KR20140066258A - Video display modification based on sensor input for a see-through near-to-eye display - Google Patents

Video display modification based on sensor input for a see-through near-to-eye display Download PDF

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Publication number
KR20140066258A
KR20140066258A KR1020147011240A KR20147011240A KR20140066258A KR 20140066258 A KR20140066258 A KR 20140066258A KR 1020147011240 A KR1020147011240 A KR 1020147011240A KR 20147011240 A KR20147011240 A KR 20147011240A KR 20140066258 A KR20140066258 A KR 20140066258A
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KR
South Korea
Prior art keywords
user
eyepiece
embodiments
image
sensor
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KR1020147011240A
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Korean (ko)
Inventor
존 디 하딕
랄프 에프 오스터하우트
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마이크로소프트 코포레이션
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Priority to US201161539269P priority Critical
Priority to US61/539,269 priority
Application filed by 마이크로소프트 코포레이션 filed Critical 마이크로소프트 코포레이션
Priority to PCT/US2012/057387 priority patent/WO2013049248A2/en
Publication of KR20140066258A publication Critical patent/KR20140066258A/en

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B27/00Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus
    • G02B27/01Head-up displays
    • G02B27/017Head mounted
    • G02B27/0172Head mounted characterised by optical features
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B27/00Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus
    • G02B27/0093Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus with means for monitoring data relating to the user, e.g. head-tracking, eye-tracking
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B27/00Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus
    • G02B27/01Head-up displays
    • G02B27/017Head mounted
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B27/00Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus
    • G02B27/01Head-up displays
    • G02B27/017Head mounted
    • G02B27/0176Head mounted characterised by mechanical features
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F1/00Details not covered by groups G06F3/00 – G06F13/00 and G06F21/00
    • G06F1/16Constructional details or arrangements
    • G06F1/1613Constructional details or arrangements for portable computers
    • G06F1/163Wearable computers, e.g. on a belt
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/011Arrangements for interaction with the human body, e.g. for user immersion in virtual reality
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/16Sound input; Sound output
    • G06F3/167Audio in a user interface, e.g. using voice commands for navigating, audio feedback
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B27/00Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus
    • G02B27/01Head-up displays
    • G02B27/0101Head-up displays characterised by optical features
    • G02B2027/0112Head-up displays characterised by optical features comprising device for genereting colour display
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B27/00Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus
    • G02B27/01Head-up displays
    • G02B27/0101Head-up displays characterised by optical features
    • G02B2027/0118Head-up displays characterised by optical features comprising devices for improving the contrast of the display / brillance control visibility

Abstract

The present disclosure relates to an NFC device including a near field communication (NFC) enabled electronic device, wherein the wrist wearing NFC enabled electronic device includes a first communication link for communicating with a second NFC enabled electronic device via an NFC protocol, And a second communication link that communicates with the eyepiece via a medium-range communication protocol and receives a control command. The wrist-worn NFC-enabled electronic device facilitates the transfer of data between the eyepiece and the second NFC-enabled electronic device. The eyepiece includes an optical system that enables a perspective display in which data is displayed.

Description

VIDEO DISPLAY MODIFICATION BASED ON SENSOR INPUT FOR SEE-THROUGH NEAR-TO-EYE DISPLAY BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION [0001]

Cross reference of related application

This application claims priority based on the following US patent applications, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety:

U. S. Patent Application No. 61 / 539,269, filed September 26,

This application is a continuation-in-part of the following US patent applications, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety:

U.S. Provisional Application No. 13 / 591,187, filed on August 21, 2012, which claims the benefit of the following provisional applications (each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety): As of August 3, 2012 Filed U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 679,522; U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 679,558, filed August 3, 2012; U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 679,542, filed August 3, 2012; U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 679,578, filed August 3, 2012; U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 679,601, filed August 3, 2012; U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 679,541, filed August 3, 2012; U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 679,548, filed August 3, 2012; U. S. Patent Application No. 61 / 679,550, filed August 3, 2012; U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 679,557, filed August 3, 2012; And U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 679,566, filed August 3, 2012; U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 644,078, filed May 8, 2012; U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 670,457, filed July 11, 2012; And U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 674,689, filed July 23,

U.S. Application Serial No. 13 / 441,145, filed April 6, 2012, which claims the benefit of the following provisional application (each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety): As of February 14, 2012 Filed U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 598,885; U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 598,889, filed February 14, 2012; U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 598,896, filed February 14, 2012; And U. S. Patent Application No. 61 / 604,917, filed February 29,

U.S. Application Serial No. 13 / 429,413, filed March 25, 2012, which claims the benefit of the following provisional application (each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety): As of January 6, 2012 Filed U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 584,029.

U.S. Application Serial No. 13 / 341,758, filed December 30, 2011, which claims the benefit of the following provisional application (each of which is incorporated herein by reference): As of November 8, 2011 Filed U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 557,289.

U.S. Application Serial No. 13 / 232,930, filed September 14, 2011, which claims the benefit of the following provisional application (each of which is incorporated herein by reference): as of September 14, 2010 Filed U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 382,578; U. S. Patent Application No. 61 / 472,491, filed April 6, 2011; U. S. Patent Application No. 61 / 483,400, filed May 6, 2011; U. S. Patent Application No. 61 / 487,371, filed May 18, 2011; And U. S. Patent Application No. 61 / 504,513, filed July 5,

Each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety for all purposes to the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 13 / 037,324, filed February 28, 2011, the benefit of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety, U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 13 / 037,335, filed on February 28, U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 308,973, filed February 28, 2010; U. S. Patent Application No. 61 / 373,791, filed August 13, 2010; U. S. Patent Application No. 61 / 382,578, filed September 14, 2010; U. S. Patent Application No. 61 / 410,983, filed November 8, 2010; U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 429,445, filed January 3, 2011; And U. S. Patent Application No. 61 / 429,447, filed January 3,

Field:

The present disclosure relates to an augmented reality eyepiece, associated control techniques, and applications for use, and more particularly to a software application program running on an eyepiece.

The present disclosure relates to thin display technology that uses a switchable mirror in a sequenced pattern to provide images from a waveguide.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION [0002] Head mounted displays having reflecting surfaces are known in the art. A head mounted display having an angled single partial reflecting beam splitter plate is described in U.S. Patent No. 4969714. [ While this approach provides excellent brightness and color uniformity over the display field of view, the optical system is relatively thick due to the angled beam splitter plate.

A head mounted display having an array of partial reflective surfaces to provide a thinner optical system is described in US Patent Nos. 6829095 and 7724441, shown in Fig. 124, and an array of partial reflective surfaces 12408 Is used to provide an image light 12404 over the display field to allow the user to view the displayed image associated with the view of the environment in front of the user. The image light 12404 viewed by the user consists of a combination of light reflected from each of the plurality of partial reflective surfaces 12408. [ Light 12402 from an image source is passed through a number of partial reflective surfaces 12408 where a portion of light 12402 is reflected toward the user's eye to provide image light 12404 must do it. In order to provide a uniform image over the display field of view, the reflection characteristics of the partial reflective surfaces 12408 must be precisely controlled. The reflectivity of the partial reflective surfaces 12408 should be lowest for the surfaces closest to the image light source and highest for the furthest surfaces from the image light source. In general, the reflectivity of the partially reflective surfaces 12408 must increase linearly with distance from the image source. This causes manufacturing and cost problems because the reflectivity of each partial reflective surface 12408 is different from neighboring surfaces and the reflectivity of each surface must be tightly controlled. Accordingly, it is difficult to use an array of partial reflective surfaces to provide images with uniform brightness and hue throughout the display field of view.

As another alternative, a diffractive grating may be used to direct the image light into and out of a waveguide toward the display field, as described in U.S. Patent No. 4,711,512. Is used. However, the diffraction grating is expensive and undergoes color aberration.

Thus, there is a need for a relatively thin optical system for a head mounted display that also provides good image brightness and color uniformity across the display field of view.

The present disclosure also relates to a lightweight frontlight that includes a wire grid polarizer film as a partial reflective surface to deflect illumination light down toward a reflective image source. ).

133, the illumination light 13308 exits the edge light source 13300 and is deflected by the forward illumination 13304 to produce a reflected image light source (e.g., 13302). The illumination light 13308 is then reflected from the reflection image light source 13302 to be an image light 13310. The image light 13310 then passes through the front illumination 13304 again to enter the display optics. Accordingly, the forward illumination 13304 simultaneously deflects the illumination light 13308 incoming from the edge light source 13300 and allows the reflected image light 13310 to pass through without being biased to enter the display optics Wherein the display optics may be dispersive when the display is a flat screen display or may be refractive or diffractive when the display is a near- have. In this embodiment, the display optical system may include a diffuser.

For a reflected image light source such as a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) image light source, the illumination light is polarized and the reflected image light source is a quarter wave retardation film that changes the polarization state during reflection from the reflected image light source. ). A polarizer is then included in the display optics to allow the polarization effect imparted by the liquid crystal to form an image as the image light passes through the display optics.

U.S. Patent No. 7,163,330 discloses a method of forming a groove in an upper surface of a front illuminator for deflecting light from an edge light source toward a reflective image light source downwardly between grooves for allowing reflected image light to enter the display optical system Along with a flat section of the front lighting. Fig. 134 shows an example of a front illumination 13400 with a groove 13410 and a flat section 13408. Fig. The illumination light 13402 from the edge light source 13300 is reflected from the groove 13410 and deflected downward to illuminate the reflection image light source 13302. [ The image light 13404 is reflected from the reflected image light source 13302 and passes through the flat section 13408 of the front illumination 13400. Linear and curved grooves 13410 are described. However, in order for grooves 13410 to effectively deflect illumination light 13402, groove 13410 must occupy a significant area of the front illumination, thereby limiting the area of flat section 13408, And deteriorates the image quality provided to the display optical system due to light scattering from the groove when passing through the groove. Front light 13400 is typically formed of a solid plate of material, and may therefore be relatively heavy.

In US 7545571 a polarization beam splitter 13502 is provided for deflecting and polarizing the illumination light 13504 supplied by the edge light source 13500 onto the reflected image light source 13502, a wearable display system including a reflective image light source 13502 having a splitter 13512 as front illumination is proposed. Polarizing beam splitter 13512 is an angled plane in a solid block with a separate curved reflector 13514 that is associated with edge light source 13500. Curved reflector 13514 may be a total internal reflection block 13510 coupled to polarization beam splitter 13512. [ Accordingly, the front lighting disclosed in this patent with the solid block and the total internal reflection block of the polarizing beam splitter provides large and relatively heavy front lighting. In addition, Figure 135 also shows an image light ray 13508. [

There is a need to provide front lighting for a display that provides good image quality with little scattered light and is also small and lightweight and has a reflective image light source.

The disclosure also relates to an optically flat surface made of an optical film. More specifically, the present disclosure provides a method of manufacturing an optically planar beam splitter using an optical film.

Optical films can be obtained for various purposes, including beam splitters, polarizing beam splitters, holographic reflectors, and mirrors. In imaging applications, and particularly in reflective imaging applications, it is important to define the optical film as very flat to maintain the wavefront of the image. Any optical film with a pressure sensitive adhesive on one side is available to allow the optical film to adhere to the substrate for structural support and to help keep the optical film flat. However, the optical film attached to the substrate in this manner tends to have a surface with small undulations and pockmarks (called orange peels), which may result in optical surface flatness optical flatness, and as a result, the reflected image is deteriorated.

In U.S. Patent Application No. 20090052030, a method of manufacturing an optical film in which the optical film is a wire grid polarizer is provided. However, a technique for providing a film having optical flatness is not provided.

U.S. Patent Nos. 4537739 and 4643789 provide a method of attaching artwork to a molded structure using a strip to carry the artwork in a mold. However, these methods do not anticipate specific requirements for optical films.

In U.S. Patent Application No. 20090261490 there is provided a method of making a simple optical article comprising an optical film and a molding. This method relates to the curved surface generated since the method involves a limitation on the ratio of radius of curvature to diameter to avoid wrinkles in the film due to deformation of the film during molding. The specific requirements for producing optically flat surfaces with optical films are not addressed.

In U.S. Patent No. 7820081, a method of laminating a functional film to a lens is provided. This method uses a thermally cured adhesive to bond the functional film to the lens. However, this process involves thermoforming the optical film while the lens is at a high temperature so that the optical film, the adhesive, and the lens are deformed together during the bonding process. Accordingly, this method is not suitable for producing an optically smooth surface.

Therefore, there is a need for a method of using an optical film so that the surface including the optical film has optical flatness.

In embodiments, the eyepiece may include an internal software application running on an integrated multimedia computing facility configured to interact with the 3D augmented reality (AR) content display and the eyepiece. 3D AR software applications may be developed with mobile applications and may be provided as stand-alone applications targeting the eyepiece either through the application store (s) or specifically as an end-use platform, and through a dedicated 3D AR eyepiece store . The internal software application may be accessed via equipment inside and outside the eyepiece (such as those initiated from sensing devices, user motion capture devices, internal processing equipment, internal multimedia processing equipment, other internal applications, cameras, sensors, Through the transceiver, through the tactile interface, with the input and output facilities provided by the eyepiece, from external computing facilities, external applications, events and / or data feeds, external devices, third parties, Commands and control modes that operate in relation to the eyepiece can be initiated by sensing input through the input device, user actions, external device interaction, receiving events and / or data feeds, executing internal applications, executing external applications, have. In embodiments, at least an event and / or data feed, a sense input and / or sense device, a user action capture input and / or output, a user movement and / or action to control and / An application on a platform on which the command can be used to respond to input, a communication and / or connection from an on-platform interface to an external system and / or device, an external device, an external application, There may be a series of steps included in the execution control provided through the internal software application, including the combination of two of the feedback (the external device, the external application, etc.) to the user or the like.

The present disclosure also provides a method of providing a relatively thin optical system that provides images with improved brightness and color uniformity over the display field of view. The present disclosure includes an integral array of narrow switchable mirrors across a display area to provide a display field of view and to reflect portions of light from an image light source to present sequential portions of the image to a user, Switchable mirrors are used sequentially. By quickly switching narrow transparent mirrors from transparent to reflective in a repeating sequence, the user recognizes portions of the image that will be combined into the overall image as presented by the image light source. If each of the narrow switchable mirrors is switched to more than 60 Hz, the user does not recognize flicker in portions of the image.

Various embodiments of arrays of narrowly switchable mirrors are shown. In one embodiment, the switchable mirror is a liquid crystal switchable mirror. In another embodiment, the switchable mirror is a moveable prism element that uses an air gap to provide a convertible internal total reflection mirror.

In an alternative embodiment, not all of the switchable mirrors are used in the sequence, but instead the switchable mirrors are used as the selected group, which changes based on the eye distance of the user.

The present disclosure also provides a small, lightweight frontal illumination that includes the wire grid polarizing film as a partial reflective surface to deflect the illumination light down toward the reflective image light source. The edge light source is polarized, and the wire grid polarizer is oriented so that the illumination light is reflected and the image light enters the display optics. By using a flexible wire grid polarizing film, the present disclosure provides a partially reflective surface that can be curved to focus illumination light onto a reflected image light source, thereby improving efficiency and improving uniformity of image brightness. The wire grid polarizer also has very low light scattering because the image light passes through the front illumination and continues to the display optics, thus maintaining the image quality. In addition, since the partially reflective surface is a wire grid polarizing film, most of the front lighting is made up of air, so that the front lighting is much lighter in weight.

The present disclosure also provides a method of making a surface having optical flatness when using an optical film. In embodiments of the present disclosure, the optical film may comprise a beam splitter, a polarizing beam splitter, a wire grid polarizer, a mirror, a partial mirror, or a holographic film. An advantage provided by the present disclosure is that the surface of the optical film is optically flat so that the wavefront of the light is maintained to provide improved image quality.

In certain embodiments, the present disclosure provides an image display system that includes an optically flat optical film. The optically planar optical film includes a substrate that maintains the optical film optically flat in a display module housing having an image light source and a viewing location. The image provided by the image light source is reflected from the optical film to the viewing position and the substrate with the optical film is replaceable within the display module housing.

In other embodiments of the present disclosure, the optical film is attached to the molded structure, and thus the optical film is part of the display module housing.

In a prior art display 18700 having a reflected image light source 18720 and a solid beam splitter cube frontlight 18718 as shown in Figure 187, light 18712 is incident on a light source 18702 ) Into diffuser 18704 and the light is more uniform in diffuser 18704 to provide illumination light 18714. [ The illumination light 18714 is redirected by the partially reflective layer 18708, thereby illuminating the reflected image light source 18720. The illumination light 18714 is then reflected from the reflected image light source 18720 and becomes an image light 18710 which is then passed through the partial reflective layer 18708 to present an image to an observer. (Not shown). Accordingly, the solid beam splitter cube 18718 simultaneously redirects the illumination light 18714 and allows the reflected image light 18710 to pass undirected so that it can enter the imaging optics, The optical system may be dispersive when the display is a flat screen display or it may be refracting or diffracting when the display is a projector or near vision display.

In the case of a reflective image light source such as a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) image light source, the illumination light is polarized, and the reflected image light source is polarized based on the image content provided by the image light source when the illumination light is reflected from the reflected image light source. Thereby forming an image light. An analyzer polarizer is then included which allows the imaging light to pass through the imaging optics and cause the polarization effect provided by the LCOS to form an image when the image is presented to an observer.

U.S. Patent No. 7545571 discloses a wearable display system that includes as a front illumination a reflected image light source having a polarizing beam splitter for deflecting and polarizing illumination light supplied by an edge light source onto a reflected image light source. The polarizing beam splitter is an angular plane in the solid block with a separate curved reflector associated with the edge light source. The curved reflector may be an internal total reflection block connected to the polarization beam splitter. Accordingly, the front lighting disclosed in this patent with the solid block and the total internal reflection block of the polarizing beam splitter provides large and relatively heavy front lighting.

U.S. Patent No. 6,195,136 discloses a series of frontlight illumination methods for use with reflective image light sources. A method of using a curved beam splitter to make the front lighting smaller is disclosed. However, the curved beam splitter is located quite far away from the image light source to reduce the angle of light from the light source (which is later reflected by the beam splitter towards the image light source). Further, the light is provided only on one side of the front light, and therefore the size of the beam splitter must be at least as large as the image light source. As a result, when the overall size of the front illumination is measured along the optical axis, it is still relatively large compared to the illuminated area on the image light source.

There is a need to provide front lighting for a display having a reflective image light source that provides good image quality with little scattered light and is also small, efficient, and lightweight.

The present disclosure provides a small, efficient, and lightweight front light to the display assembly that includes a partial reflective surface for redirecting illumination light from a side light source toward a reflective image light source, The size of the assembly is substantially smaller than the width of the reflected reflection image light source. In certain embodiments, the partial reflective surface may be curved to focus or focus light from the light source onto the reflective image light source. The polarizing beam splitter film can be used as a curved partial reflecting surface so that the light source can be polarized and the illumination light can be redirected and the reflected video light can enter the imaging optics. The polarizing beam splitter film is lightweight and has a very low light scattering because the image light passes through the front illumination and continues to the display optical system, thus the image quality is maintained.

In other embodiments of the present disclosure, a light source is provided on opposite sides of the forward illumination such that light is provided at the opposite edges of the reflective image light source. In this case, the partially reflecting surface consists of two surfaces, one surface deflecting the illumination light from one light source towards one half of the image light source, and the other surface deflecting the light towards the other half of the image light source . In this embodiment, the partially reflective surface may be curved or flat.

In a further embodiment of the present disclosure, the partial reflective surface is a polarizing beam splitter, in which the light source is polarized and thus the light from the light source is first redirected by the polarizing beam splitter, then reflected by the reflected image light source, Lt; / RTI >

In another embodiment, the light from the light source is unpolarized, so that the polarization beam splitter reflects one polarization state of light to illuminate half of the reflected image light source while the other polarization state of light is transmitted. The transmitted polarization state of light enters the opposite side of the front illumination, where light is recirculated. Recirculation of the transmitted polarization state can be done by passing through the quarter wave film and reflecting off the mirror so that light passes again through the quarter wave film and thereby changes the polarization state. After the polarization state of the transmitted and reflected light changes, the light is redirected by the polarization beam splitter to illuminate the other half of the reflected image light source. In an alternative embodiment, the light from the two sidelights of the front illumination functions in a complementary manner, wherein the transmitted polarization state of light from the opposite side is unpolarized when interacting with the diffuser on the opposite side And is thereby recirculated.

In yet another embodiment of the present disclosure, a method is provided for manufacturing a front lighting with a flexible partial reflective film. The flexible film may be either supported at the edges and freestanding on the reflective image light source or the flexible film may be clamped between two or more solid solid pieces that are transparent. The solid side piece may be formed before being placed in contact with the flexible film. The solid single piece can hold the flexible film in a flat shape or a curved shape. In yet another embodiment, the flexible film may be supported at the edge, and then the solid side piece may be cast in place such that the flexible film is embedded in a transparent solid material.

In one embodiment, the system includes an interactive head-mounted eyepiece worn by the user, the eyepiece includes an optical assembly through which a user views the surrounding environment and the displayed content, An integrated processor that processes content for display to a user, an integrated image light source that directs the content into an optical assembly, and the processor is configured to modify the content, the modification being made in response to the sensor input. The content may be a video image. These modifications include adjusting the brightness, adjusting the color saturation, adjusting the color balance, adjusting the color hue, adjusting the video resolution, transparency Adjusting the compression ratio, adjusting the frame rate per second, isolating a portion of the video, stopping playback of the video, pausing the video, or restarting the video It can be one. The sensor input may be a charge-coupled device, a black silicon sensor, an IR sensor, an acoustic sensor, an induction sensor, a motion sensor, an optical sensor, an opacity sensor, a capacitive sensor, a capacitive displacement sensor, a Hall effect sensor, a magnetic sensor, a GPS sensor, a thermal image sensor, a thermocouple, a thermistor, a thermoelectric sensor, an inductive sensor, an eddy current sensor, a passive infrared proximity sensor, Ultrasonic 3D motion sensor, accelerometer, inclinometer, force sensor, piezoelectric sensor, rotary encoder, linear encoder, chemical sensor, ozone sensor, smoke sensor, ultrasonic sensor, ultrasonic sensor, infrared laser sensor, inertial motion sensor, MEMS internal motion sensor, A sensor, a magnetometer, a carbon dioxide detector, a carbon monoxide detector, an oxygen sensor, a glucose sensor, a smoke detector, a metal detector, a rain sensor, an altimeter, (E.g., a billboard), a landmark detector (e.g., a geographical location marker for advertising), a laser range finder, a sonar, a capacitance, an optical response, a heart rate sensor, Or an RF / MIR (micropower impulse radio) sensor. The playback of the content may be interrupted in response to an indication from the accelerometer input that the user's head is moving. Audio sensor input can be generated by at least one participant in the videoconference talking. The visual sensor input may be a video image of at least one participant of the videoconference or a video image of a visual presentation. This modification may be at least one of making the video image more transparent or less transparent in response to an indication from the sensor that the user is moving.

In one embodiment, the system may include an interactive head mounted eyepiece worn by a user, the eyepiece may include an optical assembly through which a user views the surrounding environment and the displayed content, an integrated assembly A processor, an integrated image light source processor for importing content into the optical assembly, the processor configured to modify the content, the modification being made in response to the sensor input; And an integrated video image capturing facility that provides content for recording and displaying the appearance of the surrounding environment.

These and other systems, methods, objects, features, and advantages of the present disclosure will become apparent to those skilled in the art from the following detailed description and drawings of the embodiments.

All documents referred to herein are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. Unless expressly stated otherwise or clear from the text, reference to an item in singular is to be understood as including a plurality of items, and vice versa. Unless otherwise stated or clear from the context, a grammatical conjunction is to be understood as representing all logical AND combinations of combined clauses, sentences, words, and so on.

The following detailed description of certain embodiments of the present disclosure and the present disclosure can be understood with reference to the following drawings.
1 illustrates an exemplary embodiment of an optical configuration;
Figure 2 shows an RGB LED projector.
3 shows a projector in use;
Figure 4 shows one embodiment of a waveguide and a correction lens disposed in a frame.
5 shows a design for a waveguide eyepiece.
6 illustrates one embodiment of an eyepiece having a see-through lens;
7 shows an embodiment of an eyepiece having a perspective lens;
Figures 8a-8c illustrate embodiments of eyepieces arranged in a flip-up / flip-down configuration.
8D and 8E illustrate embodiments of a snap-fit element of a secondary optic.
Figure 8f illustrates embodiments of flip-up / flip-down electro-optic modules.
9 is a view showing an electrochromic layer of an eyepiece;
Figure 10 illustrates advantages of an eyepiece in real-time image enhancement, keystone correction, and virtual perspective correction.
11 is a plot of the responsivity versus wavelength for three substrates;
12 shows performance of a black silicon sensor.
FIG. 13A is a diagram showing a conventional night vision system, FIG. 13B is a diagram showing a night vision system of the present disclosure, and FIG. 13C is a diagram showing a difference in responsiveness between the two.
14 shows a tactile interface of an eyepiece;
Figure 14a illustrates movement in an embodiment of an eyepiece featuring nod control;
15 shows a ring for controlling an eyepiece;
15aa illustrates, in one embodiment, a ring that controls an eyepiece having an integral camera that allows a user to provide his or her video image as part of a video conference.
15A is a view of a hand mounted sensor in an embodiment of a virtual mouse.
Figure 15B shows a facial actuation sensor mounted on an eyepiece;
15C is a diagram illustrating hand pointing control of an eyepiece;
15D is a view showing hand pointing control of the eyepiece;
15E is a diagram showing an example of eye tracking control;
15F is a view showing hand position determination control of the eyepiece.
Figure 16 illustrates a position-based application mode of an eyepiece.
17 is a diagram showing the difference in image quality between the flexible platform of an uncooled CMOS image sensor capable of VIS / NIR / SWIR imaging and B) an image intensified night vision system.
18 shows an augmented reality-supported custom billboard;
19 illustrates an augmented reality-supported customized advertisement;
20 illustrates augmented reality-supported custom artwork.
20A is a diagram illustrating a method for posting a message to be transmitted when an observer reaches a specific place;
21 is a view showing an alternative configuration of an eyepiece optical system and an electronic device;
22 is a view showing an alternative configuration of an eyepiece optical system and an electronic device;
22A is a view showing an eyepiece having an example of an eyeglow;
22B is a cross-sectional view of an eyepiece having a light control element for reducing glare;
23 is a view showing an alternative configuration of an eyepiece optical system and an electronic device.
24 is a view showing the lock position of the virtual keyboard;
Figure 24A illustrates one embodiment of an image that is virtually projected on a portion of a human body;
25 is a view showing a detailed view of the projector.
26 is a view showing a detailed view of an RGB LED module;
27 shows a game network;
28 is a view showing a method of playing a game using an augmented reality glasses.
29 illustrates an exemplary electronic circuit diagram for an augmented reality eyepiece;
29A is a diagram showing a control circuit for eye tracking control of an external apparatus.
29B illustrates a communication network between users of an augmented reality eyepiece;
30 shows partial image removal by an eyepiece;
31 is a flowchart of a method for identifying a person based on a person's voice captured by a microphone of an augmented reality device;
32 illustrates a typical camera for use in a video telephone or video conference;
33 shows an embodiment of a block diagram of a video telephone camera;
Figures 34A-34E illustrate embodiments of eyepieces for optical or digital stabilization.
35 illustrates one embodiment of a classic cassegrain configuration;
36 is a view showing a configuration of a micro-cassegrain telescoping folded optical camera;
37 is a view showing a swipe process by a virtual keyboard;
38 shows a target marker process for a virtual keyboard;
Figure 38A illustrates one embodiment of a visual word translator.
39 is a view of glasses for capturing biometric data according to an embodiment;
40 is a view showing iris recognition using biometric data capturing glasses according to one embodiment;
41 illustrates face and iris recognition according to one embodiment;
Figure 42 illustrates the use of a dual omni-microphone in accordance with one embodiment.
Figure 43 is a diagram illustrating directionality improvement by a plurality of microphones;
Figure 44 illustrates the use of an adaptive array to tune an audio capture facility in accordance with one embodiment;
45 illustrates a mosaic finger and palm registration system in accordance with one embodiment;
46 shows a conventional optical scheme used by other finger and palm printing systems;
Figure 47 illustrates a method used by a mosaic sensor in accordance with one embodiment;
48 illustrates a device layout of a mosaic sensor according to one embodiment;
49 is a view showing the number of camera view fields and cameras used in the mosaic sensor according to another embodiment;
50 illustrates a bio-phone and a tactical computer in accordance with an embodiment;
Figure 51 illustrates the use of a biophone and tactical computer for capturing latent fingerprints and palm prints according to one embodiment;
52 illustrates a typical DOMEX collection;
53 is a diagram illustrating a relationship between biometric images captured using a biophone and a tactical computer and a biometric watch list according to an embodiment;
54 illustrates a pocket bio-kit according to one embodiment.
55 illustrates components of a pocket biotic kit according to one embodiment.
56 illustrates a fingerprint, a long portal, a geographic location, and a POI registration device, according to one embodiment.
57A-57E illustrate a multi-mode biometric collection, identification, geolocation, and POI registration system, according to one embodiment.
58 illustrates a fingerprint, a long pass, a geographic location, and a POI registered forearm wearable device, according to one embodiment.
59 shows a mobile folding biometric registration kit according to one embodiment;
60 is a high-level system diagram of a biometric registration kit according to an embodiment;
61 is a system diagram of a folding biometric registration device according to one embodiment;
62 illustrates a thin film fingerprint and long-range sensor according to one embodiment;
63 illustrates a biometric collection device for finger, palm, and registration data collection, according to one embodiment.
64 illustrates acquisition of a two stage palm print according to one embodiment;
65 illustrates capture of a fingertip tap in accordance with one embodiment;
Figure 66 illustrates acquisition of a slap and roll print according to one embodiment;
67 shows a system for collecting non-contact fingerprints, long or other biometric prints;
68 shows a process for collecting non-contact fingerprints, long or other biometric prints;
69 shows an embodiment of a clock controller;
Figures 70A-70D illustrate exemplary cases for an eyepiece including a charging function and an integral display.
71 illustrates one embodiment of a ground stake data system;
72 is a block diagram of a control mapping system including an eyepiece;
73 shows a biometric flashlight;
74 shows a helmet-mounted version of an eyepiece;
75 illustrates an embodiment of a situation-aware eyeglass.
FIG. 76A is a view showing an assembled 360 ° imager, and FIG. 76B is a broken view of a 360 ° imager.
77 is an exploded view of a multi-coincident view camera;
78A and 78B are diagrams showing a flight eye;
79 is an exploded top view of an eyepiece;
80 shows a disassembled electro-optical assembly;
81 is an exploded view of a shaft of an electro-optical assembly;
82 illustrates one embodiment of an optical display system that utilizes a planar lighting fixture with a reflective display;
83 shows a structural embodiment of a planar illumination optical system;
84 shows an embodiment assembly of a planar lighting fixture and a reflective display with laser spot suppression components;
85 shows an embodiment of a planar lighting fixture having a grooved feature for redirecting light;
86 illustrates one embodiment of a planar lighting fixture having a pair of grooved features and a " anti-grooved " feature to reduce image aberration.
87 shows one embodiment of a planar lighting fixture made of a laminate structure;
88 illustrates one embodiment of a planar lighting fixture having a wedged optic assembly for redirecting light;
89 is a block diagram of a lighting module according to one embodiment of the present disclosure;
90 is a block diagram of an optical frequency converter according to one embodiment of the present disclosure;
91 is a block diagram of a laser illumination module in accordance with one embodiment of the present disclosure;
92 is a block diagram of a laser illumination system in accordance with another embodiment of the present disclosure;
93 is a block diagram of an imaging system in accordance with one embodiment of the present disclosure;
94A and 94B are top and side views, respectively, of a lens having a photochromic element and a heater element;
95 illustrates one embodiment of a LCoS forward lighting design;
96 is a view of an optically bonded prism optically bonded to a polarizer;
97 is a view showing a prism optically bonded to a polarizer;
98a-c illustrate multiple embodiments of a LCoS frontal lighting design.
99 shows a wedge + OBS overlaid on a LCoS;
Figures 100a and 100b show two versions of the wedge.
101 shows a curved PBS film on an LCoS chip;
102A illustrates one embodiment of an optical assembly;
102B illustrates one embodiment of an optical assembly having an in-line camera.
103 shows an embodiment of an image light source;
104 shows an embodiment of an image light source;
105 shows embodiments of an image light source;
106 is a high-level block diagram depicting a software application program facility and market in connection with the function and control aspects of the eyepiece in one embodiment of the present disclosure;
107 is a functional block diagram of an eyepiece application development environment in an embodiment of the present disclosure;
108 is a view of a platform elements development stack for a software application of an eyepiece in an embodiment of the present disclosure;
109 illustrates a head-mounted display with see-through capability, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure;
110 is a view showing a view of an unlabeled scene viewed through the head mounted display shown in FIG. 109; FIG.
Figure 111 shows a view of the scene of Figure 110 with 2D labels overlaid.
112 is a view showing the 3D label of FIG. 111 displayed on the left eye of the observer; FIG.
113 is a view showing the 3D label of FIG. 111 displayed on the observer's right side; FIG.
114 shows left and right 3D labels of FIG. 111 overlapped with each other to show discrepancies; FIG.
115 shows a view of the scene of FIG. 110 with a 3D label; FIG.
116 is a view showing a captured stereoscopic image of the scene of FIG. 110; FIG.
117 shows the overlaid left and right stereoscopic images of FIG. 116 showing discrepancies between images; FIG.
118 shows a scene of FIG. 110 showing an overlaid 3D label; FIG.
119 is a flow chart for a depth cue method embodiment of the present disclosure that provides a 3D label;
120 is a flowchart for another depth cue method embodiment of the present disclosure that provides a 3D label;
121 is a flow chart for another depth cue method embodiment of the present disclosure that provides a 3D label;
122 is a flow chart for another depth cue method embodiment of the present disclosure that provides a 3D label;
123a illustrates a processor that provides display sequential frames for image display through a display component;
123B shows a display interface configured to omit the display driver;
124 is a schematic view of a prior art waveguide having a plurality of partial reflectors;
125 is a schematic view of a waveguide having a plurality of electrically switchable mirrors in a first position;
125A is a view of a waveguide assembly having an electrical connection;
126 is a schematic view of a waveguide having a plurality of electrically switchable mirrors in a second position;
127 is a schematic view of a waveguide having a plurality of electrically switchable mirrors in a third position;
128 is a schematic view of a waveguide having a plurality of mechanically switchable mirrors in a first position;
128a is a schematic diagram of a waveguide assembly having a microactuator and associated hardware;
129 is a schematic view of a waveguide having a plurality of mechanically switchable mirrors in a second position;
130 is a schematic view of a waveguide having a plurality of mechanically switchable mirrors in a third position;
131A and 131B show a waveguide display with a switchable mirror on the face of the user;
Figures 132a-132c show display areas provided for users with different eye gaps.
133 is a schematic view of a reflected image light source having an edge light source and a forward illumination, showing the passage of light rays of light;
134 is a schematic view of a prior art front lighting comprising a groove;
135 is a schematic diagram of a prior art front illumination including a planar polarizing beam splitter and a curved reflector in a solid block;
136 is a schematic diagram of one embodiment of the present disclosure having a single edge light source and a curved wire grid polarizing film.
137 is a schematic diagram of one embodiment of the present disclosure having two edge light sources and a curved wire grid polarizing film.
138 is a schematic view of a side frame holding a flexible wire grid polarizing film in a desired curved shape;
139 is a flow chart of a method of the present disclosure.
140 is a schematic diagram of a near-eye imaging system having a beam splitter;
141 is a schematic diagram of an optical system module for a near vision system;
Figure 142 shows a pellicle style optical plate.
143 is a view of an insert molded module housing having an embedded optical plate;
144 shows compression molding of a laminate style optical plate;
Figures 145a-c illustrate attachment of an optical film within a molded module housing.
146 is a schematic front perspective view of an AR eyepiece (without eyepiece leg portion) according to one embodiment of the present disclosure;
147 is a schematic rear perspective view of the AR eyepiece of FIG. 146;
Figure 148 is a schematic rear perspective view of the right side of the wearer of the AR eyepiece of Figure 146;
149 is a schematic rear perspective view of the right side of the wearer of the AR eyepiece of FIG. 146;
150 is a schematic perspective view of the components of the AR eyepiece shown in FIG. 146 to support one of the projection screens;
151 is a schematic perspective view of the adjustment platform of the AR eyepiece shown in FIG. 146;
152 is a schematic perspective view of the components of the lateral adjustment mechanism of the AR eyepiece shown in FIG. 146;
Figure 153 is a schematic perspective view of the components of a tilt adjustment mechanism of the AR eyepiece shown in Figure 146;
154 is a chart showing dark adaptation curves for human eyes;
FIG. 155 is a chart showing the effect of progressively reducing the illuminance on the dark adaptation curve to the human eye. FIG.
156 shows a head-mounted display having a perspective function;
157 is a graph showing the relationship between display brightness and time when entering a dark environment;
158 is a flowchart of a dark adaptation method;
Figure 159 shows a virtual keyboard presented in the field of view of the user.
160 shows an example of a display system having an optically flat reflective surface;
161 is a diagram showing an example of a near vision display module;
Figure 162 illustrates an example of an optical system associated with one type of head mounted display.
Figure 163 shows an example in which a baffle is added between the illumination beam splitter and the lens in the interior of the housing;
164 illustrates an example of another embodiment of the present disclosure in which a baffle is added to the entrance surface of the lens;
165 illustrates an example of another embodiment of the present disclosure in which a baffle is added to the exit of the lens;
Figure 166 illustrates an example of another embodiment of the present disclosure in which the baffle is attached to the housing between the lens and the image beam splitter.
Figure 167 illustrates an example of a further embodiment of the present disclosure in which an absorbent coating is applied to a side wall of the housing.
168 shows an illustration of another source of stray light in a head mounted display wherein the stray light comes directly from the edge of the light source.
169 is a view showing that a stray light is reflected from an arbitrary reflective surface or an edge of a lens in a housing;
170 shows an illustration of another further embodiment of the present disclosure in which a baffle is provided adjacent to a light source;
Figure 171 illustrates that an absorbent coating with ridges may be used wherein a series of small ridges or stairs form a series of < RTI ID = 0.0 > It functions as a baffle.
172 shows a further embodiment of a tape or sheet comprising a carrier sheet and ridges that can be used to block reflected light;
Figure 173 is an exploded view of an embodiment of a pair of glasses.
Figure 174 shows a wiring design of a spectacle and a wire guide;
175 is an enlarged view of a wiring design of a spectacle and a wire guide;
176 (a) shows a wiring design of glasses and a broken view of a wire guide.
Fig. 176b shows a wiring design of glasses and a broken view of a wire guide; Fig.
Fig. 176c is a diagram showing the wiring design of glasses and a complete view of the wire guide; Fig.
177 is a view showing a U-shaped accessory for fixing glasses.
Figure 178 shows an embodiment of a cable-tensioned system for securing glasses to a user's head.
Figures 179a and 179b illustrate an embodiment of a cable-tensioning system for securing glasses to a user's head with a curved configuration.
180 illustrates one embodiment of a cable-tensioning system for securing glasses to a wearer's head;
Figure 181 shows an embodiment of a system for securing glasses to a user's head;
Figure 182 illustrates an embodiment of a system for securing glasses to a user's head.
Figure 183 shows an embodiment of a system for fixing glasses to a user's head.
Figure 184 illustrates an embodiment of a system for securing glasses to a user's head.
185a shows an embodiment of an optical train;
185B shows a sample ray trace for light in one embodiment of a light train;
Figure 186 illustrates one embodiment of an LCoS + ASIC package.
Figure 187 schematically illustrates a prior art front illumination using a single light source and a beam splitter cube;
Figure 188 schematically depicts a prior art frontlight using a single light source and a reflective beam splitter layer;
189 schematically shows a front light using a single light source, in which a flat reflective beam splitter layer is arranged at a reduced angle.
FIG. 190 schematically shows a front light using a single light source, wherein the reflective beam splitter layer is curved. FIG.
191 schematically shows a front light using a dual light source, wherein a curved reflective beam splitter film with a flat surface is disposed in a transparent solid body.
FIG. 192 schematically shows a front light using a dual light source, wherein a bent free-standing reflective beam splitter film having a flat surface is used.
Figure 193 schematically shows front illumination using a dual light source, wherein a curved free standing reflective beam splitter film with a curved surface is used.
Figure 194 is a schematic representation of front illumination using a dual light source, in which a curved reflective beam splitter film with a curved surface is disposed in a transparent medium.
195 is a schematic view of a front light using a single light source having opposing mirrors and a quarter wave film to recycle a portion of the polarized light, wherein the curved reflective beam splitter film having a flat surface is transparent Provided within the entity.
196 schematically depicts a frontal illumination using a single light source having opposite mirrors and quarter wave films to recycle a portion of the polarized light, wherein the free standing reflective polarizer beam splitter film with a flat surface Is provided.
197 is a schematic representation of a front light using a single light source having opposite mirrors and quarter wave films to recycle a portion of the polarized light, wherein the free standing reflective polarizer beam splitter film having a curved surface Is provided.
198 is a schematic view of a method of manufacturing a front illumination in which a curved reflective beam splitter film having a flat surface as shown in FIG. 197 is disposed in a transparent intermediate body, wherein a reflective beam splitter film is formed and arranged The upper and lower film holders are used and a portion of the polarized light is recycled.
199 is a schematic illustration of a front light, for use with a dual light source, produced using the method illustrated in FIG. 198 and in which a portion of the polarized light is recirculated;
200 schematically depicts a curved free standing reflective beam splitter film supported at the edge in a first step of a method of casting a solid frontlight;
201 is a schematic view of a hole for injecting transparent casting material and venting air in a method for casting solid front lighting.
202 schematically illustrates the casting of the upper portion of the cast solid front light.
Figure 203 is a schematic diagram showing the use of a flat transparent sheet to planarize the top of cast solid front lighting.
204 is a flowchart of a method of fabricating solid front lighting by assembly.
205 is a flowchart for a method of manufacturing solid front lighting by casting;
Figure 206 is a flow chart of a method for manufacturing a solid film holder using a multistage molding process.
207 shows an embodiment of a local communication clock;
Figure 208 illustrates one embodiment of a telecommunications clock that interfaces with a point-of-service (POS) device that supports point-to-point communication.
Figure 209 illustrates an embodiment of a point-of-service (POS) device that supports near-field communication and a short-range communication clock that interfaces with a user's smartphone.

The present disclosure relates to eyepiece electro-optics. The eyepiece may include a projection optics suitable for projecting an image on a see-through or translucent lens to allow the wearer of the eyepiece to view the displayed image as well as the surrounding environment. A projection optics, also referred to as a projector, may include an RGB LED module using a field sequential color. In a field sequential color, a single full color image is displayed on a color basis based on the primary colors of red, green, and blue, which are individually imaged by a liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) Can be decomposed into color fields. Since each color field is imaged by the optical display 210, the corresponding LED color is turned on. When these color fields are displayed in rapid succession, a full color image can be seen. In the field sequential color illumination, the projected image on the eyepiece can be adjusted for any chromatic aberration by shifting the red image for the blue and / or green image. The image can then be reflected into a two surface freeform waveguide, wherein the image light is reflected by the inner total reflection (TIR) until the user reaches the active viewing area of the lens viewing the image, ≪ / RTI > A processor, which may include memory and an operating system, may control the LED light source and the optical display. The projector may also include or be optically coupled to a display coupling lens, a condenser lens, a polarization beam splitter, and a field lens.

Referring to Figures 123A and 123B, a processor 12302 (e.g., a digital signal processor) is operatively coupled to display sequential frames for display of images through the display component 12328 of the eyepiece 100 (e.g., an LCOS display component) (12324). In embodiments, the sequential frames 12324 may be generated with or without the display driver 12312 as an intermediate component between the processor 12302 and the display component 12328. [ For example, referring to FIG. 123A, a processor 12302 may include a frame buffer 12304 and a display interface 12308 (e.g., mobile industry processor interface (MIPI)) along with a display serial interface (DSI) . Display interface 12308 may provide per pixel RGB data 12310 to display driver 12312 as an intermediate component between processor 12302 and display component 12328, RGB data 12310 per pixel to generate separate full frame display data for red 12318, green 12320 and blue 12322 and thus display sequential frames 12324 To the display component 12328. The display driver 12312 may provide a timing signal for synchronizing the transfer of the entire frames 12318, 12320 and 12322 to the display component 12328 as display sequential frames 12324, have. In another example, referring to Figure 123B, display interface 12330 may display full frame display data for red 12334, green 12338, and blue 12340 as display sequential frames 12324 as a display component 12328 in order to bypass the display driver 12312. In addition, a timing signal 12332 may be provided directly from the display interface 12330 to the display component. This configuration can provide significantly lower power consumption by eliminating the need for a display driver. Not only can this direct panel information eliminate the need for drivers, but it also simplifies the overall logic of the configuration and reshapes the panel information from the pixels, generating pixel information from the frame, It is possible to eliminate redundant memory.

Referring to Figure 186, in embodiments, to improve the yield of the LCoS + ASIC package 18600, an ASIC may be mounted on a flexible printed circuit (FPC) 18604 having a stiffener on the top side . The upper side stiffening plate does not increase the thickness of the entire package when the length is the same as the ASIC. The FPC is connected to a standard LCoS (not shown) such as LCoS on a glass fiber reinforced epoxy laminate (FR4) (18608) through a connector 18602 such as a zero insertion force (ZIF) connection or a board to board connector for more pins. Can be connected to the package. Pressure sensitive adhesives can be used to bond the ASIC gusset plate (s) and LCoS to the FPC.

Referring to FIG. 1, an exemplary embodiment of an augmented reality eyepiece 100 may be illustrated. It will be appreciated that while embodiments of the eyepiece 100 may not include all of the elements shown in FIG. 1, other embodiments may include additional or different elements. In embodiments, the optical elements may be embedded in the arm portions 122 of the eyepiece frame 102. Images can be projected onto at least one lens 104 disposed at the opening of the frame 102 using the projector 108. [ One or more projectors 108, such as nano projectors, pico projectors, micro projectors, femto projectors, laser-based projectors, holographic projectors, etc., may be disposed in the arm portion of the eyepiece frame 102. In embodiments, while both lenses 104 may be transparent or translucent, in other embodiments, only one lens 104 is translucent and the other is opaque or none. In embodiments, two or more projectors 108 may be included in the eyepiece 100.

1, eyepiece 100 also includes at least one articulating ear bud 120, a wireless transceiver 118, and an LED light engine (not shown). And may include a heat sink 114 that absorbs the heat of the heat source to cool it and allow it to operate at full brightness. There are also at least one open multimedia applications processors (TI OMAP4) 112 and a flex cable 110 with an RF antenna, all of which will be further described herein.

In one embodiment, referring to FIG. 2, the projector 200 may be an RGB projector. The projector 200 may include a housing 202, a heat sink 204, and an RGB LED engine or module 206. The RGB LED engine 206 may include an LED, a dichroic, a concentrator, and the like. A digital signal processor (DSP) (not shown) converts an image or video stream to control signals such as voltage drop / current correction, pulse width modulation (PWM) signals, etc. to control the intensity, duration, can do. For example, the DSP can control the duty ratio of each PWM signal to control the average current flowing through each LED generating a plurality of colors. The still image co-processor of the eyepiece can utilize noise filtering, image / video stabilization, and face detection, and can perform image enhancement. The audio back-end processor of the eyepiece can utilize buffering, SRC, equalization, and the like.

The projector 200 may include an optical display 210, such as an LCoS display, and a number of components such as shown. In embodiments, the projector 200 may be designed with a single panel LCoS display 210, but a three panel display may also be possible. In a single panel embodiment, the display 210 is sequentially illuminated in red, blue, and green (also referred to as field sequential color). In other embodiments, the projector 200 may be a back-lit liquid crystal display, a front-lit LCD, a transflective LCD, an organic light emitting diode (OLED) Alternative optical display technologies such as FED (field emission display), FLCOS (ferroelectric LCoS), liquid crystal technology mounted on sapphire, transparent liquid crystal microdisplay, quantum dot display,

In various embodiments, the display includes a CMOS-style pixel sensor at the junction between the 3D display, LCD, thin film transistor LCD, LED, LCOS, ferroelectric liquid crystal on silicon (FLCOS) display, CMOS display, OLED, QLED, (OLED) array, transmissive LCoS display, CRT display, VGA display, SXGA display, QVGA display, display with video based gaze tracker, display with exit pupil expanding technology, An asahi film display, a free form optics display, an XY polynomial combiner display, a light guide transfer display, an amoled display, and the like. In embodiments, the display may be a holographic display that allows the eyepiece to display an image from the image light source as a hologram. In embodiments, the display may be a liquid crystal reflective microdisplay. Such a display can include a polarization optic and can improve brightness compared to a particular OLED microdisplay. In embodiments, the display may be a free form prism display. The free-form prism display can achieve the 3D stereoscopic function. In embodiments, the display may be similar or identical to the display described in Cannon Patent No. 6,384,983 and / or Olympus Patent No. 6,181,475. In still other embodiments, the display may include a video based gaze tracker. In embodiments, the light beam of the infrared light source may be split and expanded into the exit pupil expander (EPE) to produce a collimated beam from the EPE towards the eye. A miniature video camera can capture the cornea and the eye line direction can be calculated by locating the glint of the pupil and infrared beam. After user calibration, the data from the gaze tracker can reflect the user's focus point in the displayed image that can be used as an input device. Such a device may be similar to that provided by the Nokia Research Center in Tampere, Finland. In addition, in embodiments, the display may include an exit pupil expander that enlarges the exit pupil to deliver the image to a new location. Thus, only a thin transparent plate may be positioned in front of the user's two eyes, and the image light source may be located elsewhere. In still other embodiments, the display may be an off axis optics display. In embodiments, such a display may not coincide with the mechanical center of the aperture. This can prevent the secondary optical element, the instrument package and / or the sensor from interfering with the primary aperture, and provide access to the instrument package and / or sensors at the focus. For example, an amoled (active-maxtrix organic light-emitting diode) display can use a pixel design called Nouvoyance's PenTile, which transmits more light in two ways. First, red, blue, and green subpixels are larger than in conventional displays. Second, one subpixel is transparent for every four pixels. This means that the backlight uses less power and can emit brighter. A smaller number of subpixels will usually mean a lower resolution, but the PenTile display uses a sub-pixel of about 1/3 of the RGB stripe panel, Pixels. The PenTile display also uses image processing algorithms to determine the brightness of the scene and automatically dims the backlight for darker images.

In order to overcome the limitations of the prior art described above, the present disclosure provides an integrated array of switchable mirrors to the waveguide that can be used sequentially to provide a progressive scan of the portions of the image over the display field of view . By rapidly switching mirrors sequentially from reflection to transmission, images can be provided to the user without perceptible flicker. Since each switchable mirror is in a more transmissive state than the reflective state, the array of switchable mirrors appears to the user as transparent and also presents the displayed image to the user.

Presenting light from an image light source by a wave guide is well known to those skilled in the art and will not be discussed herein as such. An exemplary discussion of delivering light from waveguides and image light sources to the display area is provided in U.S. Patent Nos. 5076664 and 6829095. The present disclosure includes a method and apparatus for redirecting image light in a waveguide to provide an image to a user, wherein the image light in the waveguide is provided from an image light source.

Figure 125 illustrates a waveguide display 12508 having an integral array of convertible mirrors 12508a through 12508c for redirecting light from an image light source 12502 that is transmitted through waveguide 12510 to provide a user with image light 12504, Device 12500 in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. In the present disclosure, three switchable mirrors 12508a through 12508c are shown, but the array may include a different number of switchable mirrors. The switchable mirrors shown in Figure 125 are electrically switchable mirrors including liquid crystal switchable mirrors. A cover glass 12512 is provided to include the liquid crystal material in the thin layers shown as switchable mirrors 12508a through 12508c. Figure 125 also shows power wires 12514 and 12518. [

The integral array of waveguide 12510 and switchable mirrors 12508a through 12508c may be made of plastic or glass material, as long as it is reasonably flat. Thickness uniformity is not as important as in most liquid crystal devices, since a switchable mirror has a high reflectivity. The structure of the convertible liquid crystal mirror is described in U.S. Patent No. 6,999,649.

Figures 126 and 127 show sequential aspects of the present disclosure in that only one of the switchable mirrors in the array at a time is in a reflective state and the other switchable mirrors in the array are then in a transmissive state. Figure 124 illustrates that the first switchable mirror 12508a is in a reflective state and thus diverts the light from the image light source 12502 into an image light 12504 that presents a portion of the image to the user. The other switchable mirrors 12508b and 12508c are in the transmissive state. Figure 124 further illustrates a waveguide 12410. [

In Figure 126, switchable mirrors 12508a and 12508c are in the transmissive state, while switchable mirror 12508b is in the reflective state. This condition provides the user with an image light 12600 having a portion of the image associated therewith. Finally, in Figure 127, switchable mirrors 12508a and 12508b are in a transmissive state, while switchable mirror 12508c is in a reflective state. This last condition provides the user with video light 12700 having a portion of the video associated therewith. After this last condition, this sequence is repeated as shown in FIG. 124, followed by what is shown in FIG. 125, and then as shown in FIG. 126, to provide progressive scanning of the image . This sequence continues to be repeated while the user is viewing the displayed image. As such, all of the light from the image light source 12502 is redirected by a single switchable mirror at any given time in the sequence. The image light source may operate continuously while the switchable mirrors provide progressive scanning of the image light 12504 over the field of view. If the image light is brighter or there is a different color balance for the different switchable mirrors, then the image light source may be adjusted for compensation, or the brightness or color balance of the image light source may be synchronized with the switching sequence of the array of switchable mirrors Lt; / RTI > In another embodiment of the present disclosure, the switching order of the switchable mirrors is changed to provide the user with an interlaced image such as 1, 3, 2, 4 repeatedly for the array of four switchable mirrors. .

Figure 128 shows another embodiment of the present disclosure in which an integral array of mechanically driven switchable mirrors is provided. In this case, the switchable mirrors in waveguide display device 12800 include prisms 12804a through 12804c, respectively, which are moved to provide alternating optical contact with voids or surfaces 12810a through 12810c . As shown in FIG. 128, prism 12804a has been moved downward to provide air gap so that surface 12810a is a reflective surface that is operated by total internal reflection. Simultaneously, prisms 12804b and 12804c were pushed upward to provide optical contact with surfaces 12810b and 12810c, respectively, such that surfaces 12810b and 12810c are transmissive. This condition redirects the light from the image light source 12502 to image light 12802 that presents a portion of the image to the user. In this embodiment, the switchable mirror moves to an internal total reflection with a reflectance of almost 100% from an optical contact with a transmittance of almost 100%. 128 also shows a power line 12812, a mount and a common ground connection 12814, and micro actuators 12818a through 12818c.

129 and 130 show other conditions in the sequence for the mechanically driven switchable mirrors in the switchable mirror array. In Figure 129, prisms 12804a and 12804c are pushed upward to provide optical contact with surfaces 12810a and 12810c, respectively, thereby causing a transmission state for light from image light source 12502 to provide. At the same time, the light from the image light source 12502 is redirected and the prism 12804b is moved downward to create a void in the surface 12810b to become the image light 12900 that presents the relevant portion of the image to the user . In the final step of the sequence shown in Figure 130, prisms 12804a and 12804b (respectively) are provided to provide optical contact with surfaces 12810a and 12810b, respectively, so that light from the image source passes through surface 12810c ) Is pushed upward. To provide a cavity in surface 12810c such that surface 12810c becomes a reflective surface with internal total reflection and light from image light source 12502 is redirected to image light 13000 having a portion of the image associated therewith The prism 12804c is moved downward.

In the previous discussion, the conditions for total internal reflection are based on the optical properties of the material and air of the waveguide 12808, as is known to those skilled in the art. In order to obtain a 90 degree reflection as shown in Figures 128 to 130, the refractive index of the waveguide 12808 must be greater than 1.42. The surfaces of the prisms 12804a through 12804c are spaced apart from the surfaces of the surfaces 12810a through 12810c by a distance between the surfaces of the prisms 12804a through 12804c and the surfaces 12810a through 12810c, Lt; / RTI > Finally, in order for the light from the image light source 12502 to travel through the waveguide 12808 and the prisms 12804a to 12804c without being deflected at the interfaces, the refractive index of the prisms 12804a to 12804c, Should be within about 0.1 of the index of refraction of the light source 12808.

131A and 131B illustrate examples of waveguide assembly 13102 having an array of convertible mirrors as included in this disclosure. Figure 131a shows a side view of what the waveguide assembly 13102 is on the user's head where the long axis of the array of switchable mirrors is oriented vertically such that the video light 13100 is directed to the user's eye. Figure 131b shows an overhead view of the waveguide assembly 13102 at the user's head where the short axis of the array of switchable mirrors 13104 can be seen and the image light 13100 And is provided to the user's eye 13110. 131A and 131B, the view provided by the video light 13100 can be clearly seen. In Figure 131b, the respective portions of the image, such as those provided by the different switchable mirrors in the array, may also be seen. Figure 131b also illustrates one embodiment of a waveguide assembly 13102 that includes an image light source 13108 wherein the image light source 13108 is a light source that is optically coupled to a light source such as a LCOS display or a miniature display such as an LCD display The light is later transmitted to the switchable mirrors by a waveguide, where the light is redirected by the switchable mirrors to become the image light 13100 presented to the user's eye 13110 I have.

In order to reduce the perception of the image flicker by the user since the switchable mirrors are operated to provide sequential portions of the image to the user, the switchable mirror sequence is preferably operated faster than 60 Hz. In this case, each of the n switchable mirrors in the array is in the (1/60) X (n-1) / n-second reflective state for each cycle of the sequence, and is in the transmission state for n seconds. As such, each switchable mirror is in a transmission state for a greater portion of each cycle in the sequence than it is in the reflective state, so that the user perceives the array of switchable mirrors as relatively transparent.

In another embodiment of the present disclosure, the integral array of switchable mirrors has more switchable mirrors than are needed to cover the display area. Additional switchable mirrors are used to provide control for different users with different eye gaps (also called interpupillary distances). In this case, the switchable mirrors used to present the image to the user are adjacent to each other to provide a continuous image area. Switchable mirrors at the edge of the array are used depending on the user's eye spacing. As an example illustrated in Figures 132A-132C, the array 13200 has seven switchable mirrors each 3 mm wide. During use, five adjacent switchable mirrors are used to provide a 15 mm wide display area 13202a-13202c with an adjustment of +/- 3 mm for the eye distance. In the case of the narrow eye pitch shown in Figure 132A, five switchable mirrors are used towards the inner edge for display, whereas two outer switchable mirrors are not used. In the case of the wide eye interval shown in Figure 132c, five switchable mirrors are used towards the outer edge for display, whereas two inside switchable mirrors are not used. The middle case is shown in Figure 132B, in which case five central switchable mirrors are used and the outer and inner switchable mirrors are not used. In this description, the term "unused" refers to that the switchable mirror is maintained in the transmissive state, while other switchable mirrors are used between the transmissive state and the reflective state in the repeat sequence.

Yes

In the first example, a liquid crystal switchable mirror with a fast response as provided by Kent Optronics Inc. of Hopewell Junction, NY is used (http://www.kentoptronics.com/). The waveguide is made of glass or plastic, and the liquid crystal is contained in the space between the layers so that the liquid crystal is 5 micrometers thick. The cover glass comprises liquid crystal on the outer surface. The response time is 10 milliseconds, and the reflectance is 87% in the reflected state and the transmittance in the transmitted state is 87%. Three switchable mirrors can be driven in a sequence operating at 30 Hz. If the switchable mirrors are 5 mm wide, then a 15 mm wide display area corresponding to a field of view of 38 degrees with an eye at 10 mm from a waveguide with an 8 mm wide eyebox is provided.

In a second example, an array of mechanically driven prisms made of glass or plastic with a refractive index of 1.53 is provided, and the waveguide is made of the same material with a refractive index of 1.53. The surfaces of the prisms are polished to provide a flatness of less than one micrometer and a piezoelectric micro-actuator is used to move the prisms from the transmissive state to the reflective state by about 10 micrometers. The waveguide is shaped to provide a flatness of less than one micrometer on the surfaces mated with the prisms. Five switchable mirrors can be driven by the piezoelectric actuator to operate at 100 Hz in the sequence. Piezoelectric micro-actuators are available from Steiner & Martins Inc. of Miami, Florida, USA (http://www.steminc.com/piezo/PZ_STAKPNViewPN.asp?PZ_SM_MODEL=SMPAK155510D10), micro actuators in a 5X5X10mm package driven at 150V Providing a 10 micrometer shift with a force of over 200 pounds. An array of five prisms each 5 mm wide is used to provide a display area of 25 mm wide corresponding to a field of view of 72 degrees with an eye at 10 mm from a waveguide having an 8 mm wide eye box. As another alternative, a display area of 15 mm width (view of 38 degrees) can be moved by +/- 5 mm in the lateral direction to adjust the spacing between different binaries for different users Only three prisms are used at a time to provide.

In embodiments, the waveguide display system may include an image light source that provides image light from the displayed image, a waveguide that transmits the image light to the display area, and a display that allows the user to view the displayed image Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > mirrors. ≪ / RTI > In embodiments, the switchable mirrors may be electrically driven. In embodiments, the switchable mirrors may be mechanically driven. In further embodiments, a micro-actuator may be used to mechanically drive the switchable mirrors. In addition, the micro-actuator may be piezoelectric. The switchable mirrors can be switched between the transmissive state and the reflective state to provide a portion of the image light through the display area in a progressive scan.

In embodiments, a method of providing an image displayed from a waveguide includes providing image light from an image light source to the waveguide, providing an integrated array of convertible mirrors in the waveguide over the display area, and providing a portion of the image light And sequentially moving the switchable mirrors between the transmissive state and the reflective state for providing across the display area with progressive scanning.

In yet another embodiment, a waveguide display system with interpupillary adjustment comprises an image light source providing image light from the displayed image, a waveguide delivering the image light to the display area, and an image light from the waveguide Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > a < / RTI > display to a display. In addition, the array of switchable mirrors may have more switchable mirrors than needed to cover the display area, and the switchable mirrors at the edges of the array may be used to provide a display area that matches the user & .

The eyepiece can be powered by any power supply, such as battery power, solar power, line power, and the like. The power source may be integral to the frame 102 or disposed outside the eyepiece 100 and may be in electrical communication with the powered elements of the eyepiece 100. For example, a solar energy collector may be placed on frame 102, on a belt clip, or on a guitar. Battery charging can be done in a wall charger, in a wall charger, in a belt clip, in an eyepiece case, in a guitar, using a wall charger.

The projector 200 may include a heat sink 204 and a heat sink 204 to ensure non-vibration mountings on the LED light engine, the hollow tapered light tunnel 220, the diffuser 212, And may include an LED light engine 206 that may be mounted on a holder 208. The hollow tunnel 220 helps to homogenize rapidly varying light from the RGB LED light engine. In one embodiment, the hollow light tunnel 220 comprises a silver coating. The diffuser lens 212 further homogenizes and mixes the light before it reaches the condenser lens 214. The light exits the condenser lens 214 and then enters a polarizing beam splitter (PBS) 218. In the PBS, the LED light is propagated and split into polarization components before being refracted into the viewing lens 216 and the LCoS display 210. The LCoS display provides images to the microprojector. The image is then reflected from the LCoS display and passed through the polarizing beam splitter again and then reflected 90 degrees. Thus, the image exits the micro projector 200 in the middle of the micro projector. The light then travels to a coupling lens 504, which is described below.

2 illustrates one embodiment of a projector assembly with other supporting figures such as those described herein, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that other configurations and optical techniques may be utilized. For example, rather than using a reflective optical system, a transparent structure, such as having a sapphire substrate, can be used to implement the optical path of the projector system, thus changing optical components such as a beam splitter, And / or omitted. The system may have a backlight system, where the LED RGB triplet may be a light source that is directed to pass light through the display. As a result, the backlight and display may be mounted adjacent to the waveguide, or there may be columnizing / directing optics after display to allow light to enter the optical system properly. If there is no direct optical system, the display may be mounted on the top, side or the like of the waveguide. In one example, a small transparent display may be implemented on a transparent substrate (e.g., sapphire) with a silicon active backplane, transparent electrodes controlled by a silicon active backplane, a liquid crystal material, a polarizer, and the like. The function of the polarizer may be to correct the polarization of the light passing through the system to improve the contrast of the display. In another example, the system may be configured to provide a membrane-mirror light shutter in any form of optical path, such as a micro-channel spatial light modulator based on a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) A spatial light modulator that imposes a spatially varying modulation of the spatial light modulator. The system also includes a tunable optical filter (e.g., having a deformable membrane actuator), a high angular deflection micro-mirror system, an individual phase optical element discrete phase optical elements, and the like.

In other embodiments, the eyepiece may utilize an OLED display, a quantum dot display, or the like that provides higher power efficiency, brighter display, less expensive components, and the like. In addition, display technologies such as OLEDs and quantum dot displays can enable flexible display and thus enable greater packaging efficiency that can reduce the overall size of the eyepiece. For example, OLED and quantum dot display materials may be printed on a plastic substrate through stamping techniques, thus creating a flexible display component. For example, an OLED (organic LED) display can be a flexible low power display that does not require backlighting. This can be a curved surface as in an ordinary spectacle lens. In one embodiment, the OLED display may be a transparent display or may provide it. In embodiments, the high modulation transfer function enables a combination of resolution levels and device size (e.g., eyeglass frame thickness) that were previously not achievable.

82, the eyepiece may utilize a planar lighting fixture 8208 in conjunction with reflective display 8210, wherein light source (s) 8202 is coupled to the edge of planar lighting fixture 8208, Where the planar side of the flat light fixture 8208 illuminates a reflective display 8210 that provides an image of the content to be presented to the wearer's eye 8222 via transfer optics 8212. [ In embodiments, reflective display 8210 may be a liquid crystal display (LCD), a liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS), a cholesteric liquid crystal, a guest-host liquid crystal, a polymer dispersed liquid crystal, a phase delay liquid crystal, Technology. In other embodiments, the reflective display 8210 may be formed of any suitable material, including, but not limited to, electrophoretic, electrofluidic, electrowetting, electrokinetic, cholesteric liquid crystals, And may be a bistable display such as any other bistable display. Reflective display 8210 may also be a combination of LCD technology and bistable display technology. In embodiments, a coupling 8204 between the light source 8202 and the 'edge' of the planar lighting fixture 8208 is made through the other surfaces of the planar lighting fixture 8208, followed by the initial top surface, Surface, or the like, into the plane of the planar lighting fixture 8208. [ For example, light may enter the planar lighting fixture from the top surface, but enter the 45 ° facet so that the light is bent into the plane direction. In an alternative embodiment, such bending in the direction of the light may be realized with an optical coating.

In one example, the light source 8202 may be an RGB LED light source (e.g., an LED array) that is coupled 8204 directly to the edge of the planar lighting fixture. The light entering the edge of the planar lighting fixture can then be directed towards the reflective display for imaging, as described herein. The light may enter the reflective display to form an image and then be redirected through the planar lighting fixture again, such as by a reflective surface at the back of the reflective display. The light then passes through the image to the wearer's eye 8222, e.g., through the lens 8214, is reflected by the beam splitter 8219 onto the reflective surface 8220, and then through the beam splitter 8218, 8222 to the delivery optics 8212. [ Although transmission optics 8212 are described in connection with 8214, 8218, and 8220, those skilled in the art will appreciate that transmission optics 8212 may be used in a variety of other configurations, including more complex or simpler configurations than those described herein, It will be appreciated that any transmission optics configuration may be included. For example, due to the different focal lengths in the field of view lens 8214, the beam splitter 8218 will be able to bend the image directly into the eye, thus omitting the curved mirror 8220 and achieving a simpler design implementation . In embodiments, light source 8202 may be an LED light source, a laser light source, a white light source, or the like, or any other light source known in the art. The optical coupling mechanism 8204 may be a direct coupling between the light source 8202 and the planar lighting fixture 8208 or may be through a coupling medium or mechanism such as a waveguide, an optical fiber, a light pipe, a lens, . Planar lighting fixture 8208 can receive light and redirect it to the planar side of its structure through interference gratings, optical defects, scatter features, reflective surfaces, refractive elements, and the like. Planar lighting fixture 8208 may be a cover glass on reflective display 8210 for reducing the combined thickness of reflective display 8210 and planar lighting fixture 8208, and the like. The planar lighting fixture 8208 includes a planar lighting fixture 8208 that is disposed on the side closest to the delivery optics 8212 to extend the cone angle of the image light as it travels through the planar lighting fixture 8208 to the delivery optics 8212. [ Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > diffuser < / RTI > Transfer optics 8212 may include a plurality of optical elements, such as a lens, a mirror, a beam splitter, or any other optical transfer element known in the art.

83 provides one embodiment of an optical system 8302 for an eyepiece 8300 and includes an initial diverging lens 8312 for presenting an image to an eye box 8320 where the wearer's eye receives the image, A planar illumination facility 8310 and a reflective display 8304 that are mounted on a substrate 8304 that interfaces through a transmissive optical system 8212 that includes a spherical mirror 8314 and a spherical mirror 8314. In one example, the flat beam splitter 8314 may be a wire grid polarizer, a metal partially transmitting mirror coating, and the like, and the spherical reflector 8318 may be a series of dielectric coatings Lt; / RTI > In another embodiment, the coating on the spherical mirror 8318 may be a thin metal coating that provides a partially transmissive mirror.

84 includes a configuration utilizing a ferroelectric light-wave circuit (FLC) 8404, including a configuration that utilizes coupling of a laser light source 8402 to a planar lighting fixture 8408 via waveguide wavelength converters 8420 and 8422. In one embodiment, Where the planar lighting fixture 8408 utilizes a grating technique to provide light coming from the edge of the planar lighting fixture to a planar surface facing the reflective display 8410 . The image light from the reflective display 8410 is then redirected through the planar lighting fixture 8408 through the hole 8412 in the support structure 8414 to the delivery optics. Because this embodiment uses laser light, FLC also uses optical feedback to reduce spots from the laser by extending the laser spectrum, as described in U.S. Patent No. 7265896. [ In this embodiment, the laser light source 8402 is an IR laser light source, wherein the FLC combines the beams into RGB, and the back reflection, which hopes the laser light to produce an extended bandwidth, provides spot suppression. In this embodiment, spot suppression occurs in waveguide 8420. Laser light from the laser light source 8402 is coupled to the planar illumination facility 8408 through a multi-mode interference combiner (MMI) Each laser light source port is arranged such that the light traversing the MMI coupler is superimposed on one output port to the planar illumination facility 8408. [ The grating of the planar lighting fixture 8408 produces uniform illumination for the reflective display. In embodiments, the grating elements may be of a very fine pitch (e.g., interference measurement (e.g., to measure light) to produce illumination for the reflective display, which is reflected back to the very low scattering from the grating as the light travels through the planar lighting fixture interferometric) can be used. That is, the light is aligned so that the grating is almost completely transparent. Note that the optical feedback used in this embodiment is due to the use of a laser light source, and when the LED is used, spot suppression may not be necessary since the LED is already sufficiently wideband.

In one embodiment of the optical system, the use of a planar lighting fixture 8502 comprising an optically defective configuration-in this case, a "grooved" configuration-is shown in FIG. In this embodiment, the light source (s) 8202 is directly coupled (8204) to the edge of the planar illumination facility 8502. The light then travels through the planar lighting fixture 8502 and meets the small grooves 8504A through 8504D in the planar lighting fixture material-for example, grooves in a piece of PMMA (Poly-methyl methacrylate). In embodiments, the grooves 8504A through 8504D may be spaced as they move away from the input port (e.g., less progressive from 8504A to 8504D, ' aggressive ' , The pitch can change, and so on. The light is then redirected by the grooves 8504A through 8504D towards the reflective display 8210 as an array of non-coherent light sources to produce sectoral rays traveling toward the reflective display 8210, The light source 8210 is far enough away from the grooves 8504A through 8504D to create an illumination pattern from each of the overlapping grooves to provide uniform illumination of the area of the reflective display 8210. [ In other embodiments, there may be an optimal spacing for the grooves, where the number of grooves per pixel on the reflective display 8210 may be increased (to fill more) to make the light more coherent Which, in turn, produces a lower contrast in the image provided to the wearer, so that more grooves interfere in the provided image. While this embodiment has been discussed in the context of grooves, there may be other optical defects, such as dots.

In embodiments, referring to FIG. 86, counter-ridges 8604 (or 'anti-ridge') 8604, such as in a 'snap-on' ridge assembly 8602, -groove '] may be attached within the grooves of the planar lighting fixture. Opposing ridges 8604 are disposed in the grooves 8504A through 8504D such that there is a gap between the groove side wall and the opposing ridge side wall. This pore provides a defined refractive index change perceived by the light as it travels through the planar lighting fixture, which enhances the reflection of light at the groove sidewalls. The attachment of the opposing ridges 8604 reduces the aberrations and deflections of the image light caused by the grooves. That is, the image light reflected from the reflective display 8210 is refracted by the groove sidewalls, thereby changing direction due to Snell's law. By providing opposing ridges in the grooves, when the sidewall angle of the groove coincides with the sidewall angle of the opposing ridge, the refraction of the image light is compensated, and the image light is redirected toward the transmission optical system 8212.

87, the planar lighting fixture 8702 may be a laminate structure produced with a plurality of laminate layers 8704, wherein the laminate layers 8704 have alternately different refractive indices. For example, the flat lighting fixture 8702 can be cut along two diagonal planes 8708 of the laminated sheet. In this manner, the groove-like structure shown in Figs. 85 and 86 is replaced by a laminate structure 8702. Fig. For example, the laminate sheet may consist of a similar material (PMMA 1 to PMMA 2: where the difference is the molecular weight of the PMMA). As long as the layers are quite thick, they can have no interference effect and can function as a transparent plastic sheet. In the configuration shown, diagonal lamination will redirect a small proportion of the light source 8202 towards the reflective display, where the pitch of the lamination is chosen to minimize aberrations.

In one embodiment of the optical system, FIG. 88 shows a planar lighting fixture 8802 using a "wedge" configuration. In this embodiment, the light source (s) are directly coupled (8204) to the edge of the planar lighting fixture 8802. The light then travels through the planar lighting fixture 8802 and meets the sloped surface of the first wedge 8804 where the light travels toward the reflective display 8210 and then back to the lighting fixture 8802, And is then diverted onto the transfer optics through the wedge 8804 and the second wedge 8812. In addition, a multi-layer coating 8808, 8810 can be applied to the wedge to improve transfer characteristics. In one example, the wedge may consist of PMMA, the dimensions are 1/2 mm high and 10 mm wide, spanning the entire reflective display, with an angle of 1 to 1.5, and so on. In embodiments, light may be reflected several times within the wedge 8804 before passing through the wedge 8804 to illuminate the reflective display 8210. [ When the wedge 8804 is coated with the highly reflective coatings 8808 and 8810, the light beam can be reflected several times within the wedge 8804 before returning to the light source 8202 again. However, by using multilayer coatings 8808 and 8810 (made of SiO 2 , niobium pentoxide, and the like) on the wedge 8804, light can be directed to illuminate the reflective display 8210. Coatings 8808 and 8810 can be designed to reflect light over a wide angular range of light at a given wavelength, yet transmit light within a specific angular range (e.g., a set-out angle). In embodiments, this design may allow light to be reflected in the wedge until it reaches the transmission window to be presented to the reflective display 8210, in which case the coating is then allowed to transmit . The angle of the wedge directs light from the LED illumination system to uniformly irradiate the reflective image display to produce an image reflected through the illumination system. By providing light from a light source 8202 such that broad cone angle light enters the wedge 8804, different light rays of light will reach the transmission window at different locations along the length of the wedge 8804, Uniform illumination of the surface of the wearer's eye 8210 is provided so that the image provided to the wearer's eye is determined by the image content in the image.

In embodiments, a see-through optics system including a planar illumination fixture 8802 and a reflective display 8210 as described herein may be used with an eyepiece or the like as described herein Helmets (e.g., military helmets, pilot helmets, bicycle helmets, motorcycle helmets, deep sea helmets, space helmets, etc.), as well as any head-worn devices known in the art, Goggles, eyeglasses, underwater diving masks, dust masks, respirators, hazmat head gears, virtual reality headgear, simulation devices, and the like. In addition, the optical system and protective cover associated with the tofu-wearing device may include a plurality of optical systems and protective covers in addition to the optical system and cover conventionally associated with the tofu-wearing device, Optical system. ≪ RTI ID = 0.0 > For example, the optical system may be included as a separate unit in the ski goggles to provide the user with the projected content, but the optical system may include a see-through covering of the ski goggles (e.g., Such as a transparent or tinted plastic cover that keeps the wind and eyes from getting into the user's eyes). As an alternative, the optical system may replace, at least in part, a specific optical system that is conventionally associated with a head-worn gear. For example, certain optical elements of delivery optics 8212 may replace the outer lens of an eyeglass application. In one example, the beam splitter, lens or mirror of transmission optics 8212 may replace the front lens for eyewear applications (e.g., sunglasses), and thus the curved reflective mirror 8220 may be extended to cover the glasses When the cover lens is not necessary, the front lens of the glasses is not necessary. In embodiments, a perspective optical system including a planar illumination facility 8208 and a reflective display 8210 may be positioned in the head-worn gear so as not to interfere with the function and appearance of the head-worn gear. For example, in the case of eyewear or more specifically an eyepiece, the optical system may be located proximate to the upper portion of the lens (such as the upper portion of the frame).

In embodiments, the optical assembly may be used in configurations such as a head or helmet mounted display, and / or may be a single lens, a binocular, a holographic binocular, a helmet visor, an integrated helmet and display aiming system, a helmet monolithic display aiming system, a link advanced head mounted display (AHMD), and multiple microdisplay optics. In embodiments, the optical assembly may include a telephoto lens. These lenses may be spectacle mounted or otherwise mounted. Such an embodiment may be beneficial for people with visual impairment. In embodiments, a wide-field Keplerian telescope of Eli Peli may be built into the spectacle lens. This design can use an embedded mirror inside the carrier lens to bend the optical path and power elements for higher magnification. This allows the wearer to simultaneously view the magnified view and the non-magnified view within the eyeglass format. In embodiments, the optical assembly may be used in configurations having a Q-Sight helmet mount display developed by BAE Systems, London, UK. This configuration can provide heads-up and eyes-out functions that convey situational awareness. In addition, various embodiments may use any of the optical assemblies in the configurations discussed above.

Planar lighting fixtures (also referred to as lighting modules) can provide light in a plurality of colors, including Red-Green-Blue (RGB) light and / or white light. The light from the lighting module may be directed to a 3LCD system, a Digital Light Processing (DLP®) system, a liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) system, or other microdisplay or micro projection system. The lighting module can use wavelength combining and nonlinear frequency conversion with nonlinear feedback to the light source to provide a high brightness, long life, reduced spot or spot free light source. have. Various embodiments of the present disclosure may provide light in a plurality of colors, including Red-Green-Blue (RGB) light and / or white light. The light from the lighting module may be directed to a 3LCD system, a Digital Light Processing (DLP) system, a liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) system, or other microdisplay or micro projection system. The illumination module described herein may be used in an optical assembly for the eyepiece 100.

One embodiment of the present disclosure includes a system comprising a laser, an LED or other light source configured to produce an optical beam of a first wavelength, a laser coupled to the laser, A planar lightwave circuit configured and configured to receive the light beam of the first wavelength and to convert the light beam of the first wavelength into the output light beam of the second wavelength, coupled to the planar lightwave circuit, And a waveguide optical frequency converter. The system can provide the laser with optically coupled feedback that is non-linearly dependent on the power of the light beam of the first wavelength.

Another embodiment of the present disclosure includes a system comprising a substrate, a light source such as a laser diode array or one or more LEDs arranged to emit a plurality of light beams of a first wavelength, A planar lightwave circuit disposed on the substrate and coupled to the light source and configured to couple the plurality of lightwaves to produce a combined light beam of the first wavelength and a planar lightwave circuit disposed on the substrate and coupled to the planar lightwave circuit, And a nonlinear optical element configured to convert the combined light beam of the first wavelength into the light beam of the second wavelength using frequency conversion. The system can provide optically coupled feedback to the laser diode array that is non-linearly dependent on the power of the combined light beam of the first wavelength.

Another embodiment of the present disclosure includes a system comprising a light source, such as a semiconductor laser array or one or more LEDs, configured to generate a plurality of light beams of a first wavelength, a light source coupled to the light source, An arrayed waveguide grating coupled to the arrayed waveguide grating and configured to output a combined light beam of a first wavelength, an arrayed waveguide grating coupled to the arrayed waveguide grating and configured to generate a combined light beam of a first wavelength using a second harmonic generation, Phase matching wavelength-converting waveguide configured to generate an output light beam of the second wavelength based on the quasi-phase matching wavelength-converting waveguide.

Power can be obtained from within the wavelength converter and fed back to the light source. The feedback power has a nonlinear dependence on the input power provided to the wavelength converter by the light source. The nonlinear feedback can convert the sensitivity of the output power from the wavelength converter to the variation of the nonlinear coefficient of the device because the feedback power increases as the nonlinear coefficient decreases. The increased feedback tends to increase the power supplied to the wavelength converter and thus alleviates the effect of the reduced nonlinear coefficient.

109A and 109B, a processor 10902 (e.g., a digital signal processor) is coupled to display sequential frames 10302 for image display through a display component 10928 of the eyepiece 100 (e.g., an LCOS display component) Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > 10924 < / RTI > In embodiments, the sequential frames 10924 may be generated with or without the use of a display driver 10912 as an intermediate component between the processor 10902 and the display component 10928. For example, referring to FIG. 109A, a processor 10902 may include a frame buffer 10904 and a display interface 10908 (e.g., mobile industry processor interface (MIPI)) with a display serial interface (DSI) . Display interface 10908 may provide per pixel RGB data 10910 to display driver 10912 as an intermediate component between processor 10902 and display component 10928 where display driver 10912 may provide pixel data And generates separate full frame display data for red 10918, green 10920, and blue 10922, thereby generating display sequential frames 10924 To the display component 10928. The display driver 10912 may provide a timing signal for synchronizing the transfer of the entire frames 10918, 10920 and 10922 to the display component 10928 as display sequential frames 10924 have. 109b, display interface 10930 displays the full frame display data for red 10934, green 10938, and blue 10940 as display sequential frames 10924 as a display component (e.g., 10928 by directly supplying the display driver 10912 to the display driver 10912. In addition, a timing signal 10932 may be provided directly from the display interface 10930 to the display component. This configuration can provide significantly lower power consumption by eliminating the need for a display driver. Not only can this direct panel information eliminate the need for drivers, but it also simplifies the overall logic of the configuration and reshapes the panel information from the pixels, generates pixel information from the frame, You can remove the redundant memory you need.

89 is a block diagram of a lighting module according to an embodiment of the present disclosure; Illumination module 8900 includes an optical source, a combiner, and an optical frequency converter, according to one embodiment of the present disclosure. Light sources 8902 and 8904 emit optical radiation 8910 and 8914 towards input ports 8922 and 8924 of coupler 8906. Coupler 8906 has a coupler output port 8926 that emits combined radiation 8918. The combined radiation 8918 is received by an optical frequency converter 8908 and the optical frequency converter 8908 provides output light radiation 8928. The optical frequency converter 8908 may also provide feedback radiation 8920 to the combiner output port 8926. The coupler 8906 splits the feedback radiation 8920 to provide the source feedback radiation 8912 emitted from the input port 8922 and the light source feedback radiation 8916 emitted from the input port 8924 do. The light source feedback radiation 8912 is received by a light source 8902 and the light source feedback radiation 8916 is received by a light source 8904. Light emission 8910 and light source feedback radiation 8912 between light source 8902 and coupler 8906 can be used to create any of the free space and / or any of a guiding structure (e.g., optical fiber or any other light waveguide) Can be propagated in combination. Light radiation 8914, light source feedback radiation 8916, combined radiation 8918 and feedback radiation 8920 may also propagate in any combination of free space and / or guide structure.

Suitable light sources 8902 and 8904 include one or more LEDs or any light emitting light source having an emission wavelength that is affected by optical feedback. Examples of light sources include lasers and may be semiconductor diode lasers. For example, light sources 8902 and 8904 may be elements of an array of semiconductor lasers. Light sources other than lasers may also be used (e.g., an optical frequency converter may be used as the light source). 89. Although two light sources are shown in Fig. 89, the present disclosure may also be embodied as three or more light sources. Coupler 8906 is shown as a three port device generally having ports 8922, 8924, and 8926. Although ports 8922 and 8924 are referred to as input ports and port 8926 is referred to as a combiner output port, these ports may be bidirectional and may also receive or emit light radiation, as discussed above .

Coupler 8906 may comprise optical elements that define wavelength dispersive elements and ports. Suitable wavelength dispersion elements include an arrayed waveguide grating, a reflective diffraction grating, a transmissive diffraction grating, a holographic optical element, an assembly of wavelength selective filters, and a photonic band gap structure. As such, combiner 8906 may be a wavelength combiner, where each of the input ports has a corresponding non-overlapping input port wavelength range for efficient coupling to the combiner output port.

Harmonic generation, sum frequency generation (SHG), second harmonic generation (SHG), difference frequency generation, parametric generation, parametric amplification, , Parametric oscillation, three-wave mixing, four-wave mixing, stimulated Raman scattering, stimulated Brillouin scattering, stimulated emission, acoustic Various optical processes can be performed in the optical frequency converter 8908 including, but not limited to, acousto-optic frequency shifting and / or electro-optic frequency shifting.

In general, optical frequency converter 8908 receives the optical input of the optical wavelengths of the input set and provides the optical output of the optical wavelengths of the output set, where the output set is different from the input set.

The optical frequency converter 8908 may be made of a material selected from the group consisting of lithium niobate, lithium tantalate, potassium titanyl phosphate, potassium niobate, quartz, silica, silicon oxynitride, gallium Non-linear optical materials such as arsenic, lithium borate, and / or beta-barium borate. Optical interaction in the optical frequency converter 8908 can take place in a variety of structures including bulk structures, waveguides, quantum well structures, quantum wire structures, quantum dot structures, photonic bandgap structures, and / or multiple component waveguide structures.

If the optical frequency converter 8908 provides a parametric nonlinear optical process, then this nonlinear optical process is preferably phase-matched. This phase matching may be birefringent phase-matching or quasi-phase-matching. Pseudo-phase matching may include a method disclosed in Miller, U.S. Patent No. 7,116,468, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

The optical frequency converter 8908 may also include a wavelength selective reflector for wavelength selective output coupling, a wavelength selective reflector for wavelength selective resonance, and / or a wavelength that controls the spectral response of the transducer An optional loss factor, and the like.

In embodiments, a plurality of illumination modules, such as those described in Figure 89, may be associated to form a compound illumination module.

One component of the illumination module may be a diffraction grating or a grating, which is further described herein. The diffraction grating plate may be less than 1 mm thick, but may still be sufficiently rigid to be permanently bonded in place or to replace the cover glass of the LCOS. One advantage of using a grating in an illumination module is the use of a laser illumination light source to increase efficiency and reduce power. The grating may have essentially less stray light and will allow additional options to filter out eye glow with less reduction of see through brightness due to narrow band.

90 is a block diagram of an optical frequency converter according to one embodiment of the present disclosure; 90 shows how feedback radiation 8920 is provided by an exemplary optical frequency converter 8908 that provides parametric frequency conversion. Combined radiation 8918 provides forward radiation 9002 in an optical frequency transducer 8908 that propagates to the right in Figure 90 and provides a forward radiation 9002 that is parametric radiation 9004 is generated in the optical frequency converter 8908 and emitted as output light radiation 8928 from the optical frequency converter 8908. Typically there is a net power transfer from the omnidirectional radiation 9002 to the parametric radiation 9004 as the interaction progresses (i.e., in this example, as the radiation propagates to the right). A reflector 9008 that may have a wavelength dependent transmittance to reflect (or partially reflect) the omnidirectional radiation 9002 to provide a backward radiation 9006 is disposed in the optical frequency converter 8908 , And may be disposed outside the optical frequency converter 8908 after the endface 9010. [ The reflector 9008 can be a grating, an internal interface, a coated or uncoated end face, or any combination thereof. The reflectance level of the reflector 9008 is preferably greater than 90%. A reflector located at the input interface 9012 provides purely linear feedback (i.e., feedback independent of process efficiency). The reflector located at end face 9010 provides maximum nonlinear feedback because the dependence of forward power on process efficiency is maximized at the output interface (assuming phase-matched parametric interaction).

91 is a block diagram of a laser illumination module in accordance with one embodiment of the present disclosure; In this embodiment, it is to be appreciated that while lasers are used, other light sources such as LEDs may also be used. The laser illumination module 9100 includes an array of diode lasers 9102, waveguides 9104 and 9106, star couplers 9108 and 9110, and an optical frequency translator 9114. The array of diode lasers 9102 is coupled to waveguides 9104 that serve as input ports (ports 8922 and 8924 in Figure 89) to a planar waveguide star coupler 9108 And has lasing elements. Star coupler 9108 is coupled to another planar waveguide star coupler 9110 by waveguides 9106 having different lengths. The combination of star couplers 9108 and 9110 and waveguides 9106 may be an arrayed waveguide grating and may include a wavelength coupler (e.g., coupler 8906 of FIG. 89), which provides combined radiation 8918 to waveguide 9112 )]. The waveguide 9112 provides the combined radiation 8918 to the optical frequency converter 9114. Within the optical frequency converter 9114, the optional reflector 9116 provides back reflection of the combined radiation 8918. As previously discussed with respect to FIG. 90, this back reflection provides non-linear feedback in accordance with embodiments of the present disclosure. One or more of the elements described with reference to Figure 91 may be fabricated on a common substrate using a planar coating method and / or a lithographic method, in order to reduce cost, parts count and alignment requirements .

The second waveguide can be arranged so that its core is very close to the core of the waveguide in the optical frequency converter 8908. [ As is known in the art, this configuration of waveguides serves as a directional coupler, and thus the radiation in the waveguide can provide additional radiation in the optical frequency converter 8908. [ Significant coupling may be prevented by providing radiation at wavelengths other than the wavelengths of the omnidirectional radiation 9002 or additional radiation may be coupled to the optical frequency converter 8908 at a location where the omnidirectional radiation 9002 is depleted have.

While a standing wave feedback configuration is useful where the feedback power propagates in the opposite direction along the same path along which the input power follows, a traveling wave feedback configuration may also be used. In the progressive feedback configuration, the feedback re-enters the gain medium at a different location from where the input power is emitted.

92 is a block diagram of a compound laser illumination module according to another embodiment of the present disclosure; Composite laser illumination module 9200 includes one or more laser illumination modules 9100 as described with reference to FIG. Although FIG. 92 illustrates a composite laser illumination module 9200 including three laser illumination modules 9100 for the sake of simplicity, the composite laser illumination module 9200 may include more or fewer laser illumination modules 9100 . The array of diode lasers 9120 may be an array of laser diodes, a diode laser array, and / or a semiconductor laser array that is configured to emit light radiation within the infrared spectrum (i.e., shorter wavelengths and longer wavelengths than visible light) One or more arrays 9102 of diode lasers.

The laser array output waveguides 9220 are coupled to the diode lasers in the array of diode lasers 9210 and direct the outputs of the array of diode lasers 9210 to the star couplers 9108A through 9108C. Laser array output waveguides 9220, arrayed waveguide gratings 9230, and optical frequency converters 9114A through 9114C can be fabricated on a single substrate using planar lightwave circuits, and the silicon oxynitride waveguide and / RTI > and / or a lithium tantalate waveguide.

Arrayed waveguide gratings 9230 include star couplers 9108A through 9108C, waveguides 9206A through 9206C, and star couplers 9110A through 9110C. Waveguides 9112A through 9112C provide combined radiation to optical frequency converters 9114A through 9114C and feedback radiation to star couplers 9110A through 9110C, respectively.

Optical frequency converters 9114A through 9114C may include nonlinear optical (NLO) elements (e.g., optical parametric oscillator elements and / or pseudo phase matching optical elements).

The composite laser illumination module 9200 may produce output light emission of a plurality of wavelengths. The plurality of wavelengths may be within a visible spectrum (i.e., shorter than infrared and have a longer wavelength than ultraviolet). For example, waveguide 9240A may similarly provide output light radiation between about 450 nm and about 470 nm, and waveguide 9240B may provide output light radiation between about 525 nm and about 545 nm And waveguide 9240C may provide output light radiation between about 615 nm and about 660 nm. These ranges of output light emission can be re-selected to provide satisfactory visible wavelengths (e. G., Blue, green and red wavelengths) to the human observer and recombined to produce a white light output .

Waveguides 9240A through 9240C may be fabricated on the same planar lightwave circuit as laser array output waveguides 9220, arrayed waveguide gratings 9230, and optical frequency converters 9114A through 9114C. In some embodiments, the output light radiation provided by each of waveguides 9240A through 9240C can provide optical power in the range of about 1 watts to about 20 watts.

The optical frequency converter 9114 includes a pseudo phase matched wavelength conversion waveguide configured to perform a second harmonic generation (SHG) on the combined radiation of the first wavelength to generate a second wavelength of radiation . The pseudo phase-matched wavelength conversion waveguide pumped the optical parametric oscillator integrated with the pseudo-phase matched wavelength conversion waveguide to generate a second (" third " May be configured to use wavelength radiation. The pseudo-phase matched wavelength converting waveguide can also generate feedback radiation propagating through the arrayed waveguide grating 9230 via waveguide 9112 to the array of diode lasers 9210, thereby causing the array of diode lasers 9210 Allowing each placed laser to operate at an individual wavelength determined by the corresponding port on the arrayed waveguide grating.

For example, the composite laser illumination module 9200 may be an array of diode lasers operating at wavelengths of about 830 nm nominally to produce output light radiation in the visible spectrum corresponding to any of the red, green, And may be configured using the second interface 9210.

Composite laser illumination module 9200 may optionally be configured to directly illuminate spatial light modulators without intermediate optics. In some embodiments, the compound laser illumination module 9200 operates nominally at a single first wavelength to simultaneously produce output light emissions of a plurality of second wavelengths, such as wavelengths corresponding to red, green, and blue May be constructed using an array of diode lasers (9210). Each different second wavelength may be generated by one instance of the laser illumination module 9100.

Composite laser illumination module 9200 can be configured to couple diffuse limited white light by combining multiple output wavelengths of light at a single wavelength using, for example, waveguide-selective taps (not shown) lt; / RTI > white light.

An array of diode lasers 9210, laser array output waveguides 9220, arrayed waveguide gratings 9230, waveguides 9112, optical frequency converters 9114 and frequency converter output waveguides 9240 Can be fabricated on a common substrate using manufacturing processes such as coating and lithography. A beam shaping element 9250 is coupled to the complex laser illumination module 9200 by waveguides 9240A through 9240C, as described with reference to FIG.

Beam shaping element 9250 may be disposed on the same substrate as composite laser illumination module 9200. [ The substrate may comprise, for example, a thermally conductive material, a semiconductor material, or a ceramic material. The substrate may comprise copper-tungsten, silicon, gallium arsenide, lithium tantalate, silicon oxynitride, and / or gallium nitride and may be processed using a semiconductor fabrication process including coating, lithography, etching, .

An array of diode lasers 9210, laser array output waveguides 9220, arrayed waveguide gratings 9230, waveguides 9112, optical frequency converters 9114, waveguides 9240, beam shaping elements 9250, and various related planar lightwave circuits may be passively coupled and / or aligned, and in some embodiments may be passively aligned by height on a common substrate. Each of waveguides 9240A through 9240C may be coupled to a different instance of beam shaping element 9250 rather than being coupled to a single element as shown.

Beam shaping element 9250 may be configured to shape the output light emission from waveguides 9240A through 9240C into a substantially rectangular diffraction limited light beam and also output light emission from waveguides 9240A through 9240C Can be configured to have a brightness uniformity of greater than about 95% over a nearly rectangular beam shape.

Beam shaping element 9250 may comprise an aspheric lens such as a "top-hat" microlens, a holographic element, or a light grating. In some embodiments, the diffraction limited light beam output by beam shaping element 9250 may produce substantially reduced spots or may not produce spots. The light beam output by beam shaping element 9250 can provide optical power in the range of about 1 to about 20 watts, and a substantially planar phase front.

93 is a block diagram of an imaging system in accordance with one embodiment of the present disclosure; The imaging system 9300 includes a light engine 9310, a light beam 9230, a spatial light modulator 9330, a modulated light beam 9340, and a projection lens 9350. Light engine 9310 may include a compound optical illumination module, such as a plurality of illumination modules described in FIG. 89, a composite laser illumination module 9200, described with reference to FIG. 92, or FIG. 93 May be a laser illumination system 9300 as described in reference. Spatial light modulator 9330 may be a 3LCD system, a DLP system, a LCoS system, a transmissive liquid crystal display (e.g., transmissive LCoS), a liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCoS) array, a grating- Or other microdisplay or microprojection system or a reflective display.

The spatial light modulator 9330 may be configured to spatially modulate the light beam 9320. Spatial light modulator 9330 may be configured to provide a spatial light modulator 9330 with a video image such as that which can be displayed by a television or computer monitor on light beam 9320 to produce a modulated light beam 9340 And may be coupled to an electronic circuit configured to modulate. In some embodiments, the modulated light beam 9340 may be output from the spatial light modulator on the same side as the spatial light modulator receives the light beam 9320 using the optical reflection principle. In other embodiments, the modulated light beam 9340 may be output from the spatial light modulator on the opposite side of the spatial light modulator receiving the light beam 9320 using the optical transmission principle. The modulated light beam 9340 may optionally be coupled to a projection lens 9350. Projection lens 9350 is configured to project the modulated light beam 9340 onto a display, such as a video display screen.

The method of illuminating a video display may be performed using a composite illumination module such as a plurality of illumination modules 8900, a composite laser illumination module 9100, a laser illumination system 9200, or an imaging system 9300 . A diffraction limited output light beam is generated using a combined illumination module, a combined laser illumination module 9100, a laser illumination system 9200, or a light engine 9310. An output light beam is directed using a spatial light modulator, such as spatial light modulator 9330, and optionally a projection lens 9350. The spatial light modulator can project an image onto a display such as a video display screen.

The illumination module may be configured to emit any number of wavelengths, including one, two, three, four, five, six, or more, the wavelengths being spaced apart from one another by a variable amount, And have different power levels. The illumination module may be configured to emit a single wavelength for each light beam or to emit multiple wavelengths for each light beam. The lighting module may also include a power circuit, such as a polarization controller, a polarization rotator, a power supply, a power FET, an electronic control circuit, a thermal management system, a heat pipe, and a safety interlock And may include additional components and functionality. In some embodiments, the lighting module may be coupled to an optical fiber or a light guide-glass (e.g., BK7).

Some options for LCoS frontal lighting design include the following: 1) Wedge with MLC (Multi Layer Coating). This concept uses MLC to define specific reflection and transmission angles; 2) a wedge with a polarizing beam splitter coating. This concept works like a regular PBS cube, but works at a much lower angle (shallow angle). This can be PBS coating or wire grid film; 3) PBS Prism bar [(PBS Prism bar); These are similar to option # 2], but have a seam under the center of the panel; 4) wire grid polarizer plate beam splitter [similar to PBS wedge, but only plate and therefore generally air instead of solid glass]; And 5) a flexible film such as a 3M polarizing beam splitter consisting of alternating different plastic layers with an index of refraction that is matched in one plane direction but not otherwise in an in-plane direction polarizing beamsplitter). In the unmatched direction, a highly reflective quarter-wave stack is formed, while in the matched direction, the film functions like a transparent plastic slab. The film is laminated between glass prisms to form a wide angle PBS that provides high performance over high-speed beams throughout the visible range. The MLC wedge can be rigid and can be firmly bonded in place without voids for condensation or thermal deflection. Which can operate on a broadband LED light source. In embodiments, the MLC wedge may replace the cover glass of the LCOS for the finished module. The MLC wedge may be less than about 4 mm thick. In one embodiment, the MLC wedge may be less than 2 mm thick.

It is to be understood that the present disclosure provides for the use of frontlighting systems such as those described herein in all types of optical configurations that may (but need not necessarily) include an augmented reality eyepiece You will know. The front lighting system can be used as a component in any type of optical system as a light source of direct or indirect illumination and is particularly suitable for illumination of any type or type of optical element, optical surface, or optical sensor And is most preferred for having, for example, selectively configurable light paths, such as LCoS or liquid crystal displays, and / or for reflecting light. In some embodiments, at least a portion of the light generated by the front lighting system will be reflected to continue to pass through a portion of the front lighting system back to its final destination (e.g., eye, light sensor, etc.) In the example, none of the generated light continues to pass through the front lighting system again to its final destination. For example, the front lighting system can be redirected through the components of the front lighting system and then passed through one or more additional optical systems that condition the image light that the user's eye ultimately receives An optical device such as LCoS can be illuminated to generate an image. Any other optical system may be, or may include, one or more of a waveguide (which may be a free-form waveguide), a beam splitter, a collimator, a polarizer, a mirror, a lens, and a diffraction grating.

95 illustrates one embodiment of a LCoS frontal illumination design. In this embodiment, the light from the RGB LED 9508 illuminates the front illumination 9504, which may be a wedge, a PBS, or the like. The light impinges on polarizer 9510, is transmitted through its S state and goes to LCoS 9502, where it is reflected as image light in its P state and passes through aspheres 9512 again. An inline polarizer 9512 can again polarize the image light and / or rotate it in half-wave to the S state. The image light then hits the wire grid polarizer 9520 and is reflected toward the curved (spherical) partial mirror 9524 and passes through the 1/2 wave retarder 9522 and continues. The image light is reflected from the mirror toward the user's eye 9518 and passes through the 1/2 wave retarder 9522 and the wire grid polarizer 9520 one more time. Various examples of the forward lighting 9504 will now be described.

In embodiments, the optical assembly includes a partially reflective, partially transmissive optical element that reflects portions of the image light from the image light source and transmits scene light from a see-through view of the environment So that a combined image composed of the reflected image light and the transmitted portions of the scene light is provided to the user's eyes.

In portable display systems, it is important to provide a display that is bright, small and lightweight. Portable display systems include cellphones, laptop computers, tablet computers, and head-mounted displays.

The present disclosure provides a compact lightweight front light source for a portable display system comprising a curved or other nonplanar wire grid polarizing film as a partial reflector to efficiently deflect light from the edge light source and illuminate the reflected image light source. Wire grid polarizers are known to provide efficient reflection for one polarization state while allowing other polarization states to pass through at the same time. Although glass plate wire grid polarizers are well known in the industry and hard wire grid polarizers can be used in this disclosure, in a preferred embodiment of the present disclosure, flexible wire grid polarizers are used for curved wire grid polarizers. A suitable wire grid polarizing film is available from Asahi-Kasei E-materials Corp of Tokyo, Japan.

The edge light source provides a small form of illumination on the display, but because it is located at the edge of the image light source, the light must be deflected by 90 degrees to illuminate the image light source. In one embodiment of the present disclosure, a curved wire grid polarizing film is used as the partial reflective surface to deflect the light provided by the edge light source downward to illuminate the reflected image light source. A polarizer is provided adjacent to the edge light source to polarize the illumination light provided to the curved wire grid polarizer. Polarizers and wire grid polarizers are oriented such that light passing through the polarizers is reflected by the wire grid polarizers. Due to the quarter wave retarder film contained in the reflected image light source, the polarization of the reflected image light is in the opposite polarization state compared to the illumination light. Thereby, the reflected image light passes through the wire grid polarizing film and continues to the display optical system. By using a flexible wire grid polarizing film as a partial reflector, the partially reflective surface can be a curved surface in a lightweight structure, where the wire grid polarizer performs a dual role: a reflector for illumination light and a transparent member for imaging light. The advantage provided by the wire grid polarizing film is that it can receive the image light over a wide range of incident angles and thus the curved surface does not interfere with the image light going to the display optics. In addition, since the wire grid polarizing film is thin (for example, less than 200 micrometers), the curved shape does not distort the image light much when the image light passes through the display optical system. Finally, the wire grid polarizer has a very low tendency to scatter light, thus a high image contrast can be maintained.

136 shows a schematic diagram of a frontlighted image source 13600 of the present disclosure. The edge light source 13602 provides illumination light passing through the polarizer 13614 so that the illumination light 13610 is polarized where the polarizer 13614 can be an absorptive polarizer or a reflective polarizer. have. The polarizer state of the illumination light 13610 is oriented such that light is reflected by the curved wire grid polarizer 13608 and thereby deflects the illumination light 13610 down toward the reflective image light source 13604. Thus, the passing axis of the polarizer 13614 is perpendicular to the pass axis of the wire grid polarizer 13608. It should be noted by those skilled in the art that although FIG. 136 shows a horizontally oriented front illuminated image light source 13600, other orientations are equally possible. As mentioned earlier, a reflected image light source, such as an LCOS image light source, typically includes a quarter wave delay film, so that the polarization state of the illumination light is changed by the reflected image light source during reflection, And generally has an opposite polarization state as compared with illumination light. This change in polarization state is fundamental to the operation of all liquid crystal based displays, as is known to those skilled in the art and as described in U.S. Patent No. 4,398,805. For individual portions of the image, the liquid crystal element of the reflected image light source 13604 will cause more or less change in polarization state, and thus the reflected image light 13612, before passing through the curved wire grid polarizer , And has a mixed elliptically polarized state. After passing through the curved wire grid polarizer 13608 and any additional polarizers that may be included in the display optics, the polarization state of the video light 13612 is determined by the curved wire grid polarizer 13608, Determines the local intensity of the video light 13612 in the video displayed by the portable display system.

The flexible nature of the wire grid polarizing film used in curved wire grid polarizer 13608 allows it to be shaped into a shape that focuses illumination light 13610 onto reflective image light source 13604. The shape of the curved surface of the curved wire grid polarizer is chosen to provide uniform illumination of the reflected image light source. 136 shows a curved wire grid polarizer 13608 having a parabolic shape but may be curved to have a constant radius of curvature in order to uniformly deflect the illumination light 13610 onto the reflected image light source 13604 according to the nature of the edge light source 13602. [ radiused curves, complex spline surfaces or planes are also possible. Experiments have shown that both parabolic curves, curved surfaces of constant radius, and curved surfaces of complex splines provide more uniform illumination than flat surfaces. However, in some very thin front illuminated image light sources, a flat wire grid polarizing film can be effectively used to provide a lightweight portable display system. 138 by a side frame forming slots of suitable curved surfaces to hold the wire grid polarizing film in place, as shown in Figure 138, which shows a schematic of the front illuminated image light source assembly 13800. [ The shape of the polarizing film can be maintained. A side frame 13802 with a curved slot 13804 is shown to hold the flexible wire grid polarizing film in a desired curved shape. Although only one side frame 13802 is shown in Figure 138, two side frames 13802 will be used to support the curved shape on both sides along the other components of the front illuminated image light source. In either case, the weight is substantially lower than in prior art front lighting systems, since the majority of the front illuminated image light source of this disclosure is air and the wire grid polarizing film is very thin.

137, two or more edge light sources 13702 are arranged along two or more edges of the reflected image light source 13604, as shown in Figure 137. In a further embodiment of the present disclosure, a front illuminated image light source 13700 Is provided. Polarizers 13712 are provided adjacent to each edge light source 13702 to polarize the illumination light 13708. [ The illumination light 13708 is deflected by the curved wire grid polarizer 13704 to illuminate the reflected image light source 13604. The reflected image light 13710 then passes through the curved wire grid polarizer 13704 and continues to the display optics. The advantage of using two or more edge light sources 13702 is that more light can be applied to the reflective image light source 13604 and thereby provide brighter images.

The edge light source may be a fluorescent light, an incandescent light, an organic light emitting diode, a laser, or an electroluminescent light. In a preferred embodiment of the present disclosure, the edge light source is an array of three or more light emitting diodes. In order to uniformly illuminate the reflected image light source, the edge light source must have a substantially conical angle (e.g., the edge light source may be a Lambertian light source). In the case of a laser light source, the cone angle of the light will need to be expanded. By using an array of light sources or a plurality of edge light sources, the distribution of light onto the reflected image light source can be adjusted to provide more uniform illumination, resulting in a more uniform brightness of the displayed image.

The image light provided by the front illuminated image light source of the present disclosure enters into the display optics of the portable display system. Various display optical systems are possible depending on how the displayed image is used. For example, the display optics may be decentralized when the display is a flat screen display or, alternatively, may be refractive or diffractive when the display is a near-vision display or a head-mounted display.

Figure 139 is a flow chart of the method of the present disclosure for a portable display system having a reflected image light source. At step 13900, polarized illumination light is provided at one or more edges of the reflected image light source. In step 13902, the curved wire grid polarizer receives the illumination light and deflects it to illuminate the reflected image light source, wherein the curved surface of the wire grid polarizer is selected to enhance the uniformity of illumination of the area of the reflected image light source . In step 13904, the reflected image light source receives the illumination light, reflects the illumination light, and at the same time changes the polarization state of the illumination light corresponding to the displayed image. The image light then passes through the curved wire grid polarizer in step 13908 into the display optics. In step 13910, an image is displayed by the portable display system.

In embodiments, a lightweight portable display system having a reflective liquid crystal image light source for displaying an image includes one or more edge light sources providing polarized illumination light adjacent one or more edges of the reflective liquid crystal image light source, A curved wire grid polarizer partial reflector capable of receiving and deflecting light to illuminate a reflective liquid crystal image light source and a display optical system for receiving the image light reflected from the reflective liquid crystal image light source and displaying the image, . ≪ / RTI > In addition, the one or more edge light sources may include light emitting diodes. In embodiments, the wire grid polarizer may be a flexible film, and the flexible film may be retained in a curved shape by a side frame. In embodiments, the curved wire grid polarizer of the display system may be a curved surface of a parabolic, constant radius, or complex spline. In addition, the reflective liquid crystal image light source of the display system may be an LCOS. In embodiments, the display optics of the display system may include a diffuser, and the display system may be a flat screen display. In embodiments, the display optics of the display system may include refractive or diffractive elements, and the display system may be a near vision display or a head mounted display.

In embodiments, a method of providing images in a lightweight portable display system having a reflective liquid crystal imaging light source includes providing polarized illumination light to one or more edges of the reflective liquid crystal imaging light source, receiving the illumination light with a curved wire grid polarizer, Illuminating a reflective liquid crystal image light source by polarizing the light; reflecting the illumination light to change its polarization state with respect to an image to be displayed as a reflective liquid crystal image light source to provide image light; converting the image light into a curved wire grid polarizer Receiving the image light by the display optical system, and displaying the image. In embodiments of the method, the curved surface shape of the curved wire grid polarizer may be selected to enhance the uniformity of illumination of the reflected liquid crystal image light source. In addition, the one or more edge light sources may include light emitting diodes. In embodiments, the wire grid polarizer may be a flexible film. In addition, the flexible film can be held in a curved shape by the side frame. In embodiments of the method, the curved wire grid polarizer may be a curved surface of a parabola, a constant radius, or a complex spline. In addition, in embodiments of the method, the reflected liquid crystal image light source may be an LCOS. In embodiments, the display optics may include a diffuser, and the display system may be a flat screen display. In embodiments of the above method, the display optical system may comprise a refracting or diffractive element, and the display system may be a near vision display or a head mounted display.

96 shows an embodiment of a front illumination 9504 that includes prisms optically conjugated with a polarizer. The prisms look like a rectangular solid of two having a substantially transparent interface 9602 between them. The entities of each rectangle are diagonally bisected and a polarizing coating 9604 is disposed along the interface of the bisection. The lower triangle formed by the nested portion of the entity in the rectangle may optionally consist of a single piece 9608. The prisms may consist of B-7 or equivalent. In this embodiment, the entity in the rectangle has a square end of the size 2 mm x 2 mm. In this embodiment, the length of the middle entity is 10 mm. In an alternate embodiment, the nutrient site includes a 50% mirror 9705 surface, and the interface between the entities of the two rectangles includes a polarizer 9702 that is capable of passing light in the P state.

98 shows three versions of the LCoS forward lighting design. 98 (a) shows a wedge having an MLC (multi-layer coating). This concept uses MLC to define specific reflection and transmission angles. In this embodiment, video light in the P or S polarization state is observed by the user's eyes. 98b shows a PBS with a polarizer coating. Here, only the S-polarized image light is transmitted toward the user's eye. 98c shows a rectangular prism that removes most of the material of the prism so that the image light can be transmitted through the air as S-polarized light.

99 shows a wedge + PBS in which the polarizing coating 9902 is layered on the LCoS 9904.

100 shows two embodiments of a prism A in which light enters a short end and a prism B in which light enters along a long end. In Fig. 100a, a wedge is formed by offset bisecting an entity in a rectangle to form at least one 8.6 degree angle at the nutrient site interface. In this embodiment, by offset natures, a segment with a height of 0.5 mm on the side and another segment with 1.5 mm are obtained, through which the RGB LED 10002 transmits light. Along the nutrient site, a polarizing coating 10004 is disposed. 100b, a wedge is formed by offsetting the entity in the rectangle to form at least one 14.3 degree angle at the nutrient site interface. In this embodiment, by offset natures, a segment having a height of 0.5 mm and another segment having a thickness of 1.5 mm are obtained on the side surface, and the RGB LED 10008 transmits light through them. Along the nutrient site, a polarizing coating 10010 is disposed.

101 shows a curved PBS film 10104 illuminated by an RGB LED 10102 disposed on an LCoS chip 10108. Fig. The PBS film 10104 reflects the RGB light from the LED array 10102 onto the surface 10108 of the LCOS chip but causes the light reflected from the image chip to go towards the optical assembly and ultimately toward the user's eye without interference. The films used in this system include Asahi films, which are tri-acetate cellulose or cellulose acetate substrates (TAC). In embodiments, the film may have a calendared coating built on ridges that may be angled for a 100 nm UV embossed corrugation and incident angle of light. Asahi films can come in rolls of 20 cm wide x 30 cm long and have BEF characteristics when used in LCD lighting. Asahi films can support wavelengths from visible to IR, and can be stable up to 100 ° C.

In another embodiment, Figures 21 and 22 show an exploded view of an alternative configuration of a waveguide and a projector. In this configuration, the projector is positioned immediately behind the hinge of the arm of the eyepiece and is vertically oriented to be vertical until the initial progress of the RGB LED signal is redirected by the reflective prism to enter the waveguide lens have. The vertically arranged projection engine may have a central PBS 218, a bottom RGB LED array, a hollow tapered tunnel with a thin film diffuser to mix colors for focusing in the optical system, and a condenser lens. The PBS may have a pre-polarizer on the entrance face. The full-deflector may be arranged to transmit light of a specific polarization such as p-polarized light and to reflect (or absorb) the opposite polarized light such as s-polarized light. The polarized light can then pass through the PBS to the visual field lens 216. The purpose of the viewing lens 216 may be to produce near telecentric illumination of the LCoS panel. The LCoS display can be highly reflective and reflects the colors sequentially at the correct timing, thus displaying the image properly. Light can be reflected from the LCoS panel, and can be rotated with s-polarization for bright areas of the image. The light can then be refracted through the field lens 216 and reflected off the inner interface of the PBS to exit the projector and onto the coupling lens. The hollow tapered tunnel 220 may replace a homogenizing lenslet from other embodiments. By vertically orienting the projector and centering the PBS, space is saved and the projector can be placed in the hinge space with little chance of the moment arm being caught in the waveguide.

Light reflected or scattered from the image source of the eyepiece or from the associated optical system can go out into the environment. These light losses are perceived as 'glare' or 'night glow' by an external observer, in which case a portion of the lens or the area surrounding the eyepiece appears to glow in a darkened light environment. In the specific case of the glare as shown in Fig. 22A, the image displayed when the external observer looks from the outside can be viewed as the observable image 2202A in the display area. In terms of maintaining the privacy of the viewing image, it is also desirable to reduce glare in order to maintain the privacy of the viewing experience for the user, even in terms of making the user invisible when using the eyepiece in a dark lighting environment. The method and apparatus can reduce glare through a light control element (e.g., by a partial reflective mirror in an optical system associated with the image light source, by a polarizing optical system, or the like). For example, the light entering the waveguide can be polarized (e.g., s-polarized). The light control element may comprise a linear polarizer. The linear polarizer in the light control element is oriented with respect to the linearly polarized image light so that the second part of the linearly polarized image light passing through the partial reflection mirror is blocked and the glare is reduced. In embodiments, a lens, such as snap-fit optics, described herein, which is polarized (e.g., in this case, p-polarized) as opposed to light reflected from the user's eye, Or attached to the frame, the glare can be minimized or eliminated.

In embodiments, the light control element may comprise a second quarter wave film and a linear polarizer. The second quarter wave film converts the second portion of the circularly polarized image light into linearly polarized image light having a polarization state that is blocked by a linear polarizer in the light control element, thereby reducing glare. For example, when the light control element includes a linear polarizer and a quarter wave film, 50% of the light is blocked as unpolarized scene light coming from the external environment in front of the user is converted into linearly polarized light . The first portion of the scene light passing through the linear polarizer is linearly polarized light, which is converted into circularly polarized light by a quarter wave film. A third portion of the scene light reflected from the partially reflecting mirror inverts the circularly polarized light, which is then converted into linearly polarized light by the second quarter wave film. The linear polarizer then blocks the reflected third portion of the scene light, thereby reducing escaping light and reducing glare. 22B shows an example of a perspective display assembly having a light control element in a spectacle frame. The eyeglass section 2200B shows the components of the perspective display assembly in the eyeglass frame 2202B. The light control element is responsible for the entire perspective view the user is viewing. Support members 2204B and 2208B are shown supporting a partial reflective mirror 2210B and a beam splitter layer 2212B in the field of view of the user's eye 2214B, respectively. The support members 2204B and 2208B, together with the light control element 2218B, are connected to the eyeglass frame 2202B. Other components such as a folding mirror 2220B and a first quarter wave film 2222B are also connected to the support members 2204B and 2208B so that the combined assembly is structurally stable .

Stray light in small optical systems, such as head mounted displays, is typically caused by scattering from the side of the housing or other structures where the light meets the surface at a steep angle. This type of stray light creates a bright region of scattered light surrounding the displayed image.

There are two ways to reduce this type of stray light. One approach is to darken or roughen the sidewalls or other structures to reduce the reflectivity of the light. However, while this increases the absorbance at the surface, the reflected light scattering from the surface may still be noticeable. Another approach is to provide a baffle for blocking or clipping stray light. Blocking or clipping the reflected light scattered from the surface greatly reduces the effect of this stray light. In a head mounted display, it is advantageous to use both of these ways to reduce stray light, since the bright areas around the displayed image are removed and the contrast of the displayed image is increased.

U.S. Patent No. 5949583 provides a visor on top of a head mounted display to block stray light from coming from above. However, this does not address the need for control to reduce stray light from the inside of a head mounted display system.

U.S. Patent No. 6369952 provides two masks that block light from around the edges of a liquid crystal display image source in a head mounted display. The first mask is located on the input side of the liquid crystal image light source adjacent the backlight while the second mask is located on the output side of the liquid crystal display. Because both masks are located close to the liquid crystal display, "both the first mask 222 and the second mask 224 can be made to have openings or windows 232 and 234, which are substantially identical and co- Quot; (Column 15, lines 15-19). By placing the mask close to the image light source, the mask may have little effect on light emitted by the image light source from a region of the image light source closer to the center of the active region of the image light source to a wide cone angle. This wide cone angle light can be reflected from the side walls of the housing in a variety of ways, thereby providing stray light in the form of bright areas and reduced contrast.

Therefore, a method for reducing the stray light from the light source inside the head mounted display is needed.

Figure 160 shows an example of a display system having an optically flat reflective surface that is a beam splitter made of an optical film on a substrate, wherein the display system is a near vision display 16002. [ In this example, the image light source 16012 includes a projection system (not shown) that provides the image light with an optical layout that includes a curved optical axis 16018 located in the near vision display 16002. An optical system along optical axis 16018 may include a lens that focuses the image light to provide a focused image from image light source 16012 to the user's eye 16004. [ The beam splitter 16008 causes the optical axis 16018 from the image light source 16012 to bend toward the spherical or aspheric reflector 16010. The beam splitter 16008 may be a partial reflective mirror or a polarizing beam splitter. The beam splitter 16008 in the near vision display 16002 is oriented at an angle that redirects at least a portion of the image light from the image light source 16012 towards the reflector 16010. [ From the reflector 16010, at least an additional portion of the image light is reflected back toward the user's eye 16004. The reflected additional portion of the image light passes again through the beam splitter 16008 and is focused on the user's eye 16004. The reflector 16010 may be a mirror or a partial mirror. The scene light from the scene in front of the near vision display 16002 can be combined with the video light so that the video light and the scene light 16014 along the axis 16018 can be combined with the video light, To the eye 16004 of the user. The combined image light 16020 provides a combined image of the scene and the overlaid image from the image light source to the user's eye 16004.

Fig. 161 shows an example of the near vision display module 200. Fig. The module 200 comprises a reflector 16104, an image light source module 16108, and a beam splitter 16102. The module may be open at the sides by attachment between at least some of the joining edges between the reflector 16104, the image light source module 16108 and the beam splitter 16102 . Alternatively, the module 200 may be enclosed at the sides by sidewalls to provide an enclosed module to prevent dust, contaminants, and moisture from reaching the interior surface of the module 200. The reflector 16104, the image light source module 16108 and the beam splitter 16102 may be fabricated separately and then joined together, or at least some of the pieces may be fabricated together into a combined subassembly. In the module 200, an optical film may be used on the beam splitter 16102 or the reflector 16104. In Figure 161 beam splitter 16102 is shown as a flat surface while reflector 16104 is shown as a spherical surface. In the near vision display module 200, both the reflector 16104 and the beam splitter 16102 are used to provide images to the user's eye, as shown in Figure 160, so that the surfaces are optically flat It is important that it is optically uniform.

When the image light source 16108 includes a projection system having a light source with a wide cone angle of light, the image brightness also has a wide cone angle. As a result, the image light interacts with the sidewalls of the module 200, and this interaction can be reflected in the form of a bright area and provide scattered light, which is bright Region. This bright area can be very annoying to the user because it can look like a halo surrounding the displayed image. In addition, scattered light can degrade the contrast in the displayed image by providing a random low level of light over the image.

Figure 162 shows an example of an optical system associated with one type of head mounted display 16200. In the optical system, the light source 16204 provides a wide cone angle of the ray including the central ray 16202 and the edge ray 16224. Light source 16204 may provide polarized light. The light beam passes from the light source 16204 to the illumination beam splitter 16210, which reflects a portion of its light towards the reflected image light source 16208, which may be an LCOS display. The first portion of the light is reflected by the image light source 16208 corresponding to the image content being displayed and the polarization state is changed. The second portion of light then passes through the illumination beam splitter 16210 and then through one or more lenses 16212 that extend the cone angle of the light beam. The third portion of the light is reflected by the image beam splitter 16220 toward the spherical (or hemispherical) partial mirror 16214 at an angle. The partial mirror 16214 causes the light to converge while reflecting the fourth portion of light to focus the image on the user's eye 16228. [ After the fourth portion of the light is reflected by the partial mirror 16214 a fifth portion of the light passes through the image beam splitter 16220 and continues toward the user's eye 16228, An enlarged version of the resulting image is provided to the user ' s eyes 16228. [ In a see-through head mounted display, light 16218 (or scene light) from the environment passes through a partial mirror 16214 and an image beam splitter 16220, through image. The user is then provided with a combined image consisting of a displayed image from the image light source and a perspective image of the environment.

The central ray 16202 passes through the center of the optical system of the head-mounted display along the optical axis of the optical system. The optical system includes an illumination beam splitter 16210, an image light source 16208, an image beam splitter 16220, and a partial mirror 16214. 162, edge ray 16224 may follow the sides of housing 16222 and may then interact with the side walls of housing 16222, in which case edge ray 16224 may move along side walls As shown in FIG. This reflected or scattered light from edge ray 16224 is visible to the user as a bright area surrounding the displayed image or as a reduction in contrast in the image. The present disclosure provides a method of reducing bright areas by reducing reflected and scattered light from sidewalls by blocking or clipping the reflected or scattered light.

Figure 163 shows an example of a first embodiment of the present disclosure in which a baffle 16302 is added between the illumination beam splitter 16210 and the lens 16212 inside the housing 16222. [ The baffle 16302 blocks or clips the edge ray 16224 before it enters the lens 16212. The baffle 16302 may be of any opaque material such that the edge ray 16224 is blocked or clipped. In a preferred embodiment, the baffle 16302 may be made of a black material with a matte finish so that the incident light is absorbed by the baffle. The baffle 16302 may be comprised of a sheet of flat material having an opening disposed in the housing 16222 or the baffle 16302 may be part of the housing 16222. [ Because the baffle 16302 is located remotely from the image light source 16208 and the image light is diverging, the image provided by the image light source 16208 can be captured by the surrounding baffle 16302 so that it is not clipped by the edges of the baffle The resulting aperture is larger than the active area of the image light source 16208 and as a result, the entire image provided by the image light source 16208 is visible to the user, as shown in Figure 163. In addition, the baffle preferably has a thin cross section (shown in Figure 163) or sharp edges so that light is not scattered from the edges of the baffle.

Figure 164 shows an example of another embodiment of the present disclosure in which a baffle 16402 is added to the entrance surface of the lens 16212. [ Baffle 16402 may be fabricated as part of housing 16222 or baffle 16402 may be attached as a mask on lens 16212. [ In either case, the baffle 16402 should be opaque to block and absorb incident light, and should preferably be black with a matte finish.

165 shows an example of an embodiment of the present disclosure, similar to the embodiment shown in FIG. 164, but located on the output side of the lens 16212. FIG. In this embodiment, baffle 16502 is provided for blocking or clipping edge ray 16224 after edge ray 16224 has passed through lens 16212.

Figure 166 shows an example of another embodiment of the present disclosure in which a baffle 16602 is attached to the housing 16222 between a lens 16212 and an image beam splitter 16220. The baffle 16602 may be part of the housing 16222 or the baffle 16602 may be a separate structure disposed in the housing 16222. [ The baffle 16602 blocks or clips the edge ray 16224 so that a bright region is not provided in the user's eye 16228 around the displayed image.

Figure 167 illustrates an example of a further embodiment of the present disclosure in which an absorbing coating 16702 is applied to the side walls of the housing 16222 to reduce reflection and scattering of incident light and edge light 16224 . The absorbent coating 16702 can be coupled to the baffle 16302, 16402, 16502, or 16602.

Figure 168 shows an example of another source of stray light in a head mounted display wherein the stray light 16802 comes directly from the edge of the light source 16204. This stray light 16802 can be particularly bright because it first comes out of the light source 16204 without first being reflected from the illumination beam splitter 16210 and then reflected from the image light source 16208. [ 169 shows an example of another source of stray light 16902 from light source 16204 where stray light 16902 is reflected from the surface of image light source 16208 where the polarization state is changed and stray light 16902 is then And can pass through the illumination beam splitter at a relatively steep angle. As shown in FIG. 169, this stray light 16902 can then be reflected from any reflective surface in the housing or from the edge of the lens 16212. Figure 170 illustrates an example of another further embodiment of the present disclosure in which a baffle 17002 is provided adjacent to a light source 16204. [ The baffle 17002 is opaque and extends from the light source 16204 so that the stray light 16802 and 16902 are not blocked by the light source 16204 or clipped to reach the user's eye 16228. [

163 to 167, 169 and 170 to further reduce stray light in the head mounted display and thereby reduce the bright area surrounding the displayed image or to increase the contrast in the displayed image, in a further embodiment, The baffle or coating shown in FIG. A plurality of baffles may be used between the light source 16204 and the image beam splitter 16220. 171, an absorbent coating having ridges 17102 can be used, wherein a series of small ridges or staircases can be used as a series of blocking or clipping edge rays over the entire sidewall area of the housing As shown in FIG. The ridges 17102 may be part of the housing 16222 or may be attached as a separate layer to the inner wall of the housing 16222. [

172 shows a further embodiment of a tape or sheet 17210 that includes a carrier sheet 17212 and ridges 17214 that can be used to block reflected light as shown in Figure 171. [ The ridges 17214 are obliquely inclined at one side and are steeply inclined at the other side, so that incident light approaching from a sharply inclined side is struck. The ridges 17214 may be a solid ridge having a triangular cross section with a sharp edge as shown in Figure 172, or may be a thin inclined scale affixed to one edge, It can be an inclined fiber attached to one end and thus the surface is angled with respect to the side wall and the incident light is blocked. The advantage of the tape or sheet 17210 is that the ridges 17214 can be relatively thin and the ridges covering a substantial area of the housing 16222. [ A further advantage of the tape or sheet 17210 is that the ridges 17214 can be manufactured more easily than the ridges shown in Figure 171, which can be difficult to mold as part of the housing.

In all embodiments, the surrounding baffles can create an aperture having a magnitude corresponding to the distance they are located along the optical axis from the image light source, so that the image light can diverge along the optical axis, The user may provide an undipped view of the user's eye 16228. [

In one embodiment, an absorption polarizer in the optical assembly is used to reduce stray light. The absorption polarizer may comprise an anti-reflective coating. An absorption polarizer can be placed after the focusing lens of the optical assembly to reduce the light passing through the optically flat film of the optical assembly. The light from the image light source can be polarized to increase the contrast.

In one embodiment, an anti-reflective coating in the optical assembly can be used to reduce stray light. The antireflective coating may be disposed on the retarder film of the polarizer or optical assembly of the optical assembly. The retardation film may be a quarter wave film or a half wave film. The anti-reflection coating may be disposed on the outer surface of the partial reflective mirror. The light from the image light source can be polarized to increase the contrast.

Referring to FIG. 102A, an image light source 10228 directs image light to a beam splitter layer of an optical assembly. 103 shows an enlarged view (blow-up) of the image light source 10228. Fig. In this particular embodiment, the image light source 10228 transmits light through a diffuser 10304 and a full polarizer 10308 to a curved wire grid polarizer 10310 where light is reflected toward the LCoS display 10312 And a light source (LED bar 10302) that directs light toward the - side. The image light from the LCoS is then reflected back to the beam splitter layer of the optical assembly 10200 through the curved wire grid polarizer 10310 and the 1/2 wave film 10312. In embodiments, an optical assembly comprising optical components 10204, 10210, 10212, 10212, 10230 may be used as a sealable optical assembly-detachable (e.g., snap-on and snap-off), interchangeable, And the image light source 10228 can be provided as an integral component in the frame of the eyepiece. This allows the sealed optical assembly to be made waterproof, dust proof, interchangeable, customizable, and the like. For example, a given encapsulated optical assembly may have corrective optics for one person, and may include a second encapsulated optical assembly for another person having different corrective optical system requirements (e.g., different prescriptions) Can be replaced. In embodiments, there may be applications where both eyes do not need to receive input from the eyepiece. In this example, a person can simply detach one side and use only a single side to project the content. In this manner, the user will now have an unobstructed optical path to the eye from which the assembly is removed, and the eyepiece will save battery life, such as by operating only half of the system.

The optical system assembly is divided into discrete portions depending on which portion is sealed-for example, an image generation facility 10228 and a directive optics facility 10228 as shown in FIG. 10204, 10210, 10212, and 10230). In a further example, FIG. 147 illustrates a configuration of an embodiment of an eyepiece that illustrates the directing optics as a 'projection screen' 14608a and 14608b. 102A also shows a portion of an eyepiece electronic device and projection system 14602, wherein this portion of the projection system can be referred to as an imaging generator. The image generation facility and the directed optical system facility may be a sealed subassembly, for example to protect the optical system therein from contaminants of the surrounding environment. In addition, the directing optical system may be configured to receive a non-destructive forced removal (e. G., To break away from the body of the eyepiece without impinging upon the deflecting optical system) to remove, for example, , ≪ / RTI > and others. In embodiments, the present disclosure may include an interactive head-mounted eyepiece worn by a user, wherein the eyepiece comprises an optical assembly through which a user views the surrounding environment and the displayed content through the eyepiece, Wherein the optical assembly includes an image generation facility mounted within a frame of the eyepiece and a directing optics arrangement disposed in front of the user's eye and separable from a frame of the eyepiece, The installation is enclosed in a frame to reduce contamination from the surrounding environment. In embodiments, the seal may be a sealed optical window. As described herein, the eyepiece may further include a treatment facility, a power management facility, a detachment sensor, a battery, etc., where the power management facility may provide a detachment indication from the separation sensor It is possible to detect the separation of the directing optical system equipment and selectively reduce the power to the components of the eyepiece to reduce the power consumed by the battery. For example, a component with reduced power may be an image light source (e.g., reducing the brightness of the image light source and turning off power to the image light source, etc.) And the power consumption of the image light source can be returned to the pre-separation operation level. If the directional optical system equipment is inadvertently forcibly disconnected, it can be separated in such a way that the optical system of the optical system is removed so that the eyepiece is not damaged. Directional optical system equipment can be separated via connection mechanisms such as magnets, pins, rails, snap-on connectors, and the like. The directing optics facility may provide a user's vision correction that requires correction glasses, in which case the orientation optics facility is interchangeable to change the vision correction prescription of the eyepiece. The eyepiece may have two separate detachable optical assemblies for each eye wherein one of the individual optical assemblies is removed to enable monocular usage by the rest of the individual optical assemblies. For example, monocular use may be firearms sighting usage, wherein the side of the eyepiece having a detachable optical system is used to aim the firearm so that a user with an unobstructed visual path can use the firearm sighting And keep the equipment provided to the other eye by the eyepiece. The directing optics facility can be separated to enable exchange between a direct optical system facility adapted for indoor use and a directed optical system facility adapted for outdoor use. For example, there may be different filters, field of view, contrast, shielding, etc. for indoor versus outdoor use. The directing optics system may be configured to accept additional elements such as optical elements, mechanical elements, control elements, and the like. For example, an optical element can be inserted to adjust the optical prescription of the user. The directional optical system equipment can also be replaced to change the field of view provided by, for example, replacing a directional optical system having a first field of view with a directional optical system having a second field of view.

Referring to Figure 104, the LED provides unpolarized light. The diffuser spreads the light from the LED and homogenizes it. The absorption full-beam photon converts the light into S polarized light. The S polarized light is then reflected towards the LCOS by a curved wire grid polarizer. The LCOS reflects the S polarized light and converts it into P polarized light according to the local image content. The P polarized light passes through the curved wire grid polarizer and becomes P polarized image light. The 1/2 wave film converts the P-polarized image light into S-polarized image light.

Referring again to Figure 102a, the beam splitter layer 10204 is a polarizing beam splitter, or the image light source provides polarized image light 10208, and the beam splitter layer 10204 is a polarizing beam splitter, 10208 is linearly polarized light, and this embodiment and associated polarization control is shown in Figure 102a. When the image light source provides linearly polarized image light and the beam splitter layer 10204 is a polarizing beam splitter, the polarization state of the image light is aligned according to the polarizing beam splitter and thus the image light 10208 is reflected by the polarizing beam splitter do. 102A shows that the reflected image light has S-state polarized light. When the beam splitter layer 10204 is a polarizing beam splitter, a first quarter wave film 10210 is provided between the beam splitter layer 10204 and the partial reflective mirror 10212. The first quarter wave film 10210 converts the linearly polarized image light into circularly polarized image light (S in FIG. 102A is shown as being converted to CR). The reflected first portion of the video light 10208 is also circularly polarized, with the circularly polarized state reversed (shown as CL in FIG. 102A), and after passing through the quarter wave film, The polarization state of the reflected first portion of the image light 10208 is reversed (with P polarization) compared to the polarization state (shown as S) of the image light 10208 provided by the image light source. As a result, the reflected first portion of the video light 10208 passes through the polarizing beam splitter without return loss. When the beam splitter layer 10204 is a polarizing beam splitter and the perspective display assembly 10200 includes a first quarter wave film 10210, the light control element 10230 may include a second quarter wave film and a linear Polarizer 10220 may be included. In embodiments, the light control element 10230 includes a controllable darkening layer 10214. The second quarter wave film 10218 is used to split the second portion of the circularly polarized image light 10208 into linearly polarized image light having a polarization state blocked by the linear polarizer 10220 in the light control element 10230 10208) (CR is shown as being converted to S), thereby reducing glare.

When the light control element 10230 includes a linear polarizer 10220 and a quarter wave film 10218, the unpolarized scene light 10222 coming from the external environment in front of the user is converted to linearly polarized light (Shown in Figure 102a as P-polarized state) and 50% of its light is blocked. The first portion of scene light 10222 passing through linear polarizer 10220 is linearly polarized light, which is converted into circularly polarized light by a quarter wave film (in Figure 102a P is converted to CL Lt; / RTI > A third portion of the scene light reflected from the partially reflective mirror 10212 inverts the circular polarization (shown in Figure 102a to convert CL to CR), which is then reflected by the second quarter wave film 10218 Linearly polarized light (CR in Figure 102a is shown as being converted to S polarized light). The linear polarizer 10220 then blocks the reflected third portion of the scene light, thereby reducing escaping light and reducing glare.

As shown in Figure 102A, the reflected first portion of the video light 10208 and the transmitted second portion of the scene light have the same circular polarization state (shown as CL) and therefore they are combined and the first 1/4 Converted to linearly polarized light by wave film 10210 (shown as P) which passes through the beam splitter when the beam splitter layer 10204 is a polarizing beam splitter. The linearly polarized combined light 10224 is then provided to a user ' s eye 10202 located behind the perspective display assembly 10200, wherein the combined image is displayed on the display screen, And an overlaid portion of the perspective view of the external environment at the front of the vehicle.

The beam splitter layer 10204 includes an optically planar film such as the Asahi TAC film discussed herein. The beam splitter layer 10204 may be disposed at an angle to the front of the user's eye to reflect and transmit portions of the image light and to transmit scene light from a perspective view of the surrounding environment, A combined image composed of portions of the transmitted scene light is provided to the user's eyes. The optically planar film may be a polarizer such as a wire grid polarizer. The optically planar film may be laminated to a transparent substrate. The optically planar film may be molded, over-molded, glued, or otherwise formed on or in the surface of the optical surface of one of the optical surfaces of the eyepiece, such as beam splitter 10202, . The optically planar film may be disposed less than 40 degrees from vertical. The curved polarizing film may have a ratio of the height of the light source to the width of the illuminated area less than 1: 1. The highest point of the curved film is lower than the length of the narrowest axis of the display. In embodiments, if the optically thin film (s) are on a beam splitter, additional optical systems, such as calibration optics, prescriptions, etc., are added to the surface, etc., to keep the film flat in the sandwich layer therebetween .

The present disclosure also provides a method of providing an optical film on an optically smooth surface. Optical films are a convenient way of forming optical structures with optical properties that are very different from the rest of the imaging device. In order to provide a function to the imaging device, an optical film needs to be attached to the optical device. When the optical film is used in a reflective manner, it is important that the reflective surface is optically flat, otherwise the wavefront of the light reflected from the reflective surface will not be preserved and the image quality will deteriorate. The optically planar surface can be defined as a uniform surface within five wavelengths of light per inch of the surface when the imaging device is measured for the wavelength of light used and compared to a flat surface or a desired optical surface.

Optically planar surfaces, including optical films such as those described in this disclosure, may be included in display systems, including projectors, projection televisions, near vision displays, head mounted displays, perspective displays, and the like.

Figure 140 shows an example of a display system having an optically flat reflective surface that is a beam splitter made of an optical film on a substrate, wherein the display system is a near vision display 14000. [ In this example, the image light source 14010 includes a projection system (not shown) that provides the image light with an optical layout that includes a curved optical axis 14014 located in the near vision display 14000. [ An optical system along the optical axis 14014 may include a lens that focuses the image light to provide an image focused from the image light source 14010 to the user's eye 14002. [ The beam splitter 14004 causes the optical axis 14014 from the image light source 14010 to bend toward the spherical or aspheric reflector 14008. The beam splitter 14004 may be a partial reflective mirror or a polarizing beam splitter layer. The beam splitter 14004 in the near vision display 14000 is oriented at an angle that diverts at least a portion of the image light from the image light source 14010 toward the reflector 14008. [ From the reflector 14008, at least an additional portion of the image light is reflected back toward the user's eye 14002. The reflected additional portion of the image light passes again through the beam splitter 14004 and is focused on the user's eye 14002. The reflector 14008 may be a mirror or a partial mirror. When the reflector 14008 is a partial mirror, scene light from a scene in front of the near vision display 14000 can be combined with the image light, thereby causing the image light along the axis 14014 and the axis 14012 And provides the combined image light 14018 consisting of the following scene light toward the eyes 14002 of the user. The combined image light 14018 provides a combined image of the overlaid image from the scene and the image light source to the user's eye.

Fig. 141 shows an example of the near vision display module 14100. Fig. The module 14100 comprises a reflector 14104, an image light source module 14108, and a beam splitter 14102. The module may be open at the sides by an attachment between at least some of the joining edges between the reflector 14104, the image light source module 14108 and the beam splitter 14102 . Alternatively, the module 14100 may be closed at the sides by sidewalls to provide a hermetic module to prevent dust, contaminants, and moisture from reaching the interior surface of the module 14100. The reflector 14104, the image light source module 14108 and the beam splitter 14102 may be fabricated separately and then joined together, or at least some of the fragments may be fabricated together as a combined subassembly. In module 14100, an optical film may be used on the beam splitter 14102 or on the reflector. In Figure 141 beam splitter 14102 is shown as a flat surface while reflector 14104 is shown as a spherical surface. In the near vision display module 14100, both the reflector 14104 and the beam splitter 14102 are used to provide an image to the user's eye, as shown in Figure 140, so that the surfaces are optically flat It is important that it is optically uniform.

Figure 142 shows a schematic view of a pellicle style film assembly 14200, which is one embodiment of the present disclosure. The pellicle style film assembly 14200 includes a frame 14202 comprising upper and lower frame members 14202a and 14202b. The optical film 14204 is held between the frame member 14202a and the frame member 14202b by an adhesive or a fastener. In order to improve the flatness of the optical film 14204, the optical film 14204 may be stretched in one or more directions while an adhesive is applied and the frame members 14202a and 14202b are bonded to the optical film 14204. After the optical film 14204 is bonded to the frame 14202, the edges of the optical film can be trimmed to provide a smooth surface to the outer edge of the frame 14204.

In some embodiments of the present disclosure, the optical film 14204 is a folded film consisting of a series of optically planar surfaces, and the interface of the frame members 14202a and 14202b is a curved And has a matching folded shape. The curved film is then stretched along the direction of the curvature, and frame members 14202a and 14202b hold the optical film 14204 in a curved configuration and position each of the series of optically planar surfaces to be held in place Respectively.

In all cases, after the frame members 14202a and 14202b are bonded to the optical film 14204, the resulting pellicle-style film assembly 14200 is optically coupled to the optics 14204, such as a near-vision display module 14100, Is a rigid assembly that can be positioned within a device. In this embodiment, the pellicle style film assembly 14200 is a replaceable beam splitter 14102 assembly in the near vision display module 14100. The sidewalls in the near vision display module 14100 may have grooves in which the frame 14202 is fitted or alternatively may be provided with a flat surface connecting the sidewalls and the frame 14202 may be on top of the flat surface .

Figure 143 shows an example of an insert molded assembly 14300 comprising an optical film 14302. In this embodiment, the optical film 14302 is positioned in the mold, and the plastic fills the mold cavity and forms a molded structure 14304 adjacent the optical film 14302 and behind the optical film 14302 A viscous plastic material is injected into the mold through a molding gate 14308. [ When the plastic material is cured in the mold, the mold is opened along the parting line 14310 and the insert-molded assembly 14300 is removed from the mold. The optical film 14302 is then embedded in the insert molded assembly 140000 and attached thereto. In order to improve the optical flatness of the optical film 14302 in the insert molded assembly 14300, the inner surface of the mold where the optical film 14302 is positioned against is an optically flat surface. In this manner, the viscous plastic material forces the optical film 14302 against the optically planar surface of the mold during the molding process. This process can be used to provide an optically smooth surface having flat or desired optical curvature as previously described. In a further embodiment, the optical film 14302 may have an adhesive layer or a tie layer to increase the adhesive force between the optical film 14302 and the molded structure 14304.

In another embodiment, the optical film 14302 is located within the mold, and there is a protective film between the mold surface and the optical film 14302. The protective film may be attached to the optical film 14302 or the mold. The protective film may be smoother or more flatter than the mold surface to provide a smoother or smoother surface to the optical film 14302 to be molded. Accordingly, the protective film may be any material such as, for example, plastic or metal.

144 shows an example of a lamination process for producing a laminated plate having an optical film 14400. Fig. In this embodiment, upper and lower press plates 14408a and 14408b are used to laminate the optical film 14400 to the substrate 14404. An adhesive 14402 may optionally be used to bond the substrate 14404 to the optical film 14400. [ In addition, one or more of the compression plates 14408a and 14408b may be heated or the substrate 14404 may be heated to provide a higher level of adhesion between the substrate 14404 and the optical film 14400 . Heating one or more of the squeeze plates 14408a and 14408b and the substrate may also be used to soften the substrate 14404 thereby providing more uniform pressure to the back of the optical film 14400, The smoothness or flatness of the optical film 14400 can be improved. As described above for the pellicle style film assembly 14200, a laminated plate having the optical film 14400 of this embodiment can be used as a replaceable beam splitter in the near vision optical module 14100. [

145A to 145C show examples of an application process for producing a molded structure 14502 having an optical surface including an optical film 14500. Fig. In this embodiment, an optical film 14500 is attached to an optically planar surface 14504 in a structure 14502 molded by a rubber applicator 14508. In this embodiment, An adhesive layer may be applied to the optically planar surface 14504 of the molded structure 14502 or the lower surface of the optical film 14500 to adhere the optical film 14500 to the molded structure 14502. [ The rubber applicator 14508 may be a relatively soft rubber material having a curved surface so that the central portion of the optical film 14500 first contacts the optically smooth surface 14504 of the molded structure 14502. [ As the rubber applicator 14508 is further pushed downwardly there is a gap between the optical film 14500 and the optically planar surface 14504 of the molded structure 14502 as shown in Figures 145a, 145b and 145c The size of the contact area increases. This gradual attachment process provides a very uniform pressure application that allows air to escape at the interface during the attachment process. As shown in Figure 145c, the incremental deposition process is performed with an optically planar optical film 14500 attached to the inner surface of the molded structure 14502, along with the optically planar surface 14504 of the formed structure 14502. [ ). An adhesive layer used to bond the optical film 14500 to the molded structure 14502 may be attached to the optically film 14500 or to the optically planar surface 14504 on the inside of the molded structure 14502. [ Those skilled in the art will appreciate that this attachment process may likewise be used to attach the optical film to the outer surface of the molded structure. In addition, the optically planar surface can be a flat surface or a surface with a desired optical curvature, or a series of optically planar surfaces, and the rubber applicator is shaped to provide a progressive pressure application when the optical film is attached.

In embodiments, the image display system may include an optically planar optical film comprising a display module housing, wherein the housing comprises an optically flat optical film, an image light source, and a substrate having a viewing position, Is reflected from the optical film toward the viewing position. In embodiments, the optical film of the image display system may be molded into the display module. In embodiments, an optical film may be attached to the display module. In addition, in embodiments, the optical film of the display system may be a wire grid polarizer, a mirror, a partial mirror, a holographic film, or the like. In embodiments, the image display system may be a near vision display. In embodiments, the optical film may be retained against the optically smooth surface when the optical film is molded in the display module, or alternatively when the optical film is molded into the display module. In embodiments, the optical film of the image display system may include optical flatness of five wavelengths of light per inch.

In one embodiment, an image display system that includes an optically flat optical film can include an optically flat optical film, a display module housing, an image light source, and a substrate having viewing locations, wherein the image provided by the image light source Can be reflected from the optical film to the viewing position, and the substrate with the optical film can be replaced in the display module housing. In such embodiments, the substrate of the image display system may be a frame, the optical film may remain tensioned by the frame, the substrate may be a plate molded behind the film, and / or the substrate may be laminated Plate. In addition, the optical film of the image display system can be a beam splitter, a polarizing beam splitter, a wire grid polarizer, a mirror, a partial mirror, a holographic film, and the like. In addition, the image display system may be a near vision display. In embodiments, the optical film of the image display system can be retained against an optically smooth surface when the plate is molded behind the optical film. In addition, in embodiments, the optical film of the image display system can be held against an optically flat surface when the plate is laminated to the optical film. In various embodiments, the optical film of the image display system may include optical flatness of five wavelengths of light per inch.

In one embodiment, all of the components in FIG. 102A are gathered to form an electro-optic module. The angle of the optical axis associated with the display may be more than 10 degrees forward from the vertical. This tilt angle refers to how the upper portion of the optical module is inclined forward. This allows the beam splitter angle to be reduced, which makes the optical module thinner.

The ratio of the height of the curved polarizing film to the width of the reflective image display is less than 1: 1. The curved surface on the polarizing film determines the width of the illuminated area on the reflective display and the tilt of the curved area determines the placement of the illuminated area on the reflective display. The curved polarizing film reflects the illumination light in the first polarization state onto the reflective display, which changes the polarization of the illumination light to generate image light, and the curved polarizing film passes the reflected image light. The curved polarizing film includes a portion parallel to the reflective display on the light source. The height of the image light source may be at least 80%, 3.5 mm or more, or less than 4 mm of the display active area width.

In portable display systems, it is important to provide a display that is bright, small and lightweight. Portable display systems include cell phones, laptop computers, tablet computers, near vision displays and head-mounted displays.

The present disclosure provides a compact lightweight front light source for a portable display system that is redirected from an edge light source to a partially reflective film for illuminating a reflected image light source. The partially reflecting film may be a partial mirror beam splitter film or a polarizing beam splitter film. The polarizing beam splitter film may be a multilayer dielectric film or a wire grid polarizing film. Polarizing beam splitter films are known to provide efficient reflection for one polarization state while allowing other polarization states to pass through at the same time. Multilayer dielectric films are available from 3M under the name DBEF, Minneapolis, Minn. The wire grid polarizing film is available from Asahi-Kasei E-Materials, Tokyo, Japan under the name WGF.

The edge light provides a small light source for the display, but because it is located at the edge of the image light source, the light must be turned 90 degrees to illuminate the image light source. When the image light source is a reflection image light source such as a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) image light source, the illumination light must be polarized. The polarized light is reflected by the surface of the image light source, and the polarization state of the light is changed corresponding to the image content being displayed. The reflected light then passes through the backlight again.

Figure 187 shows a schematic illustration of a prior art display assembly 18700 having a solid beam splitter cube 18718 as front illumination. The display assembly includes front lighting, one or more light sources, and an image light source. In display assembly 18700, one or more light sources 18702 are included to provide light shown as light rays 18712. [ The light source may be an LED, a fluorescent lighting device, an OLED, an incandescent lighting device, or a solid state light. A light beam 18712 passes through the diffuser 18704 to diffuse the light laterally for more uniform illumination. When the diffused light is polarized, the diffuser comprises a linear polarizer. The diffused light beam 18714 is emitted towards the partial reflective layer 18708 through the solid beam splitter cube 18718 where it partially reflects towards the reflected image light source 18720. Diffused light 18714 is then reflected by reflective image light source 18720, thereby forming image light 18710 that is transmitted by partial reflective layer 18708. [ The image light 18710 may then enter the associated image optics (not shown) to present the image to the observer. However, as can be seen in Figure 187, the height of the illuminated area of the light source, shown here as diffuser 18704, is equal to the width of the reflected image light source 18720 being illuminated. The partial reflective layer 18708 is disposed at an angle of 45 degrees to provide an image ray 18710 that travels straight or vertically into the associated imaging optics. As a result, the front lighting shown in Figure 187 is relatively large in size.

In a typical imaging system, it is important to maintain the wavefront from the image light source to provide a high quality image with good resolution and contrast. Accordingly, as is known to those skilled in the art, a high quality image is provided to the observer so that the image light 18710 must travel vertically from the reflective image light source 18720 to provide a uniform wavefront to the lock- do. Accordingly, the diffused light beam 18714 has to be redirected vertically to the reflected image light source 18720 by the partial reflective film 18708, so that this light beam is reflected (as shown in Figures 187 to 198 ) Vertically into the associated imaging optics.

Figure 188 shows another prior art display assembly 18802 that includes a partially reflective film 18804 that is supported at an edge and is free standing on a reflective image light source 18720. This display assembly operates in a manner similar to the display assembly shown in Figure 187 except that due to the absence of a solid beam splitter cube 18718 the display assembly 18802 is lighter than the display assembly 18700 will be. As can be seen in Figure 188, the height of the diffuser 18704, when reflected by the reflected image light source 18720, to provide image light 18808 traveling vertically into the associated imaging optics, Is equal to the width of the image light source 18720.

Figure 189 shows a schematic illustration of what happens to light in the display assembly 18902 when the partially reflective film 18804 is placed at a subtended angle of less than 45 degrees. In this case, portions of the reflected image light source 18720 are not uniformly illuminated. The light rays illuminating a portion of the reflected image light source farthest from the diffuser do not proceed straight to the associated imaging optics (as in the case of ray 18904) or change polarization states (as in the case of ray 18908) , Which is then passed through the film when the partially reflective film is a polarizing beam splitter film (also referred to as a reflective polarizer film). Accordingly, when the partial reflective film 18804 is disposed at an angle of less than 45 degrees when the related image optical system can use only the image light proceeding straight from the reflective image light source 18720, the reflected image light source 18720, The dark region of the image is generated correspondingly.

In one embodiment of the present disclosure shown in FIG. 190, the diffused light 19010 provided by the light source 18702 is redirected downward to illuminate the reflective image light source 18720, 19004) are provided. The curved partial reflective surface 19004 may be a thin and flexible polarizing beam splitter film. In this case, diffuser 18704 includes a linear polarizer such that light 18712 is diffused and then linearly polarized, and thus diffused light 19010 is polarized. The linear polarizer and polarizing beam splitter film 19004 in diffuser 18704 are oriented such that light passing through the linear polarizer is reflected by the polarizing beam splitter film. In this manner, when the reflected image light source 18720 changes the polarization of the diffused light 19010, the polarization of the reflected image light 19008 is in the opposite polarization state as compared to the diffused light 19010. The reflected image light 19008 then passes through the partial reflecting film 19004 and continues to the display optical system. By using a flexible polarizing beam splitter film as the partially reflective surface 19004, the partially reflective surface 19004 can be curved and lightweight. The polarizing beam splitter film performs a dual role of being a reflector for the diffused light 19010 illuminating the reflected image light source 18720 and a transparent member for the reflected image light 19008. As is known to those skilled in the art, the advantage provided by the polarizing beam splitter film is that the curved surface can receive light over a wide range of angles of incidence so as not to interfere with the light entering the film. In addition, since the polarizing beam splitter film is thin (e.g., less than 200 micrometers), the curved shape does not significantly distort the image light 19008 as the image light 19008 enters the display optics through the film. Finally, the polarizing beam splitter film has a low tendency to scatter light, and therefore a high image contrast can be maintained.

The flexible nature of the polarizing beam splitter film allows the film to be formed into a curved shape that redirects the light from the diffuser and focuses it onto the reflected image light source. The shape of the curved surface of the polarizing beam splitter film can be selected based on the light distribution provided by the diffuser to provide uniform illumination of the reflected image light source. 190 shows a curved partial reflection film 19004 having a parabolic shape, it is possible to uniformly distribute the light 19010 diffused according to the nature of the light source 18702 and the effectiveness of the diffuser 18704 onto the reflection image light source 18720 A curved surface of constant radius, a complex spline curved surface, a relatively flat curved surface, a flat surface or a segmented planar surface are also possible for redirecting and focusing. Experiments show that the curved surface on the partial reflective surface 19004 tends to focus the diffused light 19010 at the center of the reflective image light source 18720 and thus the diffuser 18704 provides a distribution of brighter light at the edges Curved surfaces were found to be best used. Alternatively, from experiments it has been found that a relatively flat surface on the partial reflective surface 19004 is best used when the diffuser 18704 provides a distribution of brighter light in the center. When the partially reflective surface 19004 is made of a flexible film, its shape is such that the flexible film has slots of curved surfaces suitable for retaining the flexible film as a free standing film in place, Can be maintained by the side frame. Two side frames are used to support the curved shape on either side of the display assembly 190002 with other components. Since the majority of the display assembly 19002 is air and the partial reflective surface 19004 is thin, the weight is substantially lower than the prior art display assembly 18700 shown in Figure 187. In addition, as can be seen in Figure 190, the width of the reflected image light source 18720, which is illuminated so that the display assembly 19002 is smaller than the prior art display assembly shown in Figure 188, It is bigger than the height.

Figure 191 illustrates another embodiment of the present disclosure in which a dual light source 19104 is used in a display assembly 19102 in which two relatively flat partially reflective surfaces are disposed back to back. The configuration shown in Figure 191 provides a solid film holder 19120 in the front lighting with two sides so that the display assembly 19102 has two display assemblies, as shown in Figure 187, It is similar to using. In Figure 191, although the rays are shown only on one side, the elements and rays on the other side are symmetrical with the side shown. The solid film holder 19120 has a partially reflecting film 19110 that extends continuously between two side surfaces. The solid film holder 19120 is also continuous between the two sides so that the video light 19112 is not disturbed or deflected by the seam line between the two sides of the display assembly 19102. [ The solid film holder 19120 and the partial reflective film 19110 together provide a constant optical thickness and thus the image light is not deflected or distorted. Accordingly, the image light 19112 having a continuous image quality can be provided while being illuminated by the light from the two light sources 19104. Each light source 19104 provides light 19114 to a diffuser 19108 which diffuses light 19114 to provide diffused light 19118 for illuminating half of the reflected image light source 18720 ) In the lateral direction. The solid film holder 19120 holds the partially reflecting film 19110 in a desired shape. Most importantly, when compared to the illuminated width of the reflected image light source 18720, the height of the diffuser 19108 is reduced to half of the prior art diffuser 18704 shown in Figure 187 for the display assembly 18700 will be.

Figure 192 shows a schematic illustration of a display assembly 19202 having a dual light source 19104 and a free standing partial reflective film 19204 supported only at the edges. In Figure 192, although the rays are shown only on one side, the elements and rays on the other side are symmetrical with the side shown. 191, a further advantage is that since most of the display assembly 19202 is made of air, the display assembly 19202 is mounted on the display assembly 19202 19102).

Figure 193 shows a display assembly 19302 having a dual light source 19104 and a free-standing partial reflective film 19308, wherein the film is supported at its edges to provide two curved surfaces. In Figure 193, although the rays are shown only on one side, the elements and rays on the other side are symmetrical with the side shown. The partially reflecting film 19308 is continuous across both sides and has a similar curved surface on both sides. The curved surface is selected to reflect and focus the diffused light 19312 provided by the diffuser onto the reflective image light source 18720. [ Reflected image light source 18720 reflects diffused light 19312 and thereby forms image light 19310. The height of the diffuser 19304 is less than one half the prior art diffuser 18704 shown in Figure 187, and therefore the front lighting and display assembly 19302 is very compact.

Figure 194 shows a schematic illustration of a display assembly 19402 having a continuous partial reflective film 19308 inside a solid film holder 19404, which is otherwise similar to the display assembly 19302 shown in Figure 193. In Figure 194, although the rays are shown only on one side, the elements and rays on the other side are symmetrical with the side shown. A solid film holder 19404 is used on either side of the partial reflective film 19308 to hold the film in a defined two-sided curved surface and also to protect the partially reflective film 19308. In order to additionally avoid providing a seam line that will interfere with the video light 19310 at the center of the image, the two sides of the solid film holder 19404 are relatively thin sections < RTI ID = 0.0 > Respectively.

In preferred embodiments of the present disclosure, the partially reflecting film in the display assembly shown in Figures 191 to 194 is a polarizing beam splitting film. In these embodiments, the diffuser includes a linear polarizer such that the diffused light is polarized. The linear polarizer is aligned with the polarizing beam splitter film so that the diffused light has a polarization state that is reflected by the polarizing beam splitter film. The polarizing beam splitter film also functions as an analyzer for image light. The advantage of using diffused light polarized by a polarizing beam splitter film in forward illumination is that because all of the polarized diffused light is reflected by the polarizing beam splitter film towards the reflected image light source and is converted to image light there, The stray light is reduced. If the diffused light is not polarized, the polarization state of the unreflected diffused light will be transmitted through the polarizing beam splitter film, and if this light is not controlled, it will provide scattered light to the image light, Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > a < / RTI >

195 shows a schematic illustration of a display assembly 19502 with polarization control for effectively illuminating a single light source 19104 on one side and a reflected image light source 18720 from both sides. In this case, light source 19104 provides unpolarized light 19114 and non-polarized diffused light 19508. [ The partially reflecting film is a polarizing beam splitter film 19504 in the solid film holder 19514. The polarizing beam splitter film 19504 transmits another polarization state (shown as ray 19518) while reflecting one polarization state of the diffused light (shown as ray 19510). The polarizing beam splitter film 19504 is curved and continuous so that light having a different polarization state 19518 passes through both sides of the curved polarizing beam splitter film 19504. This light 19518 then passes through a quarter wave retardation film 19524 which changes the polarization state from linear to circular. The circularly polarized light is then incident on a 1/4 wave retardation film 19524 that is reflected by mirror 19528 and changes the polarization state from circularly polarized light in one polarization state to linearly polarized light (shown as ray 19520) And thus the light 19520 is then reflected by the polarizing beam splitter film 19504 towards the reflected image light source 18720. [ As such, the light provided by the light source 19104 in the display assembly 19502 illuminates the reflected image light source 18720 on both sides using light in the same polarization state. Since diffused light 19508 is not polarized and both polarization states 19510 and 19518 are used to illuminate reflective image light source 18720, essentially all of the light provided by the light source is reflected by image light 19512, 19522). The image lights 19512 and 19522 are provided straight to the relevant image optical system. Again, the height of the diffuser 19108 is half the diffuser 18704 shown in Figure 187, thus providing a compact and efficient front lighting and display assembly.

Figure 196 shows a display assembly 19602 having a geometry similar to that shown in Figure 195, but the polarizing beam splitter film 19604 is free standing and is only supported at the edges to reduce the weight of the front lighting, Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > diffuser < / RTI >

Figure 197 illustrates another embodiment of the present disclosure including a display assembly 19702 having dual light sources 19704 and 19708 and a curved polarizing beam splitter film 19714 wherein the curved polarizing beam splitter film 19714) are curved surfaces. Light 19718 and 19720 from light sources 189704 and 19708 are not polarized and diffusers 19710 and 19712 do not contain polarizers and thus diffused light 19722 and 19724 are also unpolarized . The angled sides of the curved surface of the polarizing beam splitter film 19714 directs one of the polarizations of the diffused light 19728,19730 toward the reflected image light source 18720 and also the light 19728,19730 Onto the image area of the light source 18720. In this display assembly, the dual light sources 19704, 19708 and the curved polarizing beam splitter 19714 operate in a complementary manner because the polarizing beam splitter film 19714 is continuous. Accordingly, the unpolarized diffused light 19722, 19724 is provided on each side of the display assembly 19702, respectively, and the first polarization state (typically S) is reflected by the polarization beam splitter film 19714, While light 19740, 19738 with a different polarization state (typically P) is transmitted by the polarizing beam splitter film 19714, while it is redirected toward the light source 18720. The transmitted light 19740 and 19638 with different polarization states pass through both sides of the curved polarizing beam splitter film 19714 and thus reach diffusers 19712 and 19710, respectively, on the opposite sides. When light 19740 and 19738 respectively affect the diffuser 19712 and 19710 on the opposite side, the light is diffusely reflected by the diffuser and is not polarized in this process. A reflector may be added to the light sources 19704, 19708 and the surrounding area to increase the reflection of light 19740, 19738. This diffuse reflected non-polarized light is then mixed with the diffused light 19722, 19724 provided by the light sources 19704, 19708 on its side and then back to the polarization beam splitter film 19714, The light 19730, 19728 having the state is reflected toward the reflection image light source, the light 19738, 19740 having the other polarization state is transmitted, and this process is repeated continuously. Accordingly, in this embodiment of the present disclosure, the light in the other polarization state is continuously recirculated, thereby increasing the efficiency of the display assembly 19702 because the light source (not shown) provided by the dual light sources 19704, 19708 Since both polarization states of light 19718 and 19720 are used to illuminate reflective image light source 18720. The increased diffuse reflection of the recycled light also improves the uniformity of the illumination light provided to the reflected image light source 18720. Image light (19732, 19734) can be provided straight to the relevant imaging optics.

197 and similar to that described above may be used in other embodiments having a display assembly having a flat surface on the sides of the curved polarizing beam splitter film. In this embodiment, since the sides of the reflective polarizer film are flat, the light from the side illumination maintains the illumination uniformity provided by the diffuser.

In a further embodiment of the display assembly shown in Figure 197, a solid film holder may be used, wherein light of another polarization state is recycled to improve efficiency. In this embodiment, the sides of the curved polarizing beam splitter film may be flat or curved.

FIG. 198 shows a schematic illustration of a method for manufacturing a front reflector (19902) as shown in FIG. 199 with a curved reflective beam splitter film (19808) and a dual light source on the sides. In Figure 198, dual light sources are not shown because they may be part of other assembly steps or may be in a peripheral module. A flow chart of the assembly method is provided in FIG. In this method, at step 20402, an upper film holder 19810 and a lower film holder 19812 are provided. The upper and lower film holders 19810 and 19812 can be made of any transparent material by diamond turning, injection molding, compression molding or grinding. A combination of materials and fabrication techniques is selected to provide a top film holder 19810 and a bottom film holder 19812 with low birefringence. Suitable low birefringent materials for the film holders (19810, 19812) include Zeonex F52 from Zeon Chemicals, APL5514 from Mitsui, or OKP4 from Osaka Gas. The surfaces in the upper and lower film holders that will be in contact with the curved polarizing beam splitter film 19808 are matched to retain the film 19808 in place with the desired shape and angle, Therefore, the image light can pass through the front light 19902 without being much deflected. In step 20404 the lower film holder 19812 holds the lower film holder 19812 either by adhesive binding or in a constant relationship (with contact or at a specified distance) to the reflective image light source 18720 And is attached to reflective image light source 18720 by providing a peripheral structure. In step 20408, the polarizing beam splitter film is curved. Subsequently, in step 20410, the curved polarizing beam splitter film 19808 is positioned in the lower film holder 19812 and the upper film holder 19810 is positioned on top, thereby forming the polarizing beam splitter film 19808 into the upper Conform to the matched surfaces of film holder 19810 and lower film holder 19812. In an alternative embodiment of this method, an adhesive is applied to the upper film holder 19810 or the lower film holder 19812 such that the polarizing beam splitter film 19808 is bonded to the upper film holder 19810 or the lower film holder 19812. [ . At step 20412, diffusers 19802 and 19804 are attached to the sides of the lower film holder 19812. A schematic illustration of an assembled front light 19902 is shown in FIG. Similar methods can be used to produce the front illumination shown in Figures 191, 194, and 195. The order of the assemblies can be changed within the scope of the present disclosure.

In an alternative embodiment to the previously described method, before the film holders 19810, 19812 are attached to the diffusers 19802, 19804 or the reflected image light source 18720 or any other single piece, Assembled with a beam splitter film (19808). Steps 20402, 20408 and 20410 are then successively performed to produce a solid film holder having a curved polarizing beam splitter film 19808 therein, as shown in Figures 191, 194 and 195 similarly. Is done. Reflected image light source 18720 and diffusers 19802 and 19804 are later attached (steps 20404 and 20412).

Various methods can be used to retain the reflective beam splitter film in place between the upper film holder and the lower film holder. The film may be bonded in place to the upper or lower film holder. The upper or lower film holder may be attached to the peripheral structural piece (not shown) or to an associated imaging optical system (not shown). When the reflective beam splitter film is a polarizing beam splitter film with a wire grid polarizer, the performance of the wire grid polarizer may deteriorate if an adhesive is used on the side of the wire grid structure. In this case, the polarizing beam splitter film may be bonded to the upper or lower film holder, depending on which side is adjacent to the wire grid structure, on the opposite side of the wire grid structure. The adhesive used to bond the polarizing beam splitter film to the film holder must be transparent and low birefringence. Examples of suitable adhesives include UV curing adhesives or pressure sensitive adhesives.

Figures 200 to 203 show a series of schematic illustrations of alternative methods of manufacturing frontal illumination with dual side illumination. 205 is a flowchart listing the steps of the method. In this method, the upper and lower film holders are cast into place around the curved reflective beam splitter film. In step 20502, the polarizing beam splitter film 20008 is bent. In step 20504, a curved polarizing beam splitter film 20008 is inserted into side frames having slots or mating pieces for holding the polarizing beam splitter film 20008 in a desired shape for front illumination (See the dual curved shape shown in Fig. In step 20508, the side frames are then attached to the reflected image light source 18720. At step 20510, spreaders 20002 and 20004 are attached to the sides of the side frames. At this point, the curved polarizing beam splitter film 20008 has its sides surrounded by side frames and diffusers 20002, 20004 and the bottom surrounded by a reflective image light source 18720. 200 shows a schematic illustration of a reflected image light source 18720 with attached diffusers 20002 and 20004 and a freestanding reflective beam splitter film 20008 supported at its edges to impart a desired shape to the reflective beam splitter film 20008. [ .

FIG. 201 shows holes in the side frames or surrounding structures used to introduce a transparent casting material under the curved reflective beam splitter film. As shown, a larger aperture 20102 near the reflective image light source 18720 is used to introduce the transparent casting material, while smaller holes 20104 are used to reflect the air into the reflective beam splitter film 20008, It is used to allow exhaust from below. In this way, a curved reflective beam splitter film 20008 forms a sealed cavity surrounded by diffusers 20002, 20004 and side frames or surrounding structures on a reflective image light source 18720. [ When the transparent casting resin is gradually injected into the hole 20102, the air from the sealed cavity escapes from the smaller holes 20104. When the cavity is filled, a portion of the transparent casting material flows out of the holes 20104, thereby preventing the formation of pressure below the reflective beam splitter film 20008 that will distort the shape of the film. The holes 20102 and 20104 are then closed to prevent leakage of the transparent casting material.

At step 20512, a transparent liquid casting material 20202 is poured onto the polarizing beam splitter film 20008, as shown in FIG. At step 20514, a transparent top sheet or plate 20302 is then attached to provide a flat top surface to the material 20202, as shown in Fig. Care must be taken to ensure that no air is trapped beneath the sheet when a flat sheet of transparent material is attached to the transparent casting material. A stop may be provided to the surrounding structure to hold the sheet of flat transparent material parallel to the reflected image light source.

The transparent liquid casting material may be any transparent liquid casting material such as epoxy, acrylic or urethane. The same transparent liquid casting material as the lower film holder should be used for the upper film holder so that the image light is exposed to the solid block of uniform optical thickness and the image light is not deflected by the surfaces of the bent polarizing beam splitter film . Transparent liquid casting materials can be cured by allowing curing time, by exposure to UV, or by exposure to heat. Curing of the transparent casting material can be done in a single step or in multiple steps. The curing of the lower portion as shown in Fig. 201 can be performed before casting of the upper portion shown in Fig. As another alternative, the curing of the entire casted front lighting can be done after the step shown in Fig.

The advantage of the method shown in Figures 200 to 203 is that close contact is obtained between the transparent casting material and the reflective beam splitter film so that light can pass through parts of the frontlight without interference. A casting method may also be used for the solid top or bottom film holder so that only the top or bottom film holder is cast. Figures 200 to 203 show that front lighting with curved surfaces is produced, but this method can also be used to produce front lighting with a flat surface.

In a further embodiment, one of the film holders is fabricated as a solid single piece and the other film holder is cast with the curved polarizing beam splitter film in place. Prior to casting the other film holder in place, the curved polarizing beam splitter film can be bonded to the solid piece. In this way, the cast film holder will have intimate contact with the surface of the polarizing beam splitter film. The material used in the solid film holder must have the same refractive index as the cast film holder in order to avoid deflecting the image light when the image light travels from the reflected image light source to the associated image optical system. An example of moderately matched materials is APEC 2000 from Bayer, which can be injection molded with a refractive index of 1.56, and EpoxAcast 690 from Smooth-On, which can be cast with a refractive index of 1.565.

In another further embodiment of this method, a solid film holder is fabricated using a multistage molding process as shown in the flowchart of Figure 206. In step 20602, the lower film holder is molded. Suitable molding techniques include injection molding, compression molding or casting. In step 20604, the polarizing beam splitter film is curved. In step 20608, a curved polarizing beam splitter film is placed on the molded bottom film holder and then placed in a mold for the top film holder as an insert. In step 20610, the upper film holder is then molded onto the curved polarizing beam splitter film and the lower film holder. The end result is a solid film holder with an internally curved polarizing beam splitter film as shown in Figures 191, 194 and 195. The advantage of this multistage molding technique is that the curved polarizing beam splitter film is in close contact with the surface of the bottom film holder and the bottom film holder is in close contact with the curved polarizing beam splitter film. In a preferred embodiment, the refractive indices of the upper and lower film holders are the same within 0.03. In a further preferred embodiment, the glass transition point of the material for the lower film holder is higher than the glass transition point for the material of the upper film holder, or the polarizing beam splitter film and lower film The material for the lower film holder is crosslinked so that the lower film holder is not deformed when formed on the holder. Examples of suitable combinations of injection-moldable materials are Tg of 139C and Zeonex E48R from Zeon Chemicals having a refractive index of 1.53 and Tg of 177C and cyclic olefin such as Topas 6017 from Topas Advanced Polymers with a refractive index of 1.53. Material.

It will be appreciated that certain embodiments of the AR eyepiece of this disclosure have a high modulation transfer function that allows for a combination of resolution levels and device size (e.g., eyeglass frame thickness) that were not previously achievable. For example, in some embodiments, the virtual image pixel resolution level presented to the user may be in the range of about 28 to about 46 pixels per degree.

105A to 105C, the angle of the curved wire grid polarizer controls the direction of the image light. The curved surface of the curved wire grid polarizer controls the width of the image light. The curved surface allows the use of a narrow light source because curved surfaces diffuse light when the light impinges on the curved surface and then bends / reflects the light to uniformly illuminate the image display. Again, the video light passing through the wire grid polarizer is not disturbed. As such, curved surfaces also enable miniaturization of the optical assembly.

21 and 22, the augmented reality eyepiece 2100 includes a frame 2102 and left and right earpieces or glasses leg piece 2104. A protective lens 2106 such as a ballistic lens is mounted in front of the frame 2102 in order to protect the user's two eyes or in the case of a prescription lens, have. The front portion of the frame may also be used to mount a camera or video sensor 2130 and one or more microphones 2132. [ Although not shown in FIG. 21, waveguides are mounted behind the protective lens 2106 in the frame 2102, one on each side of the center or adjustable nose bridge 2138. The front cover 2106 may be interchanged and thus the tint or prescription may be changed immediately for a particular user of the augmented reality device. In one embodiment, each lens is quickly interchangeable, which allows different prescriptions for each eye. In one embodiment, as discussed elsewhere herein, the lens is quickly interchangeable by a snap-fit. Certain embodiments may have only a projector and a waveguide combination on one side of the eyepiece, while the other side may be filled with a regular lens, a reading lens, a prescription lens, or the like. Each of the left and right earphones 2104 may be mounted vertically with a projector or micro-projector 2114 or other image light source on top of a spring-loaded hinge 2128 for easier assembly and vibration / . Each eyeglass leg portion also includes an eyeglass leg housing 2116 for mounting an associated electronic device to the eyepiece, each having an elastomeric head grip pad (not shown) for better holding on the user 2120). Each eyeglass leg piece also includes an orifice 2126 for mounting a wrap around earphone 2112 and a headstrap 2142 extending therefrom.

As will be seen, the spectacle leg housing 2116 includes an electronic device associated with an augmented reality eyepiece. The electronic device includes several circuit boards as shown for a microprocessor and radio portion 2122, a communications on-chip (SOC) 2124 and an open multimedia applications processor (OMAP) processor board 2140, . A communication system on a chip (SOC) may be one or more communications, including a wide local area network (WLAN), a BlueTooth communication, a frequency modulation (FM) wireless unit, a global positioning system (GPS), a triaxial accelerometer, one or more gyroscopes, Lt; RTI ID = 0.0 > function. ≪ / RTI > In addition, the right eyeglass leg piece may include an optical trackpad (not shown) on the eyepiece and on the outside of the eyeglass leg piece for user control of one or more applications.

In one embodiment, a digital signal processor (DSP) is programmed and / or configured to receive video feed information to configure the video feed to drive whatever type of image light source is being used in the optical display . A DSP may include a bus or other communication mechanism for communicating information, and an internal processor coupled to the bus to process the information. A DSP is a random access memory (RAM) or other dynamic storage device (e.g., dynamic RAM, static RAM, and synchronous DRAM) coupled to a bus for storing information and instructions to be executed, Etc. < / RTI > The DSP may be a non-volatile memory (e.g., read only memory (ROM) or other static storage device (e.g., PROM (programmable ROM), erasable PROM), and EEPROM (electrically erasable PROM)], and the like. The DSP may be a special purpose logic device (e.g., an application specific integrated circuit) or a configurable logic device (e.g., a simple programmable logic device (SPLD), a complex programmable logic device (CPLD), and a field programmable gate array . ≪ / RTI >

The DSP may include at least one computer readable medium or memory for holding instructions programmed to drive the optical display and for containing data structures, tables, records, or other data necessary to drive the optical display . Examples of computer readable media suitable for the application of this disclosure include, but are not limited to, a compact disk, a hard disk, a floppy disk, a tape, a magneto optical disk, a PROM (EPROM, EEPROM, Flash EPROM), a DRAM, a SRAM, Other physical media having a pattern of punch cards, paper tapes, or holes, a carrier wave (described below), or a computer readable medium, such as a computer readable medium, But may be any other medium. Various forms of computer readable media may be involved in carrying out one or more sequences of one or more instructions with respect to an optical display for execution. The DSP may also include a communication interface that provides data communication coupling to a network link that may, for example, be connected to a local area network (LAN) or other communication network such as the Internet. A wireless link may also be implemented. In any such implementation, a suitable communication interface may transmit and receive electrical, electromagnetic, or optical signals that convey a digital data stream representing various types of information (such as video information) to the optical display.

The eyepiece may perform context-aware video acquisition that adjusts the video capture parameters based on the observer's movements, where the parameters may be video resolution, video compression, frames per second rate, etc. . Recording video through an eyepiece to a wearer, by recording an image taken via an integrated camera or transmitted from an external video device, by playing back the video through an eyepiece (by means of a method and system as described herein) Streaming live video from a video camera (e.g., video conferencing, live broadcast news feeds, video streams from other eyepieces) or from an integrated camera (e.g., from a non-line-of-sight camera) An eyepiece can be used for video applications. In embodiments, the eyepiece can accommodate multiple video applications being presented to the wearer at one time-for example, viewing an external video link being streamed while playing a video file stored on the eyepiece have. The eyepiece can provide a 3D viewing experience, such as by providing an image to either eye, or, alternatively, provide a reduced 3D experience, such as providing a reduced amount of content to either eye of either eye. have. The eyepiece can be a text-enhanced video, such as when the audio situation is too loud to hear the included audio, when the audio is in a foreign language to the user, when the user wants to record a text transcription of the audio, enhanced video.

In embodiments, the eyepiece may provide context aware video applications such as adjusting at least one parameter of video capture and / or viewing as a function of the wearer's environment. For example, a wearer of an eyepiece may be presented with an eyepiece in an external environment where the wearer needs to focus more on the outside environment than on video, in which case the presentation is less distracting (E.g., adjustment of spatial resolution; adjustment of frames per second; replacement of a video presentation with a static image representing the content of the video, a photograph of the person being stored, a single frame from video, etc.) do. In other cases, the video can be captured by the integrated camera on the eyepiece in situations where the wearer is moving (e.g., walking, jumping, riding, driving), and in this case, At least one parameter is adjusted to aid in the adjustment (e.g., adjusting during the time the eyepiece detects a fast movement of the video to be blurred, adjusting during the wearer is walking or slowly moving, .

In embodiments, the at least one parameter may include at least one of a spatial resolution parameter (e.g., a number of pixels per unit area, a number of specific color pixels per unit area, only one (& Number of frames presented per unit time, data compression, periods not recorded / presented, and so on.

In embodiments, at least one parameter may be determined based on an input sensed by the eyepiece, such as a motion detection input (e.g., to determine a head motion, e.g., a fast head motion, to determine slow head motion) Movement in the environment over the processing of images received through the integrated camera or of the ambient environment in which the video is captured to determine relative motion between the wearer and the environment, (Described herein), ambient light, and / or acoustic conditions to determine if the wearer is distracted.

In embodiments, the eyepiece may be associated with reducing movement or environmental effects on the quality of the wearer ' s video experience, such as being stored upon capturing video for light motion, bouncing, Image processing; Adjustment of background illumination and / or acoustic environment by adjusting color mixing, brightness, and the like. The choice of process may be a function of the sensed input, environmental conditions, video content, and the like. For example, in some cases, a high quality image may be preferred, and therefore a reduction in quality under certain circumstances is not tolerated, thereby causing the video to pause under that circumstance. In other cases, video and / or audio compression may be applied if a situation is determined to render capture of a reasonable level of quality impossible, but where certain continuity of capture is still desired. The treatment is also different for each eye of the eyepiece, for example for the dominant eye of the wearer, with respect to different environmental conditions experienced in one eye and in the other eye, Can be applied. In order to check the ambient light level for possible adjustments to the display of the content - for example, to determine which color channel compression and / or manipulation should be performed based on the environment, to make the surroundings look or not well visible To modify the color curve / palette, to change the color depth, to change the color curve, to change how the colors are compressed, etc. - If an embedded sensor is used, Can compensate for a bright environment.

In embodiments, the eyepiece may be configured to go into the screen shot mode while continuing the audio portion of the video when the condition is exceeded, such that motion of the eyepiece exceeds a predetermined amount as a result of the sensed condition, Stopping video shooting if it is enough to degrade the quality level, triggering changes in the video presentation when the level of motion in the received video is exceeded, and so on.

In embodiments, the eyepiece may initiate operation as a result of receipt of a control signal. The control signal may be based on the position of the eyepiece, what the eyepiece is currently viewing, or on a user gesture. This action may be to upload or download video captured by the eyepiece from a storage location. This operation may be initiated only upon receipt of the control signal itself or by receipt of a control signal and a confirmation control signal initiated by the user. This action may be the initiation of a process to move to a specific location within the video being displayed by the glasses, bookmarking a specific location in the video being displayed by the glasses, and the like.

In embodiments, adjustments made as a result of the sensed condition may be controlled through user preferences, organizational policies, state or federal rules, and the like. For example, whatever the sensed input represents, it may be desirable to always provide a specific quality, resolution, compression, and the like.

In one example, the wearer of the eyepiece may be in an environment where his head, and therefore the integrated camera of the eyepiece, is rapidly shaking while the eyepiece is recording the video. In this case, the eyepiece can adjust at least one parameter to reduce the degree to which shaken video is captured-for example, increasing the compression applied to the video, reducing the number of frames captured per unit period For example, capturing frames every few seconds), discarding frames with large changes in image per frame, reducing spatial resolution, and the like.

In one example, the wearer of the eyepiece may be videoconferencing through the eyepiece, wherein the eyepiece senses that the wearer is moving through the motion sensor. As a result, for a video of one of the other participants or the video of the user being sent to other members, the static video can replace the participant's video feed during this move. In this way, the effect of distracting the attention of the wearer ' s movement to the wearer and / or other participants in the videoconference can be reduced.

In one example, the wearer can start driving the car while watching the video, which can be a safety issue if the wearer continues to watch the video currently being displayed. In this example, the eyepiece detects the movement of the environment, such as indicating that it is in the car, and the wearer's eye movements cause the wearer's eye movements to move quickly between the visual line of sight (driving direction) In the case of representing something, the viewing experience can be changed to make distractions less noticeable. The eyepiece may, for example, present the observer with options to stop and continue the video. The eyepiece can also detect and adjust the movement of the environment, such as being in an automobile, riding a bicycle, walking, or distinguishing between others.

In one example, a wearer may need assistance in moving to a place, whether in a car, on a bicycle, or walking. In this example, the eyepiece will display a video navigation application to the user. The navigation commands displayed to the user by the eyepiece may be selected by the control signal. The control signal may be generated by the location designated by the wearer, by the one currently being displayed on the glasses, or based on the destination the wearer is talking about. The place may be one of meal / drinking, education, ceremony, exercise, house, outdoors, retail store, traffic facility location,

In one example, the wearer may be capturing video in a situation where the environment distracts or degrades the quality of the video at some point (e.g., due to color contrast, blending, depth, resolution, brightness, etc.). The eyepiece can adjust conditions in the guitar under different lighting conditions, under poor acoustic conditions, when the wearer is outdoors and indoors. In this case, the eyepiece can adjust the image and sound recorded to produce a video product that is a more effective representation of the content being captured.

In embodiments, the eyepiece may be a computer, such as a monitor, display, TV, keyboard, mouse, memory storage device (e.g., external hard disk, optical drive, solid state memory), network interface And may provide an external interface to the peripheral device. For example, the external interface can be a direct connection to an external computer peripheral device (e.g., directly connected to the monitor), an external computer peripheral device (e.g., via a central external peripheral interface), a wired connection, Lt; / RTI > In one example, the eyepiece may be coupled to a central, external peripheral interface that provides connection to an external peripheral device, wherein the external peripheral interface includes a computer processor, memory, operating system, peripheral driver and interface, USB port, An external display interface, a network port, a speaker interface, a microphone interface, and the like. In embodiments, the eyepiece may be connected to a central external peripheral interface by a wired connection, a wireless connection, a cradle directly, or the like, and when the eyepiece is connected, the eyepiece may be provided with computing equipment similar or identical to a personal computer . In embodiments, the device selected to be controlled by the eyepiece may be selected by the user viewing the eyepiece, pointing to the eyepiece, selecting from the user interface displayed on the eyepiece, and the like. In other embodiments, the eyepiece may display the user interface of the device when the user is looking at or pointing to the device.

The frame 2102 has a general shape of wraparound sunglasses. The sides of the glasses include a shape memory alloy strap 2134 such as a nitinol strap. Nitinol or other shape memory alloy straps are tailored to the user of the augmented reality eyepiece. The strap is worn by the user and adjusted to maintain its trained or preferred shape when closer to body temperature. In embodiments, the feet of the eyepiece may provide user eye width alignment techniques and measurements. For example, the arrangement and / or alignment of the display projected onto the wearer of the eyepiece can be adjusted to accommodate the different eye widths of different wearers. Arrangement and / or alignment may be by detecting the position of the wearer's binocular through an automatic-optical system (e.g., by iris or pupil detection), by passive-wearer, or the like.

Other features of this embodiment include a detachable noise canceling earphone. As shown in this figure, the earphone is adapted to be connected to the control of the augmented reality eyepiece for delivering sound to the ear of the user. The sound may include input from a wireless Internet or communication function of the augmented reality eyepiece. The earphone may also include a flexible, deformable plastic or foam portion, thus protecting the inner ear of the user in a manner similar to an earplug. In one embodiment, the earphone limits the input to the user's ear to about 85 dB. This allows the wearer to hear normally while providing protection from gun noise or other explosive noise and listening in a high background noise environment. In one embodiment, the control of the noise canceling earphone has automatic gain control for very quick adjustment of the elimination feature in protecting the wearer's ear.

23 shows the layout of the projector 2114 arranged vertically in the eyepiece 2300 where the illumination light passes through one side of the PBS from the bottom to the top and is mounted on a display and imager board (which may be silicon backed) and is refracted as image light. In this case, it collides with the inner interface of the triangular prism constituting the polarizing beam splitter, is reflected from the projector, and enters the waveguide lens. In this example, the dimensions of the projector are shown to be 11 mm wide, 11 mm wide, the distance from the end of the imager board to the centerline of the image is 10.6 mm, and the distance from the image centerline to the end of the LED board is about 11.8 mm have.

A detailed assembled view of the components of the projector discussed above can be seen in Fig. This figure shows how compact the microprojector 2500 is, for example, when assembled near the hinge of an augmented reality eyepiece. The microprojector 2500 includes a holder 2508 for mounting a part of the housing and the optical parts. When each color field is imaged by optical display 2510, the corresponding LED color is turned on. An RGB LED light engine 2502 mounted on the heat sink 2504 is shown in the lower portion. The holder 2508 is mounted on top of the LED light engine 2502 and the holder is equipped with a light tunnel 2520, a diffuser lens 2512 (to remove the hot spot), and a condenser lens 2514 . The light travels from the condensing lens into the polarization beam splitter 2518 and then to the view lens 2516. The light then refracts onto a liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) chip 2510, where an image is formed. The light for the image is then reflected back through the field lens 2516, polarized, reflected at 90 ° and passed through the polarizing beam splitter 2518. The light then exits the microprojector and is transmitted to the optical display of the glasses.

FIG. 26 shows an exemplary RGB LED module 2600. FIG. In this example, the LED is a 2x2 array with one red die, one blue die, and two green dies, and the LED array has four cathodes and a common anode. The maximum current can be 0.5 A per die, and for green and blue dies the maximum voltage (

Figure pct00001
4 V) may be required.

In embodiments, the system may utilize an optical system capable of producing a monochrome display to the wearer, which may provide advantages such as image sharpness, image resolution, frame rate, and the like. For example, the frame rate can be three times (than the RGB system), which can be useful in night vision and similar situations where the camera is shooting the surroundings, in which case the images can be processed and displayed as content. The image may be brighter (e.g., three times brighter when three LEDs are used), or may provide space savings with only one LED. When multiple LEDs are used, the LEDs may be the same color or may be different (RGB). The system may be a switchable monochromatic / color system (RGB is used), but when the wearer wishes to have a single color, an individual LED or multiple LEDs may be selected. To generate white light, all three LEDs may be used simultaneously, not sequencing. Using three LEDs in a manner other than sequencing can be similar to any other white light with a three times higher frame rate. Depending on the application being executed, a "switch" between monochrome and color may be done manually or manually (e.g., by physical buttons, GUI interface selection). For example, the wearer may go to night vision mode or fog clearing mode, and the processing portion of the system may require the eyepiece to be in a monochrome high refresh rate mode It is automatically determined that there is.

Fig. 3 shows an embodiment in which horizontally arranged projectors are in use. The projector 300 may be disposed on the arm portion of the eyepiece frame. The LED module 302 under the processor control 304 may emit one color at a time in rapid succession. The emitted light travels down the light tunnel 308 and through at least one homogenization lenslet 310 and then to the polarization beam splitter 312 and to the LCoS display 314 where the full color image is displayed Can be biased. The LCoS display can have a resolution of 1280 x 720p. The image is then reflected back upwards through the polarizing beam splitter, reflected from a fold mirror 318, and continues through the collimator to exit the projector and into the waveguide. The projector may include a diffractive element to remove the aberration.

In one embodiment, the interactive head-mounted eyepiece includes an optical assembly in which a user views the surrounding environment and the displayed content, wherein the optical assembly includes a corrective element for correcting a user view of the ambient environment, a freeform optical waveguide that enables internal reflection, and a coupling lens that is arranged to direct the image from the optical display, such as an LCoS display, towards the optical waveguide. The eyepiece further includes an integrated image source, such as one or more integrated processors for processing content for display to a user and projector equipment for introducing the content into the optical assembly. In embodiments where the image light source is a projector, the projector facility includes a light source and an optical display. Light from a light source such as an RGB module is emitted under the control of the processor and passes through a polarization beam splitter where light is polarized and then reflected from an optical display, such as an LCoS display or an LCD display (in certain other embodiments) And enters the optical waveguide. The surface of the polarizing beam splitter can reflect the color image from the optical display into the light pipe. The RGB LED module may sequentially emit light to form a color image that is reflected from the optical display. The correction factor may be a see-through correction lens attached to the optical waveguide to allow the ambient light to be properly viewed regardless of whether the image light source is on or off. The correction element may be a wedge-shaped correcting lens, prescription, colored, coated or otherwise. A free-form optical waveguide that can be described by a higher-order polynomial may include a dual freeform surface that allows curvature and magnification of the waveguide. The curvature and size adjustment of the waveguide makes it possible to place it in the frame of the interactive head-mounted eyepiece. This frame may be sized to fit the user's head in a manner similar to sunglasses or glasses. Other components of the optical assembly of the eyepiece include a homogenizer-a light from the light source is propagated through the homogenizer so that the beam of light is uniform, and a collimator that improves the resolution of the light entering the light pipe.

In embodiments, the prescription lens may be mounted inside or outside the eyepiece lens. In some embodiments, prescription power may be distributed to prescription lenses mounted on the outside and inside of the eyepiece lens. In embodiments, prescription correction is provided by a calibration optics attached to an eyepiece lens or component of the optical assembly (such as a beam splitter) by surface tension or the like. In embodiments, the calibration optical system may be provided at one location in the optical path and at some other location in the optical path. For example, one half of the correcting optics may be provided on the outside of the converging surface of the beam splitter, and the other half may be provided on the inside of the converging surface. In this way, calibration can be provided for the image light from the internal light source and for the scene light differently. That is, the light from the light source can be corrected only by the part of the correcting optical system inside the converging lens, since the image is reflected toward the user's eye, and the scene light is transmitted through the beam splitter And thus can be calibrated through both parts, since they are exposed to different optical corrections. In other embodiments, the optical assembly associated with the beam splitter may be a sealed assembly, for example, to make the assembly waterproof, dustproof, etc., wherein the inner surface of the encapsulated optical assembly has a correcting optical system And the outer surface of the encapsulated optical assembly has another portion of the correcting optics. At least a suitable optical system available as Prisms (also referred to as Fresnel Prisms), Aspheric Minus Lenses, Aspheric Plus Lenses, and Bifocal Lenses is available from 3M Lt; / RTI > Press-On Optics. The calibration optical system includes a user detachable and interchangeable diopter configured to detachably attach to a position between the user's eye and the displayed content to correct the visual acuity of the user with respect to the displayed content and the surrounding environment diopter calibration facility. The diopter correction facility may be configured to be mounted on the optical assembly. The diopter correction device may be configured to be mounted on a head-mounted eyepiece. A diopter correction device can be mounted using a friction fit. A diopter correction device can be mounted using a magnetic attachment facility. The user can select from a plurality of different diopter correction equipments depending on the user's visual acuity.

In embodiments, the present disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for correcting a user ' s visual acuity with respect to displayed content and the surrounding environment, It is possible to provide a correcting optical system that " snap-on " the eyepiece as if it was configured to be detachably attached. The diopter correction device may be configured to be mounted on an optical assembly, on a head mounted eyepiece, or on a guitar. The diopter correction apparatus can be mounted using friction pits, magnetic attachment facilities, and the like. The user can select from a plurality of different diopter correction equipments depending on the user's visual acuity.

Referring to FIG. 4, the image light that can be polarized and collimated selectively passes through the waveguide 414 through the display coupling lens 412 - which may or may not be additional to the collimator itself or the collimator. . In embodiments, waveguide 414 may be a free-form waveguide, wherein the surface of the waveguide is described by a polynomial equation. The waveguide may be rectilinear. The waveguide 414 may include two reflective surfaces. When entering the waveguide 414, the image light may collide with the first surface at a larger incident angle - a total internal reflection (TIR) occurs if the critical angle - exceed it. The image light can undergo a TIR bounce between the first and second facing surfaces and ultimately reach the active viewing area 418 of the composite lens. In one embodiment, the light can make a TIR bounce at least three times. The thickness of the composite lens 420 may not be uniform because the waveguide 414 is tapered to allow the TIR bounce to ultimately exit the waveguide. Distortion through the viewing area of the composite lens 420 may be achieved by placing a wedge-shaped orthodontic lens 410 along the length of the free-form waveguide 414 to provide a uniform thickness across at least the viewing area of the lens 420 , Can be minimized. The calibrating lens 410 may be a prescription lens, a tinted lens, or the like, mounted on the inside or outside of the eyepiece lens, or in some embodiments, mounted on both the inside and outside of the eyepiece lens. A polarized lens, a ballistic lens, or the like.

In some embodiments, the optical waveguide may have a first surface and a second surface that allow for total internal reflection of light entering the waveguide, while the waveguide may have an internal angle of incidence, . ≪ / RTI > The eyepiece may include a mirrored surface on the first surface of the light pipe to reflect the displayed content toward the second surface of the light pipe. Thus, the mirror surface enables total reflection of light entering the light pipe or reflection of at least a portion of the light entering the light pipe. In embodiments, the surface may be 100% mirrored or a lower proportion of the mirrored surface. In some embodiments, instead of a mirror surface, the gap between the waveguide and the correction element can cause reflection of light entering the waveguide at an angle of incidence that will not cause TIR.

In one embodiment, the eyepiece comprises an integrated image light source, such as a projector, for introducing content for display from the side of the light pipe adjacent to the arm of the eyepiece to the optical assembly. Unlike prior art optical assemblies in which image injection occurs from the upper side of the light pipe, this disclosure provides an image injection from the side of the wave guide to the wave guide. The aspect ratio of the displayed content is approximately square to approximately rectangular, and the major axis is approximately horizontal. In embodiments, the aspect ratio of the displayed content is 16: 9. In embodiments, achieving a rectangular aspect ratio for displayed content when the long axis is approximately horizontal can be done through rotation of the injected image. In other embodiments, this may be done by stretching the image until the image reaches the desired aspect ratio.

Figure 5 shows a design for a waveguide eyepiece showing sample dimensions. For example, in this design, the width of the coupling lens 504 may be between 13 and 15 mm, and the optical display 502 is optically coupled in series. These elements can be arranged on the arm or on both arms of the eyepiece in an overlapping manner. The image light from the optical display 502 is projected through the coupling lens 504 into the free-form waveguide 508. The thickness of the composite lens 520 including the waveguide 508 and the corrective lens 510 may be 9 mm. In this design, the waveguide 502 allows an exit pupil diameter of 8 mm if the eye clearance is 20 mm. The resulting see-through view 512 may be about 60 to 70 mm. The distance (dimension a) from the pupil to the image light path when the image light enters the waveguide 502 can be about 50 to 60 mm, which can accommodate most of the human head width. In one embodiment, the field of view may be larger than the pupil. In embodiments, the field of view may not fill the lens. It will be appreciated that these dimensions are for a particular exemplary embodiment and should not be construed as limiting. In one embodiment, waveguides, snap-on optics, and / or calibrating lenses may include optical plastic. In other embodiments, the waveguide, snap-on optics, and / or calibrating lens may be formed of glass, marginal glass, bulk glass, metal glass, palladium-enriched glass, Suitable glasses may be included. In embodiments, the waveguide 508 and the corrective lens 510 may be made of different materials that are chosen so as to cause little or no chromatic aberration. These materials may include diffraction gratings, holographic gratings, and the like.

In the embodiments as shown in FIG. 1, when two projectors 108 are used for the left and right images, the projected image may be a stereoscopic image. To enable stereo viewing, the projectors 108 may be arranged at adjustable distances to allow adjustment based on the same spatial distance from each other to the individual eyewear wearers. For example, a single optical assembly may include two independent electro-optic modules with individual adjustments for horizontal, vertical, and tilt placement. As another alternative, the optical assembly may include only a single electro-optic module.

146 to 149 schematically illustrate an embodiment of an augmented reality (AR) eyepiece 14600 (without eyewear leg part) in which placement of images can be adjusted. 146 and 147 are front and rear perspective views of the AR eyepiece 14600, respectively. In this embodiment, the electronic devices and portions (all combined 14602) of the projection systems are located above the lenses 14604a, 14604b. The AR eyepieces 14600 have two projection screens 14608a, 14608b that are adjustably suspended on an adjustment platform 14610 on the wearer's side of the lenses 14604a, 14604b. The adjustment platform 14610 has mounted thereon a mechanism that independently adjusts the lateral position of the AR eyepiece 14600 to the nose pads 14612 and the tilt of each of the projection screens 14608a, 14608b.

The mechanism for adjusting the position of one or both of the display screens may be manually controlled by a manual-activated (e.g., button) or software-activated motor, a manual control device (thumbwheel, A lever arm, etc.), or by a combination of both a motorized device and a manual device. The AR eyepiece 14600 uses a passive device that will now be described. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the adjustment mechanism is designed to separate the lateral adjustment and the tilt adjustment.

Figure 148 shows a rear perspective view of a portion of the left side of the wearer of the AR eyepiece 14600 where the adjustment mechanism 14614 on the adjustment platform 14610 for the projection screen 14608a is more clearly shown. The projection screen 14608a is mounted on a frame 14618 which is fixedly attached to (or is part of) a movable carriage 14620. On its nose pads 14612 side, the carriage 14620 is rotatably and slidably mounted on a carriage shaft 14622 in an arcuate groove of a first block 14624 attached to a control platform 14610 . On the side of his eyeglass leg, the carriage 14620 is supported by a yoke 14628 rotatably and slidably. 150, a yoke 14628 has a shaft portion 14630 fixedly attached to a carriage 14620 and coaxial with the carriage shaft 14622 to provide a rotational axis to the carriage 14620. [ The yoke 14628 is slidably and rotatably supported on the arcuate groove of the second support block 14632 attached to the adjustment platform 14610 (see Figure 151).

The yoke 14628 also has two parallel arms 14634a, 14634b extending radially outwardly from the shaft portion 146320. [ The free ends of the arms 14634a and 14634b have holes (e.g., holes 14638 in the arm 14634b) for capturing and capturing the shaft 14678 therebetween, (See FIG. 149). The arm 14634a has another portion 14640 to which the arm 14634a is attached to the shaft portion 14630 of the yoke 14628. [ The anchor portion 14640 has a through-hole 14642 for slidably capturing the pin 14660, as discussed below (see Figure 152).

Referring again to Figure 148, the adjustment mechanism has a first thumbwheel 14644 for controlling the lateral position of the projection screen 14608a and a second thumbwheel 14648 for controlling the tilt of the projection screen 14608a. The first thumbwheel 14644 partially extends through the slot 14650 in the adjustment platform 14610 and is threadably engaged and supported by a first threaded shaft 14652. The first threaded shaft 14652 is slidably supported in the through holes in the third and fourth support blocks 14654 and 14658 (see FIG. 151). The sides of the third and fourth blocks 14654, 14658 and / or the slot 14650 serve to prevent the first thumbwheel 14644 from moving in the lateral direction. Thus, rotating the thumb wheel 14644 about its axis (indicated by arrow A) causes the first threaded shaft 14652 to move in the lateral direction (indicated by arrow B). As best seen in Figure 152, the first threaded shaft 14652 has a pin 14660 extending radially outwardly from its nose bridge-side end. [Note that the screw of the first threaded shaft 14652 is not shown in the figure, but may be a single or multiple pitch screw.] The pin 14660 is secured to the anchor 14634a of the arm 14634a of the yoke 14628, And is slidably captured by the vertically oriented through hole 14642 of the portion 14640. The pin 14660 pushes the side of the nose pads 14612 of the through hole 14642 when the first thumbwheel 14644 is rotated in the direction to advance the first screw shaft 14652 in the lateral direction toward the nose pads 14612 Which in turn causes both yoke 14628, carriage 14620, frame 14618, and first projection screen 14608a to move laterally toward nose pads 14612 (see arrow C). Similarly, when the first thumbwheel 14644 is rotated in the opposite direction, the first projection screen 14608a moves laterally away from the nose pads 14612.

The second thumbwheel 14648 is used to control the tilt of the first projection screen 14608a about an axis defined by the carriage shaft 14622 and the yoke shaft portion 14630. Referring now to FIG. 153, the second thumb wheel 14648 is fixedly attached to a narrow portion 14662 of a hollow flanged shaft 14664. The flange portion 14668 of the flanged shaft 14664 receives the threaded shaft portion 14670 of the eyehook 14672 in a threaded manner. [Note that the screw of the threaded shaft portion 14670 is not shown in the figure, but may be a single or multiple pitch screw.) In use, the narrow portion 14662 of the flanged shaft 14664 is adjusted Rotatably passes a countersunk hole 14674 in platform 14610 (see Figure 151), whilst thumb wheel 14648 is on the lower side of control platform 14610 and eye hook 14672 The flange portion 14668 of the flanged shaft 14664 is on the upper portion and is captured in the countersunk portion of the dish-shaped hole 14674. Referring again to Figure 149, the eye of the eye hook 14672 is slidably engaged about a shaft 14678 which is captured in the holes in the free ends of the yoke arms 14634a, 14634b. As such, rotating the second thumbwheel 14644 about its axis (indicated by arrow D) causes the flanged shaft 14664 to rotate therewith, which causes the threaded shaft portion 14670 of the eye hook 14672 (Indicated by arrow E), which causes the eye of the eye hook 14672 to push the shaft 14678, which in turn causes the yoke 14628 to move about its axis Thereby tilting the first projection screen 14608a away from or towards the wearer (indicated by arrow F).

Referring again to Figure 148, it is noted that the electronics and parts of the projection system 14602a are located on a platform 14680 that is secured to the top of the carriage 14620. [ As such, the spatial relationship between the projection screen 14608a and its associated electronics and portions thereof in the projection system 14602a remains substantially unchanged by any lateral or tilt adjustments made to the projection screen 14608a have.

The AR glasses 14600 also include an adjustment mechanism similar to the adjustment mechanism 14614 just described for laterally positioning and tilting the second projection screen 14608b located to the right of the wearer of the AR eyepiece 14600 .

In one embodiment, the eyepiece may include a slanted or curved guide rail for IPD adjustment to further maintain the optical module in the curved frame. In some embodiments, the display operates in conjunction with such tilted or curved guide rails.

In embodiments, the display screen or screens of the AR eyepiece are arranged parallel to the line connecting the two eyes of the user. In some embodiments, the display screen or screens are rotated about their vertical axis, and thus their edges near the nose are angled at an angle in the range of about 0.1 to about 5 degrees from parallel to the line connecting the user & (I.e., "toe-in"). In some of these latter embodiments, the toe-in angle is permanently fixed, while in other embodiments the toe angle is user-adjustable. In some of the user adjustable embodiments, the adjustability is indicative of two or more predetermined positions (e.g., near convergence, medium distance convergence, and distant convergence) Location]. In other embodiments, the controllability is continuous. Preferably, in embodiments of the AR glasses that also include automatic vergence correction as disclosed herein, the amount of toe-in is taken into account in the version calibration. In the embodiments in which the toein is permanently fixed, the amount of toe in can be directly incorporated into the automatic version calibration without the need for a position sensor, but in user adjustable embodiments, preferably, A position sensor is used to communicate the amount of toyne present to the processor. In embodiments in which the toe angle is user adjustable, the adjustment can be made manually - for example, either directly or indirectly (e.g. via a drive train) about one or both of the display screens about its vertical axis Or may be motorized to achieve selectable rotation when operated by a user via a user interface or control switch.

In some cases, in order for the user's two eyes to rest on the user's eyes for long periods of time during which the user's two eyes are kept at a particular focus distance (e.g., reading, watching, playing ball, Feature can be used. The toein feature described above can be used to adjust the user's dynamic distance by effectively rotating the display screen to better align with the user ' s eyes.

In embodiments, the present disclosure provides a method and system for adjusting the mechanical pupil distance when the optical assembly of the eyepiece is configured to be adjustable in user position within the eyeglass frame, such as, for example, allowing the user to change the position of the optical assembly relative to the user & Can be provided. The position adjustment can control the horizontal position, vertical position, tilt, etc. of the optical assembly within the spectacle frame.

In embodiments, the present disclosure provides a method and system for determining the pupil alignment calibration factor to be used in an arrangement of other display content, for example, When performing a pupil alignment procedure that allows adjustment of the placement of the displayed content, digital pupil distance adjustment can be provided. The correction factor may include horizontal and / or vertical adjustment of the displayed content within the field of view. The correction factors may include a plurality of correction factors, each representing a distance correction factor from the real world object to be used when placing the content within the field of view based on the calculation of the distance to the real world object. The calibration factor may include a calibration process based on a plurality of calibration factors, each representing a distance calibration factor from the real world object to be used when placing the content within the field of view based on the calculation of the distance to the real world object. Placing the image may be adjusted on the display to move the image within the field of view. Moving the two images farther apart will make the imaged object look more distant, while moving the images closer together will make the object appear closer. The disparity of the object's position within the field of view for each eye is called the disparity. The parallax is related to the perceived distance the object is away from the user.

Referring now to Figure 173, an exploded view of the glasses is shown. An electronic device 17302, including a CPU, a display driver, a camera, a wireless unit, a processor, a user interface, etc., is above the binocular in the front frame of the glasses. The optics module 17308 is attached to the frame with a lens 17304 - which may be optional - covering it. The lens 17304 may be tinted or tintable. Although stereoscopic embodiments are shown here, it will be appreciated that a single optical system module 17308 can also be used. The electronic device 17302 is sealed with a cover 17314 that includes a physical user interface 17310 that may be a button, touch interface, rollerball, switch, or any other physical user interface. The physical user interface 17310 can control various aspects of the glasses, such as the functionality of the glasses, the applications running on the glasses, or the application programs controlling the external devices. The user can easily use the control feature by touching the lower feature of the frame to stabilize the frame while touching the control feature / UI at the top of the frame. Arms 17312 may rest on the ear and may include a strap for securing the glasses, a jack for the audio / earphone function or an external audio device, a battery 17318 or a power function. An optional battery 17318, as described herein, which may include any available battery type, may be located on either arm. The strap can be an ear band consisting of Nitinol or other shape memory alloy. The earbands may be in band form, or, as in Figure 177, earbands 17702 may be of the bent wire type to be thin, lightweight, and low in cost. For the sake of appearance, the frame may be of any color, the lens may be of any color, and the eyepiece arm or at least the tip of the arm may be colored. For example, the nitinol forming the tip of the arm may be colored.

Referring now to Figure 174, a battery is connected to an electronic device in the front frame, even through an operable hinge 17408, using a minimum number of wires and a wiring design that passes through the hinge in the wire guide 17404, Can be supplied. The wiring design may include a wire 17402 extending from the front frame electronics to an earphone located on the arm. FIG. 175 shows an enlarged version of FIG. 174 focused on wire 17402 passing through wire guide 17404. FIG. Figures 176a through 176c illustrate cut out a wire guide having various parts of the operating frame and inner glasses. This view shows the hinge from the user side of the frame. Figure 176a shows the most part cut out, Figure 176b shows the next most cut out, while Figure 176c shows the original appearance of the glasses.

6 illustrates an embodiment of an eyepiece 600 having a perspective or translucent lens 602. [ The projected image 618 can be seen on the lens 602. [ In this embodiment, there is a case where the image 618 being projected onto the lens 602 is an augmented reality version of the scene the wearer is looking at, and a tagged point of interest (POI) Is displayed. The augmented reality version may be enabled by a forward facing camera (not shown in Figure 6) that is embedded in the eyepiece that images what the wearer is seeing and identifies the location / POI. In one embodiment, the output of a camera or optical transmitter can be sent to an eyepiece controller or memory for storage, for transmission to a remote location, or for viewing by a person wearing an eyepiece or glasses have. For example, the video output may be streamed to a virtual screen that the user is viewing. The video output may thus be used to help determine the location of the user, or may be remotely transmitted to others to aid in locating the wearer or for any other purpose. Other detection techniques (GPS, RFID, manual input, etc.) can be used to determine the wearer's position. Using the location or identification data, the database can be accessed by the eyepiece to see if there is information that can be displayed overlay, projection or otherwise in conjunction with what is being viewed. Augmented reality applications and techniques will be further described herein.

7, an embodiment of an eyepiece 700 with a translucent lens 702 displaying streaming media (email application) and an incoming call notification 704 is shown. In this embodiment, it will be appreciated that although the media covers a portion of the viewing area, the displayed image can be placed anywhere in the field of view. In embodiments, the media may be more transparent or less transparent.

In one embodiment, the eyepiece may receive input from any external source, such as an external converter box. The source can be represented by a lens in the eyepiece. In one embodiment, when the external source is a telephone, the eyepiece can be used to position the phone to display a location-based augmented reality that includes a marker overlay from a marker-based AR application Can be used. In embodiments, a VNC client running on a processor of an eyepiece or associated device may be coupled to the computer and used to control the computer, wherein the wearer sees the display of the computer in the eyepiece. In one embodiment, content from any source, such as a display from a panoramic camera carried on a vehicle, a user interface to the device, an image from an unmanned airplane or helicopter, etc., may be streamed to the eyepiece. For example, a gun mounted camera can make it possible to shoot a target that is not in direct line of sight when the camera feed is sent to the eyepiece.

The lens may be a chromatic lens, such as a photochromic lens or an electrochromic lens. The electrochromic lens may include an integral discoloring material or discoloring coating that changes the opacity of at least a portion of the lens in response to a burst of charge applied by the processor over the discoloring material. For example, referring to FIG. 9, the discolored portion 902 of the lens 904 may be used to provide greater visibility by the wearer of the eyepiece when the portion is displaying content displayed to the wearer Is shown dark for. In embodiments, a plurality of discoloration areas that can be independently controlled, most of the lens, a sub-portion of the projected area, a programmable area of the lens and / or the projected area (controlled at the pixel level) May be on the lens. Activation of the discoloring material may be controlled through control techniques further described herein, or may be controlled by certain applications (e.g., streaming video applications, solar tracking applications, ambient brightness sensors, cameras that track the brightness in the field of view) Can be automatically enabled in response to a UV sensor built into the system. In embodiments, the electrochromic layer may be located between the optical elements and / or on the surface of the optical element on the eyepiece (on a correcting lens, on a ballistic lens, etc.). In one example, the electrochromic layer may consist of a stack of ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) coated PET / PC film and two electrochromic (EC) layers therebetween, The PET / PC layer can be omitted, thereby reducing the reflection (e.g., the layer laminate can include PET / PC - EC - PET / PC - EC - PET / PC). In embodiments, an electrically controllable optical layer may be provided as a liquid crystal based solution having a binary state of tint. In other embodiments, this tint (e-tint) of an alternative to forming a plurality of liquid crystal layers or optical layers such that certain layers or segments of the optical layer can be turned on or off in steps provides a variable hue Can be used. Electrochromic layers can generally be used for any of the electrically controlled transparencies in an eyepiece, including SPD, LCD, electrowetting, and the like.

In embodiments, the lens may have an angular sensitive coating that is capable of transmitting light waves having a low angle of incidence and reflecting light having a high angle of incidence (such as s-polarized light). The discoloration coating can be controlled, in part or in whole, by control techniques, etc., as described herein. The lens may be a variable contrast, and the contrast may be under the control of a push button or any other control technique described herein. In embodiments, the user may wear an interactive head-mounted eyepiece wherein the eyepiece includes an optical assembly through which the user views the surrounding environment and the displayed content. The optical assembly may include a correction element for correcting a user view of the environment, an integrated processor for processing content for display to a user, and an integrated image light source for introducing the content into the optical assembly. The optical assembly may include an electrochromic layer that provides display property adjustment that is dependent on displayed content requirements and environmental conditions. In embodiments, the display characteristics may be brightness, contrast, and the like. The ambient condition may be a level of brightness that would make the displayed content less noticeable to the wearer of the eyepiece if there is no display characteristic adjustment, wherein the display characteristic adjustment may be applied to the area of the optical assembly in which the content is being displayed .

In embodiments, the eyepiece may control brightness, contrast, spatial resolution, etc. for the eyepiece projection area (e.g., alter and improve the user view of the projected content for a bright or dark environment). For example, the user may be using the eyepiece under bright daylight conditions, and the display area may need to be changed in brightness and / or contrast so that the user can clearly see the displayed content. As another alternative, the viewing area surrounding the display area may be changed. In addition, the modified areas, whether or not they are within the display area, can be spatially oriented or controlled depending on the application being implemented. For example, only a small portion of the display area needs to be changed, such as when a small portion of the display area deviates from a predetermined or predetermined contrast ratio between the display area of the display area and the surrounding environment. In embodiments, it is possible to adjust the brightness of the displayed content such that the illumination condition of the surrounding environment and / or the brightness of the displayed content, which is adjusted only with a portion of the lens, fixed to include the entire display area, Some of the brightness, contrast, space range, resolution, etc. may change. The spatial extent (e.g., the area affected by the change) and resolution (e.g., display optical resolution) may vary across different portions of the lens, including high resolution segments, low resolution segments, single pixel segments, Different segments may be combined to achieve the viewing purpose of the program (s). In embodiments, techniques that implement variations in brightness, contrast, spatial range, resolution, etc. may be used in electrochromic materials, LCD technology, beads embedded in optical systems, flexible displays, suspension particle devices (SPDs) Techniques, colloidal techniques, and the like.

In embodiments, there may be various electrochromic layer activation modes. For example, a user may enter a sunglass mode in which the compound lens appears to be only slightly darkened, or the user may enter a "Blackout" mode in which the compound lens appears to be completely blackened .

One example of a technique that can be used to implement changes in brightness, contrast, spatial range, resolution, etc. may be electrochromic materials, films, inks, and the like. Electrochromism is a phenomenon represented by some materials that alter their appearance when electrical charge is applied. Depending on the particular application, various types of materials and structures may be used to construct the electrochromic device. For example, electrochromic materials include tungsten oxide (WO 3 ), which is a major chemical used in the manufacture of electrochromic windows or smart glass. In embodiments, the electrochromic coating may be used on a lens of an eyepiece in implementing the modification. In another example, an electrochromic display can be used to implement an 'electronic paper' designed to mimic the appearance of a normal paper, where the electronic paper displays reflected light like normal paper. In embodiments, a gyricon (consisting of a polyethylene sphere embedded in a transparent silicone sheet, each sphere floating in the form of a bubble of oil and thus free to rotate), an electrophoretic display Electro-wetting, electro-fluidic, an interferometric modulator, a flexible substrate (e.g., an image is formed by rearranging charged pigment particles using an applied electric field), electronic ink technology, electro- Electrochromic devices can be implemented in a wide variety of applications and materials, including organic transistors embedded in the nano-chromics display (NCD), and the like.

Another example of a technique that may be used to implement changes in brightness, contrast, spatial range, resolution, etc. may be a suspended particle device (SPD). When a small voltage is applied to the SPD film, its microscopic particles, which are randomly dispersed in a steady state, are aligned and allow light to pass through. The response can be immediate and uniform, and has a stable color throughout the film. Adjustment of the voltage can allow the user to control the amount of light, glare and heat that passes through. The response of the system can range from a deep blue appearance to the complete block of light in its off state and to its transparency in its on state. In embodiments, the SPD technique may be that an emulsion is applied on a plastic substrate to produce an active film. This plastic film may be laminated (as a single pane of glass), floating between two sheets of glass, plastic or other transparent material, or the like.

8A-8C, in certain embodiments, the electro-optic system may be mounted in a monocular or binocular flip-up / flip-down configuration with two parts as follows : 1) Electro-optic system; And 2) a corrective lens. Figure 8a illustrates a two part eyepiece included within a module 802 that may be electrically connected to an eyepiece 804 through an electrical connector 810 (plug, pin, socket, wire, etc.) eyepiece. In this configuration, the lens 818 in the frame 814 may be entirely a corrective lens. The interpupillary distance (IPD) between the two halves of the electro-optic module 802 may be adjusted in the nose pads 808 to accommodate various IPDs. Similarly, the arrangement of the display 812 can be adjusted via the nose pads 808. [ 8B shows a binocular electro-optical module 802 in which one half is flipped up and the other half is flipped down. The nose pads can be fully adjustable and made of elastomeric material. This enables three-point mounting on the nose pads and ears with head straps to ensure the stability of the image from the user's eyes, unlike the instability of the helmet-mounted optics moving on the scalp. 8C, the lens 818 may be an ANSI compatible hardcoat scratch-resistant polycarbonate ballistic lens, may be a color changing lens, may have an angular sensitive coating, or may include a UV sensitive material Or other. In this configuration, the electro-optic module may include a CMOS-based VIS / NIR / SWIR black silicon sensor for night vision functions. The electro-optic module 802 may feature user flexibility, field replacement, and quick disconnect functionality for upgrades. The electro-optic module 802 may be characterized by an integrated power dock.

As shown in FIG. 79, the flip-up / flip-down lens 7910 may include a light block 7908. A detachable elastomeric night adapter / light dam / optical block 7908 can be used to shield the flip-up / flip-down lens 7910 for night-time operation, The exploded top view of the eyepiece also shows a head strap 7900, a frame 7904, and an adjustable nose pad 7902. 80 shows an exploded view of the electro-optical assembly in front view (A) and side angle view (B). The holder 8012 has a see-through optic with a correcting lens 7910. [ An O-ring 8020 and a screw 8022 fix the holder to the shaft 8024. The spring 8028 provides a spring-mounted connection between the holder 8012 and the shaft 8024. The shaft 8024 is connected to an attachment bracket 8014 that is secured to the eyepiece using a thumbscrew 8018. [ Shaft 8024 functions as an IPD adjustment tool using a pivot and IPD adjustment knob 8030. As shown in FIG. 81, the knob 8030 rotates along an adjustment thread 8134. Shaft 8024 also features two set screw grooves 8132.

In embodiments, a photochromic layer may be included as part of the optical system of the eyepiece. Photochromism is a reversible transformation of chemical species between two forms by the absorption of electromagnetic radiation, where the two forms are the same as the reversible changes such as color, degree of darkness upon exposure to light of a given frequency And have different absorption spectra. In one example, a photochromic layer may be included between the waveguide of the eyepiece and the correcting optical system on the outside of the correcting optical system or the like. In embodiments, a photochromic layer (such as that used as a darkening layer) may be activated with a UV diode or other photochromic responsive wavelength known in the art. When the photochromic layer is activated with UV light, the eyepiece optics may also include a UV coating outside the photochromic layer to prevent UV light from the sun unintentionally activating it.

Photochromism now changes rapidly from light to dark, but slowly from dark to light. This is due to the molecular changes involved in changing the photochromic material from transparent to dark. The photochromic molecules are again vibrated after UV light (such as UV light from the sun) is removed and becomes transparent. If the vibration of the molecule is increased by exposure to heat, the optical system will become more transparent. The rate at which the photochromic layer travels from dark to bright may be temperature dependent. For military applications where sunglasses users often go from a bright external environment to a darker interior environment, it is particularly important that they change rapidly from dark to bright, and it is important that they can be seen quickly in an internal environment.

The present disclosure provides a photochromic film device having an attached heater that is used to accelerate the transition from dark to clear in a photochromic material. This method relies on the relationship between the transition speed of the photochromic material from dark to clear, where the transition is faster at higher temperatures. To allow the heater to rapidly increase the temperature of the photochromic material, the photochromic material is provided as a thin layer with a thin heater. By keeping the thermal mass of the photochromic film device low per unit area, the heater only needs to provide a small amount of heat in order to generate a large temperature change of the photochromic material. Since the photochromic material only has to be at a higher temperature during the transition from dark to clear, the heater needs only to be used for a short period of time, and therefore the power requirements are low.

The heater may be a thin and transparent heater element, such as an ITO heater or any other transparent and electrically conductive film material. When the user needs to make the eyepiece fast transparent, the user can activate the heater element by any of the control techniques discussed herein.

In one embodiment, a heater element may be used to calibrate the photochromic element to compensate for cold ambient conditions when the lens may be self-dimming.

In another embodiment, a thin coat of photochromic material may be deposited on a thick substrate, over which a heater element may be layered. For example, a sunglass cover lens may include an accelerated electrochromic solution and a separate electrochromic patch that can be selectively controlled with or without UV light is still on the display area Lt; / RTI >

94A shows a photochromic film device having a serpentine heater pattern, and FIG. 94B shows a side view of the photochromic film device, wherein the photochromic film device is a lens for sunglasses. The photochromic film device is shown as not contacting the protective cover lens at the top in order to reduce the thermal mass of the device.

U.S. Patent No. 3,152,215 describes a heater layer coupled with a photochromic layer for heating a photochromic material to reduce the transit time from dark to clear. However, the photochromic layer is arranged in a wedge shape, which greatly increases the thermal mass of the device thereby reducing the rate at which the heater can change the temperature of the photochromic material, or, alternatively, the temperature of the photochromic material Will greatly increase the power required to change the current.

The present disclosure includes the use of a thin carrier layer onto which a photochromic material is applied. The carrier layer may be glass or plastic. As is known in the art, the photochromic material can be applied by vacuum coating, by dipping, or by thermal diffusion into the carrier layer. The thickness of the carrier layer may be 150 micrometers or less. The choice of the thickness of the carrier layer is selected based on the desired darkness of the photochromic film device in the dark state and the desired transition speed between the dark state and the transparent state. Thicker carrier layers may be darker in a dark state, but may be slower to heat to higher temperatures due to having more thermal mass. Alternatively, a thinner carrier layer may be less dark in a dark state, while it may be faster to heat to higher temperatures due to having a lower thermal mass.

The protective layer shown in Fig. 94 is separated from the photochromic film device in order to keep the thermal mass of the photochromic film device low. In this way, the protective layer can be made thicker to provide higher impact strength. The protective layer may be glass or plastic (e.g., the protective layer may be polycarbonate).

The heater may be a transparent conductor patterned with a relatively uniform conductive path so that the heat generated over the length of the patterned heater is relatively uniform. One example of a transparent conductor that can be patterned is titanium dioxide. A larger area is provided at the end of the heater pattern for the electrical contact as shown in Fig.

As discussed in the discussion of Figures 8A-8C, the augmented reality glasses may include a lens 818 for each eye of the wearer. The lens 818 can be made to fit easily into the frame 814, so that each lens can be tailored to the person to wear the glasses. As such, the lens may be a corrective lens, may also be colored for use as sunglasses, or have other characteristics suitable for the intended environment. Thus, the lens may be colored yellow, dark or other suitable color, or may be photochromic, thus reducing transparency of the lens when exposed to brighter light. In one embodiment, the lens may also be designed to snap fit within the frame or on the frame (i.e., a snap on lens is one embodiment). For example, the lens may be made of high quality Schott optical glass and may include a polarizing filter.

Of course, the lens need not be a corrective lens, but can simply serve as a sunglass or as a shield to the optical system in the frame. It is important to note that in non-flip-up / flip-down configurations, the outer lens is important to help protect the much more expensive waveguides, observation systems and electronics in augmented reality glasses There is no. At the very least, the outer lens provides protection from scratches by the user's environment (sand, spiny, visible, and other environments, flying debris, bullets and shotguns) in one environment. In addition, the outer lens may be decorative for functioning to change the appearance of the compound lens to attract attention, perhaps in accordance with the user's personality or fashion sense. The outer lens can also help one individual user to distinguish his glasses from others, for example, when many users are gathered together.

It is preferable that the lens is suitable for impact such as ballistic impact. Accordingly, in one embodiment, the lens and frame meet the ANSI standard Z87.1-2010 for ballistic resistance. In one embodiment, the lens also meets the ballistic standard CE EN166B. In another embodiment, for military applications, the lens and frame may meet standard 3.5.1.1 or standard 4.4.1.1, which are standards of MIL-PRF-31013. Each of these standards has slightly different requirements for ballistic performance, and each is designed to protect the user's eyes from impacts due to high-speed bullets or debris. Certain substances are not specified, but polycarbonates such as certain Lexan® grades are usually sufficient to pass the tests specified in the standard.

In one embodiment, as shown in Fig. 8D, the lens is snap in from the outside of the frame, not from the inside of the frame, for better impact resistance, This is because a shock is expected. In this embodiment, the interchangeable lens 819 has a plurality of snap fit arms 819a that fit into the depression 820a of the frame 820. In this embodiment, The engagement angle 819b of the arm is greater than 90 degrees, while the engaging angle 820b of the depression is also greater than 90 degrees. Making the angle larger than the right angle has an actual effect that makes it possible to separate the lens 819 from the frame 820. [ When a person's vision changes or another lens is desired for some reason, the lens 819 needs to be separated. The design of the snap foot has a slight compression or bearing load between the lens and the frame. That is, the lens can be firmly held within the frame by, for example, slightly fitting an interference fit within the frame.

The cantilever snap fit of Figure 8d is not the only possible way to detachably snap fit the lens and frame. For example, an annular snap fit can be used, in which case a continuous sealing lip of the frame engages the enlarged edge of the lens, which then snaps into the lip or possibly onto the lip. These snap pits are typically used to bond a cap to an ink pen. This configuration can have the advantage of a more robust joint where little dust and contaminant particles are likely to enter. A possible disadvantage is that a fairly stringent tolerance is required throughout the perimeter of both the lens and the frame, and requires dimensional integrity in all three dimensions over time.

It is also possible to use a much simpler interface that can still be considered a snap fit. The grooves can be molded in the outer surface of the frame, and the lens has a protruding surface that can be regarded as a tongue that fits into the groove. If the groove is semi-cylindrical, such as from about 270 ° to about 300 °, the tongue will snap into the groove and be firmly retained and still be removable through the gap remaining in the groove. 8E, a lens or a replacement lens or cover 826 with a tongue 828 can be inserted into the groove 827 in the frame 825, It does not. Because the pits are similar, the pit will function as a snap fit and keep the lens firmly in the frame.

In another embodiment, the frame may be made of two piece portions (lower portion and upper portion, etc.) having a conventional tongue-and-groove fit. In another embodiment, the design may also use a standard fastener to ensure that the frame holds the lens firmly. This design should not require dismantling anything on the inside of the frame. As such, the snap-on or other lens or cover must be assembled on or separated from the frame without the need to enter the interior of the frame. As seen in other parts of the present disclosure, augmented reality glasses have many components. Some of the assemblies and subassemblies may require careful alignment. Moving and impacting these assemblies can be detrimental to its function, such as moving and impacting frames and outer or snap-on lenses or covers.

In embodiments, the flip-up / flip-down arrangement enables a modular design for the eyepiece. For example, not only can the eyepiece be equipped with a monocular or binocular module 802, but the lens 818 can be replaced. In embodiments, additional features associated with one or both displays 812 may be included with the module 802. 8F, the monocular version or the binocular version of the module 802 may be a display-only [852 (monocular), 854 (binocular)] or a forward-looking camera 858 (monocular) and 860 862 (both eyes). In some embodiments, the module may have additional integrated electronic devices such as GPS, a laser range finder, and the like. In an embodiment 862 that allows for 'urban-tactical response (awareness & visualization)', the binocular electro-optic module 862 includes a stereoscopic front camera 870, a GPS and a laser distance meter (Not shown). These features may allow the ultravision embodiment to have a panoramic night vision, and a laser range finder and a panoramic night vision with geographic location.

In one embodiment, the electro-optic properties may be, but are not limited to, the following:

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In one embodiment, the projector characteristics may be as follows:

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In another embodiment, the augmented reality eyepiece may comprise a lens that is electrically controlled as part of a microprojector or as part of an optical system between a microprojector and a waveguide. Fig. 21 shows an embodiment having such a liquid lens (liquid lens) 2152. Fig.

The glasses may also include at least one camera or light sensor 2130 that can provide images or images for viewing by the user. Images can be formed for transmission to the waveguide 2108 on its side by the microprojector 2114 on each side of the glasses. In one embodiment, a variable focus lens 2152, which is an additional optical element, may also be provided. This lens can be electrically adjusted by the user so that the image seen at waveguide 2108 is focused on the user. In embodiments, the camera can be a multi-lens camera, such as an 'array camera', wherein the eyepiece processor combines multiple viewpoints of data from multiple lenses with a single high quality Images can be created. This technique is called computational imaging because the software is used to process the image. Computer image processing can provide image processing advantages such as making it possible to process a composite image as a function of individual lens images. For example, since each lens can provide its own image, the processor can provide image processing to produce an image with a particular focus, such as foveal imaging Where the focus from one of the lens images is clear, high resolution, etc., and the remai