NL1013965C2 - Optoelectronic sensor and direction positioning device. - Google Patents

Optoelectronic sensor and direction positioning device. Download PDF

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Publication number
NL1013965C2
NL1013965C2 NL1013965A NL1013965A NL1013965C2 NL 1013965 C2 NL1013965 C2 NL 1013965C2 NL 1013965 A NL1013965 A NL 1013965A NL 1013965 A NL1013965 A NL 1013965A NL 1013965 C2 NL1013965 C2 NL 1013965C2
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NL
Netherlands
Prior art keywords
light
characterized
sensors
optoelectronic
sensor according
Prior art date
Application number
NL1013965A
Other languages
Dutch (nl)
Inventor
Lein Pieter Van Wallenburg
Nico Visch
Original Assignee
Messpro Holding B V
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Messpro Holding B V filed Critical Messpro Holding B V
Priority to NL1013965A priority Critical patent/NL1013965C2/en
Priority to NL1013965 priority
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of NL1013965C2 publication Critical patent/NL1013965C2/en

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/03Arrangements for converting the position or the displacement of a member into a coded form
    • G06F3/041Digitisers, e.g. for touch screens or touch pads, characterised by the transducing means
    • G06F3/042Digitisers, e.g. for touch screens or touch pads, characterised by the transducing means by opto-electronic means
    • G06F3/0428Digitisers, e.g. for touch screens or touch pads, characterised by the transducing means by opto-electronic means by sensing at the edges of the touch surface the interruption of optical paths, e.g. an illumination plane, parallel to the touch surface which may be virtual
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S3/00Direction-finders for determining the direction from which infrasonic, sonic, ultrasonic, or electromagnetic waves, or particle emission, not having a directional significance, are being received
    • G01S3/78Direction-finders for determining the direction from which infrasonic, sonic, ultrasonic, or electromagnetic waves, or particle emission, not having a directional significance, are being received using electromagnetic waves other than radio waves
    • G01S3/781Details
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S3/00Direction-finders for determining the direction from which infrasonic, sonic, ultrasonic, or electromagnetic waves, or particle emission, not having a directional significance, are being received
    • G01S3/78Direction-finders for determining the direction from which infrasonic, sonic, ultrasonic, or electromagnetic waves, or particle emission, not having a directional significance, are being received using electromagnetic waves other than radio waves
    • G01S3/782Systems for determining direction or deviation from predetermined direction
    • G01S3/783Systems for determining direction or deviation from predetermined direction using amplitude comparison of signals derived from static detectors or detector systems
    • G01S3/7835Systems for determining direction or deviation from predetermined direction using amplitude comparison of signals derived from static detectors or detector systems using coding masks
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S5/00Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations
    • G01S5/16Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations using electromagnetic waves other than radio waves

Description

Optoelectronic sensor and direction positioning device.

DESCRIPTION

The invention relates to an opto-electronic sensor for direction determination, as well as a device for position determination on a surface provided with at least two such opto-electronic sensors.

In practice, it is necessary in many applications to determine the direction in which an object is moving and / or the direction and / or position of an object relative to, for example, a reference point. Examples of applications are automatically moving transport vehicles in, for example, a factory hall, robots, but also the position determination of a body or cursor on a wall or, for example, a whiteboard for electronic processing thereof.

From the US patent 5,264,910 a device is known comprising two light-sensitive sensors placed next to each other, each with a flat receiving surface. A flat shadow mask is placed opposite and parallel to the recording surface of one of the sensors. The other 20 sensor is fully exposed to the incident light. Information regarding the direction of a light beam hitting the two sensors can be obtained from the ratio of the output signals output by the two sensors.

A drawback of this known device is that use is made of a reference measurement, for which purpose two photosensitive sensors are always required. Because the shadow mask is placed parallel to one of the sensors and the other sensor is fully exposed to the incident light beam, the light intensity of the beam should be limited to prevent the 30 sensors from operating in their nonlinear region.

The object of the invention is to provide an improved opto-electronic sensor for direction determination, as well as a position determination device provided with such an improved opto-electronic sensor.

To this end, the invention initially provides an opto-electronic sensor, comprising a photosensitive sensor, such as a photodiode, with a recording surface and a shadow mask placed opposite the recording surface, characterized in that the shadow mask is inclined at an angle to the recording surface of the photosensitive sensor is placed.

The invention is based on the insight that light hitting the sensor at different angles is shadowed differently by the shadow mask placed at an angle to the recording surface, resulting in more or less light actually being perceived by the photosensitive sensor. The amount of perceived light, which in the case of, for example, a photodiode, results in a corresponding electrical output signal, for example an electric current, is a measure of the angle at which a light beam strikes the sensor.

In contrast to the prior art, the optoelectronic sensor according to the invention comprises only a single photosensitive sensor, which is advantageous from a production and cost point of view.

In one embodiment of the invention, the shadow mask extends, with a free end, from an edge from the recording surface to approximately the center thereof. It has been found that a shadow mask which is elongated in shape, inter alia pen-shaped or arrow-shaped, produces such a relationship between the light falling on the recording surface and the light shadowed or shielded by the shadow mask that a light-sensitive sensor, such as a photodiode, its linear area can work. The photo diode is preferably an infrared photo diode.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the 1 01 3965 3 shadow mask encloses an approximate angle of 45 ° to the receiving surface.

An accurate direction determination can be obtained by, according to a further embodiment of the invention, arranging two photosensitive sensors with their recording surfaces mutually crosswise relative to each other, such that the free ends of the shadow masks point towards each other.

By placing the light-sensitive sensors above or next to each other, an angle area can be defined within which the direction of a striking light beam can be reliably indicated.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the photosensitive sensors are mounted in a plate, the shadow masks extending from the peripheral edge of this plate to the center thereof. It has been found that when the recording surfaces of the two photosensitive sensors enclose an angle of approximately 110 °, reliable measuring results are obtained.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, wherein the optoelectronic sensor comprises two or more photosensitive sensors, the means for measuring the electrical signal delivered by a photosensitive sensor is adapted to measure the ratio of the sum of the electrical signals of the photosensitive sensors and of the sensors separately.

It has been found that by digitizing the electrical signals emitted by an opto-electronic sensor during operation, in accordance with a still further embodiment of the invention, the angle at which a light beam or light beam falls on the sensor is accurate on the basis of a look-up table. can be easily provided.

The invention also relates to an opto-electronic sensor as described above, used in device for determining the geographical position on a plane, as well as such a device, comprising a first and a second on a straight carrier on a spaced apart optoelectronic sensor according to the invention as discussed above, a body displaceable over the plane with a light source for emitting light in the direction towards the optoelectronic sensors and electronic means coupled to the optoelectronic sensors determining the position of the body on the plane from the electrical signal delivered by each sensor during operation.

Such a device is particularly suitable for use with a so-called digitizer (digitizing unit, graphic input table) and with a so-called whiteboard, for supplying the position of the cursor on the whiteboard to an electronic processing device.

In a preferred embodiment the light source comprises a plurality of all-round arranged light-emitting elements, such as light-emitting diodes, which light-emitting elements can be controlled separately in such a way that only that element or those elements are light-emitting which have a maximum or observable light incidence on the two electronic sensors.

In a further embodiment of the device, the light-emitting elements are arranged to emit a modulated light beam, such as a light beam with a frequency of 455 kHz, in order to achieve a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio.

Using means for amplitude, frequency and / or angle modulation coupled to the light source or the light-emitting elements, according to an embodiment of the invention, signals can be sent from the body via suitable signal generators, such as push buttons, via one or both opto -electronic sensors are transferred to associated processing electronics.

In a still further embodiment of the device according to the invention, in order to prevent inaccuracies in the measurement results as much as possible, provision is made for the luminous elements to be controlled in intensity such that the light hitting the photosensitive sensors does not may cause distortion. Such that the relevant sensors operate within their linear range. In practice, this means that as the movable body 5 comes closer to an opto-electronic sensor, the light beam emitted by a respective luminous element must be reduced in strength and vice versa.

The invention also relates to a whiteboard provided with a device according to the invention as well as a movable body provided with a light source and control means as described above.

The invention will be explained in more detail below with reference to the embodiments shown in the accompanying drawing.

Fig. 1 is a schematic representation of the construction of the optoelectronic sensor according to the invention.

Fig. 2 is a schematic representation for illustrating the method of the optoelectronic sensor of the invention.

Fig. 3 is a schematic representation of the top view of an embodiment of the optoelectronic sensor according to the invention.

Fig. 4 is a schematic representation for illustrating the operation of a preferred embodiment of the optoelectronic sensor of the invention.

FIG. 5 is a schematic, perspective illustration of an embodiment of an optoelectronic sensor according to the operating principle of FIG. 4.

Fig. 6 shows schematically, in perspective, a device with opto-electronic sensors according to the invention, for position determination on a plane.

Fig. 1 schematically shows, in side view, an opto-electronic sensor 1 according to the invention, provided with a photosensitive sensor 2, such as a photodiode, with a recording surface 3 and a shadow mask 4 situated opposite the recording surface 3. In the embodiment shown, the shadow mask 4 forms an angle α with the recording surface 5 3. In the context of the present description, the term "recording surface" is understood to mean a surface with the property that incident light is detected in this plane by the photosensitive sensor and is converted into an electrical signal which is delivered to its output terminal 8. The recording plane 3 can be either a physical plane or an imaginary plane.

Although a shadow mask 4 with one free end 9 and another fixed end attached to or near the recording surface is shown, it will be clear that various arrangements of the shadow mask 4 with respect to the recording surface 3 are possible.

Opposite the shadow mask 4 is a light source 5 which can emit light rays 6 to the opto-electronic sensor 1. The light source 5 and the sensor 1 can be mutually displaceable, as illustrated with the aid of the double arrow 7.

Fig. 2 illustrates the operation of the opto-electronic sensor 1, for the sake of simplicity a one-dimensional consideration is assumed.

Suppose that the recording surface 3 has a length v and the shadow mask 4 a length m, as illustrated. It is further assumed that incident light 6 forms an angle i with the normal n on the recording surface 3. Part of the length s of the receiving surface is shaded by the shadow mask 4. That is to say, on the part s no incident light hits 6. Defraction phenomena at the free end 9 of the shadow mask 4 are neglected.

Furthermore, an angle δ is indicated, being the angle which an incident light beam 6 makes with the receiving surface 3 and the angle e enclosed between a light beam 6 and the shadow mask 4.

1 01 3965 7

From simple trigonometric equations holds: δ = 90 ° + i (1) e = 90 ° - i - α (2) 5 sin e s = m- (3) sin δ

From equations (1), (2) and (3) it can be seen that the length s of the shaded part of the recording surface 3 is a function of the angle of incidence i of the light rays or light beam 6. This means that also the the photosensitive sensor 2 electric signal delivered to its output terminal 8 is a function of the angle at which the light rays 6 fall on the recording surface 3 of the sensor 2. By a suitable calibration, the optoelectronic sensor 1 according to the invention can therefore be used for determining the direction of incident light.

Fig. 3 shows a top view of an embodiment of the optoelectronic sensor 1 according to the invention, wherein the shadow mask 4 extends from an edge of the receiving surface 3 to approximately in the middle thereof and is in the form of an elongated, thin pen, strip , strip, arrow or the like. With the opto-electronic sensor in this embodiment, the angle of incidence with respect to, for example, the normal beam, of course relative to the recording plane 3, of a light beam displacing in the longitudinal direction of the shadow mask 4 can be determined on the basis of the electrical output signal produced by the sensor 2 are determined.

For determining displacements in other directions, a further electronic sensor as shown in Fig. 3 can be used, the elongated shadow mask of which, however, is perpendicular to the shadow mask of the other sensor or makes a certain known angle with it (not illustrated).

Fig. 4 schematically shows a further embodiment t 0 1 39 8 5 8 of an opto-electric sensor 10 according to the invention based on the sensor shown in FIG. 3, wherein a first photosensitive sensor 11 and a second photosensitive sensor 14 with their respective recording surfaces 12, 15 are arranged at an angle β. The shadow mask 13 associated with the first sensor 11 extends with its free end in one direction while the shadow mask 16 associated with the second sensor 14 points with its free end in the other direction. In other words, the shadow masks 13, 16 face each other with their free ends. In an embodiment of the invention 10, the angle β is about 114 °, for detecting incident light rays in an angle range of about 110 °.

An incident light beam 6 now causes shadowing on both the first sensor 11 and the second sensor 14. By analyzing the output signals of each sensor 11, 14, an accurate angle determination of the incident light beam can be achieved.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the output signals of the individual sensors 11, 14, for example the electric current produced by a photodiode, are compared with the sum of the output signals of the two sensors 11, 14. The result of this comparison can be known can be converted into a digital representation by means of analog / digital (A / D) conversion and fed to a look-up table in order to obtain the angle of the incident light beam that is appropriate for a given ratio of the output signals of the two sensors 11, 14. 6.

Of course, the signals can also be analyzed analogously and a corresponding angle can be calculated analogously.

Fig. 5 shows an embodiment 20 of an opto-electronic converter with a first photosensitive sensor 11 and a second photosensitive sensor 14, according to FIG. 4. The first and second sensors 11, 14 are in a plane 19 one above the other or next to each other 3965 9, such that receiving surfaces 12 and 15 respectively are created. For the sake of clarity, the shadow masks 13, 16 are not shown, but they extend from the peripheral edge of the plate 19 to approximately near a respective sensor 11, 14 and are elongated in shape.

The mounting plate 19 is part of a T-shaped housing, with which the optoelectronic sensor 20 can be mounted along a wall or edge of an object, the direction of which must be determined with respect to an incident light beam.

The mounting plate 19 and the part 17 extending thereon can be made of, for instance, aluminum. The portion 18 forms a receiving opening for attaching the optoelectronic sensor 20 to an object.

Fig. 6 shows a device with optoelectronic sensors 20 according to the invention, each mounted near the ends of a straight, elongated carrier 21, such that the sensors of the spaced sensors are opposite one another. The carrier 21 with the sensors 20 can be positioned along the edge of a surface, for example a whiteboard 22. On the surface is a body 23 which is movable over the surface 22.

The body 23 comprises a number of circumferentially arranged light-emitting elements 24, such as light-emitting diodes (LED), which together form a light source. The body 23 and the sensors 20 are connected to suitable processing electronics 25, as illustrated.

During operation, the luminescent elements 24 emit light which is received by both sensors 20, whereby the position of the body 23 on the surface 22 can be determined on the basis of the direction of the incident light beam determined by each sensor. For example digitally via the look-up table.

The light-emitting elements 24 are preferably controlled in such a way that only the light-emitting element 24 is controlled light-emitting, of which light is actually received by one or both of the sensors 20.

In order to prevent the photosensitive sensors of the sensors 20 from being moved outside their linear range, which may be the case when the body 23 gets too close to one or the other sensor 20, the invention provides that the light intensity of the light-emitting elements 24 is more or less inversely proportional to the distance to one or the other or both sensors 20. Such control can, of course, be based on the intensity of the light hitting the sensors 20, via the processing means 25.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the sensors 20 include sensors 11, 14 and light emitting elements 24 operating in the infrared (IR) region. In order to obtain a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio, the light emitting elements 24 are preferably light-emitting with a modulation frequency of 455 kHz or another suitable frequency. It will be understood that the output signals from the sensors 20 will produce an output signal of the same frequency, which can be detected by suitable bandpass filters and appropriately amplified and processed.

It is also possible to modulate the intensity of the light emitted by the light-emitting elements 24 in amplitude, frequency or phase (angle) to send information from the carrier 23 via one and / or the other sensor 20 to the processing electronics 25 . Certain commands or commands or other information can then be signaled by means of suitable signal generators, such as push buttons 26 on the carrier 23.

101 3965

Claims (27)

  1. Opto-electronic sensor for direction determination, comprising a photosensitive sensor, such as a photodiode, with a recording surface and a shadow mask placed opposite the recording surface, characterized in that the shadow mask is inclined (a) with the recording surface of the photosensitive sensor is placed.
  2. Optoelectronic sensor according to claim 1, characterized in that the shadow mask encloses an angle (a) of approximately 45 ° with the receiving surface.
  3. Optoelectronic sensor according to one or more of the preceding claims, characterized in that the shadow mask extends from an edge of the recording surface with a free end to approximately the center of the recording surface.
  4. Optoelectronic sensor according to one or more of the preceding claims, characterized in that the shadow mask is elongated in shape.
  5. Optoelectronic sensor according to one or more of the preceding claims, characterized by two photosensitive sensors with 20 mutually arranged receiving surfaces, so that the free ends of the shadow masks point towards each other.
  6. Optoelectronic sensor according to claim 5, characterized in that the photosensitive sensors are placed one above the other.
  7. Optoelectronic sensor according to claim 5 or 6, 25, characterized in that the receiving surfaces of the two photosensitive sensors enclose an angle of approximately 110 °.
  8. Optoelectronic sensor according to claim 5 or 6, characterized by more than two photosensitive sensors and associated shadow masks arranged crosswise with their recording surfaces.
  9. Optoelectronic sensor according to one or more of the preceding claims, characterized in that the at least one or all 1 01 SS 6 5 r »light-sensitive sensors are mounted in a plate, from the circumferential edge of which the or each shadow mask is extends.
  10. Optoelectronic sensor according to one or more of the preceding claims, characterized in that the or each photosensitive sensor is an infrared photodiode.
  11. Optoelectronic sensor according to one or more of the preceding claims, characterized by means for measuring an electrical signal delivered during operation by a photodiode coupled to the or each photodiode.
  12. Optoelectronic sensor according to claim 11, characterized in that the means for measuring the electrical signal delivered by a photosensitive sensor are adapted to measure the ratio between the sum of the electrical signals of the photosensitive sensors of a concerning photoelectric sensor and 15 of the sensors' sensors separately.
  13. 13. Optoelectronic sensor according to claim 11 or 12, characterized by means for digitizing the electrical signals emitted by the optoelectronic sensor during operation and a look-up table for looking up in a table on the basis of the digitized signals direction of a light beam hitting the sensor.
  14. Optoelectronic sensor according to one or more of the preceding claims, characterized in that it forms part of a device for determining the geographical position on a plane, the sensor and a further similar optoelectronic sensor on a straight carrier spaced apart, having a body displaceable across the plane with a light source for emitting light towards the optoelectronic sensors and electronic means coupled to the optoelectronic sensors determining the position of the body on the plane from the electrical signal delivered by each sensor during operation. 1 01 3965 ►
  15. Optoelectronic sensor according to claim 14, characterized in that the optoelectronic sensors arranged on the carrier are identical.
  16. Optoelectronic sensor according to claim 14 or 15, 5, characterized in that the light source comprises a plurality of all-round arranged light-emitting elements, such as light-emitting diodes, which light-emitting elements can be controlled in such a way that only that element or elements become light-emitting controlled to achieve maximum light incidence on both optoelectronic sensors.
  17. Optoelectronic sensor according to claim 14, 15 or 16, characterized in that the light-emitting elements are adapted to emit a modulated light beam, such as a light beam with a frequency of 455 kHz.
  18. 18. Optoelectronic sensor according to claim 17, characterized by means for amplitude, frequency and / or angle modulation of the light beam to be emitted by a luminous element, for the signalers arranged by one or more on the body, such as push buttons, transferring information via one or both optoelectronic sensors.
  19. Optoelectronic sensor according to claim 14, 15, 16, 17 or 18, characterized in that the means for controlling the light emitting elements are adapted to control the intensity of the light beam emitted by a light emitting element, that the photosensitive sensors operate approximately in their linear region.
  20. Apparatus for determining the geographical position on a plane, comprising a first and a second on a straight carrier spaced apart opto-electronic sensor according to one or more of claims 1 to 13, one over the plane Movable body with a light source for emitting light in the direction towards the optoelectronic sensors and electronic means coupled to the opto-electronic sensors for the purpose of transmitting during operation by each sensor electrical signal to determine the position of the body on the plane.
  21. 21. Device as claimed in claim 20, characterized in that the light source comprises a plurality of light-emitting elements arranged all around, such as light-emitting diodes, which light-emitting elements are controllable in such a way that only that element or those elements are controlled in a light-emitting manner on both optoelectronic sensors.
  22. Device according to claim 20 or 21, characterized in that the light-emitting elements are adapted to emit a modulated light beam, such as a light beam with a frequency of 455 kHz.
  23. 23. Device as claimed in claim 22, characterized by means for amplitude, frequency and / or angle modulation of the light beam to be emitted by a luminous element, for the signaling devices, such as push buttons, arranged by means of one or more on the body, via one or both optoelectronic sensors transfer information.
  24. 24. Device as claimed in claim 20, 21, 22 or 23, characterized in that the means for controlling the light-emitting elements are adapted to control the intensity of the light beam emitted by a light-emitting element such that the light-sensitive sensors approach in their linear region.
  25. Whiteboard provided with a device according to one or more of the claims 14-24.
  26. 26. Digitizer provided with a device according to one or more of claims 14-24.
  27. 27. Movable body provided with a light source and control means according to one or more of the claims 14-24. 1 01 39 6 5
NL1013965A 1999-12-27 1999-12-27 Optoelectronic sensor and direction positioning device. NL1013965C2 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
NL1013965A NL1013965C2 (en) 1999-12-27 1999-12-27 Optoelectronic sensor and direction positioning device.
NL1013965 1999-12-27

Applications Claiming Priority (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
NL1013965A NL1013965C2 (en) 1999-12-27 1999-12-27 Optoelectronic sensor and direction positioning device.
AU32457/01A AU3245701A (en) 1999-12-27 2000-12-22 Optoelectronic sensor and device for determination of direction-position
PCT/NL2000/000953 WO2001048504A2 (en) 1999-12-27 2000-12-22 Optoelectronic sensor and device for determination of direction-position

Publications (1)

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NL1013965C2 true NL1013965C2 (en) 2001-07-03

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NL1013965A NL1013965C2 (en) 1999-12-27 1999-12-27 Optoelectronic sensor and direction positioning device.

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AU (1) AU3245701A (en)
NL (1) NL1013965C2 (en)
WO (1) WO2001048504A2 (en)

Families Citing this family (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2835070B1 (en) * 2002-01-23 2004-07-16 Yves Guy Reza Interface assembly between a user and an electronic device
DE10218160C1 (en) * 2002-04-23 2003-12-24 Elmos Semiconductor Ag Device for determining the angle of incidence of radiation on a radiation incidence surface

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5264910A (en) * 1990-07-30 1993-11-23 Fmc Corporation Apparatus and method for angle measurement
US5719670A (en) * 1994-11-10 1998-02-17 Thomson-Csf Integrated direction finder
US5841316A (en) * 1996-05-24 1998-11-24 Shau; Jeng-Jye Analog signal processing circuit for generating automatic-gain controlled reference-signal-biased output signals
US5886351A (en) * 1996-01-23 1999-03-23 Advanced Optical Technologies, Llc Single element hemispherical light detector

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5264910A (en) * 1990-07-30 1993-11-23 Fmc Corporation Apparatus and method for angle measurement
US5719670A (en) * 1994-11-10 1998-02-17 Thomson-Csf Integrated direction finder
US5886351A (en) * 1996-01-23 1999-03-23 Advanced Optical Technologies, Llc Single element hemispherical light detector
US5841316A (en) * 1996-05-24 1998-11-24 Shau; Jeng-Jye Analog signal processing circuit for generating automatic-gain controlled reference-signal-biased output signals

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WO2001048504A2 (en) 2001-07-05
WO2001048504A3 (en) 2001-12-27
AU3245701A (en) 2001-07-09

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