with the inverted methylguanosine "5' cap" present at the 5' end of native mRNA molecules. In non-limiting examples, the 5'-cap includes inverted abasic residue (moiety), 4',5'-methylene nucleotide; l-(beta-D-erythrofuranosyl) nucleotide, 4'-thio nucleotide, carbocyclic nucleotide; 1,5-anhydrohexitol nucleotide; L-nucleotides; alpha-nucleotides; modified base nucleotide; phosphorodithioate linkage; threo-pentofuranosyl nucleotide; acyclic 3',4'-seco nucleotide; acyclic 3,4-dihydroxybutyl nucleotide; acyclic 3,5-dihydroxypentyl riucleotide, 3'-3'-inverted nucleotide moiety; 3'-3'-inverted abasic moiety; 3'-2'-inverted nucleotide moiety; 3'-2'-inverted abasic moiety; 1,4-butanediol phosphate; 3'-phosphoramidate; hexylphosphate; aminohexyl phosphate; 3'-phosphate; 3'-phosphorothioate; phosphorodithioate; or bridging or non-bridging methylphosphonate moiety (for more details see Wincott et al., International PCT publication No. WO 97/26270).
Particularly suitable 3'-cap structures include, for example 4',5'-methylene nucleotide; l-(beta-D-erythrofuranosyl) nucleotide; 4'-thio nucleotide, carbocyclic nucleotide; 5'-amino-alkyl phosphate; l,3-diamino-2-propyl phosphate, 3-aminopropyl phosphate; 6-aminohexyl phosphate; 1,2-aminododecyl phosphate; hydroxypropyl phosphate; 1,5-anhydrohexitol nucleotide; L-nucleotide; alpha-nucleotide; modified base nucleotide; phosphorodithioate; threo-pentofuranosyl nucleotide; acyclic 3',4'-seco nucleotide; 3,4-dihydroxybutyl nucleotide; 3,5-dihydroxypentyl nucleotide, 5'-5'-inverted nucleotide moiety; 5'-5'-inverted abasic moiety; 5'-phosphoramidate; 5'-phosphorothioate; 1,4-butanediol phosphate; 5'-amino; bridging and/or non-bridging 5'-phosphoramidate, phosphorothioate and/or phosphorodithioate, bridging or non bridging methylphosphonate and 5'-mercapto moieties (for more details see Beaucage and Tyer, 1993, Tetrahedron 49, 1925).
Further 3' and 5'-stabilizing groups that can be used to cap one or both ends of an oligomeric compound to impart nuclease stability include those disclosed in WO 03/004602 published on Jan. 16, 2003.
In certain embodiments, oligomeric compounds, may be conjugated with a wide variety of different positively charged polymers. Examples of positively charged polymers include peptides, such as argine rich peptides (Examples of positively charged peptides that may be used in the practice of the invention include R9F2C; (RXR)4XB (where X can be any amino acid); R5F2R4C; (RFF)3; Tat proteins, such as TAT sequence CYGRKKRRQRRR; and (RFF)3R, cationic polymers, such as dendrimeric octaguanindine polymer, and other positively charged molecules as known in the art for conjugation to antisense oligonucleotide compounds. In one embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, the antisense oligonucleotides are conjugated with positively charged polymer comprising a polymer having a molecular weight that is from about 1,000 to 20,000 Daltons, and preferably from about 5,000 to 10,000 Daltons. Another example of positively charged polymers is polyethylenimine (PEI) with multiple positively charged amine groups in its branched or unbranched chains. PEI has else been widely used as gene and oligomer delivery vesicle.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof the oligomeric compounds are modified with cell penetrating sequences. Suitable cell penetrating sequences include cell penetrating peptides, such as TAT peptide, MPG, Pep-1, MAP, fusogenic, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), bacteriocidal peptides, fungicidal peptides, virucidal peptides,
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short peptides that facilitate cellular uptake of the particles of the invention. The particle of the invention is associated with the CPP peptides either through chemical linkage via covalent bonds or through non-covalent interactions. The function of the CPPs are to deliver the particles into cells, a process that commonly occurs through endocytosis with the cargo delivered to the endosomes of living mammalian cells. CPPs typically have an amino acid composition that either contains a high relative abundance of positively charged amino acids such as lysine or arginine or has sequences that contain an alternating pattern of polar/charged amino acids and non-polar, hydrophobic amino acids. These two types of structures are referred to as polycationic or amphipathic, respectively. A third class of CPPs are the hydrophobic peptides, containing only apolar residues, with low net charge or have hydrophobic amino acid groups that are crucial for cellular uptake.
An exemplary cell penetrating peptide is the trans-activating transcriptional activator (Tat) from Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) that can be efficiently taken up from the surrounding media by numerous cell types in culture. Other cell penetrating peptides are MPG, Pep-1, transportan, penetratin, CADY, TP, TP10, arginine octamer. polyarginine sequences, Arg8, VP22 HSV-1 structural protein, SAP Proline-rich motifs, Vectocell® peptides, hCT (9—32), SynB, Pvec, and PPTGl. Cell penetrating peptides may be cationic, essentially containing clusters of polyarginine in their primary sequence or amphipathic. CPPs are generally peptides of less than 30 amino acids, derived from natural or unnatural protein or chimeric sequences.
In suitable embodiments, the oligomeric compounds are incorporated or otherwise associated with nanoparticles. Nanoparticles may suitably modified for targeting specific cells and optimised for penetrating cells. A skilled person is aware of methods to employ nanoparticles for oligomeric compounds delivery to cells.
In suitable embodiments of the present invention, the oligomeric compounds are modified with an endosomal escape agent moiety. The endocytic pathway is a major uptake mechanism of cells. Compounds taken up by the endocytic pathway become entrapped in endosomes and may be degraded by specific enzymes in the lysosome. This may be desired or not desired depending on the purpose. If uptake by the endosomes is not desired, an endosomal escape agent may be used. Suitable endosomal escape agents may be chloroquine, TAT peptide.
It is not necessary for all positions in a given oligomeric compound to be uniformly modified, and in fact more than one of the aforementioned modifications may be incorporated in a single compound or even within a single nucleoside within an oligomeric compound.
The present invention also includes oligomeric compounds which are chimeric compounds. Chimeric antisense oligonucleotides are one form of oligomeric compound. These oligonucleotides typically contain at least one region which is modified so as to confer upon the oligonucleotide increased resistance to nuclease degradation, increased cellular uptake, alteration of charge, increased stability and/or increased binding affinity for the target nucleic acid.
Chimeric oligomeric compounds of the invention can be formed as composite structures of two or more oligonucleotides, modified oligonucleotides, oligonucleosides, oligonucleotide mimetics, or regions or portions thereof. Such compounds have also been referred to in the art as hybrids or gapmers. Representative United States patents that teach the preparation of such hybrid structures include, but are not limited to, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,013,830; 5,149,797; 5,220,007; 5,256,775; 5,366,878; 5,403,711; 5,491,133; 5,565,350; 5,623,065; 5,652,355; 5,652,356; and 5,700,922.
The following precursor compounds, including amidites and their intermediates can be prepared by methods routine to those skilled in the art; 5'-0-Dimethoxytrityl-thymidine intermediate for 5-methyl dC amidite, 5'-0-Dimethoxytrityl-2'-deoxy-5-methylcytidine intermediate for 5-methyl-dC amidite, 5'-0-Dimethoxytityl-2'-deoxy-N4-benzoyl-5-methylcytidine penultimate intermediate for 5-methyl dC amidite, (5'-0-(4,4'-Dimethoxytriphenylmethyl)-2'-deoxy-N4-benzoyl-5-methylcytidin-3'-0-yl)-2-cyanoethyl-N,N-diisopropylphosphoramidite (5-methyl dC amidite), 2'-Fluorodeoxyadenosine, 2'-Fluorodeoxyguanosine, 2'-Fluorouridine, 2'-Fluorodeoxycytidine, 2'-0-(2-Methoxyethyl) modified amidites, 2'-0-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-methyluridine intermediate, 5'-0-DMT-2'-0-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-methyluridine penultimate intermediate, (5'-0-(4,4'-Dimethoxytriphenylmethyl)-2'-0-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-methyluridin-3'-0-yl)-2-cyanoethyl-N,N-diisopropylphosphoramidite (MOET amidite), 5'-0-Dimethoxytrityl-2'-0-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-methylcytidine intermediate, 5'-0-dimethoxytrityl-2'-0-(2-methoxyethyl)-N<4>-benzoyl-5-methyl-cytidine penultimate intermediate, (5'-0-(4,4'-Dimethoxytriphenylmethyl)-2'-0-(2-methoxyethyl)-N<4>-benzoyl-5-methylcytidin-3'-0-yl)-2-cyanoethyl-N,N-diisopropylphosphoramidite (MOE 5-Me-C amidite), (5'-0-(4,4'-Dimethoxytriphenylmethyl)-2'-0-(2-methoxyethyl)-N<6>-benzoyladenosin-3'-0-yl)-2-cyanoethyl-N,N-diisopropylphosphoramidite (MOE A amdite), (5'-0-(4,4'-Dimethoxytriphenylmethyl)-2'-0-(2-methoxyethyl)-N<4>-isobutyrylguanosin-3'-0-yl)-2-cyanoethyl-N,N-diisopropylphosphoramidite (MOE G amidite), 2'-0-(Aminooxyethyl) nucleoside amidites and 2'-0-(dimethylaminooxyethyl) nucleoside amidites, 2'-(Dimethylaminooxyethoxy) nucleoside amidites, 5'-0-tert-Butyldiphenylsilyl-0<2>-2'-anhydro-5-methyluridine, 5'-0-tert-Butyldiphenylsilyl-2'-0-(2-hydroxyethyl)-5-methyluridine, 2'-0-((2-phthalimidoxy)ethyl)-5'-t-butyldiphenylsilyl-5-methyluridine, 5'-0-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-2'-0-((2-formadoximinooxy)ethyl)-5-methyluridine, 5'-0-tert-Butyldiphenylsilyl-2'-0-(N,N dimethylaminooxyethyl)-5-methyluridine, 2'-0-(dimethylaminooxyethyl)-5-methyluridine, 5'-0-DMT-2'-0-(dimethylaminooxyethyl)-5-methyluridine, 5'-0-DMT-2'-0-(2-N,N-dimethylaminooxyethyl)-5-methyluridine-3'-((2-cyanoethyl)-N,N-diisopropylphosphoramidite), 2'-(Aminooxyethoxy) nucleoside amidites, N2-isobutyryl-6-0-diphenylcarbamoyl-2'-0-(2-ethylacetyl)-5'-0-(4,4'-dimethoxytrityl)guanosine-3'-((2-cyanoethyl)-N,N-diisopropylphosphoramidite), 2'-dimethylaminoethoxyethoxy (2'-DMAE0E) nucleoside amidites, 2'-0-(2(2-N,N-dimethylaminoethoxy)ethyl)-5-methyl uridine, 5'-0-dimethoxytrityl-2'-0-(2(2-N,N-dimethylaminoethoxy)-ethyl))-5-methyl uridine and 5'-0-Dimethoxytrityl-2'-0-(2(2-N,N-dimethylaminoethoxy)-ethyl))-5-methyl uridine-3'-0-(cyanoethyl-N,N-diisopropyl)phosphoramidite.
The preparation of such precursor compounds for oligonucleotide synthesis are routine in the art and disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,426,220 and published PCT WO 02/36743. 2'-Deoxy and 2'-methoxy beta-cyanoethyldiisopropyl phosphoramidites can be purchased from commercial sources (e.g. Chemgenes, Needham, Mass, or
Glen Research, Inc. Sterling, Va.). Other 2'-0-alkoxy substituted nucleoside amidites can be prepared as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,506,351.
Oligonucleotides containing 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Me-C) nucleotides can be synthesized routinely according to published methods (Sanghvi, et. al., Nucleic Acids Research, 1993, 21, 3197-3203) using commercially available phosphoramidites (Glen Research, Sterling Va. or ChemGenes, Needham, Mass.). 2'-fluoro oligonucleotides can be synthesized routinely as described (Kawasaki, et. al., J. Med. Chem., 1993, 36, 831-841) and U.S. Pat. No. 5,670,633. 2'-0-Methoxyethyl-substituted nucleoside amidites can be prepared routinely as per the methods of Martin, P., Helvetica Chimica Acta, 1995, 78, 486-504.
Aminooxyethyl and dimethylaminooxyethyl amidites can be prepared routinely as per the methods of U.S. Pat. No. 6,127,533.
Phosphorothioate-containing oligonucleotides (P-S) can be synthesized by methods routine to those skilled in the art (see, for example, Protocols for Oligonucleotides and Analogs, Ed. Agrawal (1993), Humana Press). Phosphinate oligonucleotides can be prepared as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,508,270.
Alkyl phosphonate oligonucleotides can be prepared as described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,469,863. 3'-Deoxy-3'-methylene phosphonate oligonucleotides can be prepared as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,610,289 or 5,625,050.
Phosphoramidite oligonucleotides can be prepared as described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,256,775 or U.S. Pat. No. 5,366,878.
Alkylphosphonothioate oligonucleotides can be prepared as described in published PCT applications WO 94/17093 and WO 94/02499. 3'-Deoxy-3'-amino phosphoramidate oligonucleotides can be prepared as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,476,925.
Phosphotriester oligonucleotides can be prepared as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,023,243.
Borano phosphate oligonucleotides can be prepared as described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,130,302 and 5,177,198. 4'-Thio-containing oligonucleotides can be synthesized as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,639,873.
Methylenemethylimino linked oligonucleosides, also identified as MMI linked oligonucleosides, methylenedimethylhydrazo linked oligonucleosides, also identified as MDH linked oligonucleosides, and methylenecarbonylamino linked oligonucleosides, also identified as amide-3 linked oligonucleosides, and methyleneaminocarbonyl linked oligonucleosides, also identified as amide-4 linked oligonucleosides, as well as mixed backbone compounds having, for instance, alternating MMI and P-0 or P-S linkages can be prepared as described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,378,825, 5,386,023, 5,489,677, 5,602,240 and 5,610,289.
Formacetal and thioformacetal linked oligonucleosides can be prepared as described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,264,562 and 5,264,564.
Ethylene oxide linked oligonucleosides can be prepared as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,223,618.
Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) can be prepared in accordance with any of the various procedures referred to in Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA): Synthesis, Properties and Potential Applications, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 1996, 4, 5-23. They may also be prepared in accordance with U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,539,082, 5,700,922, 5,719,262, 6,559,279 and 6,762,281.
Oligomeric compounds can incorporate at least one 2'-0-protected nucleoside prepared according to methods routine in the art. After incorporation and appropriate deprotection the 2'-0-protected nucleoside will be converted to a ribonucleoside at the position of incorporation. The number and position of the 2-ribonucleoside units in the final oligomeric compound may vary from one at any site or the strategy can be used to prepare up to a full 2'-OH modified oligomeric compound.
The main RNA synthesis strategies that are presently being used commercially include 5'-[beta]-DMT-2'-0-t-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS), 5'-0-DMT-2'-[l(2-fluorophenyl)-4-methoxypiperidin-4-yl] (FPMP), 2'-0-[(triisopropylsilyl)oxy]methyl (2'-0-CH2-0-Si(iPr)3 (TOM), and the 5'-0-silyl ether-2'-ACE (5'-0-bis(trimethylsiloxy)cyclododecyloxysilyl ether (D0D)-2'-0-bis(2-acetoxyethoxy)methyl (ACE). Some companies currently offering RNA products include Pierce Nucleic Acid Technologies (Milwaukee, Wis.), Dharmacon Research Inc. (a subsidiary of Fisher Scientific, Lafayette, Colo.), and Integrated DNA Technologies, Inc. (Coralville, Iowa). One company, Princeton Separations, markets an RNA synthesis activator advertised to reduce coupling times especially with TOM and TBDMS chemistries. Such an activator would also be amenable to the oligomeric compounds of the present invention.
All of the aforementioned RNA synthesis strategies are amenable to the oligomeric compounds of the present invention. Strategies that would be a hybrid of the above e.g. using a 5'-protecting group from one strategy with a 2'-0-protecting from another strategy is also contemplated herein.
Chimeric oligonucleotides, chimeric oligonucleosides and mixed chimeric oligonucleotides/oligonucleosides can be synthesized according to U.S. Pat. No. 5,623,065.
Chimeric oligomeric compounds exhibiting enhanced cellular uptake and greater pharmacologic activity may be made in accordance to U.S. Pat. No US8,501,703.
Another form of oligomeric compounds comprise tricyclo-DNA (tc-DNA) antisense oligonucleotides. Tricyclo-DNA nucleotides are nucleotides modified by the introduction of a cyclopropane ring to restrict conformational flexibility of the backbone and to optimize the backbone geometry of the torsion angle γ. Homobasic adenine- and thymine-containing tc-DNAs form extraordinarily stable A-T base pairs with complementary RNAs. Antisense oligomeric compound that contains between 6-22 tricyclo nucleotides in length, in particular between 8-20 tricyclo nucleotides, more particularly between 10 and 18 or between 11 and 18 tricyclo nucleotides are suitable. See e.g. W02010115993 for examples of tricyclo- DNA (tc-DNA) antisense oligonucleotides. For the present invention this means that any sequence of 8-20, preferably 10-18, more preferably 11-18, more preferably 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 or 17 nucleotides as depicted in any of the above Tables may be useful when such a sequence is in tc-DNA form.
Oligomerization of modified and unmodified nucleosides can be routinely performed according to literature procedures for DNA (Protocols for Oligonucleotides and Analogs, Ed. Agrawal (1993), Humana Press) and/or RNA (Scaringe, Methods (2001), 23, 206-217. Gait et al., Applications of Chemically synthesized RNA in RNA: Protein Interactions, Ed. Smith (1998), 1-36. Gallo et al., Tetrahedron (2001), 57, 5707-5713).
Antisense compounds can be conveniently and routinely made through the well-known technique of solid phase synthesis. Equipment for such synthesis is sold by several vendors including, for example, Applied Biosystems (Foster City, Calif.). Any other means for such synthesis known in the art may additionally or alternatively be employed. It is well known to use similar techniques to prepare oligonucleotides such as the phosphorothioates and alkylated derivatives. The disclosure is not limited by the method of antisense compound synthesis.
Methods of oligonucleotide purification and analysis are known to those skilled in the art. Analysis methods include capillary electrophoresis (CE) and electrospray-mass spectroscopy. Such synthesis and analysis methods can be performed in multi-well plates. The methods described herein are not limited by the method of oligomer purification.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, the antisense compounds provided herein are resistant to RNase H degradation.
In one embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, the antisense compounds comprise at least one modified nucleotide. In another embodiment, the antisense compounds comprise a modified nucleotide at each position. In yet another embodiment, the antisense compounds are uniformly modified at each position.
Modulation of splicing can be assayed in a variety of ways known in the art. Target mRNA levels can be quantitated by, e.g., Northern blot analysis, competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or real-time PCR. RNA analysis can be performed on total cellular RNA or poly(A)+mRNA by methods known in the art. Methods of RNA isolation are taught in, for example, Ausubel, F. M. et al., Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Volume 1, pp. 4.1.1-4.2.9 and 4.5.1-4.5.3, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1993.
Northern blot analysis is routine in the art and is taught in, for example, Ausubel, F. M. et al., Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Volume 1, pp. 4.2.1-4.2.9, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996. Real-time quantitative (PCR) can be conveniently accomplished using the commercially available ABI PRISM(TM) 7700
Sequence Detection System, available from PE-Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Calif, and used according to manufacturer's instructions.
Levels of a protein encoded by a target mRNA can be quantitated in a variety of ways well known in the art, such as immunoprecipitation, Western blot analysis (immunoblotting), ELISA or fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Antibodies directed to a protein encoded by a target mRNA can be identified and obtained from a variety of sources, such as the MSRS catalog of antibodies (Aerie Corporation, Birmingham, Mich.), or can be prepared via conventional antibody generation methods. Methods for preparation of polyclonal antisera are taught in, for example, Ausubel, F. M. et al., Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Volume 2, pp. 11.12.1-11.12.9, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1997. Preparation of monoclonal antibodies is taught in, for example, Ausubel, F. M. et al., Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Volume 2, pp. 11.4.1-11.11.5, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1997.
Immunoprecipitation methods are standard in the art and can be found at, for example, Ausubel, F. M. et al., Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Volume 2, pp. 10.16.1-10.16.11, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1998. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis is standard in the art and can be found at, for example, Ausubel, F. M. et al., Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Volume 2, pp. 10.8.1-10.8.21, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1997. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are standard in the art and can be found at, for example, Ausubel, F. M. et al., Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Volume 2, pp. 11.2.1-11.2.22, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1991.
The effect of the oligomeric compounds of the present invention may be analysed by RT PCT, qPCR, flanking exon PCR and/or a method comprising flanking exon PCR on each internal exon corresponding to the mRNA to obtain one or more flanking exon amplification products, and detecting the presence and length of the said flanking exon amplification products, and further quantifying of each protein encoding exon of said mRNA.
The oligomeric compounds provided herein may be utilized for therapeutics or research. Furthermore, antisense compounds, which are able to inhibit gene expression or modulate splicing with specificity, may be used to elucidate the function of particular genes or gene products or to distinguish between functions of various members of a biological pathway. In a preferred embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof the oligomeric compounds are used for the treatment of Pompe disease. In a preferred embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof the oligomeric compounds are used in research of the function of the GAA gene.
Compounds described herein can be used to modulate splicing of a target mRNA in metazoans, preferably mammals, more preferably human. In one non-limiting embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, the methods comprise the step of administering to said animal an effective amount of an antisense compound that modulates splicing of a target mRNA.
For example, modulation of splicing of a target mRNA can be measured by determining levels of mRNA splicing products in a bodily fluid, tissue, organ of cells of the animal. Bodily fluids include, but are not limited to, blood (serum or plasma), lymphatic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, semen, urine, synovial fluid and saliva and can be obtained by methods routine to those skilled in the art. Tissues, organs or cells include, but are not limited to, blood (e.g., hematopoietic cells, such as human hematopoietic progenitor cells, human hematopoietic stem cells, CD34+ cells CD4+ cells), lymphocytes and other blood lineage cells, skin, bone marrow, spleen, thymus, lymph node, brain, spinal cord, heart, skeletal muscle, liver, connective tissue, pancreas, prostate, kidney, lung, oral mucosa, esophagus, stomach, ilium, small intestine, colon, bladder, cervix, ovary, testis, mammary gland, adrenal gland, and adipose (white and brown). Samples of tissues, organs and cells can be routinely obtained by biopsy. In some alternative situations, samples of tissues or organs can be recovered from an animal after death. In a preferred embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof modulation of splicing is measured in fibroblast, preferably primary fibroblasts, preferably primary fibroblasts from patients suffering from Pompe disease.
Next to use of a single oligomeric compound as herein described it is also possible to use combinations of an AON as described above with any other AON that is described above. Further, the AONs of the present invention may be readily combined with one or more AONs that are directed against another splice mutation of Pompe disease, such as AONs directed against one or more of the following mutations c.-32-13T>G, c.-32-3C>G c.-32-102T>C, c.-32-56C>T, c.-32-46G>A, c.-32-28C>A, c.-32-28C>T, c.-32-2lG>A, c.7G>A, c.llG>A, c.!5_17AAA, C.170T, c.19_21AAA, c.26_28AAA, c.33_35AAA, c.39G>A, c.42C>T, c.90C>T, c.H2G>A, c.137C>T, c.164C>T, c.348G>A, c.373C>T, c.413T>A, c.469C>T, c.476T>C, c.476T>G, c.478T>G, c.482C>T, c.510C>T, c.515T>A, c.520G>A, c.546+llC>T, c.546+14G>A, c.546+19G>A, c.546+23C>A, c.547-6, c.1071, c.1254, c. 1552-30, c.1256A>T, c.1551+1G>T, c.546G>T, .17C>T, c.469C>T, c.546+23C>A, c.-32-102T>C, c.-32-56C>T, c.llG>A, c.H2G>A, c,137C>T. AONs against these mutations have been disclosed in co-pending application WO 2015/190922, more specifically SEQ ID NRs 2-33, 37-40 and 41-540 as disclosed therein.
Further therapy based on the AONs of the present invention may be readily combined with enzymatic replacement therapy (ERT) to improve the treatment of Pompe Disease. Compounds for ERT are generally known and used an may be the compounds mentioned in co-pending application PCT/NL2015/050849 such as GAA, Myozyme®, Lumizyme®, neoGAA, Gilt GAA (BMN-701), or oxyrane optionally in combination with genistein, deoxynojirimycin-HCl, N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin, C10H19NO4, Ci2H23N04(as disclosed in this co-pending application), a combination of rituximab and methotrexate. All ERT schedules mentioned in PCT/NL2015/050849 in combination with the AONs of the present invention may be used in the dosage schemes and amounts as have been mentioned therein.
The effects of treatment with the oligomeric compounds can be assessed by measuring biomarkers associated with modulation of splicing of a target mRNA in the aforementioned fluids, tissues or organs, collected from an animal contacted with one or more compounds, by routine clinical methods known in the art. These biomarkers include but are not limited to: glucose, cholesterol, lipoproteins, triglycerides, free fatty acids and other markers of glucose and lipid metabolism; liver transaminases, bilirubin, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatine, creatinine and other markers of kidney and liver function; interleukins, tumor necrosis factors, intracellular adhesion molecules, C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation; testosterone, estrogen and other hormones; tumor markers; vitamins, minerals and electrolytes. In a preferred embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof the biomarker is glycogen.
The compounds disclosed herein can be utilized in pharmaceutical compositions by adding an effective amount of a compound to a suitable pharmaceutically acceptable diluent or carrier. The compounds can also be used in the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of diseases and disorders related to alterations in splicing. In a preferred embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, the disease is Pompe disease.
Methods whereby bodily fluids, organs or tissues are contacted with an effective amount of one or more of the antisense compounds or compositions of the disclosure are also contemplated. Bodily fluids, organs or tissues can be contacted with one or more of the compounds of the disclosure resulting in modulation of splicing of target mRNA in the cells of bodily fluids, organs or tissues. An effective amount can be determined by monitoring the modulatory effect of the antisense compound or compounds or compositions on target nucleic acids or their products by methods routine to the skilled artisan. Further contemplated are ex vivo methods of treatment whereby cells or tissues are isolated from a subject, contacted with an effective amount of the antisense compound or compounds or compositions and reintroduced into the subject by routine methods known to those skilled in the art. A sufficient amount of an antisense oligomeric compound to be administered will be an amount that is sufficient to induce amelioration of unwanted disease symptoms. Such an amount may vary inter alia depending on such factors as the gender, age, weight, overall physical condition, of the patient, etc. and may be determined on a case by case basis. The amount may also vary according to the type of condition being treated, and the other components of a treatment protocol (e.g. administration of other medicaments such as steroids, etc.). The amount may also vary according to the method of administration such as systemically or locally.
Typical dosage amounts of the antisense oligonucleotide molecules in pharmaceutical formulations may range from about 0.05 to 1000 mg/kg body weight, and in particular from about 5 to 500 mg/kg body weight. In one embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, the dosage amount is from about 50 to 300 mg/kg body weight once in 2 weeks, or once or twice a week, or any frequency required to achieve therapeutic effect. Suitably amounts are from 3-50 mg/kg, more suitably 10-40 mg/kg, more suitably 15-25 mg/kg.
The dosage administered will, of course, vary depending on the use and known factors such as the pharmacodynamic characteristics of the active ingredient; age, health, and weight of the recipient; nature and extent of symptoms, kind of concurrent treatment, frequency of treatment, and the effect desired. The recipient may be any type of mammal, but is preferably a human. In one embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, dosage forms (compositions) of the inventive pharmaceutical composition may contain about 1 microgram to 50,000 micrograms of active ingredient per unit, and in particular, from about 10 to 10,000 micrograms of active ingredient per unit, (if here a unit means a vial or one package for one injection, then it will be much higher, up to 15 g if the weight of a patient is 50 kg) For intravenous delivery, a unit dose of the pharmaceutical formulation will generally contain from 0.5 to 500 micrograms per kg body weight and preferably will contain from 5 to 300 micrograms, in particular 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 200, or 300 micrograms per kg body weight ([mu]g/kg body weight) of the antisense oligonucleotide molecule. Preferred intravenous dosage ranges from 10 ng to 2000 pg, preferably 3 to 300 pg, more preferably 10 to 100 pg of compound per kg of body weight. Alternatively the unit dose may contain from 2 to 20 milligrams of the antisense oligonucleotide molecule and be administered in multiples, if desired, to give the preceding daily dose. In these pharmaceutical compositions, the antisense oligonucleotide molecule will ordinarily be present in an amount of about 0.5-95% by weight based on the total weight of the composition.
In one particular embodiment, it should be recognized that the dosage can be raised or lowered based on individual patient response. It will be appreciated that the actual amounts of antisense oligonucleotide molecule used will vary according to the specific antisense oligonucleotide molecule being utilized, the particular compositions formulated, the mode of application, and the particular site of administration.
Preferably the compounds are administered daily, once every 2 days, once every 3 days, once a week, once every two weeks, or once every month.
In another preferred embodiment the administration is only one time, e.g. when using a viral vector.
If a viral-based delivery of antisense oligomeric compounds is chosen, suitable doses will depend on different factors such as the viral strain that is employed, the route of delivery (intramuscular, intravenous, intra-arterial or other), Those of skill in the art will recognize that such parameters are normally worked out during clinical trials. Further, those of skill in the art will recognize that, while disease symptoms may be completely alleviated by the treatments described herein, this need not be the case. Even a partial or intermittent relief of symptoms may be of great benefit to the recipient. In addition, treatment of the patient is usually not a single event. Rather, the antisense oligomeric compounds of the invention will likely be administered on multiple occasions, that may be, depending on the results obtained, several days apart, several weeks apart, or several months apart, or even several years apart.
Those of skill in the art will recognize that there are many ways to determine or measure a level of functionality of a protein, and to determine a level of increase or decrease of functionality e.g. in response to a treatment protocol.
Such methods include but are not limited to measuring or detecting an activity of the protein, etc. Such measurements are generally made in comparison to a standard or control or "normal" sample. In addition, when the protein's lack of functionality is involved in a disease process, disease symptoms may be monitored and/or measured in order to indirectly detect the presence or absence of a correctly functioning protein, or to gauge the success of a treatment protocol intended to remedy the lack of functioning of the protein. In preferred embodiment the functionality of the GAA protein is measured. This is suitably performed with an enzymatic activity assays as is well known to a skilled person.
In a particular embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, antisense oligonucleotides of the invention may be delivered in vivo alone or in association with a vector. In its broadest sense, a "vector" is any vehicle capable of facilitating the transfer of the antisense oligonucleotide of the invention to the cells. Preferably, the vector transports the nucleic acid to cells with reduced degradation relative to the extent of degradation that would result in the absence of the vector. In general, the vectors useful in the invention include, but are not limited to, naked plasmids, non viral delivery systems (electroporation, sonoporation, cationic transfection agents, liposomes, etc...), phagemids, viruses, other vehicles derived from viral or bacterial sources that have been manipulated by the insertion or incorporation of the antisense oligonucleotide nucleic acid sequences. Viral vectors are a preferred type of vector and include, but are not limited to nucleic acid sequences from the following viruses: RNA or DNA viruses such as a retrovirus (as for example moloney murine leukemia virus and lentiviral derived vectors), harvey murine sarcoma virus, murine mammary tumor virus, and rous sarcoma virus; adenovirus, adeno- associated virus; SV40-type viruses; polyoma viruses; Epstein-Barr viruses; papilloma viruses; herpes virus; vaccinia virus; polio virus. One can readily employ other vectors not named but known to the art.
Preferred viral vectors according to the invention include adenoviruses and adeno-associated (AAV) viruses, which are DNA viruses that have already been approved for human use in gene therapy. Actually 12 different AAV serotypes (AAV1 to 12) are known, each with different tissue tropisms (Wu, Z Mol Ther 2006; 14:316-27). Recombinant AAV are derived from the dependent parvovirus AAV (Choi, VW J Virol 2005; 79:6801-07). The adeno-associated virus type 1 to 12 can be engineered to be replication deficient and is capable of infecting a wide range of cell types and species (Wu, Z Mol Ther 2006; 14:316-27). It further has advantages such as, heat and lipid solvent stability; high transduction frequencies in cells of diverse lineages, including hemopoietic cells; and lack of superinfection inhibition thus allowing multiple series of transductions. In addition, wild-type adeno-associated virus infections have been followed in tissue culture for greater than 100 passages in the absence of selective pressure, implying that the adeno-associated virus genomic integration is a relatively stable event. The adeno-associated virus can also function in an extrachromosomal fashion.
Other vectors include plasmid vectors. Plasmid vectors have been extensively described in the art and are well known to those of skill in the art. See e.g. Sambrook et al, 1989. They are particularly advantageous for this because they do not have the same safety concerns as with many of the viral vectors. These plasmids, however, having a promoter compatible with the host cell, can express a peptide from a gene operatively encoded within the plasmid. Some commonly used plasmids include pBR322, pUCl8, pUCl9, pRC/CMV, SV40, and pBlueScript.
Other plasmids are well known to those of ordinary skill in the art. Additionally, plasmids may be custom designed using restriction enzymes and ligation reactions to remove and add specific fragments of DNA. Plasmids may be delivered by a variety of parenteral, mucosal and topical routes. For example, the DNA plasmid can be injected by intramuscular, intradermal, subcutaneous, or other routes. It may also be administered by, intranasal sprays or drops, rectal suppository and orally. Preferably, said DNA plasmid is injected intramuscular, or intravenous. It may also be administered into the epidermis or a mucosal surface using a gene-gun. The plasmids may be given in an aqueous solution, dried onto gold particles or in association with another DNA delivery system including but not limited to liposomes, dendrimers, cochleates and microencapsulation.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, the antisense oligonucleotide nucleic acid sequence is under the control of a heterologous regulatory region, e.g., a heterologous promoter. The promoter can also be, e.g., a viral promoter, such as CMV promoter or any synthetic promoters.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, the vector may code for more than one antisense oligomeric compound. Each antisense oligomeric compound is directed to different targets.
Pharmaceutical compositions comprising the antisense compounds described herein may comprise any pharmaceutically acceptable salts, esters, or salts of such esters, or any other functional chemical equivalent which, upon administration to an animal including a human, is capable of providing (directly or indirectly) the biologically active metabolite or residue thereof. Accordingly, for example, the disclosure is also drawn to prodrugs and pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the antisense compounds, pharmaceutically acceptable salts of such prodrugs, and other bioequivalents.
The term "prodrug" indicates a therapeutic agent that is prepared in an inactive or less active form that is converted to an active form (i.e., drug) within the body or cells thereof by the action of endogenous enzymes, chemicals, and/or conditions. In particular, prodrug versions of the oligonucleotides are prepared as SATE ((S-acetyl-2-thioethyl) phosphate) derivatives according to the methods disclosed in WO 93/24510 or WO 94/26764. Prodrugs can also include antisense compounds wherein one or both ends comprise nucleotides that are cleaved (e.g., by incorporating phosphodiester backbone linkages at the ends) to produce the active compound.
The term "pharmaceutically acceptable salts" refers to physiologically and pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the compounds: i.e., salts that retain the desired biological activity of the parent compound and do not impart undesired toxicological effects thereto. Sodium salts of antisense oligonucleotides are useful and are well accepted for therapeutic administration to humans. In another embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, sodium salts of dsRNA compounds are also provided.
The antisense compounds described herein may also be admixed, encapsulated, conjugated or otherwise associated with other molecules, molecule structures or mixtures of compounds.
The present disclosure also includes pharmaceutical compositions and formulations which include the antisense compounds described herein. The pharmaceutical compositions may be administered in a number of ways depending upon whether local or systemic treatment is desired and upon the area to be treated. In a preferred embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, administration is intramuscular or intravenous.
The pharmaceutical formulations, which may conveniently be presented in unit dosage form, may be prepared according to conventional techniques well known in the pharmaceutical industry. Such techniques include the step of bringing into association the active ingredients with the pharmaceutical carrier(s) or excipient(s). In general, the formulations are prepared by uniformly and intimately bringing into association the active ingredients with liquid carriers, finely divided solid carriers, or both, and then, if necessary, shaping the product (e.g., into a specific particle size for delivery). In a preferred embodiment of the invention and/or embodiments thereof, the pharmaceutical formulations are prepared for intramuscular administration in an appropriate solvent, e.g., water or normal saline, possibly in a sterile formulation, with carriers or other agents. A "pharmaceutical carrier" or "excipient" can be a pharmaceutically acceptable solvent, suspending agent or any other pharmacologically inert vehicle for delivering one or more nucleic acids to an animal and are known in the art. The excipient may be liquid or solid and is selected, with the planned manner of administration in mind, so as to provide for the desired bulk, consistency, etc., when combined with a nucleic acid and the other components of a given pharmaceutical composition.
Compositions provided herein may contain two or more antisense compounds. In another related embodiment, compositions may contain one or more antisense compounds, particularly oligonucleotides, targeted to SEQ ID NO: 1 and one or more additional antisense compounds targeted to a second nucleic acid target, which may relevant to the patient to be treated. Alternatively, compositions provided herein can contain two or more antisense compounds targeted to different regions of the same nucleic acid target. Two or more combined compounds may be used together or sequentially. Compositions can also be combined with other non-antisense compound therapeutic agents.
The antisense oligomeric compound described herein may be in admixture with excipients suitable for the manufacture of aqueous suspensions. Such excipients are suspending agents, for example polyvinylpyrrolidone, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose, hydropropyl-methylcellulose, sodium alginate, gum tragacanth and gum acacia; dispersing or wetting agents can be a naturally-occurring phosphatide, for example, lecithin, or condensation products of an alkylene oxide with fatty acids, for example polyoxyethylene stearate, or condensation products of ethylene oxide with long chain aliphatic alcohols, for example heptadecaethyleneoxycetanol, or condensation products of ethylene oxide with partial esters derived from fatty acids and a hexitol such as polyoxyethylene sorbitol monooleate, or condensation products of ethylene oxide with partial esters derived from fatty acids and hexitol anhydrides, for example polyethylene sorbitan monooleate. Aqueous suspensions may also contain one or more preservatives, for example ethyl, or n-propyl p-hydroxybenzoate. Dispersible powders and granules suitable for preparation of an aqueous suspension by the addition of water provide the active ingredient in admixture with a dispersing or wetting agent, suspending agent and one or more preservatives, antisense oligomeric compound compositions may be in the form of a sterile injectable aqueous or oleaginous suspension. Suspensions may be formulated according to the known art using those suitable dispersing or wetting agents and suspending agents that have been mentioned above. The sterile injectable preparation can also be a sterile injectable solution or suspension in a non-toxic parentally acceptable diluent or solvent, for example as a solution in 1,3-butanediol. Among the acceptable vehicles and solvents that can be employed are water, Ringer's solution and isotonic sodium chloride solution. In addition, sterile, fixed oils are conventionally employed as a solvent or suspending medium. For this purpose, any bland fixed oil can be employed including synthetic mono or diglycerides. In addition, fatty acids such as oleic acid find use in the preparation of injectables.
The present disclosure also includes antisense oligomeric compound compositions prepared for storage or administration that include a pharmaceutically effective amount of the desired compounds in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent. Acceptable carriers or diluents for therapeutic use are well known in the pharmaceutical art, and are described, for example, in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences (Mack Publishing Co., A.R. Gennaro edit., 1985). For example, preservatives and stabilizers can be provided. These include sodium benzoate, sorbic acid and esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. In addition, antioxidants and suspending agents can be used.
Pharmaceutical compositions of this disclosure can also be in the form of oil-in-water emulsions. The oily phase can be a vegetable oil or a mineral oil or mixtures of these. Suitable emulsifying agents can be naturally-occurring gums, for example gum acacia or gum tragacanth, naturally-occurring phosphatides, for example soy bean, lecithin, and esters or partial esters derived from fatty acids and hexitol, anhydrides, for example sorbitan monooleate, and condensation products of the said partial esters with ethylene oxide, for example polyoxy ethylene sorbitan monooleate.
The antisense oligomeric compound of this disclosure may be administered to a patient by any standard means, with or without stabilizers, buffers, or the like, to form a composition suitable for treatment. When it is desired to use a liposome delivery mechanism, standard protocols for formation of liposomes can be followed. Thus the antisense oligomeric compound of the present disclosure may be administered in any form, for example intramuscular or by local, systemic, or intrathecal injection.
This disclosure also features the use of antisense oligomeric compound compositions comprising surface-modified liposomes containing poly(ethylene glycol) lipids (PEC-modified, or long-circulating liposomes or stealth liposomes). These formulations offer a method for increasing the accumulation of antisense oligomeric compound in target tissues. This class of drug carriers resists opsonization and elimination by the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS or RES), thereby enabling longer blood circulation times and enhanced tissue exposure for the encapsulated antisense oligomeric compound (Lasic et al, Chem. Rev. 95:2601-2627 (1995) and Ishiwata et al, Chem. Pharm. Bull. 43:1005-1011 (1995). Long-circulating liposomes enhance the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antisense oligomeric compound, particularly compared to conventional cationic liposomes which are known to accumulate in tissues of the MPS (Liu et al, J. Biol. Chem. 42:24864-24870 (1995); Choi et al, PCT Publication No. WO 96/10391;
Ansell et al, PCT Publication No. WO 96/10390; Holland et al, PCT Publication No. WO 96/10392). Long-circulating liposomes are also likely to protect antisense oligomeric compound from nuclease degradation to a greater extent compared to cationic liposomes, based on their ability to avoid accumulation in metabolically aggressive MPS tissues such as the liver and spleen.
Following administration of the antisense oligomeric compound compositions according to the formulations and methods of this disclosure, test subjects will exhibit about a 10% up to about a 99% reduction in one or more symptoms associated with the disease or disorder being treated, as compared to placebo -treated or other suitable control subjects.
Cell culture and cycloheximide treatment
Primary fibroblasts were obtained from skin biopsy and cultured in DMEM high glucose (Lonza) with 10% FBS (Hyclone) and Penicillin/Streptomycin/Glutamine in (Gibco) 5% C02 at 37°C. Cycloheximide treatment was carried out at a concentration of 100 qg/ml cycloheximide (Sigma) for 48 hours. mRNA analysis
mRNA analysis was performed as described previously (Bergsma, et al., 2015). In short, RNA was harvested and purified using the RNAeasy miniprep kit (Qiagen) according to manufacturer’s protocol. cDNA synthesis was performed on 800 ng RNA using iScript (Biorad) according to manufacturer’s instructions. cDNA was diluted 5x before further analysis. RT-PCR was performed on samples using FastStart Taq Polymerase (Roche).Sequence analysis was performed directly on PCR samples using BigDye Terminator v3.1 (Thermo). If products were present at very low levels, TOPO cloning was performed using the TOPO® TA Cloning Kit (Thermo). RT-qPCR was carried out using ITaq universal SYBR Green Supermix (Biorad). B-Actin was used as an internal control for RT-qPCR analysis. All primers used are shown in Tables A and B
Splicing predictions were performed using Alamut Visual v.2.4.2 (Interactive Biosoftware), which applies five algorithms: SpliceSiteFinder-like (SSF), MaxEntScan (MES), NNSplice (NNS), GeneSplicer (GS) and Human Splicing Finder (HSF). Settings were identical to those used for standard diagnostics by Molecular Diagnostics at the Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands and are published in Bergsma et al., 2015. The five algorithms use different maximal scores. For comparison, scores were calculated as % of the maximal score. A change of >10% in two or more algorithms was used as threshold for significance. Relative splice site strengths were also predicted using ASSEDA (http://splice.uwo.ca/; version August 2014) with a window range of 200 bases (Mucaki et al., 2013).
Genomic DNA variants were identified at Molecular Diagnostics at the Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Direct sequencing of flanking exon PCR products was performed using the Big Dye Terminator kit v3.1 (Applied Biosystems). To obtain pure DNA samples, PCR products visible on gel were stabbed with a 20 μΐ pipet tip and DNA on the tip was resuspended in 10 ul H20. A 1 ul aliquot was subsequently used in a new PCR (as described above) to obtain DNA from a single template. Excess primers and dNTPs were removed using FastAP Thermosensitive Alkaline Phosphatase (Thermo Scientific), according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Samples were purified with sephadex G-50 (GE Healthcare) and the sequence was determined on an AB3130 Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems, Hitachi).
Protein Activity Assay
Cells were lysed in standard lysis buffer (50mM Tris (pH 7.5), lOOmM NaCl, 50mM NaF, 1% Tx-lOO, Protease inhibitor). Protein quantification was done using the BCA Protein Assay (Thermo). 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU)-a-D-glucopyranoside assay was performed as describes previously (Kroos, et al., 2007) to measure GAA enzymatic activity.
Analysis of primary fibroblasts from Japanese patient with a low, but not absent, residual GAA enzymatic activity was studied. The patient described here has been diagnosed with Pompe disease and contains two pathogenic GAA variants, c.546G>T and c.1798C>G. The c.1798C>G variant is a p.Arg600His missense variant. The c.546G>T variant is a silent GAA variant. In silico prediction analysis showed that it may weaken the splice donor site of exon 2 (Maimaiti et al., 2009; Figure IF). Previous analysis showed that it results in low level of leaky wild type expression of GAA, but aberrant splicing products have not been reported so far (Maimaiti et al., 2009). We have now detected these using our splicing assay, as described hereafter. In the following description the letters A, B, C. etc., refer to the panels in Fig. 1. In Fig 1A), flanking exon RT-PCR of all GAA exons has been performed. This revealed two aberrant splice products (36 and 37) of exon 2 that were not present in cells from healthy controls (Bergsma et al., 2015). Fig IB) Sequence analysis identified product 37 as a full skip of exon 2, and product 36 as a partial skip of exon 2 via utilization of a cryptic splice acceptor site at c.486. Product 35 represented wild type splicing of exon 2. These splicing events of exon 2 resembled those observed in patients with the common c.-32-13C>T (IVSl) GAA variant (Bergsma et al., 2015). However, the levels of the aberrant products 36 and 37 were much lower compared to IVSl patients, suggesting that partial and full skipping of exon 2 were not the major cause for the pathogenic effect of the c.546G>T variant. Fig. 1C) Exon-internal RT-qPCR of coding exons 2-20 showed that all exons were expressed at levels that were 50% of those observed in cells from healthy controls. The majority of GAA expression is derived from the c.1798C>G allele, as indicated by sequence analysis of exon 13 (data not shown). This suggests that the c.546G>T allele is highly pathogenic by interfering with correct mRNA expression. In Fig ID), we treated cells with cycloheximide prior to RNA isolation and flanking exon RT-PCR analysis to inhibit mRNA degradation via the nonsense-mediated decay pathway. This resulted in identification of a number of additional products that were not observed in A). Fig IE) Product 38 represented intron 2 retention and utilization of a cryptic splice donor site at c.546+184 (see also sequence in Figure 2A). This product can be explained by weakening of the canonical splice donor site of exon 2 by the c.546G>T variant, resulting in the utilization of the next available splice donor at c.546+184. Product 38 is out of frame and likely subject to mRNA degradation, which explains why it was not detected in cells without cycloheximide treatment. Product 39 represented wild type exon 2 splicing, derived from the c.1798C>G allele.
The same aberrant splicing was detected from amplification of exon 3. Product 40 was the counterpart of product 38 with the same partial retention of intron 2, and product 41 represented wild type exon 3 splicing. Product 40’ was identical to product 40 and was the result of a conformational change of the PCR product that disappeared after a cycle of denaturation/renaturation (Fig. 2B). In Fig IF), splice prediction was performed of the splice donor site of exon 2 in the context of the c.546G>T variant. This showed a severe weakening of the predicted splice site strength due to the c.546G>T variant. In Fig 1G), AON intron 2 was designed that targeted the identified cryptic splice donor at c.546+184. The sequence of the AON is shown. In Fig. 2C, the genomic region is shown, along with a splice prediction of the region around c.546+184. This showed that the c.546+184 cryptic splice site was predicted to be a strong natural splice donor site. Fig 1H) Primary fibroblasts from patient 4 were either untreated, treated with endo-porter only, or with endo-porter plus AON intron 2. After 48 hours, cells were harvested and GAA enzyme activity was determined using 4-MU as substrate as described (Bergsma et al., 2015). This showed that AON intron 2 enhanced GAA enzymatic activity 3-fold.
Bergsma AJ, Kroos M, Hoogeveen-Westerveld M, Halley D, van der Ploeg AT, Pijnappel WW. 2015. Identification and characterization of aberrant GAA pre-mRNA splicing in pompe disease using a generic approach. Hum Mutat 36(1):57-68.
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Novel Mutations in the Lysosomal α-Glucosidase Gene (GAA) Underscore the Genotype-Phenotype Correlation in Glycogen Storage Disease Type II. Human Mutat 23:47-56.
Kroos MA, Pomponio RJ, Hagemans ML, Keulemans JL, Phipps M, DeRiso M, Palmer RE, Ausems MG, Van der Beek NA, Van Diggelen OP and others. 2007. Broad spectrum of Pompe disease in patients with the same c.-32-13T->G haplotype. Neurology 68(2):110-5.
Maimaiti M, Takahashi S, Okajima K, Suzuki N, Ohinata J, Araki A, Tanaka H, Mukai T, Fujieda K. 2009. Silent exonic mutation in the acid-alpha-glycosidase gene that causes glycogen storage disease type II by affecting mRNA splicing. J Hum Genet 54(8):493-6.
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|NL2017295A NL2017295B1 (en)||2016-08-05||2016-08-05||Antisense oligomeric compound for Pompe disease|
|PCT/NL2017/050525 WO2018026282A1 (en)||2016-08-05||2017-08-04||Antisense oligomeric compound for pompe disease|
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