KR20140109919A - Method and machining device by combined addition of material and shaping - Google Patents

Method and machining device by combined addition of material and shaping Download PDF

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Publication number
KR20140109919A
KR20140109919A KR1020147018310A KR20147018310A KR20140109919A KR 20140109919 A KR20140109919 A KR 20140109919A KR 1020147018310 A KR1020147018310 A KR 1020147018310A KR 20147018310 A KR20147018310 A KR 20147018310A KR 20140109919 A KR20140109919 A KR 20140109919A
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South Korea
Prior art keywords
machining
operation
material
method
means
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KR1020147018310A
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Korean (ko)
Inventor
장이브 하스코에트
질스 카라빈
파스칼 모그놀
Original Assignee
에꼴 센트랄 데 낭트
쌩뜨레 나티오날 데 라 르세르쉬 생띠끄 (씨. 엔. 알. 에스)
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Priority to FR1161126 priority Critical
Priority to FR1161126A priority patent/FR2983424B1/en
Application filed by 에꼴 센트랄 데 낭트, 쌩뜨레 나티오날 데 라 르세르쉬 생띠끄 (씨. 엔. 알. 에스) filed Critical 에꼴 센트랄 데 낭트
Priority to PCT/EP2012/074268 priority patent/WO2013079725A1/en
Publication of KR20140109919A publication Critical patent/KR20140109919A/en

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21DWORKING OR PROCESSING OF SHEET METAL OR METAL TUBES, RODS OR PROFILES WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21D22/00Shaping without cutting, by stamping, spinning, or deep-drawing
    • B21D22/14Spinning
    • B21D22/16Spinning over shaping mandrels or formers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23POTHER WORKING OF METAL; COMBINED OPERATIONS; UNIVERSAL MACHINE TOOLS
    • B23P23/00Machines or arrangements of machines for performing specified combinations of different metal-working operations not covered by a single other subclass
    • B23P23/04Machines or arrangements of machines for performing specified combinations of different metal-working operations not covered by a single other subclass for both machining and other metal-working operations
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/0093Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring combined with mechanical machining or metal-working covered by other subclasses than B23K
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/08Devices involving relative movement between laser beam and workpiece
    • B23K26/083Devices involving movement of the workpiece in at least one axial direction
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/08Devices involving relative movement between laser beam and workpiece
    • B23K26/0869Devices involving movement of the laser head in at least one axial direction
    • B23K26/0876Devices involving movement of the laser head in at least one axial direction in at least two axial directions
    • B23K26/0884Devices involving movement of the laser head in at least one axial direction in at least two axial directions in at least in three axial directions, e.g. manipulators, robots
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/20Bonding
    • B23K26/32Bonding taking account of the properties of the material involved
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/34Laser welding for purposes other than joining
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K37/00Auxiliary devices or processes, not specially adapted to a procedure covered by only one of the preceding main groups
    • B23K37/04Auxiliary devices or processes, not specially adapted to a procedure covered by only one of the preceding main groups for holding or positioning work
    • B23K37/0408Auxiliary devices or processes, not specially adapted to a procedure covered by only one of the preceding main groups for holding or positioning work for planar work
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K37/00Auxiliary devices or processes, not specially adapted to a procedure covered by only one of the preceding main groups
    • B23K37/04Auxiliary devices or processes, not specially adapted to a procedure covered by only one of the preceding main groups for holding or positioning work
    • B23K37/047Auxiliary devices or processes, not specially adapted to a procedure covered by only one of the preceding main groups for holding or positioning work moving work to adjust its position between soldering, welding or cutting steps
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23POTHER WORKING OF METAL; COMBINED OPERATIONS; UNIVERSAL MACHINE TOOLS
    • B23P15/00Making specific metal objects by operations not covered by a single other subclass or a group in this subclass
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23POTHER WORKING OF METAL; COMBINED OPERATIONS; UNIVERSAL MACHINE TOOLS
    • B23P17/00Metal-working operations, not covered by a single other subclass or another group in this subclass
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q39/00Metal-working machines incorporating a plurality of sub-assemblies, each capable of performing a metal-working operation
    • B23Q39/02Metal-working machines incorporating a plurality of sub-assemblies, each capable of performing a metal-working operation the sub-assemblies being capable of being brought to act at a single operating station
    • B23Q39/021Metal-working machines incorporating a plurality of sub-assemblies, each capable of performing a metal-working operation the sub-assemblies being capable of being brought to act at a single operating station with a plurality of toolheads per workholder, whereby the toolhead is a main spindle, a multispindle, a revolver or the like
    • B23Q39/022Metal-working machines incorporating a plurality of sub-assemblies, each capable of performing a metal-working operation the sub-assemblies being capable of being brought to act at a single operating station with a plurality of toolheads per workholder, whereby the toolhead is a main spindle, a multispindle, a revolver or the like with same working direction of toolheads on same workholder
    • B23Q39/024Metal-working machines incorporating a plurality of sub-assemblies, each capable of performing a metal-working operation the sub-assemblies being capable of being brought to act at a single operating station with a plurality of toolheads per workholder, whereby the toolhead is a main spindle, a multispindle, a revolver or the like with same working direction of toolheads on same workholder consecutive working of toolheads
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B19/00Programme-control systems
    • G05B19/02Programme-control systems electric
    • G05B19/18Numerical control [NC], i.e. automatically operating machines, in particular machine tools, e.g. in a manufacturing environment, so as to execute positioning, movement or co-ordinated operations by means of programme data in numerical form
    • G05B19/4097Numerical control [NC], i.e. automatically operating machines, in particular machine tools, e.g. in a manufacturing environment, so as to execute positioning, movement or co-ordinated operations by means of programme data in numerical form characterised by using design data to control NC machines, e.g. CAD/CAM
    • G05B19/4099Surface or curve machining, making 3D objects, e.g. desktop manufacturing
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K2103/00Materials to be soldered, welded or cut
    • B23K2103/16Composite materials, e.g. fibre reinforced
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K2103/00Materials to be soldered, welded or cut
    • B23K2103/16Composite materials, e.g. fibre reinforced
    • B23K2103/166Multilayered materials
    • B23K2103/172Multilayered materials wherein at least one of the layers is non-metallic
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B2219/00Program-control systems
    • G05B2219/30Nc systems
    • G05B2219/49Nc machine tool, till multiple
    • G05B2219/49018Laser sintering of powder in layers, selective laser sintering SLS
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B2219/00Program-control systems
    • G05B2219/30Nc systems
    • G05B2219/49Nc machine tool, till multiple
    • G05B2219/49328Laser machining and milling combined
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B2219/00Program-control systems
    • G05B2219/30Nc systems
    • G05B2219/49Nc machine tool, till multiple
    • G05B2219/49358Facing milling, tool perpendicular to surface
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/4998Combined manufacture including applying or shaping of fluent material
    • Y10T29/49982Coating
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/51Plural diverse manufacturing apparatus including means for metal shaping or assembling
    • Y10T29/5176Plural diverse manufacturing apparatus including means for metal shaping or assembling including machining means

Abstract

The present invention relates to a device for machining a part, the device comprising: a. Transmission axes including a machining head (370) and a rotation axis for moving the head within a space known as a work space; b. Means for positioning the component and holding the component in place in the workspace; c. The machining head 370 is characterized in that it includes means 440 for supporting molding tools for molding the material and means 250, 451, 452 for supplying the material. The present invention also relates to a machining method embodied by the device.

Description

[0001] METHOD AND MACHINING DEVICE BY COMBINED ADDITION OF MATERIAL AND SHAPING [0002]

The present invention relates to methods and devices for machining by addition and shaping of bonded materials. The method and device according to the present invention can be used to produce parts that are not capable of achieving a three-dimensional shape or a micro-geometric characteristic of surfaces using methods of machining by the addition and shaping of materials applied individually It is particularly suitable for manufacturing. In the following description, when the part to be manufactured is held on a machine mount or a machining pallet, when the part is repositioned in the machine space (such repositioning) Whether accomplished by changing the machine or by transferring the part from one zone of the transfer machine to another zone of the transfer machine), or the part being manufactured remains mounted on the same machine For example, by changing the machining head or by changing the motion compensation tables stored in the numerous control systems of the machine, or even if the tables are kept in the same configuration, The construction of the machine is significantly changed so that the origin of the axes or the dynamic of the machine When changes are made (dynamic behavior), a method is considered to be applied separately from the other means. Therefore, in the remainder of the document, the term 'machining phase' refers to the machining of a workpiece without changing the machining station of the part, without modifying the configuration of the machining station or the positioning of the part. ≪ / RTI >

In the entire document, the term 'machining' is applied to machining operations, and the verb 'machining' is understood as the general meaning of machining parts on a material or machine tool.

Methods of machining by both adding and removing material are known in the art. Japanese Patent Application JP-A-2 010 2 801 73 describes a device and a method including a combination of machining methods using additive machining methods and material removal on the same machine. In the above prior art, the implementation of the method uses two separate machining devices that are mounted on the same frame but use different moving axes. Therefore, in the prior art, the bed portion of the powder is sintered with a laser beam in which the bed of the powder is deposited and the trajectory of its own in the bed is determined by the movements of the mirror The first series effectors are used for the first series effectors and the second series effectors comprise milling spindles and the movements of the milling spindle are controlled by numerical control axes which are different from the axes which control the movements of the mirrors. These are actually two separate machines sharing the same frame. In addition, the above-described prior art material removal method is advantageous in that it can be used to correct the geometry of the surface in order to favor the bonding of the layer of material deposited during subsequent operations, The present invention aims at making the conditions for implementing the annexing machining method advantageous. Therefore, the prior art is primarily aimed at ensuring the soundness of the material of the parts produced by the incremental machining, so there is no particular purpose in relation to the accuracy of the machining operations to be combined, ≪ / RTI > and this removal can not be achieved due to a change in the step between the operations.

The present invention is particularly, but not exclusively, aimed at producing a component having a complicated shape as represented in Fig. In the above example, which is intended to illustrate the technical problem solved by the present invention without limiting it in any way, the part 100 to be manufactured comprises a substrate and a bore 115 And a hollow extension 120 that can be obtained by adding a material having a composite conical shape about the bore 115. The bore 115 is formed of a rigid plate 110, The entirety of the component 100 is a constraint relating to surface conditions both outside and inside of the extensions 120 having a complex shape, for example, a roughness of 1.6 占 퐉 according to standard ISO 4287 -6 m). In addition, the part also has a tolerance for the concentricity tolerance between the bore of the plate 115 and the bore of the conical extension 120 on the same plate and the thickness (s) of the walls of the extension 120 Can be fabricated with the same geometric constraints. For example, these tolerances are 0.05 mm. According to known methods of the prior art, such a component 100 with such performance constraints can not be manufactured by positioning once; As a result, acquiring the required accuracy can not be compatible with mass production because it requires careful attention.

In the following description, the term substrate refers to the initial material of a part in which the material is deposited by a method using mechanical machining by addition, wherein the material so deposited is of the same type or of a material of the substrate And can be of different types.

The placement of the part 100 represented in FIG. 1 by only once positioning is advantageous in that the machining operations involving either annotation machining operations and removal or ablative machining of the material are performed in a rotational motion a rotary motion and even two rotary motions. Typically, such a part should be made on a machine having at least five relative movement axes between the part and the tool, where the five axes are for example two orthogonal displacements and two Lt; / RTI > rotations. In order to manufacture such parts, the five axes must continue to be used, i.e. the machining tool must be continuously oriented with respect to the machined surface. Five-axis machine architectures are diverse and known in the art. In order to allow machining programs to be movable to different degrees between different machine configurations, programming is carried out by describing the movement of the end of the working portion of the tool in accordance with known and commonly used methods. To implement a program on a machine, each tool is referred to as a " gage ", i.e., a machine reference, that defines the location of the working portion of the tool when the tool is installed in the spindle of the machine Values associated with the file. The gage file is integrated into kinematic work tables stored in the memory of the machine's control system, where the work tables transform the programmed displacement commands into displacements of motorized axes to obtain the desired locus. Thus, especially when the architecture of the machine is in parallel, even simple movements such as displacements will mobilize five or many more axles depending on the architecture.

To achieve the required machining accuracy, especially at high feed rates, numerically controlled machining machines using state-of-the-art techniques have compensation tables. These tables make it possible to correct mechanical errors, especially mechanical errors. There are a variety of causes for such errors: manufacturing defects, stiffness variations, deformation, thermal dilatation, etc. Therefore, all numerical control machines have a working volume of which their accuracy and performance are optimal; Outside the volume, this performance drops. Following the trajectory of the tool when it is inevitable for the gauges to deviate from the optimal operating volume or when the mass added to the structure modifies its dynamic behavior may cause the machine to re- reloading, which leads to the use of other machines or to changes in machining steps.

Document EP 1 614 497 describes a device and a method for machining combined abrasive machining and additive machining using the same machine. A change from one machining mode to another machining mode is made by mounting an affixing machining device at the end of the machining head or directly to the spindle of the machine. The annotation machining device comprises melting means, a device for supplying the material, and blowing means. Therefore, mounting the ancillary machining device on the head of the machine significantly changes the mass of the movements, and the behavior of the machine during the incremental machining is different from the behavior during the abrasive machining of the same machine.

Document EP 0 529 816 describes a device and a method for machining combined abrasive machining and abrasive machining. The annotation machining device is permanently mounted near the abrasive machining spindle so that the machine mass is substantially the same in both machining configurations. The document teaches the addition of an annotation machining device on an existing machine for machining by removing material. Therefore, in order to have automatic tool change capability and to prevent interference between the device and the parts during abrading operations, the annexing machining device is placed away from the machine spindle. Therefore, when annotation machining is used, the machine operates at a volume at the boundaries or even outside its optimal volume. The effect of this is reasonable when the machine includes only three orthogonal linear motion axes with a serial architecture as described in the document. Moreover, the document teaches an additive machining of a block of material formed in the form of a preform, i.e., a blank. Accuracy Accuracy is obtained by abrasive machining so that the accuracy required for machining machining is several thousand times or tens of thousands times lower than the accuracy of the machine. In cases where the addition or subtraction of one of the machining operations is required while continuing to control the orientation of the tool in relation to the surface to be manufactured, the technical solutions taught in the document are not applicable.

An object of the present invention is to solve the above-mentioned problems.

The present invention aims at eliminating the drawbacks of the prior art and thus relates to a device for machining a part, the device comprising:

a. Motorized axes including a machining head and a rotational axis for displacing the head within a space known as the working space;

b. And means for positioning the component and holding the component in place in the workspace;

c. The machining head will comprise means for supporting the material forming tool and means for supplying the material.

It is therefore possible for a device according to the invention to proceed from machining by addition to machining by molding using the same machining head moved by the same means, and vice versa. The mass of the structure remains the same when the machining operation is changed.

The invention also relates to a method implemented by a prior device, the method comprising:

i. Depositing a layer of material on the component using a supply means during an add operation;

ii. Shaping a part of the part by a shaping tool during a shaping operation;

iii. The addition and shaping operations are performed along the trajectories extending in three dimensions of the space in the same step and the feeding means and shaping tool are directed towards the normal with respect to the trajectories.

Therefore, parts of the part to be machined during the addition and shaping operations are perfectly positioned with respect to each other, because the parts can be placed in the same step, without changing the positioning of the part and without changing the configuration of the machining station . The normal direction of the machining head with respect to the trajectories makes it possible to limit the amount of material deposited to an exactly required amount and to improve the surface quality of the manufactured parts.

The present invention may be implemented in the following useful embodiments, and the embodiments may be considered individually or as a combination of any technical operations.

Advantageously, the device according to the invention comprises:

d. Sensing means disposed on the machining head;

e. And means for measuring the position of the sensing means in the machine space on the electrical shafts.

It is therefore possible, in addition to the machine-specific accuracy for connecting the two machining operations, to seamlessly connect two successive machine operations by the sensing means and in particular to compensate for movements due to thermal expansion of the part.

Advantageously, the forming tool is a cutting tool. Therefore, both the substrate and the material deposited on the part can be machined by removing the material and correcting their dimensions or obtaining clear surface conditions.

In one embodiment of the device according to the invention, the device comprises:

f. And means for delivering the cutting motion to the cutting tool.

The device according to the invention is therefore adapted to complete material removal operations by milling or abrasion, in particular by a grinding wheel.

In another embodiment of the device according to the present invention which is compatible with the previous embodiment, the device comprises:

g. And means for delivering the cutting motion to the part.

The device according to the invention is therefore suitable for carrying out machining by performing turning or polishing operations on the rotating parts on which symmetry is obtained during rotation by the cutting motion.

Advantageously, the shaping tool of the device according to the invention is a tool for shaping the material by plastic deformation. Therefore, the device according to the present invention makes it possible to form the substrate or the deposited material and to perform the forming operations for both straightening. This embodiment is further compatible with the previous embodiments.

Advantageously, the means for supplying the material of the device according to the invention comprises:

ci. A nozzle comprising an orifice for spraying the metal powder;

cii. And a device coaxial with the orifice of the nozzle and generating a laser beam capable of melting the powder when the powder is sprayed.

Therefore, when the point of addition of the material is perfectly defined within the space of the machine, the deposition of the material is controlled along the correct trajectories.

Advantageously, in the process according to the invention, the addition and shaping operations are carried out continuously by means of a substantially constant mass of machining heat. Therefore, these two operations optimally use the compensation tables of the machine.

Advantageously, the annotation machining and forming machining using the method according to the invention is carried out along the axis of the spray of the powder to be melted and the locus which extends into the three dimensions of said space, or the shaping tool is normal .

Advantageously, the forming operation using the method according to the invention is a contour cutting operation performed on the layer of material deposited during the initial addition operation. Thus, a layer of deposited material can be calibrated with respect to contour and thickness.

Advantageously, the layer deposited during the add operation is added on the surface that first underwent molding. Thus, in addition to the fact that bonding of the layer deposited on the surface is preferred, combining the two methods makes it possible to optimize each contribution to making the desired shape.

In one useful embodiment of the method according to the invention, the method comprises:

iv. Performing a part sensing operation prior to molding or adding operation to readjust the operation in the machine space.

Therefore, the parts are manufactured with greater accuracy, and any geometric differences can be corrected. The term " sensing " should be understood here in a broader sense and includes devices that are installed in contactless measurement methods or machining heads.

Advantageously, the forming operation is an incremental forming operation. The device according to the invention therefore makes it possible to obtain complex shapes starting with a metal sheet.

In one particular embodiment of the method according to the invention, the material and substrate deposited during the addition operation are of different types. Therefore, the operation of machining by addition is capable of achieving the hardness or corrosion resistance of certain properties, in particular of the deposited layer of metal, and thus the hardness or corrosion resistance of the parts to be manufactured, in addition to making the shape.

In one useful embodiment of the method according to the invention, the previous molding of the surface on which the material is deposited is a progressive molding operation. Therefore, the substrate can be selected from materials having excellent moldability, and the utilization characteristics can be improved by depositing the material.

In this last useful embodiment of the method according to the invention, the present invention relates to the end of the operation of adding material onto a surface which has first been formed by progressive molding:

v. And performing a cutting operation on the layer of material deposited on the previously formed surface.

Therefore, in addition to the improved surface quality, this operation makes it possible to mold fine details which can not be achieved by the molding method or by the addition method.

Advantageously, an implementation of the method according to the invention uses a device comprising a head for machining by adding a material using a laser beam, said method comprising:

vi. Disposing additional pieces on the parts to be manufactured in steps (i) to (iii) of the method according to the invention;

vii. And welding the additional piece to the part using a laser beam of a machining head.

Therefore, the method can be used to manufacture parts comprising surfaces comprised between the substrate and the additional piece.

The present invention therefore also relates to a composite part called a "sandwich" part and obtained by the method according to the invention in said final embodiment, comprising:

x. A first machining substrate;

y. Stiffeners standing from a first substrate and deposited on the substrate by a method according to one of the embodiments of the present invention;

z. And a second substrate disposed above the stiffeners and secured to the stiffeners by welding.

Therefore, by combining different embodiments of the method according to the present invention, composite sandwich components such as honeycomb components can be manufactured. For example, the two substrates can be shaped differently but not parallel, or the density of the stiffeners can vary over the surface of the part.

Advantageously, the first substrate, the stiffeners and the second substrate can be made of different materials.

The present invention is in no way limited to its preferred embodiments and will be described below with reference to Figures 1 to 10:
1 is a perspective view of one example of a part manufactured using the method according to the present invention;
Figure 2 is a partial cross-sectional front view of a series of first acts corresponding to the start of manufacture of the component in Figure 1 using the method and device according to the present invention;
Figure 3 is a perspective view of one example of an architecture of a numerical control machine adapted to implement the present invention;
Figure 4 is a side view of a casing open of one exemplary embodiment of a machining head according to the present invention;
5 is a front perspective view of one exemplary embodiment of a machining head according to the present invention;
Figure 6 is a perspective view at the end of the machining head of Figure 5 without its own casing;
Figure 7 is a top perspective view of one example of a component comprising a substrate exhibiting rotational symmetry;
Figure 8 illustrates one example of a series of operations of the method according to the present invention including progressive forming operations;
9 is a perspective exploded view of one exemplary embodiment of a sandwich component in accordance with the present invention; And
10 is a logic diagram of a multiple embodiment of a method according to the present invention.

In FIG. 2A of one exemplary embodiment of the method according to the present invention, corresponding to the first operations for manufacturing the part 100 of FIG. 1; The method includes a first contour milling machining step of creating a bore 115 in the plate 110. To this end, the plate 110 is positioned in the machine space and in the forming tool, in which case a milling cutter 240 is selected.

In Fig. 2b, a means 250 for machining is created by adding material to make the bore and to produce the first portion 220 of the shape 120. In the method according to the invention, the operation is carried out without modifying the head of the machine so that the deposited material 220 and the initially made bore 115 are perfectly positioned with respect to each other, and without modifying the positioning of the plate 110 Because the accuracy of the position placement depends only on the accuracy of the traces on the trajectories of the machine. In one exemplary embodiment, a method of machining by the addition of a material is a method of spraying molten powder, wherein such powder is melted by a laser beam. Such a method has been described, for example, in document EP-B-0 574 580. This makes it possible to add and machine the material without a binder. Thus, the deposited material has mechanical properties that approximate the mechanical properties of the same material when implemented by a casting method. Deposition of successive layers creates raised portions or steps 221 on the faces produced in this manner.

2c, in an exemplary embodiment of the method according to the present invention, the portion 220 machined by adding material in a previous operation calibrates its thickness e, removes the raised portions, Reworked by contour milling to achieve state quality. Therefore, in this embodiment, the parameters of the machining operation by addition are the same as those of the best quality (i.e., the highest quality) allowed by the method without the constraints associated with the precise geometry of the deposited material 220 being reworked during subsequent contour milling operations. And is optimized to obtain the deposited material. The position of the part of the material 220 to be added in the machine space is fully known since the machine is not reconfigured between the two operations and the positioning of the part is not modified. Therefore, the contour milling operation is performed without rearranging the axes. The accuracy with which this contour milling operation is performed therefore depends only on the accuracy of tracking the machine trajectories.

Indeed, in Figure 3 of the illustrative embodiment, a device according to the present invention includes a machine 300 that includes a machining head 370 that supports an effector 340. In one embodiment, In the present invention, the effector includes a shaping tool or nozzle for machining by addition, wherein the adding and shaping machining means are always arranged such that the mass of the machining head is substantially constant within the weight of the shaping tool And is present in association with the machining head. The machining head 370 is moved in the work space of the machine by the transmission shafts controlled by the numerical control system. In this embodiment, which is not limited in any way, the machine 300 includes three vertical displacement axes:

A horizontal axis 311, referred to as the X axis, corresponding to the displacement of the table 361 of the machine;

A horizontal axis 312 referred to as the Y axis and perpendicular to the previous axis 311 driven by a ram 362 supporting the machining head 370;

A vertical axis 313 which is perpendicular to the other two axes, referred to as the Z axis and which is transmitted to the ram 362,

These three axes corresponding to displacement movements are associated with two rotational displacement axes in this exemplary embodiment:

One rotary motion 314, referred to as the B axis, which is applied to the machining head 370 about the Y axis;

A single rotary motion 315, referred to as the C axis, proceeding by a platen 364, which itself is connected to the table 361 about the Z axis.

All of these axes are controlled by a numerical control system (not shown) that measures the position of each axis by a suitable sensor such that the position of each axis is known as the reference point 310 which is connected to the machine. The positioning of the part 100 within the machine is to determine the position and orientation of the part, i.e. the surfaces of the part, with the machine's reference points 310. This embodiment of a machine having an architecture known as a serial architecture is not exclusive, and in other useful embodiments, the machine includes transmission axes configured with a parallel architecture. In all cases, the machining device according to the present invention has a sufficient number of displacements such that the shaping tool and the incremental machining tool both continue to be directed along the normal to the trajectory extending in three dimensions in the workspace Axis.

In conventional and known aspects of the prior art, the numerical control system first determines the position of the axis at the reference point of the machine and the geometrical information received from the displacement sensor, in the form of a tool or generally the position and direction of the effector And secondly known as compensation tables, and in order to ensure matching between the actual trajectory and the programmed trajectory of the effector 370 despite this source of dispersions, , Moving inaccuracies, or even tables that are capable of compensating for thermal expansion.

Therefore, placing the component 100, returning it to its original position, or changing the position of the component in the machine space results in uncertainty in the positioning and orientation of the component within the space, The accuracy of the means for measuring the position and the ability to switch the position placement state to under control of the axes of the machine. This problem is more acutely recognized when the surfaces relocated in the machine space are surfaces with complex shapes.

Similarly, using different displacement axes to change the machining head 370 or to move from one type of effector to another type of effector, as in the prior art, can be accomplished first, particularly with geometric transformation and compensation The need to load new numeric tables in order to achieve accurate positioning of the new head on the machine. Such an operation can not be performed in the same machining program. Therefore, changing the numerically controlled machine head results in changing the machine, and even when the part is held in place on the machine during the change of the head, its own effective position at the machine reference point and its own orientation Changes in relation to the trajectories. Therefore, the device according to the present invention can achieve cost-effective and rapid achievement of accurate dimensions such as the thickness dimension e of Fig. 2C by preventing both the change of the machine configuration and the repositioning of the parts.

In Fig. 2d, in the case of an additive machining method, in particular a spraying of a powder which is melted by a laser beam, the shape of the part is only likely to change between the two material addition operations due to the thermal expansion of the part 100 have. The device according to the invention advantageously comprises a sensing means (260) which makes it possible to measure the exact shape of the part and then readjust the annotation machining or shaping machining trajectories.

In FIG. 2E, in an exemplary embodiment of the method according to the present invention, the geometric information obtained from the sensing operation is transferred to the second section 230 (FIG. 2B) on the first section 220 by once again selecting the annotation machining means 250 Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > precisely < / RTI > In this exemplary embodiment, using the machine 300 with five displacement axes makes it possible to instruct the annotation machining means 250 to produce composite features.

In FIG. 2F, the section 230 deposited during the previous annotation machining operation is finished by the material removal machining means 240 itself, inside and outside, to correct the shape, thickness and surface condition of the section 230 do. In a particular embodiment, the finishing operation may be performed by a suitable tool 241 during the previous addition operation so as to form its own shape to optimize the bonding of the layer of material deposited during the next additive machining operation And reworking. In each of these abrasive machining operations, the tool 240, 241 is advantageously oriented substantially normal with respect to the trajectory of its own working end in the work space. The term " substantially normal " considers the local directions associated with the normal direction aimed at preventing over-cutting or interference.

The previous sequences of Figures 2d-2f are repeated until the finished part is manufactured. Performing alternate material removal and addition machining operations makes it possible to produce complete, fully finished shapes that would have been absolutely impossible with the help of other molding techniques.

Although the machining operations by material removal in these exemplary embodiments are presented in the form of contour milling and end milling, the method according to the present invention is suitable for all types of machining, Or grinding. ≪ RTI ID = 0.0 >

In Figure 4 of the illustrative embodiment, the machining head 370 of the device according to the present invention is represented without its own casing and subsequently comprises at least two types of effectors:

- an additive machining nozzle (451) for spraying powder and melting coaxially,

- and a milling spindle (440) for material removal machining.

A fastening interface 476 enables the machining head to be connected to the ram of the machine tool.

In Fig. 5 of a useful embodiment of a device according to the present invention, the machining head 370 continues to provide four effectors, i. E.

In addition to the first incremental machining nozzle 451 and the milling spindle 440,

- sensing device (460);

- and a second incremental machining nozzle 452.

In this exemplary embodiment, each of the annexing machining devices or nozzles 451, 452 comprises means for supplying the material in powder form and in a containment fluid to inject the materials into the nozzle 453). Each nozzle is also connected to means 454 for bringing the laser beam capable of melting the powder being injected in this manner.

In one exemplary embodiment, the laser used is a diode laser having a rated voltage of about 4000 Watts. This type of laser is first adapted to annexing machining operations when it is combined with the means for discharging the powder material, and secondly, the laser is also adapted to the welding operations when it is used alone.

In Fig. 6, the incremental machining nozzles 451 and 452 are installed in the machining head on the guides 651 and 652. [ Therefore, the nozzles are evacuated into the machining head during molding operations to prevent the risk of collision between the nozzles and the component or mechanical components. The use of the two-ply machining nozzles 451 and 452 can be used to alter the properties of the material deposited during the same machining step or to vary the properties of the deposited material, depending on the quality of the material being deposited and the fineness of the to- It is possible to use output rates.

In this exemplary embodiment, the forming tools are mounted to the spindle 440 through a standard attachment portion 441 that provides automatic tool changes. As a non-limiting example, the attachment is selected from a size adapted to the rated power of the spindle and its rotational speed from the HSK series according to standard ISO 12164-1. In known configurations of the prior art, such attachments have microchips that contain geometric information about the tools, where the spindle automatically reads the information during each tool change and thus integrates it into the calculation of the trajectories A reader capable of being installed is installed. Therefore, a machine implementing the method according to the present invention is advantageously provided with an automatic tool changer. The nozzles 451 and 452 are then withdrawn at each tool change.

The spindle is advantageously adapted to machining by removing the material at a high cutting speed. Therefore, the surfaces of the part are closed with reduced cutting forces to limit deformation of both the machine and the part during these operations.

All of the effectors 451, 452, 440 and 460 are designed so that the different machining operations implemented by the method according to the invention are always carried out with a substantially constant mechanical mass, Lt; / RTI >

In the previous exemplary embodiments, the operations of molding by removing the material are performed by milling, by transferring the cutting motion to the tool.

7, in one exemplary embodiment suitable for manufacturing part 700 having surfaces that are symmetrical with respect to rotation about axis 710, the part may be used to impart the part to a symmetry axis 710 By providing a rotational motion about the center of gravity of the workpiece.

To this end, returning to Fig. 3, the platen 364 of the machine on which the part is secured is coupled with a transmission means capable of transmitting a suitable cutting motion to the platen 364, particularly in the exemplary embodiment. Alternatively, the part is provided in an indexed mandrel of a horizontal or vertical turning center.

Returning to Fig. 7, the part 700 further comprises a part 720 which is produced by an additive machining. In alternate embodiments, the portion is hollow and may or may not be symmetrical about rotation.

In Figure 8, in an exemplary embodiment of the method according to the present invention, the method uses a sheet substrate 810, which is subjected to a first forming operation using progressive molding in Figure 8a. Incremental forming is a molding method using, for example, the plastic deformation described in the document US 3 342 051, and locally drawing the blank using a tool along the trajectories.

8A, the metal sheet 810 is held on its own edges by a blank holder 860 on the die 841. Molding is performed by a progressive forming tool 840 mounted on the head of the machine, for example a machining spindle.

In FIG. 8B, after forming, the blank 810 follows the shape of a die 841. The annotation machining device 250 is then used, for example, to compensate for the local losses of the thickness of the blank resulting from the drawing. The method according to the invention makes it possible to select the metal constituting the blank 810 for its moldability properties; The post-grinding machining process then deposits the coating on the blank to provide the metal with other properties incompatible with the moldability properties of the initial blank, such as surface hardness or resistance to oxidation It is useful. In one embodiment, the incremental machining operation is used to create features that can not be achieved by incremental forming. For example, the thickness of the part to be molded may be locally reinforced to form, for example, a boss designed to receive a fastener.

In FIG. 8C, the material 820 deposited during the annexing machining operation is reworked by machining to remove material to provide an accurate thickness or clear surface qualities locally to the material.

Performing all these operations in the same machining step makes it possible to precisely locate the location of the addition and removal of material in relation to the shape of the surface obtained by molding, thus enabling mass production of the parts .

In FIG. 9, in an exemplary implementation of the method according to the present invention, the method is adapted to produce a composite sandwich component 900, such as a component having what is known as a honeycomb. In one exemplary embodiment, the first substrate 910 is machined, for example, by removing material to provide desired geometric properties to the part. The stiffener 920 is deposited on the substrate by an incremental machining process and, if necessary, is terminated according to the geometric attributes sought. The second substrate 930 is then placed on top of the stiffeners 920 and is transparently welded to these stiffeners by a laser beam of one of the incremental machining nozzles. In one exemplary embodiment, stiffeners (not shown) having a different shape or orientation than the first stiffeners 920 are disposed on the second substrate 930 and a third substrate (not shown) Welded to these stiffeners to make a laminate composite.

In one exemplary embodiment, the first substrate 910, the second substrate 930, and the guard members 920 are comprised of different materials.

An exemplary embodiment of FIG. 9 is presented in the case of an essentially flat sandwich component 900. The method according to the invention is suitable for the manufacture of sandwich parts having a composite shape which may be non-developable, wherein said composite shape is a machine comprising a shaping by removal of material, addition of material and plastic deformation By combining all or a portion of the machining operations.

In Figure 10, in a complex exemplary embodiment, a first substrate is positioned 1010 on a die disposed on a table of the machine. The first substrate takes the form of a metal sheet selected for its ability to form. During the forming operation 1020, the first substrate is pressed against the die by incremental forming. During the coating operation 1030, a layer of material is deposited on the surface of the substrate by an incremental machining operation. Therefore, the substrate whose thickness is increased to the thickness of the layer is made rigid. During the ablation machining operation 1040, the layer of material deposited during the previous operation is machined to make its thickness uniform. During the annotation machining step 1050, stiffeners, such as honeycomb stiffeners, are deposited on the surface of the substrate. In one exemplary embodiment, the dimensions of the cells to be deposited are thus changeable from the edges of the substrate to the center of the substrate. The deposition operation 1050 includes a series of annotation machining operations 1051 and ablation machining operations 1052. [ The ablation machining operation 1060 makes it possible to reprocess the tops of the cells such that the top has a surface that is not parallel to the surface of the first substrate. A second substrate in the form of a sheet of metal is placed in the machine (1070) and clamped to a blank holder at the edges. During the progressive forming operation 1080, the second substrate is pressed against the top of the cells. Finally, during the transparent welding operation 1090, the second substrate is welded to the top of the cells. Therefore, a method according to the present invention implemented by a device according to the present invention is a method of manufacturing a composite part having a composite shape including two nonparallel sides separated by reinforcing materials that are variably reinforced on a substrate, .

The above description and the exemplary embodiments show that the present invention achieves the objects pursued. In particular, this makes it possible to produce parts automatically by combining machining methods involving removal, addition and deformation of the material, the parts being made up of a number of materials and having respective trajectories of the machining methods By using the same numerical control program by providing the possibility of readjustment. The invention is particularly suitable for the manufacture of composite parts comprising internal stiffeners, in particular honeycomb stiffeners.

Claims (17)

  1. A device for machining parts (100, 700) comprising:
    a. 311, 312, 313, 314, 315 including a machining head (370) and a rotation axis (314, 315) for displacing the head within a space known as the work space;
    b. Means for positioning the component (100) and holding the component in place in the work space;
    c. Characterized in that the machining head (370) comprises means (440) for supporting a material shaping tool and means (250, 451, 452) capable of supplying material.
  2. 10. A method embodied by a device according to claim 1, wherein:
    i. Depositing a layer of material (220, 820) on the part using the feeding means (250) during the adding operation;
    ii. Shaping a portion of the component (220, 110, 810) by molding tools (240, 840) during a molding operation;
    iii. Wherein the addition and shaping operations are performed along trajectories extending in three dimensions of space in the same machining step and wherein said feeding means and shaping tool are oriented normal with respect to said trajectories.
  3. The method according to claim 1,
    d. Sensing means (260, 460) disposed on the machining head (370);
    e. Means for measuring the position of said sensing means in said mechanical space on said transmission shafts (311, 312, 313, 314, 315).
  4. The method according to claim 1,
    Wherein the forming tool is a cutting tool (240).
  5. 5. The method of claim 4,
    And means (440, 441) for transferring a cutting motion to the cutting tool (240).
  6. 5. The method of claim 4,
    And means (364) for transferring a cutting motion to the part (700).
  7. The method according to claim 1,
    Wherein the forming tool is a tool (840) for molding the material by plastic deformation.
  8. The method according to claim 1,
    Wherein the supplying means comprises:
    ci. Nozzles (451, 452) comprising orifices for atomizing the metal powder;
    cii. And a device (454) coaxial with the orifice of the nozzle and generating a laser beam capable of melting the powder when the powder is sprayed.
  9. 3. The method of claim 2,
    Wherein the adding operation and the forming operation are performed successively with a mass of the substantially constant machining head.
  10. 3. The method of claim 2,
    Wherein the forming operation is a contour cutting operation performed on a layer of material deposited during the initial addition operation.
  11. 3. The method of claim 2,
    Wherein the layer (220, 820) deposited during the addition operation is added on a surface that has undergone molding first.
  12. 3. The method of claim 2,
    4. A device according to claim 3,
    iv. And performing a part sensing operation prior to forming or adding operations to readjust the operation within the machine space.
  13. 3. The method of claim 2,
    A method according to claim 7, wherein the forming operation is a progressive forming operation.
  14. 3. The method of claim 2,
    Characterized in that the substrate (110, 810) and the material (220, 820) deposited during the adding operation are of different types.
  15. 12. The method of claim 11,
    Wherein the previous forming operation is a progressive forming operation.
  16. 16. The method of claim 15,
    At the end of the operation of adding material onto the surface first formed by progressive molding:
    v. And performing a cutting operation on a layer of material (820) deposited on a previously formed surface.
  17. 3. The method of claim 2,
    Using the device according to claim 8:
    vi. Disposing an additional piece (930) on the part to be manufactured in steps (i) to (iii);
    vii. And welding the additional piece (930) to the part using a laser beam of the machining head.
KR1020147018310A 2011-12-02 2012-12-03 Method and machining device by combined addition of material and shaping KR20140109919A (en)

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CN104470678B (en) 2017-03-01

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