NL2013575B1 - Teat cup and milking device therewith. - Google Patents

Teat cup and milking device therewith. Download PDF

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Publication number
NL2013575B1
NL2013575B1 NL2013575A NL2013575A NL2013575B1 NL 2013575 B1 NL2013575 B1 NL 2013575B1 NL 2013575 A NL2013575 A NL 2013575A NL 2013575 A NL2013575 A NL 2013575A NL 2013575 B1 NL2013575 B1 NL 2013575B1
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NL
Netherlands
Prior art keywords
teat
cavity
milking
liquid
control
Prior art date
Application number
NL2013575A
Other languages
Dutch (nl)
Inventor
Christiaan Fase Sander
Original Assignee
Lely Patent Nv
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Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Lely Patent Nv filed Critical Lely Patent Nv
Priority to NL2013575A priority Critical patent/NL2013575B1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of NL2013575B1 publication Critical patent/NL2013575B1/en

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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01JMANUFACTURE OF DAIRY PRODUCTS
    • A01J5/00Milking machines or devices
    • A01J5/04Milking machines or devices with pneumatic manipulation of teats
    • A01J5/08Teat-cups with two chambers

Abstract

A teat cup has a teat space and a pulsation space, and is also provided with a cavity connected neither to the teat space nor to the pulsation space, which cavity has a filling opening for filling the cavity with liquid. As a result, the teat cup is heavy during milking, to prevent the teat cup from crawling. The invention also provides a milking device therewith, as well as with a liquid container outside the teat cup for containing liquid, a filling line from the liquid container to the cavity, a pumping means for displacing the liquid between the liquid container and the cavity, and a control for controlling the milking device.

Description

Teat cup and milking device therewith

The invention relates to a teat cup with a teat space and a pulsation space.

Such teat cups are generally known, and in use with milking machines, both conventional and robotic milking machines.

A known problem in milking dairy animals is the so-called crawling of the teat cups, wherein the teat cup moves along and over the teat under the influence of the milk vacuum, and there disrupts the milk supply from the teat by inter alia clamping off important blood vessels. More generally, problems may occur with teats that are too narrow for the teat cup used, and also for per se suitable, normal teats which, however, narrow at the end of the milking run. After all, in principle all the animals of a herd are milked with the same teat cups. Even if those teat cups are adapted to a herd average, differences per teat from animal to animal can still lead to problems. Conversely, it can also happen that teat cups more easily fall off a teat that is too thin, such as due to an excess of leakage air along the teat cup (lining). A per se known solution that is sometimes used for milking claws of (conventional) milking machines is that during milking a milker puts a stone on the claw, whose weight counteracts creeping up.

It is clear that such a solution will by no means lead in all cases to satisfactory results.

It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a solution against effects of improperly fitting teat cups, such as the crawling of a teat cup when milking dairy animals.

The present invention achieves this object with a teat cup according to claim 1, in particular a teat cup with a teat space and a pulsation space, wherein the teat cup is also provided with a cavity which is connected neither to the teat space nor to the pulsation space and which has a filling opening for filling the cavity with liquid. It is thus possible, for example for a milker or operator, to let a quantity of liquid run into the teat cup when this is desired, such as with certain dairy animals, or after some (milking) time has elapsed. Where in the state of the art a stone has a predetermined weight, can accidentally fall off the claw with undesirable consequences, and moreover can place a relatively heavy burden on an operator, moving water or another liquid is not only physically high less stressful, but also more precisely adjustable and more reliable because it cannot fall off (easily). Being able to vary the effective weight of the teat cup in this way is a handy aid that, for example, can prevent crawling in many cases.

In the present invention, "cavity" is understood to mean a space surrounded by walls such that liquid can be reliably absorbed, such that its weight can prevent the teat cup from crawling. In principle, it is sufficient here to have an upright circumferential edge, the top side of which may be open, but that is unfavorable in the case of living goods, which after all can move the liquid out of such a basin by moving. Advantageously, the space is virtually closed on all sides, of course with the exception of a filling opening. This cavity is not connected to the teat space or the pulsation space, because the milk or pulsation vacuum would again suck the liquid out of the cavity. Moreover, it is not intended that the liquid ends up in the milk.

Particular embodiments of the invention will be described below.

In embodiments, the filling opening is connected to a filling line. In principle, it is sufficient if there is a filling opening through which an operator can pour liquid into the cavity, such as with a measuring cup or watering can. However, it is advantageous if a filling line is provided which connects to the filling opening of the cavity. Of course, the effective filling opening then becomes the opposite opening of the filling line. Thus, for example, it is possible for the filling to take place at a place that is remote from the dairy animal. This lowers the stress level in the dairy animal, and can increase the safety of the operator.

In embodiments, the teat cup comprises an operable valve for closing the filling opening. The cavity can thus be closed off and be better protected against flowing out of or into the cavity, which makes the effective weight more controllable.

For the entire invention, it holds that the liquid is preferably water. Water is not only cheap and available almost everywhere, but also non-toxic and, even if it ends up in the milk, is harmless in the case of not too large quantities. Nevertheless, it may be advantageous to take a different liquid, in particular a liquid with a higher density than water, such as water with (a lot of) dissolved salt in it.

The invention also relates to a milking device for milking a dairy animal, comprising at least one teat cup for milking a teat of the dairy animal, and provided with a teat space and a pulsation space, as well as with neither the teat space nor the pulsation space connected cavity which is provided with a filling opening and which can be filled with a liquid, in particular according to the invention, as well as a liquid container outside the teat cup for containing liquid, a filling line from the liquid container to the cavity, a pumping means for displacing the liquid between the liquid container and the cavity, and a control for controlling the milking device. In addition to controlling, for example, a vacuum source for a milking vacuum and / or a pulsation vacuum, the control will herein control at least the pumping means, for varying the amount of liquid in the cavity.

The liquid container can be filled with a supply of liquid, in particular water or water with dissolved or mixed salt and or other substances in order to increase the specific weight. Pure water has the advantage that it is harmless even in the case of leaks, which is of great importance with a consumer product such as milk.

In embodiments, the pumping means comprises a reversible pump, which is adapted to move fluid from the fluid container to the cavity in a first position, and to move fluid from the cavity to the fluid container in a second position. Such a pump can effectively weigh the teat cup during milking and, if desired, make it lighter again, such as after milking, in preparation for a new milking run. Such a reversible or two-way pump can per se comprise any pump type known per se. Additionally or alternatively, it is also possible to provide a one-way pump in combination with a fluid drain in the cavity or the supply line. When the pumping means has pumped a quantity of liquid into the cavity and the teat cup must subsequently become lighter, the liquid can be wholly or partly discharged via the liquid outlet. Note that the pump means may also be a combination of gravity and a lockable valve. By placing the liquid container higher, gravity itself can pump the liquid from the liquid container to the cavity, whereby the valve can control the amount of liquid by closing off the filling line.

In embodiments, the teat cup and / or the filling line comprises a valve controllable by the control. As already mentioned above, this offers the advantage that the cavity can be closed with the valve, and therefore can be protected against undesirable changes in the liquid level.

In embodiments, the milking device comprises four teat cups according to the invention, each connected to the liquid container via a respective filling line and with a respective controllable valve. Here, as with the aforementioned valves, the valve can be located in the teat cup or in the filling line. The first-mentioned embodiment has the advantage that the amount of liquid actually present in the teat cup in the cavity is more controllable than in the last-mentioned embodiment. It is also possible to provide more than one liquid container, such as one for each teat cup.

In embodiments, with at least two teat cups, the respective cavities are each arranged at a different height on the teat cup. The different cavities will thus not hinder each other, at least as little as possible, when connected to the teats of a dairy animal. It will be clear that this mainly plays a role if the teat cup has a larger cross-section at the location of the cavity than over the rest of the teat cup itself. If the cavity is entirely within a cylindrical outer wall of the teat cup, and the teat cup is thus visibly indistinguishable from a teat cup without a cavity, then all this is less to irrelevant.

In embodiments, the milking device comprises an animal-recognition device adapted to determine an animal identity of an animal that has reported to be milked by the milking device, the control being adapted to control the pumping means on the basis of the determined animal identity, in particular to move fluid from or to the cavity in an animal-dependent amount and / or an animal-dependent time pattern. This makes it possible to adjust the weight of the teat cup to the specific animal at the start of the milking. For example, there are dairy animals with teats that already benefit from an increased teat cup weight from the start of a milking run, that is to say a (higher) amount of liquid in the cavity. Conversely, there will also be animals with such a teat cross-section that any increased weight is not necessary or even desirable. Such data which can be coupled to, and preferably coupled to, the animal identity are advantageously stored in a memory provided for this purpose and operatively connected to the control. As soon as the animal identification device has determined the animal identity, the control can retrieve the associated data from the memory and, if necessary, adjust the corresponding amount of liquid in the cavity.

In embodiments, the control is adapted to control the pumping means in dependence on a teat parameter value, in particular on a teat cross-section, a teat length or a teat volume, more particularly for moving fluid from or to the cavity. In this way the amount of liquid in the cavity can be optimally adjusted to the teat and its properties. Moreover, the control is advantageously adapted to adjust the amount of liquid in the cavity with the aid of the pumping device in dependence on a setting of the milking device. For example, not only the teat characteristics change during milking and / or lactation, but also the milk settings such as the milk vacuum or the suction-to-rest ratio. Since the milk settings can also influence creep and the teat-milk behavior, the effective weight of the teat cup to the teat and the milking conditions can thus be adjusted even better.

In embodiments, the control is adapted to move a quantity of liquid between at least one cavity and the liquid container, in particular from the liquid container to the cavity, depending on a value of a parameter related to the teat milking. The milking implement can hereby respond to changes in the teat that can occur during milking and can be monitored by means of the parameter value. The parameter is a proxy for the behavior of the teat itself. The teats do not have to show the same behavior at the same time. That is why the amount of liquid per teat can advantageously be controlled by the control.

In embodiments, the parameter has a first value range that is indicative of normal milking, as well as a second value range that is indicative of unwanted milking behavior, such as crawling of the teat cup on the teat, and wherein the control is arranged to cause the pumping means to move an amount of liquid between the liquid container and the cavity if, and in particular as soon as, the parameter value is in the second range. This is a simple method of parameter value-dependent control of the amount of liquid. Advantageously, the parameter has more than two value ranges, and the control is adapted to move an amount of liquid that is dependent on the value range in which the determined parameter value lies. Alternatively or additionally, the amount of fluid according to a mathematical relationship is dependent on the determined parameter value, with linear or quadratic dependent as simple examples. In practice, it will nevertheless often be possible to determine a different dependence.

In embodiments, the parameter is a time period that starts with the start of a milk flow from the teat, and the controller is arranged to move an amount of liquid from or to the cavity if the time period exceeds a predetermined time threshold value, e.g., 2 minutes, and in particularly exceeds an animal-dependent time threshold. This is also a very simple, yet useful embodiment, in which, for example, an average time is chosen during which the teats on average become thinner and weaker. Such a time can be roughly determined, for example per animal breed or type, or advantageously also individually per animal. Again, the amount of liquid is advantageously also dependent on the individual animal and / or on the passage of time.

The parameter is not particularly limited, but is advantageously selected from an air flow through the teat space, or an indicative parameter therefor, a pulsation pressure in the pulsation space, a teat diameter, a milk flow from the teat or teat cup, and a position of the teat cup relative to from the teat or from a dairy animal's udder. The air flow can for instance be measured by directly measuring how much air is sucked into the teat cup via an air flow meter, or also indirectly by determining how much noise is produced during milking. For details about a usable sensor, reference is made to patent publication NL-1010369. For example, a teat diameter can be measured with the help of a camera and image processing software. Such a camera can also detect the position of the upper edge of the teat cup relative to the teat or, in particular, the udder. After all, crawling is moving the teat cup towards the udder, so if the camera or other sensor detects that the distance between the teat cup and the udder is decreasing, or simply measures that distance and the control detects that the determined distance is smaller or too small becomes, then that control can move a quantity of liquid to the relevant teat cup. Alternatively or additionally, such a decision can also be made by the control based on the milk flow. After all, crawling will often take place during the final milking phase, the after-milking. This milking phase starts when a milk flow threshold (whether or not animal-dependent) falls below.

In embodiments, the milking device comprises a sensor operatively connected to the control for determining the value of the parameter. The parameter (threshold) values or ranges of values can be determined experimentally, as well as the amount of liquid that is desired in the cavity. Note that a clock is not considered as a separate sensor for determining a passage of time. Nevertheless, in (almost) every control such a clock will already be available. The sensor is advantageously selected from an air flow sensor, a pulsation pressure meter, a sound sensor with a sound analysis device, a milk flow meter, and a camera with an image processing device.

The milking device may be a conventional device, wherein the teat cups must be connected by hand by a milker or other operator. However, the milking device advantageously comprises an automatic milking robot, which is adapted to connect the teat cups independently to a dairy animal. With a milking robot, the advantage of the invention comes to the fore extra well, because often no person will be present who can change the weight of the teat cup. Because this is now automatically adjustable, the milking process can be further improved by the milking robot.

The invention furthermore relates to a method for milking, wherein a teat cup according to the invention is connected to a teat, and by applying a milking vacuum and a pulsation vacuum in respectively the teat space and the pulsation space, milk is milked from the teat, wherein during milking a quantity of liquid is pumped into or out of the teat cup cavity using the pump means. Thus, during milking, the effective weight of the teat cup can be controlled dynamically, so that creeping up can be prevented.

The invention will be explained below with reference to the drawing, in which Figure 1 is a schematic view in partial cross section of a milking implement according to the invention with a teat cup according to the invention.

Figure 1 shows a schematic view in partial cross-section of a milking implement 1 according to the invention with a teat cup 10 according to the invention.

The milking device 1 comprises a teat cup 10 with a milk line 16 and a combined line 18 and a control 30.

The teat cup 10 comprises a cup wall 11, and a liner 12, with a teat opening 13 therein to a teat space 14. There is a pulsation space 15 between the liner and the cup wall.

The teat space 14 merges with, or is connected to, a milk line 16. Denoted is a connection nipple, in this case doubly designed, on which a combination line 18 is provided, which comprises a pulsation line 19 and a filling line 20. The connection nipple 17 comprises a pulsator connection nipple 21 and a liquid connection nipple 22, which ends in a filling opening 23 to a cavity 24 for liquid. With 20-1, 20-2 and 20-3, filling lines to three more teat cups, not shown here, are indicated.

Furthermore, 27 denotes a milk flow meter, and 25 a pulsation pressure meter, which is connected to the control 30 with a signal connection 26, and a camera to 28.

The control 30 comprises a computer 31, and a pulsator part with a vacuum line 32, a vacuum source 33 and an aeration line 35 to the environment 34, as well as two valves 36 and 37.

Furthermore, 40 denotes a fluid container with fluid 41, 42 a supply part, 43 a pump, and 44 a valve.

The milking implement 1 shown here comprises four teat cups 10, one of which is shown. Such milking devices are used, inter alia, for dairy cows. Of course, for other dairy animals, such as goats, with two teats, milking devices with different numbers of teat cups can be used.

The milking device 1 further comprises a control 30 which controls the milking device for performing a milking action on a dairy animal. To this end, the control 30 comprises, inter alia, a part that provides the pulsation of the teat cup. That part comprises a vacuum source 33, such as a vacuum pump. This generates a suitable pulsation vacuum which is supplied to the pulsation space 15 via the vacuum line 32, first valve 36, the pulsation line 19 and the pulsator connection nipple 21. Furthermore, the pulsation line 19 is connected to the environment via a second valve 37 and an aeration line 35 34. The first and second valves 36, 37 are under the control of the computer 31. Not shown are a vacuum source and a milk vacuum line which provide a milk vacuum in the teat space, which milk vacuum ensures the extraction of milk from a milk during the teat space. 14 standing teat.

By alternately opening and closing the valves 36 and 37, an alternating vacuum level will arise in the pulsation space, which ensures that the liner 12 alternately closes and opens again, and thus exerts a massaging action on said teat.

Teats of dairy animals differ in size, such as length and diameter. Also during the milking the teat located in the teat space 14, but not shown here, often becomes weaker and thinner, as a result of which the teat can be sucked deeper into the teat space, or conversely the teat cup 10 crawls up along the teat ("creeps up") , or in other cases can lose weight due to too much leakage.

To prevent this, the control 30 can make the teat cup 10 heavier or lighter by moving some liquid 41 from the liquid container 40 via the supply part 42, along the valve 44 and through the filling line 20 to the cavity 24 by means of the pump 43 , or vice versa. The weight of the liquid thus introduced into the teat cup will effectively reduce creep.

In order to determine the extent to which liquid 41 can be discharged or supplied to the cavity 24, use can be made, for example, of an average course of the creep during milking. Thus, for example, the control 30, in the form of the computer 31, can switch on the pump 43 a predetermined time after milking has started for a predetermined time, or with a predetermined pumping speed. This time, duration and / or pumping speed can depend on the individual milked animal. To this end, an animal-recognition device not shown here but provided if it is operatively connected to the control 30 may be provided, such as an RFID tag reader. Also, the time (duration) etc. may depend on other parameters, such as days in lactation, temperature, and so on. To that end, the controller 30 may contain or receive associated information, such as in a memory of the computer 31. Note that in general the controller can determine per teat how much fluid is moved to the cavity.

Alternatively or additionally, optionally provided sensors can be used for the control, such as a milk flow meter 27, which can indicate per teat when the milking begins, but also when a milk flow is below a predetermined value (absolute or relative to a maximum) drops, so that on the basis of this it can be concluded to a phase of the milking action, and possibly to an adjustment of the pump 43 for a quantity of liquid 41 and a pumping speed.

A sensor may also be provided in the form of a pulsation pressure meter 25, or an air flow meter (not shown here). Such sensors provide information about the volume of the pulsation space 15 with closed liner 12, and the change therein. This in turn is an indication of a change in the volume of the teat space 14, because the sum of the volumes is of course constant. And if the volume of the teat space with closed liner 12 decreases, that is an indication of a thinning teat. If the volume subsequently increases again, this is an indication of effective crawling.

A camera 28 may also be provided which measures or determines the teat cross-section prior to milking, or which can detect a possible displacement of the teat in the teat cup 20. Alternatively or additionally, a camera may be provided in the teat space to observe the shape and dimensions of the teat during milking, on the basis of which the control 30 can control the movement of fluid 41. In particular, the camera 28 can determine a teat diameter, on the basis of which the operatively connected control 30 can determine whether and how much liquid 41 is to be moved to or from the cavity 24. To that end, the camera 28, or the control 30 operatively associated therewith, comprises relevant image processing software.

Sometimes the amount of liquid has to be reduced, such as in particular at the end of a milking, but if desired also during a milking, for example because a clear increase in the milk flow is triggered, such as with incomplete stimulation. In such a case, the controller 30 may decide to invert the pump 43 and actively pump liquid 41 out of the cavity 24. It is alternatively or additionally possible to provide a valve, for example in the filling line 20, which closes a discharge opening (not shown) to the environment in a controllable manner. By opening the valve, and thus from the discharge opening, liquid can then also run out of the cavity 24. Since this is mostly water, this presents little or no problems with regard to contamination, while not pumping back to the holder 40 offers the advantage that the risk of contamination due to a leak in the cavity 24 or the like becomes virtually zero.

The cavity 24 as shown runs around on the inside and at the bottom of the pulsation space 15. However, it is also possible to design the cavity 24 differently, such as in the form of a collection of one or more separate or interconnected "pockets", or also outside the pulsation space such as, for example, around the milk line 16 under the teat cup 10, or just around the teat cup 10 on the cup wall 11, and so on. It is also possible to provide the cavity (s) 24 not all at the same location, in particular at different heights on the teat cup, so that the teat cups will not get in each other's way, or at least as little as possible, when milking.

The embodiment shown is not intended to be limiting, but only to clarify the invention. The scope of protection is determined on the basis of the appended claims.

Claims (15)

  1. A teat cup (10) with a teat space (14) and a pulsation space (15), characterized in that the teat cup is also provided with a cavity (24) connected neither to the teat space nor to the pulsation space, which cavity (24) 23) has for filling the cavity with liquid (41).
  2. The teat cup according to claim 1, wherein the filling opening is connected to a filling line (20).
  3. A teat cup according to any one of the preceding claims, comprising a controllable valve (44) for closing the filling opening.
  4. Milking device (1), in particular an automatic milking robot device, for milking a dairy animal, comprising - at least one teat cup (10) for milking a teat of the dairy animal, and provided with a teat space and a pulsation space, as well as with a cavity connected neither to the teat space nor to the pulsation space, which cavity is provided with a filling opening and can be filled with a liquid, - a liquid container (40) located outside the teat cup, - a filling line from the liquid container to the cavity - a pumping means (43) for displacing the liquid between the liquid container and the cavity, and - a control for controlling the milking device.
  5. 5. Milking device as claimed in claim 4, wherein the pumping means comprises a reversible pump, which is adapted to move fluid from the fluid container to the cavity in a first position, and to move fluid from the cavity to the fluid container in a second position.
  6. Milking device according to claim 4 or 5, wherein the teat cup and / or the filling line comprises a valve (44) controllable by the control.
  7. Milking device according to any of claims 4-6, comprising four teat cups, each connected to the liquid container via a respective filling line (20, 20-1, 20-2, 20-3) and with a respective controllable valve.
  8. 8. Milking implement as claimed in claim 7, wherein with at least two teat cups the respective cavities are each arranged at a different height on the teat cup.
  9. 9. Milking device as claimed in any of the claims 4-8, comprising an animal-recognition device adapted for determining an animal identity of an animal that has reported to be milked by the milking device, wherein the control is adapted to pump the pumping means on the basis of the determined animal identity control, in particular for moving fluid from or to the cavity in an animal-dependent amount and / or an animal-dependent time pattern.
  10. 10. Milking device as claimed in any of the claims 4-9, wherein the control is adapted to control the pumping means in dependence on a teat parameter value, in particular on a teat cross-section, a teat length or a teat volume, more in particular for moving fluid from or to the cavity.
  11. 11. Milking device as claimed in any of the claims 4-10, wherein the control is adapted to move an amount of liquid between at least one cavity and the liquid container, in particular from a value of a parameter related to the teat milking the fluid container to the cavity.
  12. 12. Milking device as claimed in claim 10 or 11, wherein the parameter has a first value range that is indicative of normal milking, as well as a second value range that is indicative of creeping of the teat cup onto the teat, and wherein the control is arranged to pump the pumping means. move the amount of fluid from the fluid container to the cavity if, and in particular as soon as, the parameter value is in the second range.
  13. A milking device as claimed in claim 10, 11 or 12, wherein the parameter is a period of time that starts when a milk flow from the teat is started, and the control is arranged to move an amount of liquid to the cavity if the duration is a predetermined time threshold value. exceeds, for example 2 minutes, and in particular exceeds an animal-dependent time threshold.
  14. Milking device according to any of claims 10-13, comprising a sensor (25, 27, 28) operatively connected to the control for determining the value of the parameter.
  15. A milking device according to claim 14, wherein the sensor is selected from an - air flow sensor, - pulsation pressure meter (25), - a sound sensor with a sound analysis device, - a milk flow meter (27), and - a camera (28) with an image processing device.
NL2013575A 2014-10-06 2014-10-06 Teat cup and milking device therewith. NL2013575B1 (en)

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NL2013575A NL2013575B1 (en) 2014-10-06 2014-10-06 Teat cup and milking device therewith.

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
NL2013575A NL2013575B1 (en) 2014-10-06 2014-10-06 Teat cup and milking device therewith.

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Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3308788A (en) * 1965-09-23 1967-03-14 Bel Mar Mfg Corp Teat cup assembly
US3324830A (en) * 1966-01-27 1967-06-13 James P Mcandrew Anti-creep adapter for milking machine inflations
FR2634348A1 (en) * 1988-05-23 1990-01-26 Hanauer George Automatic positioning device for treatment apparatus, trailer tumbler, trayer tiles installation device, steel collector for treatment machine, and traying tube installation method
EP1795069A2 (en) * 2003-10-22 2007-06-13 James Richard John Duke Milking equipment

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3308788A (en) * 1965-09-23 1967-03-14 Bel Mar Mfg Corp Teat cup assembly
US3324830A (en) * 1966-01-27 1967-06-13 James P Mcandrew Anti-creep adapter for milking machine inflations
FR2634348A1 (en) * 1988-05-23 1990-01-26 Hanauer George Automatic positioning device for treatment apparatus, trailer tumbler, trayer tiles installation device, steel collector for treatment machine, and traying tube installation method
EP1795069A2 (en) * 2003-10-22 2007-06-13 James Richard John Duke Milking equipment

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