KR20190000367A - Shingled solar cell module - Google Patents

Shingled solar cell module Download PDF

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Publication number
KR20190000367A
KR20190000367A KR1020187036832A KR20187036832A KR20190000367A KR 20190000367 A KR20190000367 A KR 20190000367A KR 1020187036832 A KR1020187036832 A KR 1020187036832A KR 20187036832 A KR20187036832 A KR 20187036832A KR 20190000367 A KR20190000367 A KR 20190000367A
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KR
South Korea
Prior art keywords
solar cells
module
solar
solar cell
supercell
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Application number
KR1020187036832A
Other languages
Korean (ko)
Inventor
라트손 모라드
길라드 알모지
이타이 수에즈
진 험멜
나단 벡케트
야푸 린
존 간논
마이클 제이. 스타케이
로버트 스튜어트
타미르 란세
단 매이단
Original Assignee
선파워 코포레이션
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Priority to US201462003223P priority Critical
Priority to US62/003,223 priority
Priority to US201462035624P priority
Priority to US62/035,624 priority
Priority to US62/036,215 priority
Priority to US201462036215P priority
Priority to US201462042615P priority
Priority to US62/042,615 priority
Priority to US62/048,858 priority
Priority to US201462048858P priority
Priority to US62/064,260 priority
Priority to US201462506415P priority
Priority to US201462064260P priority
Priority to US62/506,415 priority
Priority to US62/064,834 priority
Priority to US201462064834P priority
Priority to US29506755 priority
Priority to US29/506,755 priority
Priority to US14/530,405 priority patent/US9780253B2/en
Priority to US14/530,405 priority
Priority to US14/532,293 priority
Priority to US14/532,293 priority patent/US20150349193A1/en
Priority to US29/508,323 priority
Priority to US29508323 priority
Priority to US14/536,486 priority
Priority to US14/536,486 priority patent/US20150349168A1/en
Priority to US14/539,546 priority patent/US20150349169A1/en
Priority to US14/539,546 priority
Priority to US14/543,580 priority patent/US9882077B2/en
Priority to US14/543,580 priority
Priority to US62/081,200 priority
Priority to US201462081200P priority
Priority to US14/548,081 priority
Priority to US14/548,081 priority patent/US20150349701A1/en
Priority to US29/509,586 priority
Priority to US29/509,588 priority
Priority to US29/509,588 priority patent/USD767484S1/en
Priority to US29/509,586 priority patent/USD750556S1/en
Priority to US201462082904P priority
Priority to US14/550,676 priority patent/US20150349171A1/en
Priority to US62/082,904 priority
Priority to US14/550,676 priority
Priority to US14/552,761 priority patent/US20150349172A1/en
Priority to US14/552,761 priority
Priority to US14/560,577 priority patent/US9876132B2/en
Priority to US14/560,577 priority
Priority to US14/565,820 priority patent/US20150349145A1/en
Priority to US14/565,820 priority
Priority to US14/566,278 priority patent/US20150349703A1/en
Priority to US14/566,278 priority
Priority to US14/572,206 priority patent/US9401451B2/en
Priority to US14/572,206 priority
Priority to US14/577,593 priority
Priority to US14/577,593 priority patent/US9356184B2/en
Priority to US14/585,917 priority
Priority to US14/586,025 priority
Priority to US14/586,025 priority patent/US20150349153A1/en
Priority to US14/585,917 priority patent/US20150349162A1/en
Priority to US14/594,439 priority patent/US9397252B2/en
Priority to US14/594,439 priority
Priority to US201562103816P priority
Priority to US62/103,816 priority
Priority to US14/605,695 priority patent/US9484484B2/en
Priority to US14/605,695 priority
Priority to US201562111757P priority
Priority to US62/111,757 priority
Priority to US62/113,250 priority
Priority to US201562113250P priority
Priority to US201562134176P priority
Priority to US62/134,176 priority
Priority to US14/674,983 priority
Priority to US14/674,983 priority patent/US9947820B2/en
Priority to US62/150,426 priority
Priority to US201562150426P priority
Priority to PCT/US2015/032472 priority patent/WO2015183827A2/en
Application filed by 선파워 코포레이션 filed Critical 선파워 코포레이션
Publication of KR20190000367A publication Critical patent/KR20190000367A/en

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/02Details
    • H01L31/02002Arrangements for conducting electric current to or from the device in operations
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/02Details
    • H01L31/0224Electrodes
    • H01L31/022408Electrodes for devices characterised by at least one potential jump barrier or surface barrier
    • H01L31/022425Electrodes for devices characterised by at least one potential jump barrier or surface barrier for solar cells
    • H01L31/022441Electrode arrangements specially adapted for back-contact solar cells
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/04Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof adapted as photovoltaic [PV] conversion devices
    • H01L31/042PV modules or arrays of single PV cells
    • H01L31/05Electrical interconnection means between PV cells inside the PV module, e.g. series connection of PV cells
    • H01L31/0504Electrical interconnection means between PV cells inside the PV module, e.g. series connection of PV cells specially adapted for series or parallel connection of solar cells in a module
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/18Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment of these devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L31/186Particular post-treatment for the devices, e.g. annealing, impurity gettering, short-circuit elimination, recrystallisation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02SGENERATION OF ELECTRIC POWER BY CONVERSION OF INFRA-RED RADIATION, VISIBLE LIGHT OR ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT, e.g. USING PHOTOVOLTAIC [PV] MODULES
    • H02S40/00Components or accessories in combination with PV modules, not provided for in groups H02S10/00 - H02S30/00
    • H02S40/30Electrical components
    • H02S40/32Electrical components comprising DC/AC inverter means associated with the PV module itself, e.g. AC modules
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02SGENERATION OF ELECTRIC POWER BY CONVERSION OF INFRA-RED RADIATION, VISIBLE LIGHT OR ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT, e.g. USING PHOTOVOLTAIC [PV] MODULES
    • H02S40/00Components or accessories in combination with PV modules, not provided for in groups H02S10/00 - H02S30/00
    • H02S40/30Electrical components
    • H02S40/34Electrical components comprising specially adapted electrical connection means to be structurally associated with the PV module, e.g. junction boxes

Abstract

A high-efficiency configuration for a solar cell module includes solar cells that are electrically coupled to each other in a shingled manner to form supercells, which efficiently utilize the area of the solar cell module, reduce series resistance, . ≪ / RTI > The front metallization patterns on the solar cells can be configured to enable single step stencil printing, which is possible by the overlapping arrangement of solar cells in the supercells. The photovoltaic system may include two or more such high voltage solar cell modules electrically connected in parallel to each other and to the inverter. The solar cell cutting tools and the solar cell cutting methods apply a vacuum between the bottom surfaces of the solar cell wafer and the support surface of the curve to bend the solar cell wafer against the support surface of the curve, The solar cell wafer is cut along one or more pre-fabricated scribe lines. An advantage of these cutting tools and cutting methods is that they do not require physical contact with the top surfaces of the solar cell wafer. Solar cells are fabricated with reduced charge recombination losses at the edges of the solar cell, for example without cut edges that promote charge recombination. The solar cells may have narrow rectangular geometric structures and may be advantageously employed with shingled (overlapping) arrangements to form supercells.

Description

[0001] SHINGLED SOLAR CELL MODULE [0002]

The present invention generally relates to solar cell modules in which solar cells are arranged in a shingled manner.

This international patent application is a continuation-in-part of US patent application Ser. No. 14 / 530,405 entitled "Shingled Solar Cell Module" filed on October 31, 2014, US patent application Ser. No. 14 / 532,293 entitled " Shingled Solar Cell Module ", filed on November 7, 2014, Shingled Solar Cell Module ", filed November 12, 2014, entitled " Shingled Solar Cell Module " US Patent Application No. 14 / 543,580 entitled " Shingled Solar Cell Module " filed on November 17, 2014, filed on November 19, 2014, US Patent Application No. 14 / 548,081 entitled " Shingled Solar Cell Module ", U.S. Patent Application No. 14/5, filed on November 21, 2014 50,676 entitled " Shingled Solar Cell Module ", U.S. Patent Application No. 14 / 552,761, entitled " Shingled Solar Cell Module, " filed on November 25, Quot; Shingled Solar Cell Module "), U.S. Patent Application No. 14 / 560,577, entitled "Shingled Solar Cell Module," filed on Dec. 4, 2014, U.S. Patent Application No. 14 / 566,878, entitled " Shingled Solar Cell Module ", filed on Dec. 10, 2014, Quot; Shingled Solar Cell Module "), U.S. Patent Application No. 14 / 572,206, filed December 16, 2014 entitled " Shingled Solar Cell Module Solar Cell Module "), U.S. Patent Application No. 14 / 577,593, entitled" Shingled Solar Cell Module "filed on December 19, 2014, , US patent application Ser. No. 14 / 586,025 (entitled "Shingled Solar Cell Module") filed on December 30, 2014, US patent application filed on December 30, 2014 No. 14 / 585,917 entitled " Shingled Solar Cell Module ", U.S. Patent Application No. 14 / 594,439, filed January 12, 2015 Quot; Shingled Solar Cell Module "), U.S. Patent Application No. 14 / 605,695, entitled "Shingled Solar Cell Module" filed on January 26, 2015, 2014 US provisional patent application No. 62 / 003,223 entitled " Shingled Solar Cell Module ", filed on Mar. 27, 2008, filed on August 12, 2014, 62 / 036,215 entitled " Shingled Solar Cell Module ", U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62 / 042,615, filed on August 27, 2014 Quot; Shingled Solar Cell Module ", filed on September 11, 2014, and US Provisional Patent Application No. 62 / 048,858 entitled " Shingled Solar Cell Module Quot; Shingled Solar Cell Module ", filed October 15, 2014, entitled " Shingled Solar Cell Module ", filed on October 15, 2014, US provisional patent application No. 62 / 064,834 entitled " Shingled Solar Cell Module ", filed on March 16, US Patent Application No. 14 / 674,983, filed March 31, 2015, (Shingled Solar Cell Panel Employing Hidden Taps), U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62 / 081,200, filed November 18, 2014, entitled "Shingled Solar Cell Panel Employing Hidden Taps" Title: "Solar Cell Panel Employing Hidden Taps"), US provisional patent application filed on February 6, 2015 No. 62 / 113,250 entitled " Shingled Solar Cell Panel Employing Hidden Taps "), U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62 / 113,250 filed on November 21, 2014, 082,904 entitled " High Voltage Solar Panel "), U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62 / 103,816 filed on January 15, 2015 entitled " High Voltage Solar Panel High Voltage Solar Panel "), U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62 / 111,757 filed on Feb. 4, 2015 entitled" High Voltage Solar Panel ", March 17, 2015 No. 62 / 134,176, entitled " Solar Cell Cleaving Tools and Methods ", filed on April 21, 2015, 62 / 150,426 (entitled " Shingled Solar Cell Pan < RTI ID = 0.0 > US Patent Application No. 62 / 035,624, filed on August 11, 2014 entitled " Solar Cells with Reduced Edge Charge Reassembly ", entitled " Compressing Stencil-Printed Cell Metallization " Edge Carrier Recombination "), US Design Patent Application No. 29 / 506,415, filed October 15, 2014, US Design Patent Application No. 29 / 506,755, filed October 20, 2014, November 5, 2014 US Design Patent Application No. 29 / 508,323, filed on November 19, 2014, and US Design Patent Application No. 29 / 509,586, filed November 19, 2014, 509,588 with priority. Each of the foregoing patent applications listed above is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety for all purposes.

Alternative sources of energy are required to meet all the increasing global energy demands. Solar energy resources are sufficient in many geographic areas to meet these needs, in part, by the supply of power generated by solar (e.g., photovoltaic) cells.

Highly efficient arrangements of solar cells in a solar cell module and methods of making such solar modules are disclosed herein.

In one aspect, the solar module comprises a series connected string of N? 25 rectangular or substantially rectangular solar cells having a breakdown voltage greater than about 10 volts. The solar cells are stacked one or more supercells comprising two or more of the solar cells arranged in line with the long sides of adjacent solar cells that are superimposed and electrically coupled to each other with an electrically and thermally conductive adhesive super cells). A single solar cell or group of N solar cells in the string of solar cells is not individually electrically connected in parallel to a bypass diode. The safety and reliable operation of the photovoltaic module is enabled by effective thermal conduction along the super cells through the combined and overlapping portions of adjacent solar cells, which can be achieved by providing hot spots hot spots < / RTI > The supercells can be encapsulated, for example, in a thermoplastic olefin polymer interposed between glass front and back sheets, further enhancing the robustness of the module to thermal damage. In some variations, N is ≥30, ≥50, or ≥100.

In another aspect, the supercell is a rectangle or a rectangle having shapes defined by parallel long sides and first and second oppositely positioned short sides, respectively, Includes a plurality of silicon solar cells having a substantially rectangular front (sun side) and rear surfaces. Each solar cell having an electrically conductive front metallization pattern having at least one front contact pad located adjacent to the first elongated side and at least one rear contact positioned adjacent the second elongated side, And an electrically conductive backside metallization pattern having pads. The silicon solar cells are stacked so as to electrically connect the silicon solar cells in series, and the first and second long sides of the adjacent silicon solar cells are stacked and connected to each other by an adjacent silicon solar cell Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > and / or < / RTI > Wherein the front metallization pattern of each silicon solar cell is configured to substantially limit the conductive adhesive bonding material to the at least one front contact pads prior to curing the conductive adhesive bonding material during fabrication of the supercell. Lt; / RTI > barrier.

In another aspect, the supercell is a rectangular or substantially rectangular front having a shape defined by first and second opposedly positioned parallel long sides and two opposedly positioned short sides, And a plurality of silicon solar cells having a back surface. Each solar cell having an electrically conductive front metallization pattern having at least one front contact pad positioned adjacent the first long side and at least one rear contact pad positioned adjacent the second long side Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > metallization < / RTI > The silicon solar cells are stacked so as to electrically connect the silicon solar cells in series, and the first and second long sides of the adjacent silicon solar cells are stacked and connected to each other by an adjacent silicon solar cell Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > and / or < / RTI > Wherein the back metallization pattern of each silicon solar cell comprises a barrier configured to substantially limit the conductive adhesive bonding material to the at least one rear contact pads prior to curing the conductive adhesive bonding material during manufacture of the supercell do.

In another aspect, a method of making a string of solar cells includes forming a plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells each having a length along one of its longitudinal axes, one or more along a plurality of lines parallel to the long edge of each wafer to form a plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells, And dicing the pseudo-square silicon wafers. The method also includes arranging the rectangular silicon solar cells in series with the long sides of adjacent solar cells that are overlapped and electrically coupled to each other to electrically connect the solar cells in series. Wherein the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells have at least one rectangular solar cell having two chamfered edges corresponding to the edges or portions of the edges of the pseudo-square wafer, and wherein each of the chamfered edges is deficient Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > silicon solar cells. ≪ / RTI > Wherein the spacing between parallel lines in which the pseudo-square wafers are diced is greater than a width of the square silicon solar cells having the chamfered edges, the width being orthogonal to the long axis of the rectangular silicon solar cell lacking the chamfered edges Wherein each of the plurality of square silicon solar cells in the string of solar cells is exposed to light in the operation of the string of solar cells as it is selected to compensate for the chamfered edges by making it larger than the width orthogonal to the long axis of the cells Having substantially the same area.

In another aspect, the supercell includes a plurality of silicon solar cells arranged in a line with the ends of adjacent solar cells superposed and electrically coupled to each other to electrically connect the solar cells in series. Wherein at least one of the silicon solar cells has chamfered edges corresponding to corners or edges of a pseudo-square silicon wafer to which it has been diced, at least one of the silicon solar cells lacking chamfered edges, Each of the silicon solar cells has a front surface of substantially the same area exposed to light during operation of the string of solar cells.

In another aspect, a method of making two or more supersells comprises forming a first plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells having chamfered edges corresponding to corners or portions of edges of pseudo-square silicon wafers, Square silicon wafers to form a second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells having a first length over the entire width of the pseudo-square silicon wafers and lacking chamfered edges do. The method also includes forming a third plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells each having a second length less than the first length and having chamfered edges lacking, removing the first plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells from each of the first plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells And removing the chamfered edges. The method includes forming a plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells overlapping and electrically conducting to each other to electrically connect the second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells to form a solar cell string having the same width as the first length, Arranging the second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells in line with the long sides of the third plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells to form a solar cell string having the same width as the second length, The method further comprises arranging the third plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells in series with the long sides of adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells that are electrically coupled to each other electrically in series.

In another aspect, a method of making two or more supersells comprises forming a first plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells having chamfered edges corresponding to corners or portions of corners of pseudo-square silicon wafers, Dicing one or more pseudo-square silicon wafers along a plurality of lines parallel to the long edge of each wafer to form a second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells lacking processed edges, Arranging the first plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells in series with the long sides of adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells superposed and electrically coupled to each other to electrically connect the rectangular silicon solar cells in series; The second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells And arranging the second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells in series with the long sides of adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells which are overlapped and electrically coupled to each other to electrically connect the cells in series.

In another aspect, a supercell includes a plurality of silicon solar cells arranged in a line in a first direction and end portions of adjacent silicon solar cells superposed and electrically coupled to each other to electrically connect the silicon solar cells in series, and Wherein the silicon solar cell has a long axis oriented parallel to a second direction orthogonal to the first direction and is electrically coupled to a front surface or a back surface of an end of the silicon solar cells at a plurality of discrete locations arranged along the second direction, And having a thickness less than or equal to about 100 microns measured orthogonally to the front or back surface of the end silicon solar cell and having a thickness of about 0.012 Ohm, Less than or equal to about < RTI ID = 0.0 > 85 C < / RTI > And an elongated flexible electrical interconnect that provides flexibility to accommodate differential expansion in the second direction between the end silicon solar cell and the interconnect with respect to the first silicon solar cell.

The flexible electrical interconnect may have a conductor thickness of less than or equal to about 30 microns, measured orthogonally to the front and back sides of the end silicon solar cell, for example. The electrical interconnect may extend in the second direction through the supercell to provide electrical interconnections to at least a second supercell positioned parallel and adjacent to the sacrificial supercell within the solar module. Additionally or alternatively, the flexible electrical interconnect may extend through the supercell so as to provide electrical interconnection to a second supercell located in a line parallel to the supercell within the solar module. have.

In another aspect, a solar module includes a plurality of supercells arranged in two or more parallel rows spanning the width of the module to form a front surface of the module. Each supercell includes a plurality of silicon solar cells arranged in a line with the ends of adjacent silicon solar cells superimposed to electrically connect the silicon solar cells in series and electrically connected to each other. At least the end of the first supercell adjacent to the edge of the module in the first row is bonded to the front surface of the second supercell at a plurality of distinct locations with an electrically conductive adhesive bond material, Adjacent at the same edge of the module in a second row through a flexible electrical interconnect, at least a portion of which is folded about the end of the module and concealed in the field of view from the front of the module And is electrically connected to the end portion.

In another aspect, a method of making a supercell includes forming one or more scribe lines on each one or more silicon solar cells to define a plurality of rectangular regions on silicon solar cells, Scribing comprises applying an electrically conductive adhesive bonding material to said one or more scribed silicon solar cells at one or more locations adjacent to the long side of each rectangular area, Separating the silicon solar cells along the scribe lines to provide a plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells having a portion of the electrically conductive adhesive bonding material disposed on a front side thereof adjacent to the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells, Silicon solar cells are placed between them Is arranged in line with the long sides of adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells which are overlapped in a shingled manner as part of the electrically conductive adhesive bond material and the electrically conductive bonding material is cured Thereby joining adjacent and overlapping rectangular silicon solar cells together and electrically connecting them in series.

In another aspect, a method of making a supercell includes: laser scribing one or more scribe lines on each one or more silicon solar cells to define a plurality of rectangular regions on the silicon solar cells Applying an electrically conductive adhesive bond material to portions of the upper surfaces of the one or more silicon solar cells; bending the one or more silicon solar cells against a supporting surface of the curve; With a portion of the electrically conductive adhesive bonding material disposed on a front side thereof adjacent to each long side thereof, thereby applying a vacuum between the bottom surfaces of the one or more silicon solar cells and the curved supporting surface, To provide rectangular silicon solar cells. Cutting the further silicon solar cells along the stripline lines to form a plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells with adjacent rectangles overlapping in a shading manner as part of the electrically conductive adhesive bonding material disposed therebetween; Aligning with the long sides of the silicon solar cells of the adjacent silicon solar cells and curing the electrically conductive bonding material to couple adjacent and overlapping rectangular silicon solar cells together and electrically connecting them in series .

In another aspect, a method of fabricating a solar module includes assembling a plurality of supercells, each supercell being overlapped in a shingled manner and being aligned with ends on long sides of adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells, And a plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells arranged in a row. The method also includes curing the electrically superimposed electrically conductive bonding material disposed between the overlapping ends of the adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells by applying heat and pressure to the super cells to form adjacent, Coupling the batteries and electrically connecting them in series. The method may also include arranging and interconnecting the supercells in a desired photovoltaic module configuration within a stack of layers comprising encapsulant and forming a stack of layers to form a laminated structure, Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > and / or < / RTI >

Some variations of the method include applying heat and pressure to the supercells prior to applying heat and pressure to the stack of layers to form the laminated structure to cure or partially cure the electrically conductive bonding material Curing to form super cells that are cured or partially cured as an intermediate product prior to forming the laminated structure. In some variations, each additional rectangular silicon solar cell is added to the supercell during assembly of the supercell so that the electrically-conductive adhesive bonding material between the newly added solar cell and its adjacent and overlapping solar cells is random Of other rectangular silicon solar cells are cured or partially cured before being added to the supercell. Alternatively, some variations include curing or partially curing the electrically conductive bonding material in the supercell in the same step.

When the supercells are formed as partially cured intermediate products, the method completes curing of the electrically conductive bonding material while applying heat and pressure to the stack of layers to form the laminated structure Step < / RTI >

Some modifications of the method do not form super cells that are cured or partially cured as an intermediate product prior to forming the laminated structure, but apply heat and pressure to the stack of layers to form the laminated structure And curing the electrically conductive bonding material.

The method may include dicing one or more standard sized silicon solar cells into rectangular shapes of smaller area to provide the rectangular silicon solar cells. Wherein the electrically conductive adhesive bond material is applied to the one or more silicon solar cells prior to dicing the one or more silicon solar cells to provide the rectangular silicon solar cells with a previously applied electrically conductive adhesive bonding material, Lt; / RTI > Alternatively, the electrically conductive adhesive bond material may be applied to the rectangular silicon solar cells after dicing the one or more silicon solar cells to provide the rectangular silicon solar cells.

In one aspect, a solar module includes a plurality of supercells arranged in two or more parallel rows. Each supercell includes a plurality of rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells arranged in series with the long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells which are superimposed to electrically connect the silicon solar cells in series and are conductively coupled to each other. The solar panel also includes a first hidden tab contact pad located on the back side of the first solar cell positioned at an intermediate position along the first side of the supercells, And a second electrical interconnect electrically coupled to the first electrical interconnect. The first electrical interconnect includes a stress relief feature that accommodates differential thermal expansion between the interconnect and the silicon solar cell to which it is coupled. The term " stress relieving feature " is used herein to refer to the thickness of the interconnect (e. G., Very thin) and / or the kink ), A loop, or a slot. For example, the stress relieving feature may be that the interconnect is formed of a very thin copper ribbon.

The solar module includes a second hidden tab contact pad located on a rear surface of a second solar cell located adjacent to the first solar cell at an intermediate position along a second of the supergels in an adjacent super cell row And the first hidden tap contact pad is electrically connected to the second hidden tab contact pad through the first electrical interconnect. In such cases, the first electrical interconnect may extend across a gap between the first supercell and the second supercell, and may be conductively coupled to the second hidden tab contact pad . Optionally, the electrical connection between the first and second hidden tab contact pads is electrically coupled to the second hidden tab contact pad and electrically coupled to the first electrical interconnect (e.g., electrically coupled Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > interconnection). ≪ / RTI > Each interconnect scheme can be selectively extended over additional columns of supersells. For example, each interconnection scheme can be selectively extended over the entire width of the module to interconnect the solar cells within each column through the hidden tab contact pads.

The solar module includes a second hidden tap contact pad located on a rear surface of a second solar cell located at another intermediate position along a first one of the supercells, 2 electrical interconnect and a bypass diode electrically connected in parallel with the solar cells located between the first and second hidden tap contact pads by the first and second electrical interconnects, .

In any of the above variants, the first hidden tap contact pad comprises one of a plurality of hidden tab contact pads arranged on the back surface of the first solar cell in a row running parallel to the long axis of the first solar cell Wherein the first electrical interconnect is conductively coupled to each of the plurality of hidden contacts and substantially traverses the length of the first solar cell along the long axis. Additionally or alternatively, the first hidden tap contact pad may be one of a plurality of hidden tab contact pads arranged on the back surface of the first solar cell in a row running orthogonal to the long axis of the first solar cell . In the latter case, the rows of hidden tab contact pads may be located, for example, adjacent a short edge of the first solar cell. The first hidden tap contact pad may be one of a plurality of hidden tab contact pads arranged in a two-dimensional array on the rear surface of the first solar cell.

Optionally, in any of the foregoing variations, the first hidden tap contact pad may be located adjacent to the long side of the back surface of the first solar cell, and the first electrical interconnect may extend along the long axis of the solar cell Wherein the back metallization pattern on the first solar cell is preferably less than or equal to about 5 ohms per square, or less than about 2.5 ohms per square, relative to the interconnect, To provide a conductive passage having a sheet resistance of less than or equal to the sheet resistance. In such cases, the first interconnect may include, for example, two taps located on opposite sides of the stress relief feature, one of the taps being on the first hidden tab contact pad And can be electrically coupled. The two tabs may have different lengths.

In any of these variations, the first electrical interconnect may be used to identify a desired alignment with the first hidden tap contact pad, to confirm a desired alignment with the edge of the first super cell, Alignment features to ensure desired alignment with the pad and desired alignment with the edge of the first supercell.

In another aspect, a solar module comprises a glass front sheet, a back sheet, and a plurality of supersells arranged in two or more parallel rows between the glass front sheet and the back sheet . Each supercell includes a plurality of rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells arranged in series with the long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells which are overlapped to electrically connect the silicon solar cells in series and are conductively coupled to each other. A first flexible electrical interconnect is tightly coupled to the first of the supercells in a conductive manner. Wherein the flexible conductive bonds between the overlapping solar cells are arranged in the supercelles in a direction parallel to the columns for a temperature range of about -40 DEG C to about 100 DEG C without damaging the solar modules, And provides mechanical compliance to accommodate thermal expansion mismatches between the front and back sheets. Wherein the rigid conductive connection between the first supercell and the first flexible electrical interconnect is such that the first flexible electrical interconnect does not damage the photovoltaic module and does not damage the solar modules for a temperature range of about -40 [ To accommodate the thermal expansion mismatch between the first supercell and the first flexible electrical interconnect in an orthogonal direction.

The conductive bonds between overlapping and adjacent solar cells in the supercell may use a conductive adhesive different from the conductive bonds between the supercell and the flexible electrical interconnect. In one aspect of the at least one solar cell in the supercell, the conductive bonding may use a conductive bonding agent different from the conductive bonding at the other side of the solar cell. The conductive adhesive that forms a tight bond between the supercell and the flexible electrical interconnect may be, for example, a solder. In some variations, the conductive bonds between overlapping solar cells in the supercell are formed of a conductive adhesive rather than solder, and the conductive bond between the supercell and the flexible electrical interconnect is formed of solder.

In some variations using two different conductive adhesives as described above, both conductive adhesives may be cured (e.g., at the same temperature, at the same pressure and / or the same time interval) in the same process step .

The conductive bonds between the overlapping and adjacent solar cells can accommodate differential motion between each glass cell and the glass front substrate, e.g., greater than or equal to about 15 microns.

The conductive bonds between the overlapping and adjacent solar cells may have a thickness of, for example, less than or equal to about 50 microns and a thickness that is greater than or equal to about 1.5 W / (meter-K) The thermal conductivity may be orthogonal to the thermal conductivity.

The first flexible electrical interconnect can withstand thermal expansion or contraction of the first flexible interconnect, for example, greater than or equal to about 40 microns.

A portion of the first flexible electrical interconnect that is conductively coupled to the supercell may be the same as a ribbon formed of copper and may be formed of a material such as, for example, And may have a thickness perpendicular to the surface of the battery. The first flexible electrical interconnect may include an essentially conductive copper portion that is not coupled to the solar cell and that provides a higher conductivity than a portion of the first flexible electrical interconnect that is conductively coupled to the solar cell. The first flexible electrical interconnect having a thickness perpendicular to the surface of the solar cell to which it is coupled and less than or equal to about 30 microns, or less than or equal to about 50 microns, And may have a width greater than or equal to about 10 mm in the plane of the surface of the battery. The first flexible electrical interconnect may be conductively coupled to a conductor proximate the solar cell providing a higher conductivity than the first electrical interconnect.

In another aspect, a solar module includes a plurality of supercells arranged in two or more parallel rows. Each supercell has a plurality of rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells arranged in a line with long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells stacked to electrically connect the silicon solar cells in series and directly coupled to each other in a conductive manner . A hidden tab contact pad that does not conduct a valid current in normal operation is located on the back surface of the first solar cell located at an intermediate position along a first of the supercells in the first of the rows of supersells. The hidden tab contact pads are electrically connected in parallel to at least a second solar cell in a second one of the rows of supersells.

The solar module may include an electrical interconnect coupled to the hidden tab contact pad and electrically interconnecting the hidden tab contact pad to the second solar cell. In some variations, the electrical interconnect does not substantially extend over the length of the first solar cell, and the back metallization pattern on the first solar cell has a sheet resistance greater than or equal to about 50 ohms per square Providing a conductive pathway to the tab contact pad.

The plurality of supersells may be arranged in three or more parallel columns across the width of the solar module orthogonal to the columns and the hidden tab contact pads electrically connect all the columns of the supersells electrically And are electrically connected to the hidden tab contact pads on at least one solar cell in each of the columns of super cells to connect. In these variations, the photovoltaic module includes at least one bus connection to at least one of the hidden tab contact pads or hidden tab contact pads connected to the bypass diode or other electronic device, . ≪ / RTI >

The solar module may include a flexible electrical interconnect electrically coupled to the hidden tab contact pad to electrically connect the solar module to the second solar cell. A portion of the flexible electrical interconnect that is conductively coupled to the hidden tab contact pad is, for example, a ribbon formed of copper and has a cross-sectional area that is perpendicular to the surface of the solar cell to which it is coupled, such as less than about 50 microns Thickness. The conductive connection between the hidden tab contact pad and the flexible electrical interconnect may allow the flexible electrical interconnect to withstand the thermal expansion mismatch between the first solar cell and the flexible interconnect, To allow relative movement between the first solar cell and the second solar cell resulting from thermal expansion over a temperature range of 40 [deg.] C to about 180 [deg.] C.

In some variations, in operation of the photovoltaic module, the first hidden tap contact pad is capable of conducting a current greater than the current generated in any one of the solar cells.

Typically, the surface of the first solar cell overlying the first hidden tap contact pad is not occupied by contact pads or any other interconnect features. Typically, any area of the front surface of the first solar cell that is not overlapped by a portion of the adjacent solar cells in the first supersat is not occupied by the contact pads or any other interconnect features.

In some variations, most of the cells in each supercell have no hidden tap contact pads. In such variations, cells having hidden tab contact pads may have a larger condensed area than cells having no hidden tab contact pads.

In another aspect, a solar module comprises a glass front sheet, a back sheet, and a plurality of supercells arranged in two or more parallel rows between the glass front sheet and the back sheet. Each of the supercells includes a plurality of rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells which are superimposed to electrically connect the silicon solar cells in series and are arranged in line with long sides of adjoining silicon solar cells, Respectively. A first flexible electrical interconnect is tightly coupled to the first of the supercells in a conductive manner. The flexible conductive bonds between the overlapping solar cells are formed of a first conductive adhesive and have a shear modulus less than or equal to about 800 megapascals. The rigid conductive bond between the first supercell and the first flexible electrical interconnect is formed of a second conductive adhesive and has a shear modulus greater than or equal to about 2000 megapascals.

The first conductive adhesive may have a glass transition temperature of, for example, less than or equal to about 0 ° C.

In some variations, the first conductive adhesive and the second conductive adhesive are different, and all of the conductive adhesives can be cured in the same process.

In some variations, the conductive bonds between the overlapping and adjacent solar cells have a thickness that is less than or equal to about 50 microns and a thickness that is perpendicular to the solar cells and greater than or equal to about 1.5 W / It can have a thermal conductivity perpendicular to the solar cells.

In one aspect, the solar module comprises rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells of number N greater than or equal to about 250 arranged as a plurality of serially connected supercells in two or more parallel rows. Each of the supercells includes a plurality of silicones arranged in series with long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells which are superimposed to electrically connect the silicon solar cells in the supercell electrically and thermally conductive with each other, Solar cells. The supercells are electrically connected to provide a high DC voltage of greater than or equal to about 90 volts.

In one variation, the solar module includes one or more flexible electrical interconnects arranged to electrically serially connect the plurality of supercells to provide a high DC voltage. The solar module may include module level power electronics including an inverter to convert the high DC voltage to an AC voltage. The module level power electronics can sense the high DC voltage and can operate the module at an optimal current-voltage power point.

In another variation, the photovoltaic module is electrically connected to individual pairs of adjacent series-connected columns of supercells, and one or more pairs of columns of the supercells are electrically connected in series to provide the high dc voltage And a module level power electronics having an inverter for converting the high DC voltage into an AC voltage. Optionally, the module level power electronics may sense a voltage across each individual pair of columns of the supercells and may operate each individual pair of columns of supercells at an optimal current-voltage power point. Optionally, the module level power electronics may switch a respective pair of columns of the supercells from a circuit providing the high dc voltage when the voltage across the pair of columns is below a threshold value.

In another variation, the photovoltaic module is electrically coupled to each individual column of the supercells and electrically connects two or more of the columns of supersells to provide the high dc voltage, And a module level power electronics having an inverter for converting the voltage to an alternating voltage. Optionally, the module level power electronics can sense a voltage across each individual column of the supersells and operate each individual column of the supersells at an optimal current-voltage power point. Optionally, the module level power electronics may switch the individual rows of the supercells from a circuit providing the high dc voltage when the voltage across the rows of supersells is below a threshold.

In another variation, the photovoltaic module is electrically connected to each respective supercell and electrically connects two or more of the supercells electrically to provide the high dc voltage, And a module level power electronics having an inverter for converting the voltage to a voltage. Optionally, the module-level power electronics can sense a voltage across each individual supercell and operate each individual supercell at an optimal current-voltage power point. Optionally, the module level power electronics may switch the individual supercells from a circuit providing the high DC voltage when the voltage across the supercell is below a threshold.

In another variation, each supercell in the module is electrically divided into a plurality of segments by hidden taps. The solar module is electrically connected to each segment of each supercell through the hidden tabs and electrically connects two or more segments electrically to provide the high DC voltage, Module-level power electronics with inverters for conversion. Optionally, the module-level power electronics can enable the module-level power electronics to sense voltages across each segment of each supercell and operate each individual segment at an optimal current-voltage power point. Optionally, the module level power electronics may switch individual segments from the circuit providing the high DC voltage if the voltage across the segment is below a threshold.

In any of these variations, the optimal current-voltage power point may be a maximum current-voltage power point.

In any of these variations, the module level power electronics may be devoid of a DC to DC boost component.

In any of these variations, N is greater than or equal to about 200, greater than or equal to about 250, greater than or equal to about 300, greater than or equal to about 350, greater than or equal to about 400, Greater than or equal to about 450, greater than or equal to about 500, greater than or equal to about 550, greater than or equal to about 600, greater than or equal to about 650, and greater than or equal to about 700.

In any of these variations, the high direct current voltage may be greater than or equal to about 120 volts, greater than or equal to about 180 volts, greater than or equal to about 240 volts, greater than or equal to about 300 volts, Greater than or equal to 360 volts, greater than or equal to about 420 volts, greater than or equal to about 480 volts, greater than or equal to about 540 volts, or greater than or equal to about 600 volts.

In another aspect, a solar photovoltaic system includes two or more solar modules and an inverter that are electrically connected in parallel. Each photovoltaic module includes rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells of number N greater than or equal to about 150 arranged as a plurality of supers cells in two or more parallel rows. Each solar cell in each module includes two or more of the silicon solar cells arranged in series with the long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells that overlap and electrically conductively couple to each other to electrically connect the silicon solar cells in series do. In each module, the supercells are electrically connected to provide a high voltage DC module output greater than or equal to about 90 volts. The inverter is electrically connected to the two or more solar modules to convert their high voltage direct current output into alternating current.

Each photovoltaic module may include one or more flexible electrical interconnects arranged to electrically connect the supercells in the photovoltaic module electrically to provide a high voltage dc output of the photovoltaic module.

The solar power generation system may include at least a third solar module connected in series with the first one of the two or more solar modules electrically connected in parallel. In such cases, the third solar module may comprise rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells of number N 'greater than or equal to about 150 arranged as a plurality of supers cells in two or more parallel rows have. Each of the supercells in the third solar module is connected to the silicon solar cells in the module, which are arranged in line with long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells superimposed to electrically connect the silicon solar cells in series, Two or more. In the third solar module, the supercells are electrically connected to provide a high-voltage DC module output greater than or equal to about 90 volts.

Modifications, including the third solar module, electrically connected in series with the first one of the two or more solar modules as described above, may also be applied to the two or more solar modules And at least a fourth solar module electrically connected in series with the second solar module. The fourth photovoltaic module may comprise rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells with a number N "greater than or equal to about 150 arranged as a plurality of supers cells in two or more parallel rows. Each supercell in the solar module is connected to two or more of the silicon solar cells in the module which are arranged in line with the long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells that overlap and electrically conductively couple with each other to electrically connect the silicon solar cells in series, In the fourth solar module, the supercells are electrically connected to provide a high-voltage DC module output greater than or equal to about 90 volts.

The photovoltaic system may include fuses and / or fuses arranged to prevent short circuits occurring within any of the photovoltaic modules from dissipating power generated in other photovoltaic modules. And may include blocking diodes.

The photovoltaic power generation system may include positive and negative buses in which the two or more solar modules are electrically connected in parallel and the inverter is connected to the battery. Alternatively, the solar power generation system may include a combiner box in which the two or more solar modules are electrically connected by separate conductors. The combiner box connects the solar modules electrically in parallel and fuses arranged to prevent a short circuit in any of the solar modules from dissipating power generated in other solar modules and / Blocking diodes.

The inverter may be configured to operate the solar modules at a DC voltage greater than or equal to a minimum value set to avoid reverse biasing the solar module.

The inverter may be configured to recognize reverse bias conditions that occur within one or more of the solar modules and to operate the solar modules at a voltage that avoids the reverse bias condition.

The solar power generation system may be located on the roof top.

In any of these variations, N, N 'and N " are greater than or equal to about 200, greater than or equal to about 250, greater than or equal to about 300, greater than or equal to about 350, Greater than or equal to about 450, greater than or equal to about 450, greater than or equal to about 500, greater than or equal to about 550, greater than or equal to about 600, greater than or equal to about 650, N, N 'and N " may have the same or different values.

In any of these variations, the high DC voltage provided by the solar module may be greater than or equal to about 120 volts, greater than or equal to about 180 volts, greater than or equal to about 240 volts, or less than or equal to about 300 volts Greater than or equal to about 360 volts, greater than or equal to about 420 volts, greater than or equal to about 480 volts, greater than or equal to about 540 volts, and greater than or equal to about 600 volts have.

In another aspect, a photovoltaic system includes a first solar cell having rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells of number N greater than or equal to about 150 arranged as a plurality of supers cells in two or more parallel rows Module. Each supercell includes a plurality of silicon solar cells arranged in a line with long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells superimposed to electrically connect the silicon solar cells in series and being conductively coupled to each other. The system also includes an inverter. The inverter may be, for example, a micro inverter integrated with the first solar module. The supercells in the first photovoltaic module are electrically connected to provide a high DC voltage greater than or equal to about 90 volts to the inverter that converts DC to AC.

The first photovoltaic module may include one or more flexible electrical interconnects arranged to electrically connect the supercells in the photovoltaic module electrically in series to provide a high voltage dc output of the photovoltaic module.

The solar power generation system may include at least a second solar module electrically connected in series to the first solar module. The second photovoltaic module may comprise rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells of number N 'greater than or equal to about 150 arranged as a plurality of supers cells in two or more parallel rows. Wherein each of the supercells in the second solar module is connected to a plurality of silicon solar cells in the module which are arranged in line with long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells superimposed to electrically connect the silicon solar cells in series, Two or more. In the second solar module, the supercells are electrically connected to provide a high-voltage DC module output greater than or equal to about 90 volts.

The inverter (e. G., A microinverter) may be deficient in DC to DC boost components.

In any of these variations, N and N 'may be greater than or equal to about 200, greater than or equal to about 250, greater than or equal to about 300, greater than or equal to about 350, or greater than or equal to about 400 Greater than or equal to about 450, greater than or equal to about 500, greater than or equal to about 550, greater than or equal to about 600, greater than or equal to about 650, and greater than or equal to about 700 have. N and N 'may have the same or different values.

In any of these variations, the high DC voltage provided by the solar module may be greater than or equal to about 120 volts, greater than or equal to about 180 volts, greater than or equal to about 240 volts, or less than or equal to about 300 volts Greater than or equal to about 360 volts, greater than or equal to about 420 volts, greater than or equal to about 480 volts, greater than or equal to about 540 volts, and greater than or equal to about 600 volts have.

In another aspect, a solar module comprises rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells of number N greater than or equal to about 250 arranged as a plurality of serially connected supercells in two or more parallel rows. Each supercell includes a plurality of super-cells arranged in a line with long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells which are superimposed to electrically connect the silicon solar cells in the supercell electrically and thermally and electrically conductive to each other with an electrically and thermally conductive adhesive Silicon solar cells. The photovoltaic module includes one or more bypass diodes per 25 solar cells. Wherein the electrically and thermally conductive adhesive is applied to adjacent solar cells with a thickness that is less than or equal to about 50 microns and that is perpendicular to the solar cells and greater than or equal to about 1.5 W / Thereby forming bonds having an orthogonal thickness thermal conductivity.

The supercells can be encapsulated within the thermoplastic olefin layer between the front and back sheets. The super cells and their encapsulant may be interposed between the glass front and back sheets.

The solar module may comprise, for example, one or more bypass diodes per thirty solar cells, or one bypass diode per 50 solar cells, or one bypass diode per 100 solar cells . ≪ / RTI > The photovoltaic module may include, for example, bypass diodes, or only a single single bypass diode, or bypass diodes that do not exceed three, or bypass diodes that do not exceed six, And may include bypass diodes that do not exceed the column.

Wherein the conductive bonds between the superposed solar cells are arranged in a direction parallel to the column for a temperature range of about -40 DEG C to about 100 DEG C without damaging the solar cell module with respect to the super cells, It is possible to selectively provide mechanical compliance to accommodate discrepancies in thermal expansion between the sheets.

In any of these variations, N is greater than or equal to about 300, greater than or equal to about 350, greater than or equal to about 400, greater than or equal to about 450, greater than or equal to about 500, Greater than or equal to about 550, greater than or equal to about 600, greater than or equal to about 650, and greater than or equal to about 700.

In any of these variations, the supercells can be greater than or equal to about 120 volts, greater than or equal to about 180 volts, greater than or equal to about 240 volts, greater than or equal to about 300 volts, Electrically connected to provide a high direct current voltage greater than or equal to a volt, greater than or equal to about 420 volts, greater than or equal to about 480 volts, greater than or equal to about 540 volts, or greater than or equal to about 600 volts .

The solar energy system comprises a solar module of any of the preceding variations and an inverter electrically connected to the solar module and configured to convert the DC output from the solar module to provide an AC output For example, a microinverter). The inverter may be deficient in DC to DC components. The inverter may be configured to operate the solar module at a DC voltage greater than a minimum voltage set to avoid reverse biasing of the solar cell. The minimum voltage value may be temperature dependent. The inverter may be configured to recognize a reverse bias condition and operate the solar module at a voltage that avoids the reverse bias condition. For example, the inverter may be configured to operate the solar module in a local maximum region of the voltage-current output curve of the solar module to avoid the reverse bias condition.

In this specification, solar cell cleaving tools and solar cell cleaving methods are disclosed.

In one aspect, a method of fabricating solar cells includes advancing a solar cell wafer along a surface of a curve and between the surface of the curve and the bottom surface of the solar cell wafer to bend the solar cell wafer against a surface of a curve And cutting the solar cell wafer along one or more pre-arranged scribe lines to separate a plurality of solar cells from the solar cell wafer. The solar cell wafer may be processed continuously, for example, along the surface of the curve. Alternatively, the solar cell may travel along the surface of the curve with separate movements.

The surface of the curve may be, for example, a portion of the curve of the upper surface of a vacuum manifold that applies the vacuum to the bottom surface of the solar cell wafer. Vacuum applied to the bottom surface of the solar cell wafer by the vacuum manifold can be changed along the direction of advancement of the solar cell wafer. For example, the vacuum cell of the vacuum manifold in which the solar cell wafer is subsequently cut It can be the strongest in the area.

The method may include transferring the solar cell wafer along a top surface of a curve of the vacuum manifold with a perforated belt, the vacuum being applied to the bottom surface of the solar cell wafer through perforations of the perforated belt . The perforations should be along the direction of travel of the solar cell wafer so that the leading and trailing edges of the solar cell wafer are placed on at least one of the perforations in the belt, It can be selectively arranged to be pulled toward the surface of the curve, but this is not required.

The method includes advancing the solar cell wafer along a flat area of the upper surface of the vacuum manifold to reach a transition region of the curve of the upper surface of the vacuum manifold having a first curvature, And advancing the solar cell wafer into a cut region of the upper surface of the vacuum manifold to be subsequently cut, wherein the cut region of the vacuum manifold has a second curvature that is abruptly greater than the first curvature. The method may further include advancing the cut solar cells into a post-cut region of the vacuum manifold having a third curvature that is abruptly greater than the curvature.

In any of the above variants, the method comprises the steps of forming a single cleaving crack along each scribe line and providing an asymmetric stress distribution along each scribe line to promote propagation, And further applying a stronger vacuum between one end of each scribe line and the surface of the solar cell wafer and the curve. Optionally or additionally, in any of the above variants, the method is characterized in that for each scribe line, the scribe lines on the solar cell wafer are moved to the vacuum of the vacuum manifold so that one end reaches the cut- And orienting at an angle to the manifold.

In any of these variations, the method may include removing the cut solar cells from the surface of the curve before the edges of the cut solar cells are contacted. For example, the method may include removing the cells in a direction that is tangential or approximately tangential to the surface of the curve of the manifold at a rate greater than the rate of advance of the cells along the manifold . This can be implemented, for example, with a moving belt arranged in a tangent line or any other suitable mechanism.

In any of the above variations, the method further comprises scribing the scribe lines onto the solar cell wafer, and removing the scribe lines from the upper or lower surface of the solar cell wafer prior to cutting the solar cell wafer along the scribe lines. And applying an electrically conductive adhesive bonding material to the portions. Each resulting cut solar cell may then comprise a portion of the electrically conductive adhesive bond material disposed along the cut edge of the top or bottom surface thereof. The scribe lines may be formed before and after the electrically conductive adhesive bond material is applied using any suitable scribing method. The scribe lines may be formed, for example, by laser scribing.

In any of these variations, the solar cell wafer may be a square or pseudo-square silicon solar cell wafer.

In another aspect, a method of fabricating a string of solar cells includes forming a plurality of rectangular solar cells in series with long sides of adjacent rectangular solar cells overlapping in a shingled manner by an electrically conductive adhesive bond And curing the electrically conductive bonding material to couple adjacent and overlapping rectangular solar cells together and connecting them electrically in series. The solar cells may be manufactured by any of the variants of the method for manufacturing the solar cells described above, for example.

In one aspect, a method of making a string of solar cells comprises forming a back metallization pattern on each of one or more square solar cells, and forming a back metallization pattern on each of the one or more square solar cells And stencil printing the entire front metallization pattern using a single stencil in a single stencil printing step. These steps may be performed in any order, and may be performed concurrently if appropriate. &Quot; Complete front metallization pattern " means that no additional metallization material needs to be deposited on the front of the square solar cell to complete the formation of the front metallization after the stencil printing step. The method may also include providing each square solar cell with two or more rectangular solar cells to form a plurality of rectangular solar cells each having a complete front metallization pattern and a rear metallization pattern from the one or more square solar cells. Separating the plurality of rectangular solar cells into long sides of adjacent rectangular solar cells overlapping each other in a shingled manner, and arranging the plurality of rectangular solar cells And electrically connecting the rectangular solar cells in the pair to an electrically conductive bonding material disposed therebetween to electrically couple one front metallization pattern of the rectangular solar cells in the pair to the rectangular solar cells in the pair Electricity on the other rear metallization pattern By connecting to, and a step of electrically connecting in series the solar cells of the plurality of rectangles.

Wherein the stencil is configured such that all portions of the stencil defining one or more features of the front metallization pattern on the one or more square solar cells are disposed on other portions of the stencil such that they are within the plane of the stencil during stencil printing Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > physical connections.

The front metallization pattern on each rectangular solar cell may comprise, for example, a plurality of fingers oriented orthogonally to the long sides of the rectangular solar cell, the fingers in the front metallization pattern Are not physically connected to each other by the front metallization pattern.

In this specification, for example, solar cells having reduced charge recombination losses at the edges of the solar cell without cut edges that promote carrier recombination, methods for fabricating such solar cells, The use of such solar cells with shingled (overlapping) arrangements to form cells is disclosed.

In one aspect, a method of fabricating a plurality of solar cells includes depositing one or more front amorphous silicon layers on a front side of a crystalline silicon wafer, depositing one or more front amorphous silicon layers on the opposite side of the crystalline silicon wafer Depositing one or more rear amorphous silicon layers on the backside of the wafer to form one or more front trenches in the one or more front amorphous silicon layers, Depositing a passivating layer over the one or more front amorphous silicon layers and the front trenches, depositing a passivating layer within the one or more rear amorphous silicon layers, Rear trenches To a step, and the step of depositing a passivation rear bay tingcheung within the one or more of the back of an amorphous silicon layer and the rear trench patterning said one or more back-Si layer. Each of said one or more rear trenches being formed in line with a corresponding one of said front trenches. The method further comprises cutting the crystalline silicon wafer at one or more of the cutting planes, wherein each cutting plane is centered or substantially centered on the other pair of corresponding front and back trenches. In the operation of the resulting solar cells, the front amorphous silicon layers are illuminated with light.

In some variations, only the front trenches are formed, and the backside trenches are not formed. In other variations, only the rear trenches are formed, and the front trenches are not formed.

The method includes forming the one or more front trenches through the front amorphous silicon layer to reach the front of the crystalline silicon wafer and / or forming the one or more rear amorphous silicon layers to reach the rear surface of the crystalline silicon wafer. Forming the one or more backside trenches through the silicon layers.

The method may include forming the front passivating layer with a transparent conductive oxide and / or forming the rear passivating layer.

A pulsed laser or diamond tip can be used to initiate the cutting point (e.g., a size of 100 microns in length). The CW laser and cooling nozzles can be used to guide high compressive and tensile thermal stresses in succession and direct complete cut propagation in the crystalline silicon wafer to separate the crystalline silicon wafer from the one or more cutting planes . Optionally, the crystalline silicon wafer may be mechanically cut at the one or more cutting planes. Any suitable cutting methods may be used.

The one or more front amorphous crystalline silicon layers may form an n-p junction with the crystalline silicon wafer, and in this case, it may be desirable to sever the crystalline silicon wafer from its backside. Optionally, the one or more rear amorphous crystalline silicon layers may form an n-p junction with the crystalline silicon wafer, and in this case, it may be desirable to sever the crystalline silicon wafer from its front side.

In another aspect, a method of fabricating a plurality of solar cells includes forming one or more trenches within a first surface of a crystalline silicon wafer, forming one or more amorphous silicon layers on the first surface of the crystalline silicon wafer Depositing a passivating layer within the trenches and on the one or more amorphous silicon layers on the first surface of the crystalline silicon wafer, depositing a passivating layer on the opposite surface of the crystalline silicon wafer from the first surface Depositing one or more amorphous silicon layers on a second surface of the crystalline silicon wafer on a side and cutting the crystalline silicon wafer in one or more of the cutting planes, On one or more of the one or more trenches Plant leave substantially centered.

The method may comprise forming the passivating layer with a transparent conductive oxide.

A laser may be used to induce thermal stress within the crystalline silicon wafer to cause the crystalline silicon wafer to cut at the one or more cutting planes. Optionally, the crystalline silicon wafer may be mechanically cut at the one or more cutting planes. Any suitable cutting method may be used.

The one or more front amorphous crystalline silicon layers may form an n-p junction with the crystalline silicon wafer. Optionally, the one or more rear amorphous crystalline silicon layers may form an n-p junction with the crystalline silicon wafer.

In another aspect, the solar cell plate includes a plurality of supersells, each supersell is arranged in line with the ends of adjacent solar cells superimposed in a shingled manner so as to electrically connect the solar cells in series and electrically connected to each other And a plurality of solar cells arranged. Each solar cell comprising: a crystalline silicon base; one or more first surface amorphous silicon layers disposed on a first surface of the crystalline silicon base to form an np junction; One or more second surface amorphous silicon layers disposed on a second surface of the crystalline silicon base on a side and edges of the first surface amorphous silicon layers, edges of the second surface amorphous silicon layers, or And passivating layers to prevent charge recombination at edges of the first surface amorphous silicon layers and at edges of the second surface amorphous silicon layers. The passivating layers may comprise a transparent conductive oxide.

The solar cells may be formed, for example, by any of the methods summarized above or disclosed herein.

These and other embodiments, features and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent to those skilled in the art from the following detailed description of the invention when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, which are briefly described first.

FIG. 1 shows a cross-sectional view of a string of series-connected solar cells arranged in a shingled manner with end portions of adjacent solar cells overlapping to form a shunged super cell.
Figure 2a shows a diagram of a front (solar side) and front metallization pattern of an exemplary rectangular solar cell that can be used to form shunged super cells.
Figures 2B and 2C show drawings of frontal (solar side) and front metallization patterns of two exemplary rectangular solar cells with rounded corners that can be used to form shingled supercells.
Figures 2d and 2e illustrate views of back and exemplary back metallization patterns for the solar cell shown in Figure 2a.
Figs. 2F and 2G show the back faces and exemplary back metallization patterns for the solar cells shown in Figs. 2B and 2C, respectively.
Figure 2h shows a diagram of the front (solar side) and front metallization pattern of another exemplary rectangular solar cell that can be used to form the shunged super cells. The front metallization pattern includes separate contact pads each of which is surrounded by a barrier configured to prevent un-cured conductive adhesive bonding material deposited on the contact pad from falling off the contact pad .
Figure 2i shows a cross-sectional view of the solar cell of Figure 2h and identifies the details of the front metallization pattern shown in the enlarged view of Figures 2j and 2k, including contact pads and portions of the barrier surrounding the contact pads .
Figure 2j shows an enlarged view of the details from Figure 2i.
Figure 2K shows an enlarged view of the details of Figure 2i with a non-cured conductive adhesive bond material substantially constrained by the barrier to the location of the separate contact pads.
FIG. 21 shows a view of the rear and exemplary back metallization pattern for the solar cell of FIG. 2h. The back metallization pattern includes separate contact pads each of which is surrounded by a barrier configured to prevent un-cured conductive adhesive bonding material deposited on the contact pad from falling off the contact pad .
Figure 2m shows a cross-sectional view of the solar cell of Figure 2l and identifies the details of the back metallization pattern shown in the enlarged view of Figure 2n, which includes a contact pad and a barrier surrounding the contact pad.
Figure 2n shows an enlarged view of the details from Figure 2m.
Figure 2O shows another variation of the metallization pattern that includes a barrier configured to prevent un-cured conductive adhesive bonding material from flowing away from the contact pad. The barrier is adjacent to one side of the contact pad and larger than the contact pad.
Figure 2P shows another variation of the metallization pattern of Figure 2O with a barrier adjacent at least two sides of the contact pad.
Figure 2q shows a view of the back and exemplary back metallization pattern for another exemplary rectangular solar cell. The rear metallization pattern comprises successive contact pads that substantially follow the length of the long side of the solar cell along the edge of the solar cell. The contact pad is surrounded by a barrier configured to prevent un-cured conductive adhesive bonding material deposited on the contact pad from flowing away from the contact pad.
Figure 2r shows a diagram of the front (solar side) and front metallization pattern of another exemplary rectangular solar cell that can be used to form the shunged super cells. The front metallization pattern includes discrete contact pads arranged in rows along the edge of the solar cell and a long thin conductor parallel to the rows of contact pads and traveling inward from the substrate therefrom. The long thin conductor forms a barrier configured to prevent un-cured conductive adhesive bonding material deposited on the contact pads from falling off the contact pads and flowing onto the active area of the solar cell.
Figure 3a shows that pseudo-square silicon solar cells of standard size and shape can be separated (e.g., cut or shredded) into rectangular solar cells of two different lengths that can be used to form shunged super cells Figure 2 illustrates a diagram illustrating an exemplary method.
Figures 3B and 3C show diagrams illustrating other exemplary methods by which pseudo-square silicon solar cells can be separated into rectangular solar cells. Figure 3B shows a front view of the wafer and an exemplary front metallization pattern. Figure 3c shows the backside and exemplary back metallization pattern of the wafer.
Figures 3D and 3E show diagrams illustrating an exemplary method in which a square silicon solar cell can be separated into rectangular solar cells. Figure 3D shows a front view of the wafer and an exemplary front metallization pattern. Figure 3E shows the backside and exemplary back metallization pattern of the wafer.
FIG. 4A shows a partial view of a front surface of an exemplary rectangular supercell including, for example, rectangular solar cells as shown in FIG. 2A, arranged in a shingled manner as shown in FIG.
Figs. 4B and 4C are cross-sectional views of an exemplary rectangular < RTI ID = 0.0 > (rectangular) < / RTI > array of solar cells arranged in a shingled manner as shown in Fig. 1, for example " chevron " rectangular cells with chamfered edges as shown in Fig. A front view and a rear view of the super cell are respectively shown.
Figure 5a shows a view of an exemplary rectangular photovoltaic module comprising a plurality of rectangular shingled supercells with the long side of each supercell having a length that is approximately half the length of the short sides of the module. The pairs of super cells are arranged end to end to form rows having long sides of the super cells parallel to short sides of the module.
Figure 5b shows a view of another exemplary rectangular photovoltaic module comprising a plurality of rectangular shingled supercells, the long sides of each supercell having approximately the same length of the short sides of the module. The supercells are arranged with their long sides parallel to the short sides of the module.
Figure 5c shows a diagram of another exemplary rectangular photovoltaic module comprising a plurality of rectangular shingled supercells, the long side of each supercell having a length approximately equal to the length of the long side of the module. The supercells are arranged with their long sides parallel to the sides of the module.
Figure 5d shows a view of an exemplary rectangular photovoltaic module comprising a plurality of rectangular shingled supercells with the long side of each supercell having a length that is approximately half the length of the long sides of the module. The pairs of super cells are arranged end to end to form rows having long sides of the super cells parallel to the long sides of the module.
Figure 5e shows a diagram of another exemplary rectangular photovoltaic module that is similar in configuration to that of Figure 5c wherein all the solar cells in which the supercells are formed are arranged such that the corners of pseudo-square wafers Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > chamfered < / RTI >
Figure 5f shows a view of another exemplary rectangular photovoltaic module similar in configuration to that of Figure 5c wherein all the solar cells in which the supercells are formed are arranged to regenerate the shapes of the pseudo-square wafers from which they were separated Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > solar cells. ≪ / RTI >
FIG. 5G shows another exemplary rectangular photovoltaic module similar in configuration to the case of FIG. 5E, except that adjacent Chevron solar cells in the supercell are arranged in mirror images with each other such that their overlapping edges are the same length Respectively.
Figure 6 shows an exemplary arrangement of three rows of supercells interconnected by flexible electrical interconnects with the supercells in series with each other in each column and with the columns in parallel with each other. These may be, for example, three columns in the solar module of Figure 5d.
Figure 7A illustrates exemplary flexible interconnects that may be used to interconnect supercells in series or parallel. Some examples illustrate patterning to follow their long axes, along their short axes, or to increase their flexibility (mechanical compliance) along their long axes and their short axes. FIG. 7A illustrates exemplary stress relieving long interconnect configurations that may be used as interconnects for the front or rear super cell terminal contacts in hidden taps for the super cells as described herein. Figures 7B-1 and 7B-2 illustrate examples of out-of-plane stress relief features. Figures 7b-1 and 7b-2 illustrate exemplary long interconnect configurations that include out-of-plane stress relief features and may be used as interconnects to hidden taps for super cells or for front or rear super cell terminal contacts .
FIG. 8A shows detail A from FIG. 5D and is a cross-sectional view of the exemplary solar module of FIG. 5D showing cross-sectional details of the flexible electrical interconnects coupled to the backside terminal contacts of rows of supercells.
Figure 8B shows a detail C from Figure 5D and shows a cross-sectional view of the exemplary solar module of Figure 5D showing cross-sectional details of flexible electrical interconnects coupled to front (sun side) terminal contacts of columns of supersells to be.
FIG. 8C is a cross-sectional view of the exemplary solar module of FIG. 5D showing the cross-sectional details of the flexible interconnects arranged to interconnect the supercells in columns in series, showing detail D from FIG. 5D.
8D-8G show additional examples of electrical interconnects coupled to the front-terminal contact of the supercell at the end of the row of supercells adjacent the edge of the solar module. The exemplary interconnects are configured to have a small footprint on the front of the module.
Figure 9a shows drawings of another exemplary square photovoltaic module comprising six rectangular shingled supercells, the long side of each supercell having a length approximately equal to the length of the long side of the module. The supercells are arranged in six columns electrically connected in parallel to each other and electrically connected in parallel with a bypass diode disposed in a junction box on the back surface of the solar module. Electrical connections between the supercells and the bypass diode are made through ribbons embedded in the laminate structure of the module.
Figure 9b shows a view of another exemplary rectangular photovoltaic module comprising six rectangular shingled supercells with the long side of each supercell having a length approximately equal to the length of the long side of the module. The supercells are arranged in six rows electrically connected in parallel to each other and electrically connected in parallel with a bypass diode disposed in the junction box on the rear surface in the vicinity of the edge of the solar module. The second junction box is located on the rear surface near the opposite end of the solar module. The electrical connections between the supercells and the bypass diode are made through an external cable between the junction boxes.
Figure 9c shows an exemplary glass-glass rectangular photovoltaic module comprising six rectangular shingled supercells, the long side of each supercell having a length approximately equal to the length of the long side of the module. The super cells are arranged in six columns electrically connected in parallel. Two junction boxes are mounted on opposing edges of the module to maximize the active area of the module.
FIG. 9D is a side view of the solar module illustrated in FIG. 9C. FIG.
Figure 9E shows another exemplary solar module comprising six rectangular shingled supercells, each supercell having a length approximately equal to the length of the long side of the module. The supersells are arranged in six columns, including three pairs of columns that are individually connected to a power management device on the solar module.
9F shows another exemplary photovoltaic module comprising six rectangular shingled supercells, the long side of each supercell having a length approximately equal to the length of the long side of the module. The supercells are arranged in six columns, each row being individually connected to a power management device on the solar module.
Figures 9G and 9H illustrate other examples of configurations for module level power management using shingled super cells.
Figure 10a shows an exemplary schematic electrical circuit diagram for a solar module as illustrated in Figure 5b.
FIGS. 10B-1 and 10B-2 illustrate exemplary physical layouts for various electrical interconnections for a photovoltaic module as illustrated in FIG. 5B with the schematic circuit diagram of FIG. 10A.
Figure 11A shows an exemplary schematic electrical circuit diagram of a solar module as illustrated in Figure 5A.
11B-1 and 11B-2 illustrate exemplary physical layouts for various electrical interconnections for a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5A with the schematic electrical schematic of FIG. 11A.
11C-1 and 11C-2 illustrate another exemplary physical layout for various electrical interconnections for a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5A with the schematic electrical schematic of FIG. 11A.
Figure 12A shows another exemplary schematic electrical circuit diagram for a solar module as illustrated in Figure 5A.
Figures 12b-1 and 12b-2 illustrate exemplary physical layouts for various electrical interconnections for a solar module as illustrated in Figure 5a with the schematic circuit diagram of Figure 12a.
12C-1, 12C-2, and 12C-3 illustrate another exemplary physical layout for various electrical interconnects for a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5A with the schematic circuit diagram of FIG. 12A .
FIG. 13A shows another exemplary schematic circuit diagram for a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5A.
Figure 13b shows another exemplary schematic circuit diagram for a solar module as illustrated in Figure 5b.
Figures 13c-1 and 13c-2 illustrate exemplary physical layouts for various electrical interconnections for a solar module as illustrated in Figure 5a with the schematic circuit diagram of Figure 13a. The physical layout of Figures 13c-1 and 13c-2, which is slightly modified, is suitable for a solar module as illustrated in Figure 5b with the schematic circuit diagram of Figure 13b.
14A shows a diagram of another exemplary rectangular photovoltaic module comprising a plurality of rectangular shingled supercells, wherein the long side of each supercell has a length approximately equal to half the length of the short side of the module I have. The pairs of super cells are arranged end to end to form rows having long sides of the super cells parallel to the short side of the module.
Fig. 14B shows an exemplary schematic circuit diagram for a solar module as illustrated in Fig. 14A.
Figs. 14C-1 and 14C-2 illustrate exemplary physical layouts for various electrical interconnections for a solar module as illustrated in Fig. 14A with the schematic circuit diagram of Fig. 14B.
Fig. 15 shows another exemplary physical layout for various electrical interconnections for a solar module as illustrated in Fig. 5B with the schematic circuit diagram of Fig. 10a.
Figure 16 shows an exemplary arrangement of smart switches interconnecting two solar modules in series.
Figure 17 shows a flow diagram of an exemplary method of making a solar module with super cells.
Figure 18 shows a flow diagram of another exemplary method of making a solar module with super cells.
Figs. 19A-19D illustrate exemplary arrangements in which super cells can be cured by heat and pressure.
20A-20C schematically illustrate exemplary devices that can be used to sever scribed solar cells. The device may be particularly advantageous when it is used to cut scribed supercells to which a conductive adhesive bond material has been applied.
Figure 21 shows an example with dark lines that can be used in photovoltaic modules including parallel rows of supersells to reduce the visible contrast between supercells and portions of the backsheet visible from the front of the module White backsheet " zebra striped ".
Figure 22A shows a top view of a conventional module utilizing conventional ribbon connections under hot spot conditions. 22B also shows a top view of the module utilizing thermal diffusions according to embodiments under hot spot conditions.
Figures 23A-23B illustrate examples of super cell string layouts with chamfered cells.
24-25 illustrate simplified cross-sectional views of arrays including a plurality of modules assembled with shingled arrangements.
Figure 26 shows a diagram of a back side (light shield) of a solar module illustrating an exemplary electrical interconnection of front (sun side) terminal electrical contacts of a shingled supercell to a junction box on the back side of the module.
27 shows diagrams of the back side (shading) of a solar module illustrating exemplary electrical interconnection of two or more shingled supercells in parallel, wherein the front (sun side) terminal electrical contacts of the supercells are connected to each other And to a junction box on the back side of the module.
Figure 28 shows a diagram of the back side (light shielding) of a solar module illustrating another exemplary electrical interconnection of two or more shingled supercells in parallel, wherein the front (solar side) terminal electrical contacts of the super cells To each other and to a junction box on the back side of the module.
Figure 29 is a partial cross-sectional and perspective view of two supercells illustrating the use of a flexible interconnect between the overlapping ends of adjacent supercells to electrically connect the supercells in series and provide an electrical connection to the junction box. / RTI >
29A shows an enlarged view of the area of interest of FIG. 29. FIG.
30A illustrates an exemplary supercell having electrical interconnects coupled to its front and back terminal contacts. Figure 30B shows two of the supersells of Figure 30A that are connected in parallel.
Figures 31A-31C illustrate illustrations of exemplary back metallization patterns that may be employed to create hidden taps in supercells as described herein.
FIGS. 32-33 illustrate examples of the use of hidden taps with interconnects that progress approximately through the full width of the supercell.
Figs. 34A-34C illustrate examples of interconnects that are coupled to the supercell backplane (Fig. 34A) and front (Figs. 34B-34C) terminal contacts.
35-36 illustrate examples of the use of hidden taps with short interconnects that cross the gaps between adjacent super cells but do not substantially extend inward along the long axis of the rectangular solar cells.
Figures 37A-1 through 37F-3 illustrate exemplary configurations for short hidden tab interconnects including in-plane stress relief features.
38A-1 through 38B-2 illustrate exemplary configurations for short hidden tab interconnects including out-of-plane stress relief features.
Figures 39A-1 and 39A-2 illustrate exemplary configurations for short hidden tab interconnects including alignment features. Figures 39b-1 and 39b-2 illustrate an exemplary configuration for short hidden tab interconnects having unsymmetrical tap lengths.
Figs. 40 and 42A-44B illustrate exemplary solar module layouts employing hidden taps.
41 shows an exemplary electrical circuit diagram for the solar module layouts of Figs. 40 and 42A-44B.
Figure 45 shows the current flow in an exemplary solar module with a bypass diode in a conducting state.
Figs. 46A-46B illustrate the relative motion between the solar module components resulting from a thermal cycle in a direction parallel to the columns of supersells and in a direction orthogonal to the columns of supersells in the photovoltaic module.
47A-47B illustrate another exemplary solar module layout and corresponding electrical circuit diagram, each employing hidden taps.
48A-48B illustrate additional solar cell module layouts incorporating hidden bypass taps combined with embedded bypass diodes.
49A-49B show block diagrams for a high voltage solar module as described herein, which provide a high DC voltage to the photovoltaic modules and microinverters, respectively, providing conventional DC voltage to the microinverter.
Figures 50A-50B illustrate high voltage solar modules including exemplary physical layout and electrical circuit diagrams, e.g., bypass diodes.
Figures 51A-55B illustrate an exemplary configuration for module level power management of high voltage solar modules comprising shingled supercells.
56 illustrates an exemplary arrangement of six supercells in six parallel rows with ends of adjacent rows offset by the flexible electrical interconnects and interconnected in series.
FIG. 57A schematically illustrates a photovoltaic system including a plurality of high DC voltage-shulded solar cell modules connected electrically and in parallel to each other and to a string inverter.
Figure 57b shows the photovoltaic system of Figure 57a disposed on the roof top.
58A-58D can be used to prevent a high DC voltage shunged solar cell module with a short circuit from dissipating significant power generated in other high DC voltage shunged solar cell modules that are electrically connected in parallel Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > fuses < / RTI > and blocking diodes.
59A-59B illustrate exemplary arrangements in which two or more high DC voltage shunged solar cell modules are electrically connected in parallel within a combiner box, which may include current limiting fuses and blocking diodes.
60A-60B show a plot of current versus voltage versus power vs. voltage for a plurality of high DC voltage shunged solar cell modules, each electrically connected in parallel. The diagrams in Figure 60a are for an exemplary case without modules containing reverse biased solar cells. The diagrams in Figure 60B are for an exemplary case in which some of the modules include one or more reverse biased solar cells.
61A illustrates an example of a photovoltaic module using about one bypass diode per supercell. FIG. 61C illustrates an example of a photovoltaic module using bypass diodes in an inherent configuration. 61B illustrates an exemplary configuration for a bypass diode connected between two neighboring supercells using a flexible electrical interconnect.
Figures 62A-62B schematically illustrate side and top views of different exemplary cutting mechanisms.
63A schematically illustrates the use of an exemplary asymmetric vacuum arrangement for controlling the generation and propagation of cracks along scribe lines when cutting a wafer. Figure 63b schematically illustrates the use of an exemplary symmetric vacuum arrangement that provides less control of cutting in addition to the arrangement of Figure 63a.
Figure 64 schematically illustrates a top view of a portion of an exemplary vacuum manifold that may be used in the cutting mechanism of Figures 62A-62B.
65A and 65B provide schematic illustrations of a top view and a perspective view of the exemplary vacuum manifold of FIG. 64 overlaid by a perforated belt, respectively.
Figure 66 schematically illustrates a side view of an exemplary vacuum manifold that may be used in the cutting mechanism of Figures 62A-62B.
67 schematically illustrates a cut solar cell overlying an exemplary arrangement of perforated belts and vacuum manifolds.
68 schematically illustrates the relative positions and orientations of the cut solar cell in the exemplary cutting process and the uncut portion of the standard size wafer from which the solar cell was cut.
Figures 69A-69G schematically illustrate devices and methods in which cut solar cells can be continuously removed from a cutting mechanism.
Figures 70A-70C provide orthographic views of another variant of the exemplary cutting mechanism of Figures 62A-62B.
Figures 71A and 71B provide perspective views of the exemplary cutting mechanism of Figures 70A-70C in two different stages of the cutting process.
Figs. 72A-74B illustrate details of punched belts and vacuum manifolds of the exemplary cutting mechanism of Figs. 70A-70C.
Figs. 75A-75G illustrate details of some exemplary hole patterns that can be used for perforated vacuum belts in the exemplary cutting mechanism of Figs. 10A-10C.
76 shows an exemplary front metallization pattern on a rectangular solar cell.
77A-77B illustrate exemplary back metallization patterns on rectangular solar cells.
78 illustrates an exemplary front metallization pattern on a square solar cell that can be diced to form a plurality of rectangular solar cells, each having the front metallization pattern shown in FIG. 76. FIG.
Figure 79 illustrates an exemplary back metallization pattern on a square solar cell that can be diced to form a plurality of rectangular solar cells, each having a rear metallization pattern as shown in Figure 77a.
Figure 80 is a schematic illustration of a conventional sized HIT solar cell that is diced into narrow strip solar cells using conventional cutting methods that cause cut edges to promote charge recombination.
81A-81J schematically illustrate steps of an exemplary method of dicing a conventional sized HIT solar cell into narrow solar cell strips lacking cut edges that promote charge recombination.
Figures 82a-82j schematically illustrate the steps of another exemplary method for dicing a conventional sized HIT solar cell into narrow solar cell strips lacking cut edges that promote charge recombination.

The following detailed description should be understood with reference to the drawings, in which like reference numerals refer to like elements throughout the different views. The drawings, which do not necessarily have to scale, illustrate alternative embodiments and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention. The detailed description of the invention illustrates the principles of the invention in the form of an example, not as a limitation. Such description will clearly make the person skilled in the art make and use the invention, and that several embodiments, adjustments, variations, selection of the present invention, including what is currently considered to be the optimum mode of carrying out the invention And uses.

As used in this specification and the appended claims, the singular forms "a", "an", and "the" include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. In addition, the term " parallel " means " parallel or substantially parallel ", and it is understood that rather than requiring that any parallel arrangements described herein be precisely parallel, It is intended to be inclusive. The term " orthogonal " means " orthogonal or substantially orthogonal " and is intended to encompass minor deviations from orthogonal geometries rather than requiring that any orthogonal arrangements described herein be precisely orthogonal It is intended. The term " square " means " square or substantially square " and includes square shapes such as chamfered (e.g., rounded or otherwise cut) Is intended to encompass minor deviations from substantially square shapes having edges. The term " rectangular " means " rectangular or substantially rectangular ", and refers to a substantially rectangular shape having chamfered shapes (e.g., rounded or otherwise cut) 0.0 > variations < / RTI >

It will be appreciated that not only the highly efficient shingled arrangements of silicon solar cells in solar cell modules but also the front and rear surfaces for solar cells that can be used in such arrangements, Metallization patterns and interconnects are disclosed. Methods for manufacturing such solar modules are also disclosed herein. The solar cell modules may be advantageously employed under " one sun " (decentralized) illumination and may have physical dimensions and electrical characteristics that allow them to replace conventional silicon solar cell modules.

1 is a cross-sectional view of a solar cell 10 connected in series in a shingled manner with ends of adjacent solar cells being overlapped and electrically connected to form a super cell 100 Figure 5 shows a cross section of a string. Each solar cell 10 has electrical contacts for the semiconductor diode structure due to the current generated in the solar cell 10, which can be provided to an external load when illuminated by light, .

In the examples described herein, each solar cell 10 includes a front (sun side) and rear (shaded side) metal (not shown) that provides electrical contacts to opposite sides of the np junction Wherein the front metallization pattern is disposed on an n-type conductive semiconductor layer, and the rear metal back pattern is disposed on a p-type conductive semiconductor layer. However, any other suitable solar cells employing any other suitable material system, diode structure, physical dimensions, or electrical contact arrangement may be used in place of or in addition to the solar cells 10 in the solar modules described herein Can be used. For example, the front (sun side) metallization pattern may be disposed on a p-type conductive semiconductor layer, and the rear (light shielding) metallization pattern may be disposed on an n-type conductive semiconductor layer .

Referring back to FIG. 1, the adjacent solar cells 10 in the supercell 100 are electrically connected to each other to electrically connect the front metallization pattern of one solar cell to the back metallization pattern of the adjacent solar cell And are electroconductively coupled to each other within the overlapping region by the adult bonding material. Suitable electrically conductive conductive bonding materials may include, for example, electrically conductive adhesives and electrically conductive adhesive films and adhesive tapes, and conventional solders. Preferably, the electrically conductive bonding material is capable of accepting stresses resulting from a mismatch between the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the electrically conductive bonding material and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the solar cells (e.g., CTE of silicon) To provide mechanical compliance to the coupling between adjacent solar cells. To provide this mechanical compliance, in some variations the electrically conductive coupling material is selected to have a glass transition temperature of less than or equal to about 0 ° C. In order to further reduce and accommodate the stresses parallel to the overlapping edges of the solar cells resulting from CTE mismatches, the electrically conductive binding material optionally has a continuous line extending substantially the length of the edges of the solar cells Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > solar cell < / RTI >

The thickness of the electrically conductive layer between adjacent and overlapping solar cells formed by the electrically conductive bonding material and measured orthogonally to the front and back surfaces of the solar cells is, for example, about 0.1 mm or less . This thin coupling reduces the resistive loss in the interconnection between the cells and also reduces the thermal resistance of the cell from any hot spot in the supercell that can develop during operation. Increase flow. The thermal conductivity of the bond between the solar cells may be, for example, about 1.5 watts / (meter-K).

2A shows a front view of an exemplary rectangular solar cell 10 that may be used in the supercell 100. Fig. Other shapes for the solar cell 10 may also be suitably used. In the illustrated example, the front metallization pattern of the solar cell 10 is located adjacent one edge of the long sides of the solar cell 10, and substantially parallel to the long side < RTI ID = 0.0 > (15) orthogonal to the bus bars (15) and parallel to each other for substantially the length of short sides and to the short sides of the solar cell (10) And fingers 20 proceeding in parallel with each other.

In the example of FIG. 2A, the solar cell 10 has a length of about 156 mm, a width of about 26 mm, and an aspect ratio (length of short side / length of long side) of about 1: 6. Six such solar cells can be fabricated on a standard 156 mm x 156 mm silicon wafer and can be diced to provide solar cells as illustrated below. In other variations, Eight solar cells 10 having dimensions of about 19.5 mm x 156 mm and thus an aspect ratio of about 1: 8 can be fabricated from standard silicon wafers. More generally, For example, from about 1: 2 to about 1: 20, and may be manufactured from standard size wafers or from wafers of any other suitable dimensions.

Figure 3a illustrates a pseudo-square silicon solar cell wafer 45 of standard size and shape that can be cut, broken, or otherwise separated to form rectangular solar cells as described above. An exemplary method is shown. In this example, some full width rectangular solar cells 10L are cut from the center of the wafer, and additionally several shorter rectangular solar cells 10S are cut from the ends of the wafer, Chamfered or rounded corners are discarded. The solar cells 10L may be used to form shingled supercells of one width and the solar cells 10S may be used to form shingle super cells of narrower width.

Alternatively, the chamfered (e. G., Rounded) corners may be held on the solar cells being cut from the ends of the wafer. 2B-2C are similar to the case of FIG. 2A, but show an exemplary " chevron " rectangular solar cells 10 with chamfered edges held from the wafer from which the solar cells were cut Respectively. In Fig. 2B, the bus bar 15 is substantially parallel to and progressively adjacent to the shorter of the two long sides for the length of the side, and at least partially covers both ends of the solar cell ' s chamfered edges Lt; / RTI > In Fig. 2C, the bus bar 15 is positioned adjacent and parallel to the longer of the two long sides for substantially the length of the side. FIGS. 3B-3C illustrate a plurality of solar cells 10 having frontal metallization patterns similar to those shown in FIG. 2A and two chamfered solar cells 10 having frontal metallization patterns similar to the case shown in FIG. 3 shows a front view and a rear view of a pseudo square wafer 45 that can be diced along the dashed lines shown in FIG.

In the exemplary frontal metallization pattern shown in FIG. 2B, the two ends of the bus bar 15, which extend around the chamfered edges of the cell, are each positioned adjacent to the long side of the cell, And may have a width (tapering) tapering to an increased distance from the portion. Similarly, in the exemplary frontal metallization pattern shown in FIG. 3B, the two ends of a thin conductor interconnecting separate contact pads 15 are connected to the chamfered edges of the solar cell And tapers to an increased distance from the long side of the solar cell over which the separate contact pads are arranged. While such tapering is optional, it may advantageously reduce the use of the metal and the shading of the active area of the solar cell without significantly increasing resistive losses.

Figures 3D-3E illustrate a complete square wafer 47 that can be diced along the dashed lines shown in Figure 3E to provide a plurality of solar cells 10 having front metallization patterns similar to those shown in Figure 2A. Fig. 3 is a front view and a rear view of Fig.

The chamfered rectangular solar cells can be used to form supercells containing only chamfered solar cells. Additionally or alternatively, one or more of these chamfered rectangular solar cells may be used in combination with one or more non-chamfered rectangular solar cells (e.g., FIG. 2A) to form a supercell have. For example, the end solar cells of the supercell can be chamfered solar cells, and the middle solar cells can be chamfered solar cells. When chamfered solar cells are used in combination with solar cells that are not chamfered in a supercell or more generally in a photovoltaic module, the chamfered < RTI ID = 0.0 > and / or < It may be desirable to use the dimensions for the solar cells to result in non-chamfered solar cells. Matching the solar cell areas in this manner matches currents generated within the chamfered and chamfered solar cells, which includes both chamfered and non-chamfered solar cells Improves the performance of cascaded strings. The area of chamfered and chamfered solar cells that are cut from wafers of the same pseudo-square can be determined, for example, to compensate for missing edges on the chamfered photovoltaic cells in a direction orthogonal to their long axes, The wafer can be matched by adjusting the positions of the lines where the wafer is diced so that the processed solar cells are slightly wider than the non-chamfered solar cells.

The photovoltaic module may include only super cells formed from un-chamfered rectangular solar cells, or may include only super cells formed from chamfered rectangular solar cells, or chamfered and / But may include only super cells with non-chamfered solar cells, or may include any combination of these three variations of supercells.

In some examples, portions of a standard sized square or pseudo-square solar cell wafer (e.g., wafer 45 or wafer 47) near the edges of the wafer may be part of the wafer located away from the edges It is possible to convert the light into electricity with a lower efficiency than that of the light. In order to improve the efficiency of the resulting rectangular solar cells, in some variations one or more of the wafers are trimmed to remove lower efficiency portions before the wafer is diced. The portions that are trimmed from the edges of the wafer may have widths of, for example, from about 1 mm to about 5 mm. Further, as shown in FIGS. 3B and 3D, the two end solar cells 10 diced from the wafer follow their outer edges, and thus along two of the edges of the wafer, (or separate contact pads) 15, as shown in FIG. Because the bus bars (or separate contact pads) 15 in the supercells described herein are typically superimposed by adjacent solar cells, the low photoconversion efficiency along these two edges of the wafer is typically less than It does not affect the performance of solar cells. Thus, in some variations, the edges of a square or pseudo-square wafer oriented parallel to the short sides of the rectangular solar cells are trimmed as described above, but oriented in parallel to the long sides of the rectangular solar cells The edges of the wafer that are not. In other variations, one, two, three, or four edges of a square wafer (e.g., wafer 47 in FIG. 3D) are trimmed as described above. In other variations, one, two, three, or four of the long edges of the pseudo-square wafer are trimmed as described above.

Solar cells having a long narrow aspect ratio and smaller areas than in the case of a standard 156 mm x 156 mm solar cell are advantageously employed to reduce I 2 R resistive power losses in the solar cell modules described herein as illustrated . In particular, the reduced area of the solar cells 10 compared to silicon solar cells of the standard size reduces the current generated in the solar cell, thereby reducing the resistive output loss in the solar cell and the series- Direct reduction. Arranging these rectangular solar cells in the supercell 100 so that current flows through the supercell in parallel to the short sides of the solar cells also causes current to reach the fingers 20 in the front metallization pattern To reduce the required length of the fingers, which in turn can reduce the resistive output loss.

As described above, combining the solar cells 10 superimposed in their overlapping regions to connect the solar cells in series is advantageous in that the number of adjacent solar cells 10 adjacent to the tabbed series- Thereby reducing the length of the electrical connection between the solar cells. This also reduces resistive output losses.

2A, in the illustrated example, the front metallization pattern on the solar cell 10 includes an optional bypass conductor 40 that is parallel to and spaced from the bus bar 15 (Such a bypass conductor may also be used selectively with the metallization patterns shown in FIGS. 2B-2C, 3B and 3D and may also be combined with separate contact pads 15 rather than a continuous bus bar 2q). The bypass conductor 40 interconnects the fingers 20 to electrically bypass the cracks that may form between the bus bar 15 and the bypass conductor 40. These cracks, which can cut the fingers 20 at locations near the bus bar 15, are otherwise able to separate areas of the solar cell 10 from the bus bar 15. The bypass conductor provides an optional electrical path between the broken fingers and the bus bar. An illustrative example shows a bypass conductor 40 positioned parallel to bus bar 15 and extending approximately the entire length of the bus bar, interconnecting all fingers 20. [ While this arrangement may be desirable, it is not required. If present, the bypass conductor need not run parallel to the bus bar, and need not extend to the full length of the bus bar. Also, the bypass conductor interconnects at least two fingers, but not all fingers. Two or more short bypass conductors may be used instead of, for example, longer bypass conductors. Any suitable arrangement of bypass conductors may be used. The use of such bypass conductors is described in U.S. Patent Application No. 13 / 371,790, filed on February 13, 2012, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference, &Quot; Solar Cell With Metallization Compensating For Or Preventing Cracking ").

2a also includes an optional end conductor 42 interconnecting the fingers 20 at their distal ends opposite from the bus bar 15 And may optionally be used for the metallization patterns shown in Figures 2B-2C, 3B and 3D and 2Q). The width of the conductor 42 may be approximately the same as the width of the finger 20, for example. The conductor 42 interconnects the fingers 20 to electrically bypass the cracks that may form between the bypass conductor 40 and the conductor 42 and thus electrically disconnects And provides a current path to the bus bar 15 for areas of the solar cell 10 that can be used.

Although some of the illustrated examples show the front bus bar 15 with a uniform width extending substantially the length of the long sides of the solar cell 10, this is not required. For example, as indicated above, the front bus bars 15 may be arranged along the side of the solar cell 10, for example, as shown in Figures 2h, 2q and 3b, Can be replaced by separate contact pads 15 on two or more front sides. These separate contact pads may be selectively interconnected by thinner conductors that run therebetween, for example, as shown in the aforementioned figures. In these variations, the width of the contact pads measured orthogonally to the long side of the solar cell may be, for example, about two to about twenty times the width of the thin conductors interconnecting the contact pads. There may be separate (e.g., small) contact pads for each finger in the front metallization pattern, or each contact pad may be connected to two or more fingers. The front contact pads 15 may be, for example, square or may have a rectangular shape extending parallel to the edge of the solar cell. Front contact pads 15 may be formed, for example, to have a width that is orthogonal to the long side of the solar cell of from about 1 mm to about 1.5 mm, and a width of, for example, about 1 mm to about 10 mm, Can have parallel lengths. The distance between the contact pads 15 measured in parallel to the long side of the solar cell may be, for example, about 3 mm to about 30 mm.

Alternatively, the solar cell 10 may be deficient in both the front bus bar 15 and the separate front contact pads 15, and may include only the fingers 20 in the front metallization pattern. In these variants, the current-collecting functions which could otherwise be performed by the front bus bar 15 or the contact pads 15 are used for the two solar cells 10 in the overlapping configuration described above May be performed instead of, or partially performed by, a conductive material used to bond to each other.

Solar cells with both bus bars 15 and contact pads 15 deficient may include bypass conductors 40 or may not include bypass conductors 40. When no bus bar 15 and contact pads 15 are present, a bypass conductor 40 is formed between the bypass conductor and a portion of the front metallization pattern that is conductively coupled to the overlapping solar cell ≪ / RTI >

The front metallization patterns, including bus bars or separate contact pads 15, fingers 20, bypass conductors 40 (if present) and end conductors 42 (if present) For example, a silver paste, which is conventionally used and deposited for these purposes by conventional screen printing methods. Optionally, the front metallization patterns may be formed from electroplated copper. Any other suitable materials and processes may also be used. In variations where the front metallization pattern is formed of silver, the use of separate front contact pads 15 rather than a bus bar 15 continuing along the edge of the cell reduces the amount of silver on the solar cell , Which advantageously reduces cost. In variants in which the front metallization pattern is formed from copper or other conductors less expensive than silver, the successive bus bars 15 can be employed without costly problems.

Figures 2d-2g, 3c and 3e illustrate exemplary back metallization patterns for a solar cell. In these examples, the rear metallization patterns comprise separate rear contact pads 25 arranged along one of the long edges of the back surface of the solar cell and a metal contact (not shown) covering substantially all of the remaining back surface of the solar cell 30). In the shingled supercell, the contact pads 25 are electrically connected to each other in series by electrically connecting the two solar cells in series, e. G., With separate contact pads (not shown) arranged along the edge of the top surface of the solar cell, Lt; / RTI > For example, each separate rear contact pad 25 may be aligned with a corresponding, separate, front contact pad 15 on the front of the overlapping solar cell, and an electrically conductive May be bound by an adult binding material. The separated contact pads 25 may be, for example, square (Fig. 2d) or may have a rectangular shape extending parallel to the edges of the solar cell (Figs. 2e-2g, 3c, Lt; / RTI > The contact pads 25 may be, for example, parallel to the long sides of the solar cell of about 1 mm to about 5 mm, and to the long sides of the solar cell of, for example, about 1 mm to about 10 mm You can have one length. The distance between the contact pads 25 measured in parallel to the long side of the solar cell may be, for example, about 3 mm to about 30 mm.

The contact 30 may be formed, for example, from aluminum and / or from electroplated copper. The formation of the aluminum back contact 30 typically provides a back surface field that reduces back surface recombination in the solar cell, thereby improving solar cell efficiency. When the contact 30 is formed from copper rather than aluminum, the contact 30 can be used in conjunction with other passivation schemes (e.g., aluminum oxide) to similarly reduce rear recombination. The separate contact pads 25 may be formed, for example, from a silver paste. The use of separate silver contact pads 25 rather than successive silver contact pads along the edge of the cell can reduce the amount of silver in the back metallization pattern, which can advantageously reduce cost.

Also, if the solar cells rely on the back electric field provided by the formation of the aluminum contacts to reduce rear recombination, the use of separate silver contacts rather than successive silver contacts can improve solar cell efficiency. This is because the silver backside contacts do not provide a back electric field, thereby enhancing carrier recombination and creating an insoluble (inactive) volume in the solar cells above the silver contacts. In conventional ribbon-tabbed solar cell strings, these dead volumes are typically obscured by ribbons and / or bus bars on the front surface of the solar cell, No additional losses are incurred. However, in the solar cells and supercells described herein, the volume of the solar cell above the back silver contact pads 25 is typically not masked by any front metallization, Lt; / RTI > reduces the efficiency of the cell. The use of separate silver contact pads 25 rather than successive silver contact pads along the back edge of the solar cell thus reduces the volume of any corresponding insoluble regions and increases the efficiency of the solar cell.

In variations that do not rely on the back field to reduce rear recombination, the back metallization pattern is formed by a plurality of contact pads, such as, for example, as shown in Figure 2q , A continuous bus bar 25 may be employed. The bus bar 25 may be formed of, for example, tin or silver.

Other variations of the rear metallization patterns may employ separate tin contact pads 25. [ Variations of the rear metallization patterns may employ finger contacts similar to those shown in the front metallization patterns of Figs. 2a- 2c, and may lack contact pads and bus bars.

Although the particular exemplary solar cells illustrated in the Figures are described as having certain combinations of front and back metallization patterns, more generally any suitable combination of front and back metallization patterns may be used. For example, one suitable bond may include a silver front metallization pattern comprising separate contact pads 15, fingers 20 and an optional bypass conductor 40, and an aluminum contact 30, A back metallization pattern including silver contact pads 25 may be employed. Another suitable combination is a copper front metallization pattern comprising successive bus bars 15, fingers 20 and an optional bypass conductor 40, and a continuous bus bar 25 and copper contact 30 A back metallization pattern can be employed.

In the supercell manufacturing process (described in more detail below), the electrically-conductive bonding material used to bond adjacent and overlapping solar cells in the supercell is located at the edge of the front or rear surface of the solar cell Separate or contiguous) contact pads, and may not be distributed over the surrounding portions of the solar cell. This reduces the use of materials and can reduce or accommodate the stresses resulting from the CTE mismatch between the electrically conductive binder material and the solar cell as described above. However, during or after deposition and before curing, portions of the electrically conductive bonding material may tend to diffuse over portions of the periphery of the solar cell over the contact pads. For example, the bonding portion of the electrically conductive bonding material may be pulled out of the contact pad by texturing forces onto adjacent portions of the textured or porous surface of the solar cell. Also, during the deposition process, a portion of the conductive bonding material may deflect the contact pad, but instead may be deposited on adjacent portions of the solar cell surface and possibly diffused therefrom. Such diffusion and / or inaccurate deposition of the conductive bonding material can weaken bonding between the overlapping solar cells and damage portions of the solar cell on which the conductive bonding material has been dispersed or erroneously deposited . This diffusion of the electrically conductive bonding material can be accomplished, for example, by forming a dam or barrier around or around each contact pad to maintain the electrically conductive bonding material in position substantially Can be reduced or prevented by the metallization pattern.

For example, the front metallization pattern may include separate contact pads 15, fingers 20 and barriers 17, as shown in Figures 2h-2k, 17 surround the corresponding contact pad 15 and function as a dam to form a moat between the contact pad and the barrier. Portions 19 of the un-cured conductive adhesive bonding material 18 that flow out of or out of the contact pads when dispersed onto the solar cell are removed by the barriers 17 Lt; / RTI > This prevents further diffusion of the conductive adhesive bond material from the contact pads onto the surrounding portions of the cells. Barriers 17 may be formed from the same material (e.g., silver) as, for example, fingers 20 and contact pads 15 and may have a height of, for example, about 10 microns to about 40 microns And may have, for example, widths from about 30 microns to about 100 microns. The moat formed between the barrier 17 and the contact pad 15 may have a width of, for example, about 100 microns to about 2 mm. Although the illustrated examples include only a single barrier 17 around each front contact pad 15, in other variations two or more such barriers may be located concentrically, e.g., around each contact pad . The front contact pads and one or more surrounding barriers may form a shape similar to, for example, a " bulls-eye " target. 2H, for example, the barriers 17 may be interconnected with thin conductors interconnecting the fingers 20 and the contact pads 15. [0033]

Similarly, as shown in FIGS. 21-2n, for example, the rear metallization pattern may be formed by disposing separate back contact pads 25 (e.g., silver), substantially all of the back surface of the solar cell (E.g., aluminum) contacts 30, and (for example, silver) barriers 27, each barrier 27 surrounding a corresponding rear contact pad 25, Acts as a dam forming a moat between the contact pad and the barrier. A portion of the contact 30 may fill the moat as illustrated. Some of the un-cured conductive adhesive bond material that flows out of or out of the contact pads 25 when dispersed onto the solar cell may be confined to the moats by the barriers 27 . This prevents the conductive adhesive bonding material from further diffusing from the contact pads onto the surrounding portions of the cell. Barriers 27 may have heights of, for example, from about 10 microns to about 40 microns, and may have widths from about 50 microns to about 500 microns, for example. The moat formed between the barrier 27 and the contact pad 25 may have a width of, for example, about 100 microns to about 2 mm. Although the illustrated examples include only a single barrier 27 around each back contact pad 25, in other variations two or more such barriers may be disposed concentrically, e.g., around each contact pad . The rear contact pad and one or more surrounding barriers may form a shape similar to, for example, a " bulls-eye " target.

Continuous bus bars or contact pads running substantially the length of the edge of the solar cell may also be surrounded by a barrier that prevents diffusion of the conductive adhesive bonding material. For example, FIG. 2q shows such a barrier 27 surrounding the rear bus bar 25. The front bus bars (e.g., bus bars 15 of FIG. 2A) may similarly be surrounded by a barrier. Similarly, rows of front or back contact pads may be grouped by such a barrier rather than individually surrounded by separate barriers.

As described above, rather than the surrounding bus bars or one or more contact pads, the features of the front or back metallization pattern include the bus bars or contact pads located between the barrier and the edge of the solar cell, It is possible to form the barrier substantially parallel to the overlapped edge of the cell and proceeding to the length of the solar cell. Such a barrier can serve two purposes as a bypass conductor (as described above). For example, in FIG. 2r, the bypass conductor 40 has a barrier that tends to prevent un-cured conductive adhesive bonding material on the contact pads 15 from diffusing onto the active area of the front surface of the solar cell Lt; / RTI > A similar arrangement can be used for the back metallization patterns.

Barriers to diffusion of the conductive adhesive bond material may be spaced apart from the contact pads or bus bars to form a moat as described above, but this is not required. These barriers may replace adjacent contact pads or bus bars, for example, as shown in FIG. 2O or FIG. 2P. In these variations, the barrier is preferably larger than the contact pad or bus bar to hold the un-cured conductive adhesive bond material on the contact pad or bus bar. Although some of the front metallization patterns are shown in Figs. 2O and 2P, similar arrangements can be used for the rear metallization patterns.

Barriers to diffusion of the conductive adhesive bond material and / or the moieties between these barriers and the contact pads or bus bars, and any conductive adhesive bond material diffused into these motors, Can be selectively placed within the region of the solar cell surface superimposed by the solar cell, and thus concealed in the field of view, and can be obscured from exposure to solar radiation.

Optionally or additionally to the use of the barriers as described above, the electrically conductive binding material may be deposited by using a mask or by any other suitable method (e.g., screen printing) to enable precise deposition, Thereby requiring reduced amounts of electrically conductive bonding material that are likely to diffuse over or out of the contact pads during deposition.

More generally, solar cells 10 may employ any suitable front and back metallization patterns.

FIG. 4A shows a part of the front surface of an exemplary rectangular supercell 100 including the solar cells 10 as shown in FIG. 2A arranged in a shingled manner as shown in FIG. As a result of the shingling geometry, there is no physical gap between the pairs of solar cells 10. Although the bus bar 15 of the solar cell 10 can be seen at one end of the supercell 100, the bus bars (or front contact pads) of the other solar cells are overlapped with adjacent solar cells It is hidden under the parts. As a result, the area occupied by the supercell 100 in the solar module is efficiently used. In particular, a larger portion of the area is used to produce electricity than in the case of conventional tabbed solar cell arrangements and solar cell arrangements comprising many visible bus bars on the exemplary surface of the solar cells . FIGS. 4B-4C illustrate front and back views of another exemplary supercell 100, which mainly includes chamfered Chevron rectangular silicon solar cells, but otherwise similar to FIG. 4A.

In the example illustrated in FIG. 4A, the bypass conductors 40 are hidden by overlapping portions of adjacent cells. Alternatively, solar cells including bypass conductors 40 may be overlapped similar to those shown in FIG. 4A without covering the bypass conductors.

The rear metallization of the solar cell at the exposed front bus bar 15 and at the other end of the supercell 100 at one end of the supercell 100 may cause the supercell 100 to contact the other supercells (Terminal) termination contacts for the supercell that may be used to electrically connect to other electrical components and / or to other electrical components if desired.

Adjacent solar cells in the supercell 100 may be superimposed in any suitable amount, for example, from about 1 millimeter (mm) to about 5 mm.

As shown in FIGS. 5A to 5G, for example, the shingled super cells as described above can efficiently fill the area of the solar module. Such solar modules can be, for example, square or rectangular. The rectangular photovoltaic modules as illustrated in Figures 5A-5G may have short sides with a length of, for example, about 1 meter and long sides with a length of, for example, about 1.5 meters to about 2.0 meters . Any other suitable shapes and dimensions for the solar modules may also be used. Any suitable arrangement of supercells in the photovoltaic module may be used.

In a square or rectangular photovoltaic module, the supercells are typically arranged in rows parallel to the short side or long side of the photovoltaic module. Each column may comprise one, two or more super cells arranged end-to-end. The supercell 100 forming part of such a photovoltaic module may comprise any suitable number of solar cells 10 and may be of any suitable length. In some variations, the supercells 100 have a length approximately equal to the length of the short sides of a rectangular photovoltaic module, each of which is a part. In other variations, the supercells 100 have a length approximately equal to one-half the length of the short sides of a rectangular photovoltaic module, each of which is a part. In other variations, the supercells 100 have a length approximately equal to the length of the long sides of a rectangular photovoltaic module, each of which is a part. In other variations, the supercells 100 have approximately the same length as half the length of the long sides of the rectangular photovoltaic module, each of which is a part. The number of solar cells required to make the supersells of these lengths depends, of course, on the dimensions of the solar module, the dimensions of the solar cells, and the amount of overlap between adjacent solar cells. Any other suitable lengths for the supersells may also be used.

In variations where the supercell 100 has a length approximately equal to the length of the short sides of the rectangular photovoltaic module, the supercell may have dimensions of, for example, about 19.5 millimeters (mm) times about 156 mm , And neighboring solar cells may be overlapped by about 3 mm. Eight such rectangular solar cells can be separated from a conventional square or pseudo-square 156 mm wafer. Alternatively, such a supercell may comprise, for example, 38 rectangular solar cells with dimensions of about 26 mm times about 156 mm, and adjacent solar cells may overlap by about 2 mm . Six such rectangular solar cells can be separated from a conventional square or pseudo-square 156 mm wafer. In variations where the supercell 100 has a length approximately equal to one-half the length of the short sides of the rectangular photovoltaic module, the supercell may be, for example, about 19.5 millimeters (mm) times about 156 mm And may include 28 rectangular solar cells with dimensions, and adjacent solar cells may overlap by about 3 mm. Alternatively, such a supercell may comprise, for example, 19 rectangular solar cells with dimensions of about 26 mm times about 156 mm, and adjacent solar cells may overlap by about 2 mm .

In variations where the supercell 100 has a length that is approximately equal to the length of the long sides of the rectangular photovoltaic module, the supercell may comprise, for example, 72 pieces with dimensions of about 26 mm times about 156 mm Rectangular solar cells, and adjacent solar cells can be overlapped by about 2 mm. In variations where the supercell 100 has a length approximately equal to half the length of the long sides of the rectangular photovoltaic module, the supercell has a dimension of, for example, about 26 mm times about 156 mm 36 rectangular solar cells, and adjacent solar cells may overlap by about 2 mm.

5A illustrates an exemplary rectangular photovoltaic module 200 that includes twenty rectangular supercells 100 each having a length approximately equal to half the length of the short sides of the photovoltaic module. The supercells are arranged end to end in pairs so as to form ten rows of supercells, and the columns and long sides of the supercells are oriented parallel to short sides of the photovoltaic module. In other variations, each column of supersells may comprise three or more supersells. In addition, similarly configured photovoltaic modules may contain more or fewer columns of supercells than shown in this example (Fig. 14A, for example, arranged in twelve columns of two super cells, A solar module including twenty-four rectangular supercells).

In those variations where the supercells in each column are arranged such that at least one of them has a front end contact on the end of the supercell adjacent to the other supercell in the column, the gaps 210 Makes it possible to make electrical contacts to front end contacts (e.g., exposed bus bars or separate contacts 15) of the supercells 100 along the centerline of the photovoltaic module. For example, the two super cells in a row may be arranged in a super cell with one front terminal contact along the center line of the solar module and another super cell with its rear terminal contact along the center line of the solar module . In such an arrangement, the two supersells in the column are arranged along the centerline of the photovoltaic module and are interconnected to the front terminal contact of the one supercell and the back terminal contact of the other supercell. (E. G., Fig. 8c, discussed below). ≪ / RTI > In variations where each row of supersells includes three or more supersells, there may be additional gaps between the supersells, and similarly for the front end contacts located away from the sides of the solar module Making it possible to make an electrical contact.

5B shows an exemplary rectangular photovoltaic module 300 including ten rectangular supercells 100 each having a length approximately equal to the length of the short sides of the photovoltaic module. The supercells are arranged in a series of ten parallel rows with their long sides oriented parallel to the short sides of the module. A similarly configured solar module may include more or fewer rows of such side length super cells as shown in this example.

5B also shows how the solar module 200 of FIG. 5A looks when there are no gaps between adjacent supercells within the rows of super cells in the solar module 200. FIG. The gap 210 in Figure 5a can be removed, for example, by arranging the supercells so that both supergels in each column have their rear end contacts along the centerline of the module. In this case, the supercells may be arranged substantially adjacent to one another without a gap or an additional gap between them because access to the front of the supercell is not required along the center of the module. Optionally, two supercells 100 in the column may have one of their front-end contacts along the side of the module and a rear-end contact along the centerlines of the module, With the end contacts having their back end contacts along opposite sides of the module, and the adjacent ends of the supercells can be arranged overlapping. Wherein the flexible interconnects extend over the overlapping ends of the supercells so as to provide an electrical connection to one front end contact of the supercells and a rear end contact of the other supercell, Respectively. For the columns containing three or more supercells, these two approaches can be used in combination.

The rows of supercells and super cells shown in 5A-5B may be interconnected by any suitable combination of series and parallel electrical connections, for example as further described below with respect to Figs. 10A-15. Interconnections between supercells can be made using flexible interconnects, for example, similar to those described below with respect to Figures 5C-5G and subsequent figures. As evidenced by the many examples described herein, supercells in the solar modules described herein provide series couplings to provide an output voltage for the module that is substantially identical to that of a conventional solar module, And may be interconnected by parallel connections. In these cases, the output current from the solar module may also be substantially the same as for a conventional solar module. Alternatively, as further described below, supercells in the solar module can be interconnected to provide a significantly higher output voltage from the solar module than would be provided by conventional solar modules.

5C illustrates an exemplary rectangular photovoltaic module 350 that includes six rectangular supercells 100 each having a length approximately equal to the length of the long sides of the photovoltaic module. The supercells are arranged in six parallel rows with their long sides oriented parallel to the long sides of the module. A similarly configured solar module may include more or fewer rows of supercells of this side length in this example. In this example (and in some of the following examples), each supercell includes 72 rectangular solar cells each having a width approximately equal to 1/6 of the width of a 156 mm square or pseudo-square wafer. Any other suitable number of rectangular solar cells that are any other suitable dimensions may also be used. In this example, the front terminal contacts of the supercells are electrically connected to each other by flexible interconnects 400 located adjacent and parallel to the edge of one short side of the module. The rear terminal contacts of the supercells are likewise electrically connected to each other by flexible interconnects located parallel and adjacent to the edge of the other short side of the back of the photovoltaic module. The rear interconnects are hidden in the view in Figure 5c. This arrangement electrically connects the six module-length super cells in parallel. The details of these flexible interconnects and their arrangement in these and other solar module configurations are discussed in more detail below with respect to Figures 6-8G.

5D illustrates an exemplary rectangular photovoltaic module 360 that includes twelve rectangular supercells 100 each having a length approximately equal to half the length of the long sides of the photovoltaic module. The super cells are arranged end to end in pairs to form six columns of supersells, and the long sides of the columns and super cells are oriented parallel to the long sides of the photovoltaic module. In other variations, each column of supersells may comprise three or more supersells. In addition, similarly configured solar modules may include more or fewer rows of the supercells shown in this example. In this example (and in some of the following examples), each supercell includes 36 rectangular solar cells each having a width approximately equal to 1/6 of the width of a 156 mm square or pseudo-square wafer. Any other suitable number of rectangular solar cells that are any other suitable dimensions may also be used. The gap 410 makes it possible to make electrical contact to the front end contacts of the supercells 100 along the centerline of the solar module. In this example, flexible interconnects 400 located adjacent and parallel to the edge of one short side of the module electrically interconnect the six front terminal contacts of the supercells. Similarly, the flexible interconnects located adjacent and parallel to the edge of the other short side of the module behind the module electrically connect the rear terminal contacts of the other six super cells. Flexible interconnects (not shown in this figure) located along the gap 410 interconnect each pair of supersells in the column in series and optionally extend laterally to interconnect adjacent columns in parallel . This arrangement electrically connects the six columns of the supersells in parallel. Optionally, a first super cell in each column in a first group of the super cells is electrically connected in parallel with the first super cell in each of the other columns, and the second super cell in a second group of super cells And the second group of the supercells is electrically connected in series with the second supercell in each of the other columns. The latter arrangement allows two groups of each of the supergels to be individually input in parallel with a bypass diode.

Details A of Figure 5d identify the location of the cross-section shown in Figure 8a of the interconnections of the rear terminal contacts of the supercells along one short side edge of the module. Part B similarly identifies the location of the cross-section shown in Figure 8B of the interconnections of the front terminal contacts of the supercells along the other short side of the module. Detail C identifies the location of the cross-section shown in Figure 8C of the serial interconnection of the supercells in the column along the gap 410.

5E shows that in this example all of the solar cells in which the supercells are formed are all Chevron solar cells with chamfered edges corresponding to the corners of the pseudo-square wafers from which the solar cells have been separated. Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > 370 < / RTI >

5F is similar to the case of FIG. 5C, except that solar cells in which supercells are formed include a mixture of chevron and rectangular solar cells to reproduce the shapes of the pseudo-square wafers from which they were separated Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > 380 < / RTI > In the example of FIG. 5F, the chevron solar cells may be wider than the rectangular solar cells orthogonally to their long axes to compensate for the diverging edges on the chevron cells, so that the chevron solar cells and the rectangular solar cells Have the same active area exposed to solar radiation during operation of the module and thus have a corresponding current.

5G shows that in the solar module of FIG. 5G, adjacent Chevron solar cells in the supercell are arranged in mirror images with respect to each other so that their overlapping edges are the same length. In the case of FIG. 5E ≪ / RTI > shown in FIG. 1). This maximizes the length of each overlapping joint, thereby enabling heat flow through the supercell.

Other configurations of rectangular photovoltaic modules include one or more columns of supercells formed solely of rectangular (non-chamfered) solar cells and one or more columns of supercells formed solely of chamfered solar cells . For example, a rectangular photovoltaic module may be configured similar to the case of FIG. 5C, except that it has two outer rows of supersells, each replaced by a row of super cells formed only of chamfered solar cells . The chamfered solar cells in these rows may be arranged in pairs of mirrors, for example, as shown in Fig. 5G.

In the exemplary solar modules shown in Figs. 5C-5G, the current along each column of supersells is about one-sixth of the active area of the rectangular solar cells in which the super cells are formed, Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > photovoltaic < / RTI > module of the same area. However, in these examples, since the six columns of the supersells are electrically connected in parallel, the exemplary solar modules can generate the same total current as generated by a conventional solar module of the same area. This enables the substation of the exemplary solar modules of FIGS. 5C-5G (and other examples described below) for conventional solar modules.

Figure 6 shows an exemplary arrangement of the three rows of supercells interconnected by flexible electrical interconnects in parallel with each other such that the supergels in each column are in series with each other and in greater detail in Figures 5C- . These may be, for example, three columns in the solar module of Figure 5d. In the example of FIG. 6, each supercell 100 has a flexible interconnect 400 that is conductively coupled to its front-side terminal contact and another flexible interconnect that is conductively coupled to its backside terminal contact. The two super cells in each column are electrically connected in series by a shared flexible interconnect that is conductively coupled to the front terminal contact of one super cell and the back terminal contact of the other super cell. Each flexible interconnect may extend laterally adjacent and parallel to the end of the super cell to which it is coupled and laterally beyond the supercell to be conductively coupled to the flexible interconnect on the supercell in an adjacent row, They are electrically connected in parallel. The dashed lines in FIG. 6 represent portions of the flexible interconnects hidden in the field by overlapping portions of the super cells, or portions of the super cells hidden in the field by overlapping portions of the flexible interconnects.

Flexible interconnects 400 may be electroconductively coupled to the supercells with mechanically flexible and electrically conductive coupling materials, such as those described above, for use in coupling superposed solar cells, for example. Optionally, the electrically conductive bonding material reduces stresses parallel to the edges of the supercell resulting from a mismatch between the thermal expansion coefficient of the electrically conductive bonding material or the interconnects and the thermal expansion coefficient of the supercell Or may be located in distinct locations along the edges of the supercell rather than in a continuous line extending substantially the length of the edge of the supercell.

Flexible interconnects 400 may or may not be formed of, for example, thin copper sheets. Flexible interconnects 400 are selectively patterned to increase their mechanical integrity (flexibility) both orthogonal and parallel to the edges of the supersells resulting from the mismatch between the CTE of the interconnects and the CTEs of the supercells Or otherwise configured. Such patterning may include, for example, slits, slots, or holes. The conductive portions of the interconnects 400 may have a thickness, for example, less than about 100 microns, less than about 50 microns, less than about 30 microns, or less than about 25 microns, to increase flexibility of the interconnects. The mechanical compliance of the flexible interconnect and its combination with the super cells resist the stresses resulting from CTE mismatch during the lamination process, which will be described in more detail below on methods of fabricating the shunged solar cell modules, Should be sufficient for the interconnected supercells to withstand the stresses resulting from CTE mismatch during temperature cycling testing at -40 ° C to about 85 ° C.

Preferably, the flexible interconnects 400 are less than or equal to about 0.015 ohms, less than or equal to about 0.012 ohms, or less than or equal to about 0.01 < RTI ID = 0.0 > Or less than ohms.

FIG. 7A illustrates several exemplary configurations, designated as 400A-400T, which may be suitable for a flexible interconnect 400. FIG.

As shown in the cross-sectional views of Figures 8A-8C, for example, the solar modules described herein typically include super cells and a transparent front sheet 420 and a back sheet (not shown) 430 and one or more encapsulant materials 4101 interposed between the two layers. The transparent front sheet may be, for example, glass. Optionally, the backsheet may also be transparent, which may enable double sided operation of the solar module. The back sheet may be, for example, a polymer sheet. Optionally, the solar module may be a glass-glass module having glass on both the front and back sheets.

Sectional view of FIG. 8A (detail A from FIG. 5D) shows a cross-sectional view of the photovoltaic module which is conductively coupled to the rear terminal contact of the supercell in the vicinity of the edge of the photovoltaic module and extends inwardly below the supercell, Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > 400 < / RTI > An additional strip of encapsulant may be disposed between the interconnect 400 and the backside of the supercell as illustrated.

A cross-sectional view of FIG. 8B (detail B from FIG. 5B) shows an example of a flexible interconnect 400 that is conductively coupled to the front-terminal contact of the supercell.

The cross-sectional view of FIG. 8c (detail C from FIG. 5b) shows a cross-sectional view of a shared flexible lead-in contact electrically coupled to the front terminal contact of one supercell and the rear terminal contact of the other supercell to serially electrically connect the two supercells. And an example of the interconnect 400 is shown.

Flexible interconnects electrically connected to the front-terminal contacts of the supercell may be configured or arranged to occupy only a narrow width of the front face of the photovoltaic module, which may be located, for example, adjacent the edge of the photovoltaic module . The area of the front surface of the module occupied by such interconnects may have a narrow width, for example, ≤ about 10 mm, ≤ about 5 mm, or ≤ about 3 mm, which is perpendicular to the edge of the supercell. In the arrangement shown in Figure 8B, for example, the flexible interconnect 400 may be configured to extend beyond the end of the supercell only at such a distance. 8D-8G illustrate additional examples of arrangements in which a flexible interconnect electrically connected to the front-terminal contact of the supercell can occupy only a narrow width of the front face of the module. These arrangements enable efficient utilization of the front surface area of the module to produce electricity.

8D shows a flexible interconnect 400 that is conductively coupled to the terminal front contact of a supercell and folds backwardly of the supercell about the edge of the supercell. An insulating film 435 that can be applied in advance on the flexible interconnect 400 may be disposed between the flexible interconnect 400 and the back surface of the supercell.

8E shows a flexible interconnect 400 including a thin ribbon 440 that is conductively coupled to the terminal front contact of the supercell and a thin and wide ribbon 445 extending behind the back of the supercell. An insulating film 435 which can be previously applied on the ribbon 445 can be disposed between the ribbon 445 and the rear surface of the supercell.

8F shows a flexible interconnect 400 that is coupled to the terminal front contact of the supercell and is wound and pressed into a planarized coil occupying only a narrow width of the front surface of the photovoltaic module.

Figure 8G shows a flexible interconnect 400 that includes a thin ribbon section that is conductively coupled to the terminal face contact of the supercell and a thick cross-sectional area that is located adjacent to the supercell.

8A-8G, the flexible interconnects 400 may extend along the entire length of the edges of the supercells (e.g., into the ground of the drawing), for example, as shown in FIG.

Alternatively, portions of the flexible interconnect 400 that may otherwise be visible from the front of the module may be of a darker color such as to reduce the visible contrast between the interconnect and the supercell as would be appreciated by a person with normal hue May be covered with a film, coated, or otherwise colored. For example, in Figure 8C, a selective black film or coating 425 covers portions of the interconnect 400 that otherwise would have been visible from the front of the module. Otherwise, visible portions of the interconnect 400 shown in the other figures may be covered or may have a hue.

Conventional solar modules typically include three or more bypass diodes, each bypass diode connected in parallel with a series of 18 to 24 silicon solar cells. This is done to limit the amount of power that can be lost to heat in a reverse biased solar cell. The solar cell can be reverse biased due to, for example, defects, dirty fronts, or uneven illumination that reduces its ability to pass current generated within the string. The heat generated in the solar cell at the reverse bias depends on the voltage across the solar cell and the current through the solar cell. When the voltage across the reverse biased solar cell exceeds the breakdown voltage of the solar cell, the heat lost in the cell is equal to the breakdown voltage at the total current times generated in the string will be. Silicon solar cells typically have a breakdown voltage of 16 volts to 30 volts. Because each silicon solar cell produced a voltage of about 0.64 volts in operation, a string of twenty-four or more solar cells could generate a voltage across the reverse biased solar cell that exceeded the breakdown voltage.

In conventional solar modules where the solar cells are spaced apart from one another and are interconnected by ribbons, heat is not easily transported away from the hot solar cell. Thus, the power dissipated in the solar cell at the breakdown voltage could generate a significant thermal damage and possibly a hot spot in the solar cell that caused the fire. In conventional photovoltaic modules, the bypass diode is therefore required for all groups of 18-24 series-connected solar cells to ensure that there is no solar cell in the string that can be reverse biased above the breakdown voltage .

The inventors have found that heat is easily transferred through thin electrically and thermally conductive bonds between adjacent and overlapping silicon solar cells along the silicon super cell. In addition, the current through the supercell in the solar modules described herein may be substantially the same as the current through the supercell of the rectangles described herein (for example, 1/6) Is typically formed by shingling solar cells, and is typically smaller than through a string of conventional solar cells. Moreover, the rectangular aspect ratio of solar cells employed here typically provides extended regions of terminal contacts between adjacent solar cells. As a result, less heat is lost in the solar cell reverse-biased at the breakdown voltage and the heat is easily diffused through the supercell and the solar module without creating a dangerous hot spot. The inventors have thus realized that solar modules formed from the supercells as described herein can employ far fewer bypass diodes than would be required if conventionally required.

For example, in some variations of photovoltaic modules as described herein, N> 25 solar cells, N? About 30 solar cells, N? About 50 solar cells, N? About 70 Solar cells, or a supercell comprising N? About 100 solar cells may be employed without a single solar cell or group of solar cells in a supercell electrically connected in parallel with the bypass diode individually . Alternatively, the entire super cells of these lengths may be electrically connected in parallel with a single bypass diode. Alternatively, supers cells of these lengths may be employed without a bypass diode.

Some additional and optional design features may implement solar modules that employ super cells as described herein that further resist heat lost in a reverse biased solar cell. 8A-8C, the encapsulant 4101 may or may not be a thermoplastic olefin (TPO) polymer, and the TPO encapsulants may be selected from the group consisting of standard ethylene-vinyl acetate EVA) encapsulants in a photo-thermal stability. EVA will become brown with temperature and ultraviolet light, and will cause hot spot problems caused by current limiting cells. These problems are reduced or avoided with TPO encapsulants. In addition, the solar modules may have a glass-glass structure in which both the transparent front sheet 420 and the back sheet 430 are glass. Such a glass-glass allows the solar module to operate stably at higher temperatures than those cases where it is endured by a conventional polymer backsheet. Furthermore, junction boxes may be mounted on one or more edges of the solar module rather than behind the solar module, where the junction box is positioned in the module above the solar cells Additional layers of thermal insulation could be added.

Figure 9a shows an exemplary rectangular photovoltaic module comprising six rectangular shingled supercells arranged in six rows extending the length of the long sides of the solar module. The six super cells are electrically connected in parallel to a bypass diode disposed in a junction box 490 on the other side and on the back side of the solar module. The electrical connections between the supercells and the bypass diode are made through ribbons 450 embedded in the laminate structure of the module.

Figure 9b shows another exemplary rectangular photovoltaic module comprising six rectangular shingled supercells arranged in six rows extending the length of the long sides of the solar module. The supercells are electrically connected in parallel. Disposed anode 490P and cathode 490N terminal junction boxes are disposed on the back surface of the solar module at opposite ends of the solar module. The supercells are electrically connected in parallel with a bypass diode located in one of the junction boxes by an external cable 455 running between the junction boxes.

FIGS. 9c-9d illustrate an exemplary glass-ceramic module including six rectangular shingled supercells arranged in six rows extending in length of the long sides of the solar module in a lamination structure comprising glass front and back sheets, A glass rectangular photovoltaic module is shown. The supercells are electrically connected in parallel with each other. The separated anode 490P and cathode 490N terminal junction boxes are mounted on opposite edges of the solar module.

The shingled super cells may be used in module level power management devices (e.g., DC / AC microinverters, DC / DC module power optimizers, voltage intelligence and smart Switches, and related devices). ≪ / RTI > An important feature of these module level power management systems is power optimization. Supercells, as described and employed herein, can produce higher voltages than conventional panels. Further, the super cell module layout can further divide the module. Both higher voltages and increased division create potential advantages for power optimization.

Figure 9E illustrates one exemplary configuration for module level power management using shingled super cells. In this figure, an exemplary rectangular photovoltaic module includes six rectangular shingled supercells arranged in six rows extending the length of the long sides of the solar module. The three pairs of supercells are individually connected to the power management system 460 and enable a separate power optimization of the module.

9F illustrates another exemplary configuration for module level power management using shingled super cells. In this figure, an exemplary rectangular photovoltaic module includes six rectangular shingled supercells arranged in six rows extending the length of the long sides of the solar module. The six super cells are individually connected to a power management system 460, which further enables a separate power optimization of the module.

Figure 9G illustrates another example for module level power management using shingled super cells. In this figure, an exemplary rectangular photovoltaic module comprises six or more rectangular shingled supercells 998 arranged in six or more columns, wherein the three or more pairs of supercells are connected to the module And is separately connected to a bypass diode or power management system 460 to enable further more power optimization.

Figure 9h illustrates another exemplary configuration for module level power management using shingled super cells. In this figure, an exemplary rectangular photovoltaic module comprises six or more rectangular shingled supercells 998 arranged in six or more columns, wherein the two supercells are connected in series and each pair Are connected in parallel. A bypass diode or power management system 460 is connected in parallel to all of the pairs to enable power optimization of the module.

In some variations, module level power management still allows elimination of all bypass diodes on the photovoltaic module while still eliminating the risk of hot spots. This is implemented by integrating voltage intelligence at the module level. By monitoring the voltage output of a solar cell circuit (e.g., one or more supercells) within the solar module, a " smart switch " power management device can determine whether this circuit is in any solar Batteries. ≪ / RTI > When a reverse biased solar cell is detected, the power management device may disconnect the corresponding circuit from the electrical system, for example, using a relay switch or other component. For example, if the voltage of the monitored solar cell circuit drops below a predetermined limit (V Limit ), then the power management unit will block such a circuit while leaving the string of modules or modules connected, (open circuit).

In certain embodiments, if the voltages of the circuits drop to a certain percentage or size (e.g., 20% or 10V) from the other circuits in the same solar cell array, this will be blocked. The electronic device will detect such a change based on inter-module communication.

Implementations of this voltage intelligence can be implemented using existing module-level power management solutions (e.g., Enphase Energy Inc., Solaredge Technologies, Inc., Tigo Energy, Inc. .), Or may be subjected to custom circuit design.

The V Limit One example of how the threshold voltage can be calculated is,

CellVocc @ Low Irr & High Temp N number of cells in series- Vrb Reverse breakdown voltage < V Limit ,

● CellVoc @ Low Irr & High Temp = Open circuit voltage (lowest expected action Voc) of the cell operating at low illumination and high temperature,

N number of cells in series = number of cells connected in series within each monitored supercell,

• Vrb Reverse breakdown voltage = the inverted polarity voltage required to pass current through the cell.

This approach to module-level power management using smart switches allows for, for example, more than 100 silicon solar cells to be connected in series within a single module without affecting stability or module reliability. Such a smart switch can also be used to limit the string voltage going to the central inverter. Longer module strings can thus be installed without allowing for stability or concern with respect to voltage. The weakest module may be bypassed (turned off) when the string voltages are raised against this limit.

Figures 10a, 11a, 12a, 13a, 13b and 14b, described below, provide additional exemplary schematic electrical circuits for photovoltaic modules employing shingled supercells. 12b-2, 12b-1, 12b-2, 11c-1, 11c-2, 12b-1, 12b-2, 12c-1, 12c- Figures 12c-3, 13c-1, 13c-2, 14c-1 and 14c-2 provide exemplary physical layouts corresponding to these schematic circuits. The description of the physical layouts assumes that the front end contact of each supercell is negative polarity and the back end contact of each supercell is of positive polarity. If the modules instead employ super cells with positive polarity front end contacts and negative polarity back end contacts, then the discussion of the following physical layouts will change the amount to negative and the orientation of the bypass diodes Can be changed by inversion. Some of the various busses referred to in the description of these figures may be formed, for example, with the interconnects 400 described above. Other buses described in these figures may be implemented, for example, with ribbons or external cables embedded in a laminate structure of the solar module.

10A shows an exemplary electrical circuit for a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5B, wherein each of the solar modules has a rectangular array of ten rectangles each having a length approximately equal to the length of the short sides of the solar module And super cells 100. The supercells are arranged in the solar module with their long sides oriented parallel to the short sides of the module. All of the supercells are electrically connected in parallel with the bypass diode 480.

Figures 10B-1 and 10B-2 illustrate an exemplary physical layout for the solar module of Figure 10A. The bus 485N connects the negative (front) end contacts of the supercells 100 to the positive terminal of the bypass diode 480 in a junction box 490 located on the backside of the module. The bus 485P connects the positive (back) end contacts of the supercells 100 to the negative terminal of the bypass diode 480. [ The bus 485P may be placed entirely behind the supercells. The bus 485N and / or its interconnections to the supercells occupy a portion of the front of the module.

11A shows an exemplary schematic electrical circuit for a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5A, wherein the solar modules each include a plurality of solar modules each having a length approximately equal to half the length of the short sides of the solar module Square super cells 100, and the super cells are arranged end to end in pairs so as to form ten rows of super cells. The first super cell in each column is connected in parallel with the first super cells in the other columns and in parallel with the bypass diode 500. A second super cell in each column is connected in parallel with the second super cells in the other columns and in parallel with the bypass diode 510. The two groups of supercells are connected in series as in the case of the two bypass diodes.

Figures 11b-1 and 11b-2 illustrate an exemplary physical layout for the solar module of Figure 11a. In this layout, the first super cell in each column has its front (negative) end contact along the first side of the module and its rear (positive) end contact along the centerline of the module, 2 supercell has its front (negative) end contact along the centerline of the module and its rear (positive) end contact along the second side of the module opposite the first side. Bus 515N connects the front (negative) end contact of the first supercell within each row to the positive terminal of bypass diode 500. [ The bus 515P connects the rear (positive) end contact of the second supercell within each row to the negative terminal of the bypass diode 510. [ The bus 520 connects the front (negative) end contact of the second supercell in each row and the rear (positive) end contact of the first supercell within each row to the negative terminal of the bypass diode 500 and the To the positive terminal of the bypass diode (510).

The bus 515P may be placed entirely behind the super cells. The bus 515N and / or its interconnection to the supercelles occupies a portion of the front face of the module. The bus 520 may occupy a portion of the front surface of the module and may require a gap 210, as shown in FIG. 5A. Alternatively, the bus 520 may be located entirely behind the super cells and electrically connected to the super cells with hidden interconnects between the overlapping ends of the super cells. In such a case, a small gap 210 is required, or a gap 210 is not required.

Figures 11c-1, 11c-2, and 11c-3 illustrate another exemplary physical layout for the solar module of Figure 11a. In this layout, the first supercell within each column has its front (negative) end contact along the first side of the module and its rear (positive) end contact along the centerline of the module, The second supercell has its rear (positive) end contact along the centerline of the module and its front (negative) end contact along the second side of the module opposite the first side. A bus 525N connects the front (negative) end contact of the first supercell within each row to the positive terminal of the bypass diode 500. The bus 530N connects the front (negative) end contact of the second cell in each row to the negative terminal of the bypass diode 500 and the positive terminal of the bypass diode 510. [ The bus 535P connects the back (positive) end contact of the first cell in each column to the negative terminal of the bypass diode 500 and the positive terminal of the bypass diode 510. [ Bus 540P connects the back (positive) end contact of the second cell in each column to the negative terminal of the bypass diode 510. [

Bus 535P and bus 540P may be placed entirely behind the supercells. The bus 525N and bus 530N and / or their interconnections to the supercells occupy part of the front face of the module.

12A shows another exemplary schematic circuit diagram for a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5A, wherein each of the solar modules includes a plurality of solar modules each having a length approximately equal to half the length of the short sides of the solar module Square super cells 100, which are arranged end to end in pairs to form ten rows of supersells. In the circuit shown in Fig. 12A, the supercells are arranged in four groups. The first super cells of the upper five columns in the first group are connected in parallel to each other and to the bypass diode 545 and the second super cells of the upper five columns in the second group are connected to each other The first supercells of the lower five columns in the third group are connected in parallel to each other and to the bypass diode 560, and the fifth subcells of the fifth group are connected in parallel to the bypass diode 560 in the fourth group, The second super cells of the columns are connected to each other and to the bypass diode 555 in parallel. The four groups of super cells are connected in series with each other. The four bypass diodes are also connected in series.

Figures 12b-1 and 12b-2 illustrate an exemplary physical layout for the solar module of Figure 12a. In this layout, a first group of supercells has its front (negative) end contacts along the first side of the module and its rear (positive) end contacts along the centerline of the module, 2 group has its front (negative) end contacts along the centerline of the module and its rear (positive) end contacts along the second side of the module facing the first side, and the third Group has its front (negative) end contacts along its first side and its rear (positive) end contacts along the centerline of the module, and the fourth group of supergels along the centerline of the module (Positive) end contact along its second side of the module and a front (negative) end contact along its second side.

Bus 565N connects the front (negative) end contacts of the supercells in the first group of supersells to each other and to the positive terminals of bypass diode 545. [ The bus 570 connects the front (negative) end contacts of the supercells within the second group of supercells and the back (positive) end contacts of the supercells within the first group of supercells with respect to each other And is connected to the negative terminal of the bypass diode 545 and the positive terminal of the bypass diode 550. Bus 575 is connected to the back (positive) end contacts of the supercells in the second group of supersells and the front (negative) end contacts of the supersells in the fourth group of supersells And is connected to the negative terminal of the bypass diode 550 and the positive terminal of the bypass diode 555. The bus 580 connects the front (negative) end contacts of the supercells within the third group of supercells and the back (positive) end contacts of the supercells within the fourth group of supercells with respect to each other To the negative terminal of the diode 555 and to the positive terminal of the bypass diode 560. The bus 585P connects the back (positive) end contacts of the supercells in the third group of supersells to each other and to the negative terminal of the bypass diode 560. [

A portion of the bus 575 connecting the bus 585P and the supercells in the second group of supersells may be placed entirely behind the supersells. The remainder of the bus 575 and their interconnections to the bus 565N and / or the super cells occupy a portion of the front face of the module.

Bus 570 and bus 580 may occupy a portion of the front surface of the module and may require a gap 210 as shown in FIG. 5A. Alternatively, they may be placed entirely behind the super cells and electrically connected to the super cells with hidden interconnects between the overlapping ends of the super cells. In such a case, a small gap 210 is required or a gap 210 is not required.

Figures 12c-1, 12c-2, and 12c-3 illustrate alternative physical layouts for the solar module of Figure 12a. This layout uses two junction boxes 490A, 490B instead of the single junction box 490 shown in Figures 12b-1 and 12b-2, Is equivalent to the case.

13A shows another exemplary schematic circuit diagram for a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5A, wherein each of the solar modules comprises a plurality of solar modules each having a length approximately equal to half the length of the short sides of the solar module Square super cells 100, which are arranged end to end in pairs to form ten rows of supersells. In the circuit shown in Fig. 13A, the supercells are arranged in four groups. The first super cells of the upper five columns in the first group are connected in parallel to each other, the second super cells of the upper five columns in the second group are connected in parallel to each other, The first super cells of the columns are connected to each other in parallel, and the second super cells of the lower five columns in the fourth group are connected in parallel with each other. The first group and the second group are connected in series with each other, and thus are connected in parallel with the bypass diode 590. The third group and the fourth group are connected in series with each other, and thus are connected in parallel with other bypass diodes 595. The first and second groups are connected in series with the third and fourth groups, and the two bypass diodes are also connected in series.

Figures 13c-1 and 13c-2 illustrate an exemplary physical layout for the solar module of Figure 13a. In this layout, a first group of supercells has its front (negative) end contact along the first side of the module and its rear (positive) end contact along the centerline of the module, Group has its front (negative) end contact along the centerline of the module and its rear (positive) end contact along the second sides of the module opposite the first side, and the third group of supersells (Positive) end contact along its first side and a front (negative) end contact along the centerline of the module, and a fourth group of supersells along its center line to the rear Positive) end contact along the second side of the module and a front (negative) end contact along the second side of the module.

The bus 600 is connected to the first group of front side (negative) end contacts of the supercells with respect to each other and with the rear (positive) end contacts of the third group of supergels, the cathode of the bypass diode 590 Terminal, and the negative terminal of the bypass diode 595. Bus 605 connects the back (positive) end contacts of the first group of supersells to each other and to the front (negative) end contacts of the second group of supersells. The bus 610P connects the rear (positive) end contacts of the second group of supercells to each other and to the negative terminal of the bypass diode 590. [ Bus 615N connects the front (negative) end contacts of the fourth group of supercells to each other and to the positive terminal of the bypass diode 595. [ The bus 620 connects the front (negative) end contacts of the third group of supersells to each other and to the back (positive) end contacts of the fourth group of supersells.

A portion of the bus 600 connecting the bus 610P and the third group of super cells may be placed entirely behind the super cells. The remainder of the bus 600 and their interconnections to the bus 615N and / or the super cells occupy a portion of the front face of the module.

Bus 605 and bus 620 occupy a portion of the front face of the module and require a gap 210 as shown in Figure 5A. Alternatively, they may be placed entirely behind the super cells and electrically connected to the super cells with hidden interconnects between the overlapping ends of the super cells. In such a case, a small gap 210 is required or a gap 210 is not required.

Figure 13b shows an exemplary schematic circuit diagram for a solar module as illustrated in Figure 5b wherein the solar module comprises ten rectangular superslots having a length approximately equal to the length of the short sides of the solar module, Cells 100. < / RTI > The supercells are arranged in the photovoltaic module with their long sides oriented parallel to the short sides of the module. In the circuit shown in Fig. 13B, the supercells are arranged in two groups. The five upper supercells in the first group are connected to each other and to the bypass diode 590 in parallel, and the lower five supercells in the second group are connected to each other and to the bypass diode 595 in parallel Lt; / RTI > The two groups are connected in series with each other. The bypass diodes are also connected in series.

The schematic circuit of Fig. 13B differs from the case of Fig. 13A in that each column of the two super cells of Fig. 13A is replaced by a single super cell. Accordingly, the physical layout of the photovoltaic module of Fig. 13B can be as shown in Figs. 13C-1, 13C-2 and 13C-3 with the bus 605 and bus 620 omitted.

14A illustrates an exemplary rectangular photovoltaic module 700 that includes twenty-four rectangular supercells 100 each having a length approximately equal to one-half the length of the short sides of the photovoltaic module. The supercells are arranged in pairs in half pairs to form twelve rows of supersells, the columns and long sides of the supersells being oriented parallel to the short sides of the photovoltaic module.

Fig. 14B shows an exemplary schematic circuit diagram for a solar module as illustrated in Fig. 14A. In the circuit shown in Fig. 14B, the supercells are arranged in three groups. The first super cells of the upper eight columns in the first group are connected in parallel to each other and to the bypass diode 705 and the supergels of the lower four columns in the second group are connected to each other and to the bypass diode Diodes 710 and the second supersells of the eight upper rows in the third group are connected in parallel to each other and to the bypass diode 715. [ The three groups of supersells are connected in series. The three bypass diodes are also connected in series.

Figures 14c-1 and 14c-2 illustrate exemplary physical layouts for the solar module of Figure 14b. In this layout, a first group of supercells have their front (negative) end contacts along the first side of the module and their rear (positive) end contacts along the centerline of the module. In a second group of the supercells, a first supercell of each of the four rows below is arranged along the first side of the module with its rear (positive) end contact and its front side along the centerline of the module ) End of the module, and a second super-cell of each of the four rows of the bottom, along the centerline of the module, has its front (negative) end contact, and its second side along the second side of the module facing the first side And has a back (positive) end contact. The third group of solar cells have their back (positive) end contacts along the centerline of the module and their back (negative) end contacts along the second side of the module.

The bus 720N connects the front (negative) end contacts of the first group of supercells to each other and to the positive terminal of the bypass diode 705. The bus 725 couples the rear (positive) end contacts of the first group of supercells with the front (negative) end contacts of the second group of supergels, the negative terminal of the bypass diode 705, And to the positive terminal of the pass diode 710. The bus 730P connects the back (positive) end contacts of the third group of supercells to each other and to the negative terminal of the bypass diode 715. The bus 735 connects the front (negative) end contacts of the third group of supersells to each other and the back (positive) end contacts of the second group of supersells, the bypass diode 710 The negative terminal of the bypass diode 715, and the positive terminal of the bypass diode 715.

A portion of the bus 725 connected to the first group of super cells of the super cells, a bus 730P, and a portion of the bus 735 connected to the second group of super cells of the super cells, Can be placed behind. The bus 720N and the remainder of the bus 725 and their interconnections to the bus 735 and / or the super cells occupy part of the front of the module.

Some of the examples described above accommodate the bypass diodes in one or more junction boxes on the back side of the solar module. However, this is not required. For example, some or all of the bypass diodes may be located in a plane with the super cells around the perimeter of the photovoltaic module, may be located in gaps between the super cells, or may be located behind the super cells have. In these cases, the bypass diodes may be disposed, for example, in a laminate structure in which the super cells are sealed. The positions of the bypass diodes may thus be decentralized and removed from the junction boxes, for example by placing two of them, which may be located on the back side of the photovoltaic module in the vicinity of the outer edges of the photovoltaic module Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > single < / RTI > terminal junction boxes can be substituted for the center junction box having both anode and cathode module terminals. This approach generally reduces the current path length in the ribbon conductors in the solar module and in the cabling between the solar modules, which can both reduce the material cost and increase the module power (By reducing resistive power losses).

Referring to FIG. 15, for example, the physical layout for various electrical interconnections for a solar module, as illustrated in FIG. 5B, with the schematic circuit diagram of FIG. 10A, includes a bypass diode (480) and two single terminal junction boxes (490P, 490N). It can be understood that Fig. 15 is the best in comparison with Figs. 10B-1 and 10B-2. Other module layouts described above may be similarly modified.

The use of bypass diodes in the laminate as described above has the advantage that power dissipated in a forward-biased bypass diode by reduced-current solar cells could be present in conventional-sized solar cells Can be made possible by the use of rectangular solar cells with reduced current (reduced area) as described above. By-pass diodes in the photovoltaic modules described herein may thus require less heat-sinking than conventionally, and as a result can be moved out of the junction box on the back side of the module and into the laminate .

A single photovoltaic module may include bypass diodes that support two or more of the above-described electrical configurations, for example, supporting interconnects, other conductors, and / or two or more electrical configurations. In these cases, the specific configuration for the operations of the photovoltaic module may be selected from two or more options, including, for example, the use of switches and / or jumper. Other configurations may inject different numbers of supersells in series and / or in parallel to provide different combinations of voltage and current outputs from the solar module. Such a photovoltaic module can thus be a plant or field that can be configured to be selected from two or more different voltage and current combinations, for example, to select between high and low current configurations and low and high current configurations have.

16 illustrates an exemplary deployment of a smart switch module level power management device 750 between two solar modules as described above.

Referring now to FIG. 17, an exemplary method 800 for making photovoltaic modules as disclosed herein includes the following steps. In step 810, conventional sized solar cells (e.g., 156 mm x 156 mm or 125 mm x 125 mm) are cut and / or cut to form rectangular solar cell " strips " Also, for example, see Figs. 3A to 3E and related description). The resulting solar cell strips can be selectively tested and classified according to their current-voltage performance. Cells with coincident or approximate coincidence of current-voltage performance can be advantageously used in the same columns of the same supercell or serially connected supercell. For example, it may be advantageous for cells connected in series in a column of supercells or supersells to produce a coincident or coincident current under the same illumination.

In step 815, supercells are assembled from the strip solar cells with conductive adhesive bonding material disposed between overlapping portions of adjacent solar cells in the supercells. The conductive adhesive bonding material may be applied, for example, by ink jet printing or screen printing.

In step 820, heat and pressure are applied to cure or partially cure the conductive adhesive bonding material between the solar cells in the supercells. In one variant, as each additional solar cell is added to the supercell, the conductive adhesive bonding material between the newly added solar cell and its adjacent and overlapping solar cell (already part of the supercell) Is cured or partially cured before being added to the supercell. In another variation, two or more solar cells or all solar cells in a supercell can be positioned in any desired overlapping manner before the conductive adhesive bonding material is cured or partially cured. The supercells resulting from this step can be selectively tested and classified according to their current-voltage capability. Supercells with matching or roughly matching current-voltage capabilities can be advantageously used in the same column of super cells or in the same solar module. For example, it may be advantageous for the rows of supercells or supercells electrically connected in parallel to produce coincident or coincident voltages under the same illumination.

In step 825, the cured or partially cured super cells are arranged in a desired module configuration with a layered structure comprising an encapsulant material, a transparent front (sun side) sheet and (optionally transparent) And interconnected. The stratified structure may comprise, for example, a first layer of an encapsulant on a glass substrate, interconnected supercells arranged below the sun side of the first layer of encapsulant, a second layer of encapsulant in the layer of super cells, And a back sheet on the second layer of the sealing material. Any other suitable arrangement may also be used.

In lamination step 830, heat and pressure are applied to the stratified structure to form a cured laminate structure.

In one variation of the method of Figure 17, the conventional size solar cells are separated into solar cell strips, which are then applied to each individual solar cell strip. In an alternative variant, the conductive adhesive bond material is applied to the conventional size solar cells prior to the separation of the solar cells into solar cell strips.

In the curing step 820, the conductive adhesive bond material may be cured entirely or partially cured. In the latter case, the conductive adhesive bonding material may be partially cured initially at step 820 and fully cured during the subsequent lamination step 830 to sufficiently facilitate handling and interconnection of the supercells.

In some variations, the supercell 100 assembled as an intermediate product in the method 800 may be fabricated from the side walls of adjacent solar cells overlapping and electrically coupled as described above and at opposite ends of the supercell And a plurality of rectangular solar cells (10) arranged with interconnects coupled to terminal contacts.

30A illustrates an exemplary supercell having electrical interconnects coupled to its front and rear terminal contacts. The electrical interconnects run parallel to the terminal edges of the supercell and extend laterally past the supercell to allow electrical interconnection with adjacent supercells.

30B shows two super-cells of FIG. 30A connected in parallel. Portions of the interconnects that otherwise would be visible from the front of the module may be covered or colored to reduce the visual contrast between the interconnect and the supercells as recognized by a person with normal hue For example, dark). In the example illustrated in Figure 30A, the interconnect 850 is conductively coupled to a first polarity (e.g., + or -) front-side terminal contact at one end (right side of the figure) of the supercell, (850) is electrically coupled to the opposite-side terminal contact of the opposite polarity at the other end (left side of the drawing) of the supercell. Similar to other interconnects described above, interconnects 850 may be conductively coupled to the supercell with the same conductive adhesive bonding material used, for example, between solar cells, but this is not required. In the illustrated example, a portion of each interconnect 850 extends beyond the edge of the supercell 100 in a direction perpendicular to the long axis of the supercell (and parallel to the long axes of the solar cells 10) do. As shown in FIG. 30B, this allows two or more super cells 100 to be positioned more closely, and interconnects 850 of one supercell are adjacent to each other to electrically interconnect the two super cells in parallel Overlaps and is electrically coupled to corresponding interconnects 850 on the supercell. Some of these interconnects 850 that are interconnected in series as described above may form a bus for the module. This arrangement may be suitable, for example, when the individual super cells extend to the full width or the entire length of the module (e.g., Fig. 5B). Interconnects 850 can also be used to electrically couple the terminal contacts of two adjacent supercells in the columns of supersells in series. Pairs or long strings of these interconnected supercells in the column may be formed by overlapping and electrically coupling interconnects 850 in one row to interconnects 850 in an adjacent row, as shown in Figure 30B, May be electrically connected in parallel with similarly interconnected supercells in the column.

Interconnect 850 can be die cut from, for example, a conductive sheet, and stresses that are orthogonal and parallel to the edges of the supercell resulting from a mismatch between the CTE of the interconnect and the CTE of the supercell And to increase its mechanical compliance both orthogonal and parallel to the edges of the supercell to reduce or accommodate the superlattice. Such patterning may include, for example, slits, slots, or holes (not shown). The mechanical compliance of the interconnect 850 and its combination or combination with the supercell should be sufficient for connections to the supercell to withstand the stresses resulting from CTE mismatch during the lamination process, which will be described in more detail below. Interconnect 850 may be coupled to the supercell with a mechanically flexible and electrically conductive coupling material, as described above, for example, to be used to couple overlapping solar cells. Optionally, the electrically conductive bonding material reduces stresses parallel to the edges of the supercell resulting from a mismatch between the thermal expansion coefficient of the electrically conductive bonding material or the interconnects and the thermal expansion coefficient of the supercell Or may be located in distinct locations along the edges of the supercell rather than in a continuous line extending substantially the length of the edge of the supercell.

Interconnect 850 can be cut, for example, from a thin copper sheet, and supercells 100 are formed from solar cells having smaller areas than standard silicon solar cells, Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > conductive interconnects. ≪ / RTI > For example, interconnects 850 can be formed from a copper sheet having a thickness of about 50 microns to about 300 microns. Interconnects 850 can be sufficiently thin and flexible to fold around and around the edges of the super cell to which they are coupled, similar to the interconnects described above.

19A-19D illustrate some exemplary arrangements in which heat and pressure may be applied during method 800 to cure or partially cure the conductive adhesive bonding material between adjacent solar cells in the supercells. Any other suitable arrangement may be employed.

In FIG. 19A, heat and local pressure may be applied to the connecting portion (overlapping area) of one conductive adhesive bonding material 12 at one time to cure or partially cure the conductive adhesive bonding material 12. The supercell can be supported by the surface 1000 and the pressure can be mechanically applied to the connection site from above, for example by bar, pin or other mechanical contact. Heat can be applied to the connection site, for example, by heating the mechanical contact to apply a localized pressure to hot air (or other hot gas) or an infrared lamp or to the connection site.

In Fig. 19B, the arrangement of Fig. 19A can be extended to a batch process that simultaneously applies heat and local pressure to multiple connection sites within the supercell.

In Figure 19c the un-cured supercell is sandwiched between release liner 1015 and reusable thermoplastic sheets 1020 and secured to a carrier plate 1010 < / RTI > The thermoplastic material of the sheets 1020 is selected to melt at a temperature at which the super cells are cured. The release liner 1015 may be formed from, for example, glass fiber and PTFE, and is not attached to the supercell after the curing process. Preferably, the release liner 1015 is formed from materials having a coefficient of thermal expansion that matches or substantially coincides with the coefficient of thermal expansion of the solar cells (e.g., CTE of silicon). This is because if the CTE of the release liners is too different from the CTE of the solar cells, then the solar cells and the release liners will be elongated in different amounts during the curing process, It will tend to fall in the longitudinal direction. A vacuum bladder 1005 is placed over this arrangement. The uncured supercell is heated, for example, from below through the surface 1000 and the carrier plate 1010, and a vacuum is created between the bladder 1005 and the support surface 1000. As a result, the bladder 1005 applies hydrostatic pressure to the supercell through the melted thermoplastic sheets 1020.

In Fig. 19D, the un-cured supercell is carried by a moving belt 1025 punctured through an oven 1035 which heats the supercell. Vacuum applied through the perforations in the belt attracts the solar cells 10 toward the belt, thereby applying pressure to the connections between them. The conductive adhesive bonding material in these connection sites is cured as the supercell passes through the oven. Preferably, the perforated belt 1025 is formed from materials having a CTE that matches or substantially coincides with the CTE of the solar cells (e.g., the CTE of silicon). This is because, if the CTE of the belt 1025 is too different from the CTE of the solar cells, then the solar cells and the belt will be elongated in different amounts in the oven 1035, The cell will tend to fall in the longitudinal direction.

The method 800 of Figure 17 includes separate super-cell curing and lamination steps to produce intermediate super cell products. In contrast, in the method 900 shown in FIG. 18, the supercell curing and lamination steps are combined. In step 910, conventional sized solar cells (e.g., 156 mm x 156 mm or 125 mm x 125 mm) are cut and / or cut to form narrow rectangular solar cell strips. The resulting solar cell strips can optionally be tested and classified.

In step 915, the solar cell strips are arranged in the desired module configuration in a stratified structure comprising an encapsulant material, a transparent front (sun side) sheet and a back sheet. The solar cell strips are arranged as super cells with un-cured conductive adhesive bonding material disposed between overlapping portions of adjacent solar cells in the supercells (the conductive adhesive bonding material is, for example, Printing or screen printing). The interconnects are arranged to electrically interconnect the un-cured super cells with the desired configuration. The stratified structure is, for example, a first layer of encapsulant on a glass substrate, the interconnected super cells arranged below the sun side of the first layer of encapsulant. A second layer of layered encapsulant of supercells, and a back sheet on the second layer of encapsulant. Any other suitable arrangement may also be used.

In the lamination step 920, heat and pressure are applied to the layered structure to cure the conductive adhesive bonding material in the supercells and form a cured laminate structure. The conductive adhesive bond material used to bond the interconnects to the supercells can also be cured at this stage.

In one variation of the method 900, the conventional size solar cells are separated into solar cell strips, and the conductive adhesive bonding material is then applied to each individual solar cell strip. In an alternative variant, the conductive adhesive bond material is applied to the conventional size solar cells prior to the separation of the solar cells into solar cell strips. For example, a plurality of conventional size solar cells can be placed on a large template, and a conductive adhesive bonding material can then be dispersed on the solar cells, can be separated into solar cell strips with fixtures. The resulting solar cell strips can then be transported as a group and arranged in the desired module configuration as described above.

As described above, in some variations of the method 800 and the method 900, the conductive adhesive bonding material is applied to the conventional size solar cells before separating the solar cells into solar cell strips. The conductive adhesive bond material is not cured (i.e., is still " wet ") when the conventional size solar cell is separated to form the solar cell strips. In some of these variations, the conductive adhesive bonding material is applied to a conventional size solar cell (e.g., by ink jet or screen printing) and then the solar cell is cut so that a laser forms the solar cell strips. Are used in the scribe lines on the solar cell defining the positions where the solar cells are to be cut, and then the solar cells are cut along the scribe lines. In these variations, the laser power and / or distance between the scribe lines and the adhesive bonding material may be selected to avoid incidental curing or partial curing of the conductive adhesive bonding material with heat from the laser have. In other variations, a laser is used in scribe lines on conventional sized solar cells defining locations where the solar cell is cut so as to form the solar cell strips, and then the conductive adhesive bonding material is applied to the solar cell (For example, by inkjet or screen printing), after which the solar cell is cut along the scribe lines. In the latter variants, it may be desirable to implement the step of applying the electrically conductive adhesive bonding material without incidentally cutting or breaking the scribed solar cell during this step.

Referring again to Figures 20A-20C, Figure 20A schematically illustrates a side view of an exemplary device 1050 that may be used to cut scribed solar cells where a conductive adhesive bonding material was applied Scribing and application could happen in any order). In such an apparatus, a scribed conventional size solar cell 45 to which a conductive adhesive bond material has been applied is conveyed by a perforated moving belt 1060 above the portion of the curve of the vacuum manifold 1070. As the solar cell 45 passes over the upper portion of the curve of the vacuum manifold, the vacuum applied through the perforations in the belt attracts the bottom surface of the solar cell 45 relative to the vacuum manifold, Bend the battery. The curvature radius R of the curved portion of the vacuum manifold can be selected so that the solar cell 45 bent in this manner cuts the solar cell along the scribe lines. Advantageously, the solar cell 45 can be cut by this method without touching the top surface of the solar cell 45 to which the conductive adhesive bonding material was applied.

If it is desired that the cutting be started at one end of the scribe line (i.e., at one edge of the solar cell 45), this may be done, for example, by cutting one end of each scribe line, By arranging the scribe lines at an angle &thetas; with respect to the vacuum manifold so as to reach a portion of the scribe lines. As shown in FIG. 20B, for example, the solar cells may be oriented to a scribe line that is oblique to the direction of travel of the belt and a manifold that is oriented orthogonally to the direction of travel of the belt. As another example, FIG. 20C shows these scribe lines orthogonal to the direction of travel of the belt and cells that are oriented with an oblique manifold.

Any other suitable device may also be used to cut the scribed solar cells to which the conductive adhesive bonding material has been applied to form strip solar cells with previously applied conductive adhesive bonding material. Such an apparatus can use, for example, rollers to apply pressure to the upper surface of the solar cell to which the conductive adhesive bonding material is applied. In these cases, it is preferred that the rollers contact only the upper surface of the solar cell in areas where no conductive adhesive bonding material is applied.

In some variations, photovoltaic modules include supercells arranged in rows on a white or otherwise reflective backsheet, so that some of the solar radiation passing by the solar cells without being initially absorbed creates electricity The back sheet can be reflected back to the solar cells by the back sheet. The reflective backsheet can be seen through gaps between rows of supersells, which will result in a photovoltaic module that appears to have rows of parallel and bright (e.g., white) lines running across its front side . 5b, for example, parallel and dark lines between the columns of the supercells 100 may appear as white lines when the supercells 100 are arranged on a white backsheet have. This may be aesthetically unsatisfactory, for example, for some uses of the solar modules on roof tops.

21, in order to improve the aesthetic appearance of the solar module, some variations include dark stripes 1105 located at positions corresponding to the gaps between the rows of supersells arranged on the backsheet A white back sheet 1100 is used. Stripes 1105 are wide enough so that the white portions of the backsheet are not visible through the gaps between the rows of supersells in the assembled module. This reduces the visual contrast between the supersell and the backsheet when recognized by a person with normal hue. The resulting module includes a white backsheet, but may have a front surface that is similar in appearance to, for example, the modules illustrated in Figures 5A-5B. Dark stripes 1105 may be generated, for example, with lengths of dark tapes or in any other suitable manner.

As noted above, shading of individual cells within photovoltaic modules can generate " hot spots ", in which case the power of unshielded cells is lost in the shaded cell. This lost power creates local temperature spikes that can degrade the modules.

In order to minimize the potential severity of these hot spots, bypass diodes were conventionally inserted as part of the module. The maximum number of cells between the bypass diodes are set to limit the maximum temperature of the module and to prevent irreparable damage to the module. Standard layouts for silicon cells can utilize bypass diodes in all 20 or 24 cells where the number is determined by the typical breakdown voltage of the silicon cells. In certain embodiments, the breakdown voltage may be in the range of about 10V-50V. In certain embodiments, the breakdown voltage may be about 10V, about 15V, about 20V, about 25V, about 30V, or about 35V.

According to embodiments, shingling of the strips of cut solar cells into thin thermally conductive adhesives improves thermal contact between the solar cells. This enhanced thermal contact allows for a higher degree of thermal diffusion than traditional interconnect technologies. This thermal thermal diffusion design, based on shingling, enables a string of solar cells longer than twenty-four (or less) solar cells per bypass diode, which is limited to conventional designs. This mitigation of the requirement for frequent bypass diodes due to the thermal diffusion enabled by shingling according to embodiments may provide one or more advantages. For example, it is possible to create module layouts of various solar cell string lengths that are not concealed as needed to be provided for a large number of bypass diodes.

According to embodiments, thermal diffusion is implemented by maintaining physical and thermal coupling with the adjacent cells. This allows for sufficient heat dissipation through the combined connection.

In certain embodiments, such a connection is maintained at a thickness of about 200 microns or less and travels in the segmented pattern to the length of the solar cell. According to an embodiment, the connection site may be about 200 micrometers or less, about 150 micrometers or less, about 125 micrometers or less, about 100 micrometers or less, about 90 micrometers or less, about 80 micrometers or less, about 70 micrometers or less, about 50 micrometers or less, or about 25 micrometers or less.

The correct adhesive curing process may be important in ensuring that reliable connections are maintained while maintaining thickness to promote thermal diffusion between the bonded cells.

Allowing longer strings (e.g., 24 or more cells) to proceed provides flexibility in the design of solar cells and modules. For example, certain embodiments may utilize strings of cut solar cells assembled in a shingled manner. These configurations can utilize significantly more cells per module than conventional modules.

Without this thermal diffusion property, a bypass diode may be required for all 24 cells. When the solar cells are cut to 1/6, the bypass diodes per module can be six times as large as conventional modules (including three uncut cells), and up to 18 diodes as a whole can be added have. Thermal diffusion thus provides a significant reduction in the number of bypass diodes.

Furthermore, for all bypass diodes, bypass circuitry is required to complete the bypass electrical path. Each diode requires two interconnect points and a conductor that is routed to connect them to these interconnect points. This results in a complicated circuit and is a source of significant cost for standard layout costs associated with assembling solar modules.

In contrast, thermal diffusion techniques require only one bypass diode per module or even no bypass diodes. Such a configuration simplifies the module assembly process and allows simple automation mechanisms to perform the layout fabrication steps.

Avoiding the need for bypass protects all 24 cells, thereby making the cell module more easily manufactured. Complex tap-outs in the center of the module and long parallel connections for bypass circuitry are avoided. This thermal diffusion is accomplished by creating long shingled strips of cells traveling in width and / or length of the module.

In addition to providing thermal thermal diffusion, shingling according to embodiments also reduces the magnitude of the current lost in the solar cell, thereby enabling improved hot spot performance. Specifically, the amount of current lost in the solar cell during hot spot conditions depends on the cell area.

Because shingling can cut cells into smaller areas, the amount of current passing through one cell in a hot spot condition is a function of the truncated dimensions. During hot spot conditions, the current typically passes through the cell-level defect interface or the lowest resistance path, which is the crystal grain boundary. Reducing this current is advantageous and minimizes reliability failure under hot spot conditions.

22A shows a top view of a conventional module 2200 that utilizes conventional ribbon connections 2201 under hot spot conditions. Here, shading 2202 on one cell 2204 causes heat to be localized to this single cell.

In contrast, Figure 22B also shows a top view of the module utilizing thermal diffusions under hot spot conditions. Here, the shading 2250 on the cell 2522 generates heat inside the cell. However, such a row is diffused into the other electrically and thermally coupled cells 2254 in the module 2256.

It is further noted that the advantage of a reduced current loss is greatly increased for polycrystalline solar cells. These polycrystalline cells are known to operate poorly under hot spot conditions due to the high level of defect interfaces.

As indicated above, certain embodiments may employ shingling of chamfered cut-off cells. In these cases, there is a thermal diffusive advantage that is reflected along the coupling line between the adjacent cell and each cell.

This maximizes the coupling length of each overlapping connection. Since this coupling connection is the primary interface for the cell-to-cell thermal diffusion, maximizing this length can ensure that optimal thermal diffusion is obtained,

23A shows an example of a super cell string layout 2300 with chamfered cells 2302. FIG. In this configuration, the chamfered cells are oriented in the same direction, so that the conduction passages of all coupled connections are the same (125 mm).

Shading 2306 on one cell 2304 results in reverse biasing of such cells. The columns are spread to adjacent cells. The unjoined ends 2304a of the chamfered cell become hottest due to the longer conduction length to the next cell.

Figure 23B shows another example of a super cell string layout 2350 with chamfered cells 2352. [ In this configuration, the chamfered cells are oriented in different directions, with some of the long edges of the chamfered cells facing each other. This results in the conduction paths of the combined connection of two lengths of 125 mm and 156 mm.

When the cell 2354 undergoes the shading 2356, the configuration of FIG. 23B exhibits improved thermal diffusion along a longer coupling length. Figure 23B shows the thermal diffusions in the supercell thus having chamfered cells facing each other.

The foregoing discussion has focused on assembling a plurality of solar cells (which can be clipped solar cells) in a shingled manner on a common substrate. This leads to the formation of a module with a single electrical interconnect-junction box (or j-box).

However, in order to collect a sufficient amount of solar energy to be useful, the facility typically includes a number of such modules assembled together. According to embodiments, a plurality of solar cell modules may also be assembled in a shingled manner to increase the area efficiency of the array.

In certain embodiments, the module may feature an upper conductive ribbon facing the direction of solar energy and a lower conductive ribbon facing away from the direction of the solar energy.

The bottom ribbon is embedded beneath the cells. This, in turn, does not block incoming light and does not adversely affect the area efficiency of the module. In contrast, the top ribbon is exposed and can block incident light, adversely affecting efficiency.

According to embodiments, the modules themselves may be shingled such that the top ribbon is covered by a neighboring module. 24 illustrates a simplified cross-sectional view of such an arrangement 2400 in which an end portion 2401 of an adjacent module 2402 contributes to overlay the upper ribbon 2404 of the instant module 2406 do. Each module itself includes a plurality of shingled solar cells 2407.

The lower ribbon 2408 of the instant module 2406 is embedded. Which is located on the elevated side of the instant shingled module to overlap the next adjacent shingled module.

Such a shingled module configuration could also provide additional area on the module for other elements without adversely affecting the final exposed area of the module array. Examples of modular elements that may be located in overlapping regions may include, but are not limited to, junction boxes (j-boxes) 2410 and / or bus ribbons.

Figure 25 shows another embodiment of a shingled module configuration 2500. [ Here, the j-boxes 2502 and 2504 of each adjacent shimming module 2506 and 2508 become a batch 2510 in a line to implement an electrical connection therebetween. This simplifies the configuration of the array of shingled modules by removing wires.

In certain embodiments, the j-boxes could be reinforced and / or combined with additional structural standoffs. Such a configuration could produce an integrated, sloped module roof mount rack solution, where the dimensions of the junction box determine the slope. Such an implementation may be particularly useful when the array of shingled modules is mounted on a flat roof.

If the modules comprise a glass substrate and a glass cover (glass-glass modules), the modules have a total module length (and thus an exposed length L resulting from the shingling) without additional frame members, Can be shortened. This shortening could allow the modules of the tilted array to withstand the expected physical loads (e.g., an eye load limit of 5400 Pa) without breaking under the pressure.

The use of super cell structures comprising a plurality of individual solar cells assembled in a shingled manner can easily accommodate varying the length of the module to meet a particular length defined by physical load and other requirements The point is emphasized.

Figure 26 shows a diagram of the back side (light shielding) of a solar module illustrating exemplary electrical interconnection of the front (sun side) terminal electrical contacts of a shingled supercell to a junction box on the rear side of the module. The front terminal contacts of the shingled supercell may be located adjacent to an edge of the module.

26 illustrates the use of a flexible interconnect 400 that is in electrical contact with the front end contact of the supercell 100. In the illustrated example, the flexible interconnect 400 extends parallel to the ends of the supercell 100 and includes an adjacent ribbon portion 9400A and a front metallization pattern (not shown) of the end solar cell within the supercell, And fingers 9400B extending orthogonally to the ribbon portion to contact the ribbon portion (not shown). The ribbon conductor 9410, which is conductively coupled to the interconnect 9400, connects the interconnect 9400 to the electrical components on the back side of the solar module that are part of the supercell (e.g., bypass diodes and / Or module terminals) of the supercell. An insulating film 9420 may be disposed between the conductors 9410 and the edges and the backside of the supercell 100 to electrically isolate the ribbon conductor 9410 from the supercell 100.

Interconnect 400 may be selectively folded about the edge of the supercell so that ribbon portion 9400A lies behind or lies partially behind the supercell. In these cases, an electrically insulating layer is typically provided between the interconnect 400 and the edges and backsides of the supercell 100.

Interconnect 400 may be die cut from, for example, a conductive sheet and may reduce stresses that are orthogonal and parallel to the edges of the supercell resulting from a mismatch between the CTE of the interconnect and the CTE of the supercell And may be selectively patterned to increase its mechanical compliance both orthogonal and parallel to the edges of the supercell to accommodate. Such patterning may include, for example, slits, slots, or holes (not shown). The mechanical compliance of the interconnect 400 and its combination with the supercell should be sufficient for the connection to the supercell to withstand the stresses resulting from the CTE mismatch during the lamination process described in more detail below. The interconnect 400 may be coupled to the supercell with a mechanically flexible and electrically conductive coupling material, for example, as described above, for use in coupling superposed solar cells. Optionally, the electrically conductive bonding material reduces stress parallel to the edge of the supercell resulting from a mismatch between the thermal expansion coefficient of the electrically conductive bonding material or the interconnect and the thermal expansion coefficient of the supercell (E. G., At locations of separate contact pads on the end solar cell), rather than in successive lines extending substantially the length of the edge of the supercell. Corresponding thereto).

The interconnect 400 can be cut from a thin copper sheet, for example a thin copper sheet, and the supercells 100 are formed from solar cells having smaller areas than standard silicon solar cells, And may be thinner than conventional conductive interconnects when operating at low currents. For example, interconnects 400 may be formed of a copper sheet having a thickness of about 50 microns to about 300 microns. The interconnect 400 may be thin enough to accommodate the stresses orthogonal to and parallel to the edges of the supercell resulting from the mismatch between the CTE of the interconnect and the CTE of the supercell without being patterned as described above. The ribbon conductor 9410 may be formed of, for example, copper.

27 shows diagrams of the back side (shading) of a solar module illustrating exemplary electrical interconnection of two or more shingled supercells in parallel, wherein the front (sun side) terminal electrical contacts of the supercells are connected to each other And to a junction box on the rear side of the module. The front terminal contacts of the shingled super cells may be located adjacent to an edge of the module.

27 illustrates the use of two flexible interconnects 400 that are in electrical contact with the front terminal contacts of two adjacent supercells 100 as previously described. An adjacent bus 9430 running parallel to the ends of the supercells 100 is conductively coupled to the two flexible interconnects to electrically connect the supercells in parallel. This scheme can be extended to interconnecting the additional supercells 100 in parallel if desired. The bus 9430 may be formed of a copper ribbon, for example, a copper ribbon.

26, interconnects 400 and bus 9430 may be connected to each other such that ribbon portions 9400A and bus 9430 are placed behind or partially behind the super cells, Can be selectively folded around the edges of the two sides. In such cases, an electrically insulating layer is typically provided between the interconnects 400 and the edges and backsides of the supercells 100 and between the bus 9430 and the edges and backsides of the supercells 100 do.

Figure 28 shows a diagram of the back side (light shielding) of a solar module illustrating another exemplary electrical interconnection of two or more shingled supercells in parallel, wherein the front (solar side) terminal electrical contacts of the super cells Are connected to each other and to a junction box on the rear side of the module. The front terminal contacts of the shingled super cells may be located adjacent to the edge of the module.

28 illustrates the use of another exemplary flexible interconnect 9440 that is in electrical contact with the front end contact of the supercell 100. As shown in FIG. In this example, the flexible interconnect 9440 includes a front metallization pattern of the end solar cells in the supercell, in which they run parallel and adjoining ribbon portions 9440A, Fingers 9440B extending orthogonally to the ribbon portion to contact the ribbon portion and fingers 9440C orthogonal to the ribbon portion and extending behind the supercell. Fingers 9440C are conductively coupled to bus 9450. [ The bus 9450 is parallel to and adjacent to the end of the supercell 100 along the rear surface of the supercell 100 and may be similarly electrically connected so that adjacent super- May be extended to overlap the cells. A ribbon conductor 9410, which is conductively coupled to bus 9450, couples the supercells to electrical components (e.g., bypass diodes and / or module terminals in the junction box) on the back side of the solar module Electrically interconnect. Electrical insulation films 9420 are formed between the fingers 9440C and the edges and the rear surfaces of the supercell 100 and between the bus 9450 and the rear surface of the supercell 100 and between the ribbon conductors 9410 and May be provided between the rear surface of the supercell (100).

Interconnect 9440 may be formed from, for example, a conductive sheet, and may reduce or accommodate stresses that are orthogonal and parallel to the edges of the supercell resulting from a mismatch between the CTE of the interconnect and the CTE of the supercell. And may be selectively patterned to increase the mechanical compliance thereof both orthogonal and parallel to the edges of the supercell. Such patterning may include, for example, slits, slots, or holes (not shown). The mechanical compliance of the interconnect 9440 and its combination with the supercell should be sufficient for connection to the supercell to withstand the stresses resulting from CTE mismatch during the lamination process, which will be described in more detail below. Interconnect 9440 can be coupled to the supercell with a mechanically flexible and electrically conductive coupling material, as described above, for example, to be used to couple overlapping solar cells. Optionally, the electrically conductive bonding material may reduce or accommodate stress parallel to the edge of the supercell resulting from a mismatch between the thermal expansion coefficient of the electrically conductive bonding material or the interconnect and the thermal expansion coefficient of the supercell. (E.g., corresponding to the locations of the separate contact pads on the end solar cell) along the edge of the supercell, rather than with successive lines extending substantially the length of the edge of the supercell, Lt; / RTI >

Interconnect 9440 can be cut from, for example, a thin copper sheet, and supercells 100 are formed from solar cells having smaller areas than standard silicon solar cells, And may be thinner than conventional conductive interconnects when operating. For example, interconnects 9440 may be formed of a copper sheet having a thickness of about 50 microns to about 300 microns. Interconnect 9440 may be thin enough to accommodate the stresses that are orthogonal and parallel to the edges of the supercell resulting from the mismatch between the CTE of the interconnect and the CTE of the supercell without being patterned as described above. The bus 9450 may be formed of, for example, a copper sheet.

Fingers 9440C may be coupled to bus 9450 after fingers 9440B are coupled to the front of supercell 100. [ In these cases, the fingers 9440C can be bent away from the back surface of the supercell 100, for example, perpendicularly to the supercell 100 when they are coupled to the bus 9450. [ Thereafter, the fingers 9440C can be bent to advance along the rear surface of the supercell 100 as shown in Fig.

29 is a partial cross-sectional view and a perspective view of two supercells illustrating the use of a flexible interconnect between overlapping ends of adjacent supercells to electrically connect the supercells electrically in series and provide electrical connection to the junction box. do. 29A shows an enlarged view of the area of interest of FIG. 29. FIG.

FIGS. 29 and 29A illustrate two supercells 100 to provide electrical connection to one front end contact of the supers cells and to the back end contact of the other supersell, Illustrate the use of an exemplary flexible interconnect 2960 that is partially interposed between and electrically interconnecting the overlapping ends of the flexible interconnect 2960. FIG. In the illustrated example, the interconnect 2960 is obscured in the field of view from the front of the solar module by the top of the two overlapping solar cells. In another variation, adjacent ends of the two supercells are not overlapping, and a portion of the interconnect 2960 connected to one of the front end contacts of the two supercells can be seen from the front of the photovoltaic module. Optionally, in such variations, a portion of the interconnect, which otherwise would be visible from the front of the module, may be configured to reduce the visual contrast between the interconnect and the supercells when recognized by a person with normal hue. Or can be colored (e.g., can be darkened). Interconnect 2960 extends parallel to the adjacent edges of the two supercells beyond the side edges of the supercells to electrically couple the pair of supersells in parallel with pairs of similarly arranged supercells in adjacent rows Can be extended.

The ribbon conductor 2970 is configured to electrically connect adjacent ends of the two supercells to electrical components (e.g., bypass diodes and / or module terminals within the junction box) on the back side of the solar module And may be electrically coupled to the interconnect 2960 as shown. In another variation (not shown), the ribbon conductors 2970 may be electrically connected to one rear contact of the overlapping super cells away from their overlapping ends, instead of being electrically connected to the interconnect 2960 have. This configuration may also provide a hidden tap for one or more bypass diodes or other electrical components on the back side of the solar module.

Interconnect 2960 can be selectively die-cut, for example, from a conductive sheet, to provide stresses that are orthogonal and parallel to the edges of the supercells resulting from a mismatch between the CTE of the interconnects and the CTEs of the supercells And to increase the mechanical compliance thereof both orthogonal and parallel to the edges of the supercells in order to reduce or accommodate them. Such patterning may include, for example, slits, slots (as shown), or holes. The mechanical compliance of the flexible interconnect and its combination with the supercells should be sufficient for the interconnected supercells to withstand the stresses resulting from the CTE mismatch during the lamination process described in detail below. The flexible interconnect may be coupled to the supercells with a mechanically flexible and electrically conductive coupling material, for example, as described above for use in coupling superposed solar cells. Optionally, the electrically conductive bonding material reduces stress parallel to the edges of the supercells resulting from a mismatch between the thermal expansion coefficient of the electrically conductive bonding material or the interconnect and the thermal expansion coefficient of the supercells Cells may be located at distinct locations along the edges of the supercells rather than with successive lines extending substantially the length of the edges of the supercells. Interconnect 2960 can be cut from, for example, a thin copper sheet.

Embodiments include one or more of the features described in U.S. Published Patent Application No. 2014/0124013 and U.S. Publication No. 2014/0124014, the disclosures of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety for all purposes .

Disclosed herein are high efficiency solar modules comprising silicon solar cells arranged in a shingled manner and electrically connected in series to form super cells, wherein the super cells are arranged in columns that are physically parallel to the solar module . The supercells may, for example, have basically lengths that span the entire length or width of the photovoltaic module, or two or more super cells may be arranged end to end in a row. This arrangement obscures the electrical interconnections of the solar cell to the solar cell and thus can be used to create a visually appealing photovoltaic module with no or little contact between adjacent series connected solar cells.

The supercell can comprise any number of solar cells, including, for example, at least nineteen solar cells in some embodiments, and in certain embodiments greater than or equal to 100 silicon solar cells. Electrical contacts at intermediate locations along the supercell may be desired to electrically divide the supercell into two or more serially connected segments while maintaining a physically continuous supercell. In the present specification, such electrical connections are provided in one or the other of the supercells in order to provide electrical tapping points that are hidden in the field of view from the front of the solar module and thus referred to herein as " hidden taps & Arrangements for the rear contact pads of silicon solar cells are disclosed. The hidden tab is an electrical connection between the back of the solar cell and the conductive interconnect.

It is also contemplated herein that flexible interconnects for electrically interconnecting frontal super-cell terminal contact pads, rear super-cell terminal contact pads, or hidden tab contact pads to other solar cells or other electrical components within the solar module Use is started.

The use of electrically conductive adhesives to bond flexible interconnects to the super cells with mechanically stiff bonds that force the flexible interconnects to accommodate mismatches in thermal expansion between the flexible interconnects and the super cells And electrically coupled adjacent solar cells to each other in a supercell to provide mechanically flexible and electrically conductive bonds to accommodate the thermal expansion mismatch between the super cells and the glass front sheet of the solar module The use of a conductive adhesive is disclosed. This can avoid damage to the photovoltaic module that otherwise could occur as a result of a thermal cycle of the photovoltaic module.

As further described below, electrical connections to the hidden tap contact pads electrically connect segments of the supercell to corresponding segments of one or more supercells in adjacent columns, and / But can be used to provide electrical connections to the photovoltaic module circuitry for a variety of applications including power optimization (e.g., bypass diodes, AC / DC microinverters, DC / DC converters) have.

The use of hidden tabs as described above may be combined with the hidden cell-to-cell connections to substantially improve the aesthetic appearance of the solar module by providing all the rearward appearance of the solar module, A greater portion of the surface area of the module can be filled with active areas of the solar cells to increase the efficiency of the solar module.

Referring now to the drawings, for a more detailed understanding of the photovoltaic modules described herein, FIG. 1 illustrates a photovolt