KR20110079882A - Unitised building system - Google Patents

Unitised building system Download PDF

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Publication number
KR20110079882A
KR20110079882A KR1020117008757A KR20117008757A KR20110079882A KR 20110079882 A KR20110079882 A KR 20110079882A KR 1020117008757 A KR1020117008757 A KR 1020117008757A KR 20117008757 A KR20117008757 A KR 20117008757A KR 20110079882 A KR20110079882 A KR 20110079882A
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KR
South Korea
Prior art keywords
building
building unit
structural
floor
method
Prior art date
Application number
KR1020117008757A
Other languages
Korean (ko)
Inventor
에파미논다스 캣살리디스
Original Assignee
에코 페이턴트 앤드 아이피 홀딩스 피티와이 리미티드
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Publication date
Priority to AU2008904874A priority Critical patent/AU2008904874A0/en
Priority to AU2008904874 priority
Priority to AU2009901219 priority
Priority to AU2009901219A priority patent/AU2009901219A0/en
Application filed by 에코 페이턴트 앤드 아이피 홀딩스 피티와이 리미티드 filed Critical 에코 페이턴트 앤드 아이피 홀딩스 피티와이 리미티드
Publication of KR20110079882A publication Critical patent/KR20110079882A/en

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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/348Structures composed of units comprising at least considerable parts of two sides of a room, e.g. box-like or cell-like units closed or in skeleton form
    • E04B1/34815Elements not integrated in a skeleton
    • E04B1/3483Elements not integrated in a skeleton the supporting structure consisting of metal
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/348Structures composed of units comprising at least considerable parts of two sides of a room, e.g. box-like or cell-like units closed or in skeleton form
    • E04B1/34869Elements for special technical purposes, e.g. with a sanitary equipment
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/30Columns; Pillars; Struts
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04HBUILDINGS OR LIKE STRUCTURES FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSES; SWIMMING OR SPLASH BATHS OR POOLS; MASTS; FENCING; TENTS OR CANOPIES, IN GENERAL
    • E04H1/00Buildings or groups of buildings for dwelling or office purposes; General layout, e.g. modular co-ordination, staggered storeys small buildings
    • E04H1/02Dwelling houses; Buildings for temporary habitation, e.g. summer houses
    • E04H1/04Apartment houses arranged in two or more levels
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/348Structures composed of units comprising at least considerable parts of two sides of a room, e.g. box-like or cell-like units closed or in skeleton form
    • E04B2001/34892Means allowing access to the units, e.g. stairs or cantilevered gangways

Abstract

The present invention provides a method for building a building having a plurality of floors. The building is structurally self-supporting and comprises a plurality of building unit assemblies 2 each having at least one side wall 4, a floor 8 and a roof 10, the method wherein each floor of the building is Lifting the building unit assembly 2 into place in the building to include a predetermined number of units 2; Connecting units 2 adjacent to each other in each layer; And connecting units of one layer to corresponding units of at least one adjacent layer above or below in the vertical direction of the layer. In one form, the building unit assembly 2 comprises a building unit comprising two side walls 4, 6 with attached structural segments 16, 18, 20, 22 and a floor 8 and a roof 10. do.

Description

Unitized building system

The present invention relates to a building system. Although the present invention is described in connection with the construction of tall buildings, aspects of the present invention may be applied outside this field and the present invention should not be considered limited to the exemplary field used.

Many proposals have been made to utilize prefabricated building methods to enable inexpensive and fast construction of buildings. Examples of assembled modular systems include the following prior art documents: US 6,625,937; US 5,706,614; US 4,120,133; US 6,826,879, US 4,045,937; US 5,402,608; US 4,807,401; Examples include those disclosed in US Pat. No. 4,545,159 and WO 2005/038155.

Generally speaking, however, the proposed prefabricated system is suitable only for single or low rise buildings and is generally modular in access, so there is an intrinsic inflexibility that limits the application of the building.

It is an object of the present invention to provide a non-modular, flexible building system that can be used to construct tall buildings. Tall buildings are considered to be four or more stories above ground level. Similar techniques can be applied to low height buildings without departing from the present invention. It is another object of the present invention to provide improved techniques for interconnecting units used in the construction of buildings.

In one aspect the invention provides a method of building a building having a plurality of floors using a plurality of building unit assemblies, each building unit assembly being structurally self-supporting and having at least one side wall, floor and roof. Lifting the building unit assembly into place in the building such that each floor of the building includes a predetermined number of units; Connecting units adjacent to each other in each layer; And connecting units of one layer to corresponding units of at least one adjacent layer vertically above or below one layer.

The method includes configuring at least one core; And connecting units adjacent to the core to the core, arranged such that vertical loads between adjacent floors are primarily transmitted through the building unit assembly and lateral loads are transmitted to the core.

The method includes attaching a structural frame segment to at least one sidewall of the building unit to form a building unit assembly; And

Stacking the building unit assembly to form the floors of the building using one layer of structural segments that are vertically aligned with the structural segments of at least one adjacent layer such that generally all of the vertical loads of the building unit assembly are transmitted through the structural segments. It further comprises a step.

In some embodiments, the lateral load can be carried by the building units.

In some embodiments, the lateral load may be carried by one or more cores.

The method may further comprise providing upper and lower connecting plates at each of the upper and lower portions of the structural segment and using fastening means to connect the upper and lower plates of the structural segment vertically adjacent to each other. .

In some embodiments, the structural segment is positioned alongside the structural segment on the building unit assembly laterally adjacent to the structural segment of the building unit assembly when the building unit is laterally adjacent to another structural segment in a predetermined relative alignment. Is attached to the side wall of the building unit as much as possible; And the method may comprise joining together structural segments that are located next to each other.

In some embodiments, connecting a unit of one layer to a corresponding unit of a vertically adjacent layer includes connecting a top of the lower layer structural segment to a lower portion of the high layer structural segment.

The method comprises the steps of separately mounting upper and lower connecting plates on the upper and lower ends of the column element; And connecting together the upper connecting plates of the structural segment located next to each other.

The method may comprise connecting the upper connecting plate of the structural frame segment located next to each other to one of the lower connecting plates of the structural segment located next to each other on the next upper layer.

The method may comprise clamping the other of the lower connecting plates between the vertically adjacent upper connecting plates by an elongate clamping rod.

In another aspect, the present invention provides a building having a plurality of floors, the building comprising: a plurality of building unit assemblies each structurally self-supporting and each having at least one sidewall, floor, and roof; And structural segments attached to the at least one sidewall, wherein groups of building unit assemblies are stacked to form the layers in the building, wherein the building unit assemblies are vertically aligned with the structural segments in at least one adjacent layer. Laminated using structural segments of the floor whereby substantially all vertical loads are transmitted through the structural segments and lateral loads are carried by the building unit assembly.

In some embodiments, the building may further comprise a core, and groups of building unit assemblies may be arranged around the core and connected to the core such that the vertical load between adjacent floors is rather through the building unit assembly rather than through the core. Mainly delivered.

In some embodiments, the building comprises one or more extending between the tops of the first structural segments attached to a building unit on one floor such that the tops of the first building elements can be connected by elongate connecting means to the tops of the second structural segments. The elongate connecting means is further included on top of the vertically aligned second structural segment attached to another building unit assembly.

In some embodiments, the plurality of floors includes at least one building unit assembly located in a first direction and at least one second building unit assembly located perpendicular to the first direction and the building in the first and second orthogonal directions. The unit assembly acts as a bracing to carry the lateral loads.

In some embodiments, the end of the column element has a mounting means connected to the end, whereby the mounting means and the structural segment can be connected to adjacent plates of the structural segment vertically above or below the one structural segment.

In some embodiments, the mounting means comprise upper and lower connecting plates and the position of the structural segment in relation to the building unit to which the structural segment is connected is at least several structural segments of the adjacent building unit assembly within one floor of the building. At least one lower connecting plate of the structural segment of another building unit assembly stacked on one building unit of the adjacent building units, being positioned in pairs next to each other, over at least a portion of the upper connecting plate of the pair And thereby the at least one lower connecting plate can be connected to the upper connecting plate, thereby connecting the adjacent building unit and the another building unit together.

In some embodiments, the mounting means comprise upper and lower connecting plates and the position of the structural segment with respect to the building unit to which the structural segment is connected is such that at least several structural segments of adjacent building unit assemblies on one floor of the building are next to each other. Positioned in pairs, the arrangement of the connecting plates allows at least three connecting plates to be connected together for the vertically aligned pair of structural segments.

In some embodiments, the building comprises: first connecting means for connecting adjacent building unit assemblies to each other in one floor; And second connecting means for connecting building unit assemblies in one floor to an adjacent building unit assembly floor adjacent to the one floor.

In another aspect, the present invention provides a building having a plurality of floors, each of which includes at least some of the structural segments connected to a building unit that is configured to support the vertical load of another floor above the floor. A plurality of self-supporting building units, the building comprising at least one high floor and one low floor, the structural strength of the frame segment of the building unit on the lower floor being the structure of the corresponding frame segment at the high floor. Greater than strength.

In some embodiments, the building includes one group of high floors and one group of low floors, wherein the structural strength of the corresponding structural segments in the group of low floors is generally the same and the structure of the corresponding structural segments in the group of high floors. The strength is about the same.

In some embodiments, the structural strength of the structural segment in the group of low layers may be greater than the structural strength of the corresponding structural segments in the group of high layers.

Preferably, the structural segment is outside of the self-supporting building unit.

In some embodiments, the structural segment includes column elements attached to a self-supporting building unit.

In some embodiments, the building units are arranged in one floor to define the space between neighboring self-supporting building units in which the structural segment is located.

In some embodiments, the widths of the spaces between the self-supporting building units of a vertically aligned neighboring pair are generally the same.

In some embodiments, the width of the space between all neighboring self-supporting building units is generally the same.

In some embodiments, all of the structural elements have substantially the same width across the space between neighboring self-supporting building units in which they are located.

In some embodiments, the relative difference in strength between two structural elements is:

Relative wall thickness of structural elements; And

Provided by changing at least one of the relative depths of the structural elements measured along the space between neighboring self-supporting building units.

In another aspect, the present invention provides at least one load bearing column member; And mounting means on each end to secure the structural segment to another similar self-supporting building unit or building element.

In some embodiments, the mounting means comprises an engagement portion for engaging the cooperatively shaped engagement of the structural segments vertically aligned in use.

In some embodiments, the mounting means is a connecting plate attached to the end of the column element.

In some embodiments, at least one column element comprises any one of a steel column or a concrete column.

In some embodiments, in use, the position of the column elements relative to the building unit to which the column elements are connected allows at least some column elements of adjacent building units to be located next to each other in pairs within one floor of the building. At least one lower connecting plate of the column element of another building unit stacked on one building unit of the building units overlies at least a portion of the pair of upper connecting plates whereby the at least one lower connecting plate is A connection plate can be connected to connect the adjacent building unit and the another building unit together.

In some embodiments, the position of the column elements relative to the building unit to which the column elements are connected allows at least some column elements of adjacent building units to be located next to each other in pairs on one floor of the building, and the arrangement of the connecting plates is vertical. For a pair of column elements arranged in a row, at least three connecting plates can be connected together.

In some embodiments, the structural segment has mounting means configured to match the mounting means of the horizontally adjacent structural segment in use.

In some embodiments, the structural segment comprises a plurality of column elements joined by means for distributing a load between at least the plurality of columns of the pair.

In some embodiments, a guide surface is included to allow alignment with other building elements.

In some embodiments, the guide surface comprises at least part of the surface of the mounting means.

In some embodiments, the guide surface comprises at least a portion of the column element.

In some embodiments, the mounting means comprise angled guide surfaces for guiding the mounting means in the correct alignment of the mounting means of the corresponding type in use.

In some embodiments, the guide surface includes a vertical extension in use where the vertical alignment of the structural segments relative to another building or the like can be adjusted by sliding the guide surface relative to the building unit.

In some embodiments, the mounting means comprise at least one mounting plate comprising a taper to provide an angled guide surface.

In some embodiments, the mounting means comprise a generally trapezoidal plate that provides tapered guide surfaces to corresponding structural segments that are horizontally aligned in use.

In some embodiments, the vertices of the trapezoidal top plate and at least a portion of the surface of the column element generally form a portion of the guide surface of the mounting means and extend away therefrom such that a portion of the surface of the column element provides a continuous guide surface. At least one column element positioned so as to extend from the surface of the mounting plate in a generally vertical direction.

In another aspect, the present invention provides a method of constructing a building unit for use in building a building having a plurality of floors, the method comprising: (a) a floor, a roof and at least to define the interior of the unit and the exterior of the unit; Constructing a self-supporting unit comprising one sidewall; And (b) attaching at least one frame segment to an exterior of the unit for structurally supporting the building unit assembly arranged above the building unit assembly in use.

The method may further comprise (c) performing a stress relief procedure before step (b).

Step (a) may further comprise configuring the self-supporting unit with a jig or clamp; Step (c) may comprise the step of releasing the clamping force applied by the jig or clamp.

Step (c) may comprise the step of dissipating thermally induced stress in the self-supporting unit.

In some embodiments, step (a) comprises the following configuration steps:

Forming a floor from the plurality of floor panels;

Forming at least one wall from the plurality of wall panels;

Forming a frame from the plurality of frame members;

Forming a roof from the plurality of roof panels;

Attaching at least one of a wall, floor, or roof to the frame;

Attaching at least one wall or wall component to the floor; And

And at least one of attaching the roof or at least one roof panel to the at least one wall.

In some embodiments, the frame segment includes structural segments in accordance with an embodiment of the aspect of the invention.

The method may include defining at least one reference point outside of the self-supporting unit with respect to one or more structural segments.

The method may further comprise chairing at least a portion of the interior of the building unit with respect to the at least one reference point.

The method may further comprise attaching at least one facade element to the building unit assembly with respect to the at least one reference point.

In some embodiments, the method may include transferring a measurement from at least one reference point into the interior of the self-supporting unit.

In another aspect, the invention provides a method of designing a design of a plurality of layers; Defining a structural column grid common to the plurality of vertically adjacent layers; And defining a plurality of units in a plurality of each layer between columns of the column grid such that the column grid is placed in a space between horizontally adjacent units. It includes.

In some embodiments, the method further comprises adjusting the design to accommodate space and column grids between horizontally adjacent units.

The method may further comprise defining a structural column grid common to all layers.

In some embodiments, the method further comprises defining a plurality of column grids corresponding to groups of the plurality of layers.

The method may further comprise positioning a movement structure between groups of layers forming a plurality of groups.

In another aspect, the present invention provides a method in the construction of a building; The method includes the steps of designing a building using a method according to another embodiment of the present invention; And manufacturing a plurality of self-supporting building units of the design, each of which has an attached joined structural support segment that aligns with a defined column grid.

In some embodiments, the method further comprises configuring at least one in-situ component of the building.

In some embodiments, the method includes stacking a plurality of self-supported building unit assemblies in a defined arrangement with in situ components of the building and connecting the self-supported building unit assemblies together and self- Connecting to the supported building unit assembly.

In some embodiments, the method further comprises positioning a plurality of self-supporting building unit assemblies with respect to each other as defined by the design prior to construction of the building.

In some embodiments, the method is on a self-supported building unit assembly positioned:

Checking for tolerances between at least one component of a neighboring self-supporting building unit assembly;

Inspecting correct vertical and / or horizontal alignment between structural support segments of a neighboring self-supporting building unit assembly;

Chairing at least a portion of the interior of the self-supporting building unit assemblies;

Temporarily connecting a service between at least two self-supporting building unit assemblies;

Releasing the temporarily connected service from the self-supporting building unit assembly; And

The method may further comprise performing any one of the steps of fitting the facade or cladding component to the self-supporting building unit assembly.

Another aspect of the invention includes, but is not limited to, a building, a building unit assembly, a building unit, a structural support segment, and the aforementioned components made or assembled according to the methods described herein or used in the methods. It doesn't work.

According to the present invention there is provided a method of building a building having a plurality of floors using a plurality of building unit assemblies each building unit assembly is structurally self-supporting and has side walls, floors and roofs, The method includes lifting the building unit assembly into place in the building such that each floor of the building includes a predetermined number of units; Connecting units adjacent to each other in each layer; And connecting units of one layer to corresponding units vertically above or below the units in adjacent layers.

The invention also provides a method of building a multi-story high rise building using a plurality of building unit assemblies in which each building unit assembly is structurally self-supporting and has sidewalls, floors and roofs. Lifting the building unit assembly into place in the building such that each floor of the building includes a predetermined number of units; And connecting a unit adjacent to the core to the core, wherein vertical loads between adjacent floors can be transmitted primarily through the building unit assembly and lateral loads are through walls, floors, roofs, or other rigid elements or the core Arranged to be conveyed through using the bracing means of the furnace.

The invention also provides a method of building a multistory building with a plurality of floors using a plurality of building unit assemblies in which each building unit assembly is structurally self-supporting and has sidewalls, floors and roofs. Attaching the structural segment to the sidewall of the assembly; And generally perpendicular to the structural segments of at least one adjacent layer such that all vertical loads are transmitted through the structural segments and lateral loads are supported by building unit assemblies located orthogonal to each other for operation with other rigid elements such as cores or bracing. Stacking the building unit assembly to form the floors of the building using the structural segments of the one layer aligned with each other.

Preferably, the method further comprises providing upper and lower connecting plates at each of the upper and lower portions of the structural segment and using fastening means to connect the upper and lower plates of the structural segment vertically adjacent to each other. Include.

Preferably, the method includes positioning the structural segments of the building unit assembly laterally adjacent to each other such that the upper and lower plates are laterally adjacent to each other and the upper and lower plates of the structural segments laterally adjacent to each other. Using the fastening means for connecting.

Advantageously, the method further comprises providing complementary portions on the top plate of the building unit assembly laterally adjacent to each other, said method further comprising providing a structural segment of the building unit assembly laterally adjacent to each other. Providing first and second bottom plates, respectively, and positioning the first bottom plate on the complementary portion, whereby the securing means connects the top and bottom plates vertically and laterally.

Preferably, the method comprises connecting the lower end of the elongate connecting rod to the first top plate of the structural segment of the first building unit assembly vertically stacked below the second building unit assembly and the first and second Connecting the upper end of the connecting rod to the second top plate of the second building unit such that the top plate is clamped together.

The invention also includes a plurality of building unit assemblies in which a group of building unit assemblies are stacked to form floors in a building, structurally self-supporting and each having side walls, floors, and a roof; First connecting means for connecting adjacent building unit assemblies to one another in one floor; And second connecting means for connecting building unit assemblies in one floor to adjacent building unit assembly floors adjacent to the one floor.

Preferably, the building is characterized as not having any framework other than that provided by interconnected building unit assemblies.

The invention also provides a plurality of building unit assemblies that are structurally self-supporting and each having sidewalls, floors and roofs; A group of cores, building unit assemblies, are stacked along the core to form a layer in the building; And connecting means for connecting the unit adjacent to the core to the core, providing a building having a plurality of floors, wherein the vertical loads between the adjacent floors are arranged to be transmitted primarily through the building unit assembly rather than through the core. .

The present invention provides a building having a plurality of floors, the building comprising: a plurality of building unit assemblies each structurally self-supporting and each having at least one sidewall, floor, and roof; And structural segments attached to the at least one sidewall, wherein groups of building unit assemblies are stacked to form the layers in the building, wherein the building unit assemblies are vertically aligned with the structural segments in at least one adjacent layer. Laminated using the structural segments of the floor whereby substantially all vertical loads are transmitted through the structural segments and the lateral loads are supported by the building unit assemblies positioned to act as bracing or other rigid elements such as concrete or steel cores.

Preferably, the building comprises connecting means for connecting the structural segment of the building unit assembly in one floor to the adjacent structural segment of the building unit assembly in an adjacent floor.

Preferably, the end of the structural segment has a connecting plate connected thereto, whereby the plate and the structural segment can be connected to adjacent plates of the structural segment vertically above or below one plate.

Preferably, the plates of one structural segment can be connected to the plates of the laterally adjacent structural segment.

Preferably, vertically aligned adjacent structural segments have plates with protrusions and recesses that complement each other to allow for accurate alignment of the columns when stacked.

Preferably, the upper or lower plates of the first and second laterally adjacent structural segments comprise complementary portions each having a bolt hole and thereby a third structural member perpendicularly adjacent to the first or second structural segments. The lower and upper plates of the segment rest on the complementary part and have bolt holes in the complementary part to align with the bolt holes whereby the bolts tighten the plates of the first, second and third structural segments together. It can be used to

Preferably, the top plate of the structural segment comprises said complementary part.

Preferably, the upper plate comprises the recess and the lower plate comprises the protrusion.

In some embodiments, the structural segments have upper and lower connecting plates, and the position of the structural segments in relation to the building unit to which the structural segments are connected is such that at least some structural segments of the adjacent building unit assembly are adjacent to each other in one floor of the building. At least one lower connecting plate of the structural segment of another building unit assembly stacked on one building unit of the adjacent building units, and positioned over at least a portion of the upper connecting plate of the pair. Whereby the at least one lower connecting plate can be connected to the upper connecting plate to connect the adjacent building unit and the another building unit together.

In some embodiments, the structural segments have upper and lower connecting plates, and the position of the structural segments in relation to the building unit to which the structural segments are connected is such that at least some structural segments of adjacent building unit assemblies are adjacent to each other in one floor of the building. The arrangement of the connecting plates allows the at least three connecting plates to be connected together for the vertically aligned pair of structural segments.

Preferably, two plates of the upper connecting plate or the lower connecting plate have a complementary shape such that a third connecting plate of the at least three connecting plates lies above or below the two plates.

Preferably, the connecting plate comprises a bore positioned such that the bore is aligned with the at least three connecting plates and the fastener can be passed through the bore to connect the three connecting plates together.

Preferably, the pair of connecting plates above and below comprises a first and a second formation which mutually secure each other.

Preferably, the formation includes protrusions and recesses.

Preferably, the protrusion is on the underside of the connecting plate overlying and the recess is on the upper side underneath.

In some embodiments, the lateral load can be carried by the floor and the roof of the building units and at least some structural segments comprise at least one hollow column element; The building also includes elongate connecting means extending through at least some hollow column elements such that the top of the structural segment in one floor is connected by the elongated connecting means to the top of the structural segment of an adjacent floor in the building. Can be.

Included in the context of the present invention.

Exemplary embodiments of the present invention will be further described through only non-limiting examples with reference to the accompanying drawings.
1 is a schematic perspective view of a building unit assembly of an embodiment of the invention.
2A-2E illustrate a building unit assembly of embodiments of the present invention constructed using other building materials.
3A is a schematic plan view of two building unit assemblies spaced apart from each other;
3B is a schematic plan view showing two adjacent building unit assemblies connected together.
4A-4D are schematic plan views showing different planar shapes for building units;
5A-5G are schematic diagrams illustrating building unit assemblies stacked in various ways to build other types of tall buildings.
6 is a schematic side view of a 20-story building.
7A-7C are schematic isometric views of buildings having a core.
8 is a schematic isometric view of a building with distributed cores.
9 is a schematic side view of a building showing how column elements may vary in size with height in the building.
10 is a schematic isometric view of five floors of a tall building.
11A-11E show units in various layers.
12 is a more detailed schematic diagram illustrating the interconnection of units within one floor of a building.
13A is a plan view of an apartment.
13B-13E are typical apartments utilizing the units of the present invention.
14A and 14B show low and high floor plans of a hotel constructed in accordance with the present invention.
FIG. 14C is a detailed view of a building unit assembly suitable for use in the building of FIGS. 14A and 14B.
15A is a top view layout of a building with residential and office facilities.
FIG. 15B shows a possible arrangement of units for the residential part of the building of FIG. 15A.
16 is a schematic cross-sectional view illustrating the building unit assembly in more detail.
17 is a schematic perspective view of one type of lower mounting block.
18 is a plan view of the lower mounting block;
19 and 20 are side views of the lower mounting block.
21 is a schematic perspective view of the upper mounting block.
22 is a plan view of the upper mounting block.
23 and 24 are side views of the top mounting block.
25 is an isometric view illustrating the interconnection of vertically adjacent building unit assemblies.
FIG. 26 is a partial isometric view illustrating vertically and horizontally adjacent building unit assemblies. FIG.
FIG. 27 is a partial side view illustrating the interconnection of mounting blocks of four building unit assemblies. FIG.
FIG. 28 is a more detailed schematic diagram illustrating the vertical interconnection of mounting blocks of two building unit assemblies. FIG.
FIG. 29 is a more detailed schematic diagram illustrating the horizontal interconnection of mounting blocks of two building unit assemblies. FIG.
30 is a more detailed schematic diagram illustrating the interconnection of mounting blocks of two building unit assemblies utilizing elongate connecting elements.
31 and 32 are schematic views showing the orientation of the connecting elements during lifting of the building unit assembly.
33 is a schematic side view of a four-story building.
34 is a top plan view of the lower connecting plate.
35 is a cross-sectional view of the side plate.
36 is a top plan view of another lower connecting plate.
37 is a side view of the connecting plates shown in FIGS. 34 and 36.
38 is a plan view of the upper connection plate.
39 is a sectional view of the upper connection plate.
40 is a cross-sectional view along line 24-24.
41 is a side view of the top plate.
42 and 43 are more detailed partial views of two types of structural segments.
FIG. 44 is a schematic plan view of two building unit assemblies spaced from each other with the structural members shown in FIGS. 42 and 43.
FIG. 45 is a schematic plan view illustrating the building unit assemblies of FIG. 44 connected together.
46-50 schematically illustrate how the structural segments of FIGS. 42 and 43 are interconnected.
51 is a schematic enlarged view illustrating various components of an interconnect.
52 is a side view of the lower connection plates.
53 is a plan view of the lower mounting block.
54 is a sectional view of a lower mounting block.
55 is a plan view of an alternative top connecting plate.
FIG. 56 is a side view of the upper connection plate of FIG. 55; FIG.
FIG. 57 is a cross sectional view of the upper connection plate of FIG. 55; FIG.
58 is a top view of an alternative top mounting block.
FIG. 59 is a side view of the upper mounting block of FIG. 58. FIG.
FIG. 60 is a cross sectional view of the upper mounting block of FIG. 58; FIG.
61 is a plan view of an elongated bolt.
62 is a partial cross-sectional view of the bolt head.
63 is a side view of the upper end of the bolt.
64 is a partial side view illustrating the bolt head.
65 is a partial view showing the upper end of the shaft of the bolt.
66A and 66B are schematic perspective views illustrating an alternative connection technique for building unit assemblies.
FIG. 67 is a partial side view illustrating the interconnection of connecting plates and blocks of four building unit assemblies in one embodiment. FIG.
FIG. 68 is a schematic side view illustrating the interior details of building unit assemblies and the manner in which structural segments are connected; FIG.
69 shows a number of roof panels for a building unit.
70 is a cross sectional view along lines 37-37.
71 is a cross sectional view along line 38-38.
72 is an exploded view of a modified building unit of the present invention.
73 is a schematic diagram illustrating the location of structural segments on a building unit assembly.
74 is a schematic side view of a building unit assembly suitable for cantilevering.
75 is a schematic cross-sectional view of six building unit assemblies.
FIG. 76 is a schematic perspective view of the floor panel for the building unit of FIGS. 72 and 73.
77 is a schematic cross-sectional view illustrating a more detailed modified building unit assembly.
78 is a schematic cross-sectional view illustrating another modified building unit assembly in more detail.
79 is a schematic cross-sectional view showing another modified building unit in more detail.
80 is a schematic cross-sectional view showing another modified building unit in more detail.
81 is a perspective view of an alternative mounting plate usable in one embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 82 shows a plan view of the mounting plate of FIG. 81.
FIG. 83 shows three building unit assemblies mounted together using the mounting plate of FIG. 82.
84A-84C illustrate how neighboring building unit assemblies are merged using the mounting plate of FIG. 82.
FIG. 85 shows the same parts of the structural segment as shown in FIG. 81 with added details.

In a broader sense, the inventors themselves can be considered separately from the structural frame of the unit (which describes the interior space of the unit), which improves design flexibility and manufacturing when implemented in a desired form. It has been recognized that all ease of use can be tolerated.

In terms of ease of manufacture, building units can be manufactured with a relatively relaxed tolerance, ie ± 20 mm, which is relatively easy to achieve. Structural segments can be manufactured to tighter tolerances, ie ± 10 mm, to provide an accurate framework for the building. The building unit and the joined structural segment assemblies may be attached together to form a building unit assembly for assembling into a bildy where the skeleton segments are attached in the correct position due to any inaccuracies in the building unit.

Preferred embodiments provide an independent column system that establishes an accurate dimensional grid that references all other building elements dimensionally.

In alternative systems in which the building structural material forms part of the building skeleton, the entire unit needs to be manufactured to meet the tighter tolerances required by expensive and complex frames.

In terms of design and flexibility, separating the design and manufacture of the structural segments from the unit provides designer flexibility to place the structural segments in a wide range of locations relative to the building unit. This allows for design flexibility that would not be practical if the structural material of the building unit is embedded into the walls of the unit.

The unit building system of the present invention can be used to configure a building to be used for any purpose, including but not limited to residential, hotel and office uses. Preferred embodiments are also suitable for high-rise applications, ie buildings having four or more floors above ground.

Building unit assemblies are manufactured according to new building designs. In the system of the present invention, the building designer is free to design the building in a customary manner to meet market requirements and customer needs. Next, a structural column grid common to a plurality of vertically adjacent layers is defined and a plurality of units are defined in each layer. The unit is between the columns of the column grid and conversely the column grid is in the space between adjacent units. The design of the building needs to be adjusted to be divided into building units, which may vary in width and length, but have a size suitable for moving and lifting in place by a crane in the field. It may be a prefabricated system that provides the structure of a building, including building finishes and services, prepared for assembly in the field.

As described in more detail below, embodiments may have the following features: The length, width, and height of the building unit may vary from protrusion to protrusion; The building unit can integrate all components of stairs, corridors and services; The building unit assembly can be configured in a production facility; The completed building unit assembly is moved to the place for assembly; The building unit assembly is lifted in place by the construction crane; Field work is minimized to complete the building if the facade and interior can be connected to or provided with the building unit assembly before delivery; Special bolted connections can be used to connect building unit assemblies together; And each building unit is structurally self-supporting and may have structural segments connected to the building unit such that, when connected together, the building unit assembly comprising the structural segments forms the vertical and lateral support of the building.

Each building unit can be regarded as a straight box frame that is structurally independent and self-supporting in terms of its weight and the live load delivered.

The units have a timber structure with plywood bracing on the wall, floor and roof plates; Steel truss structures, using sheet steel profiled in steel sections and walls and roofs, and rolled steel channels and profiled steel plates or purlins in the floor; And a profiled steel plate structure constituting a diaphragm wall and a roof section, the wall and roof sections are sufficiently rigid so that no additional cross bracing is required and therefore the steel plate walls are The monocoque or system approach used in the aerospace industry constitutes a major part of the strength of the unit. In general, building units are relatively strong along the plane of the wall when compared in the longitudinal direction, ie in the transverse direction. It can be strengthened in the transverse direction by providing bracing across the transverse direction. This bracing may take the form of frame type bracing, wall, tensioning cable, or other means. Advantageously the strength of the building unit along the length of the building unit can be used to provide support for the lateral loads described herein. In the transverse direction, the lateral loads can be transmitted by walls, roofs and floors extending laterally across the interior space of the building unit.

Fire protection can be achieved using refractory plasterboard linings on the interior walls and roof of the building unit.

The interior fit-out, including painting, tiles, carpets and joinery, can be completed completely or can remain in the "rough in" stage for completion in the field. Facade elements, circular corridors and stairs can also be completed on site or integrated into the building unit prior to delivery. As noted above, these elements can also be positioned accurately by positioning from reference points associated with structural segments rather than building units.

The building unit may have four or more structural segments comprising structural steel or concrete column elements fixed to the outside to carry the full load and may form a building structure with the building unit. Column elements can be designed to relieve positioned loads in the structure. If additional structural support is needed, it can be included to spread the load or to increase the rigidity. This can be considered to form the exo-structure of neighboring units to form the load bearing structure of the building.

The outer-structure occupies an area outside the occupied interior space of the building unit so that there is no collision between the two in terms of constructability and assembly. The structural space of the building unit is typically 100 mm to 150 mm. This is the area where all structural segments are located and they are all joined together to hold the entire building together.

In terms of workability, its advantage is that building units, exterior-structure and exterior elements, including structural segments of building unit assemblies, are the exact location they will occupy in the multilayer structure after manufacturing, due to the accuracy of the placement of the structural segments, temporarily in production facilities. Can be aligned and fixed together. This process makes it possible to check tolerances to ensure ease of field assembly and quality control. It also allows completion on the ground, which is much more cost effective and less risky than completing at a high position. This makes building and appearance tolerances easier to inspect, manage and achieve during the manufacturing phase than at the assembly stage.

Structural segments or column elements may increase in size with increase in building height and / or load bearing. The elements are sized to the position of the element within the structure such that at the base of the building the building unit assembly can have a larger column element connected thereto compared to the building unit assembly at the top. However, the building unit may not change if it is designed to support itself.

The building unit transfers lateral loads through walls, roof and floor plates to stability and bracing elements. These stability elements can be in the form of other units located in opposite directions to the main bulk of the unit. These may be framed cores in selected units or conventional concrete or steel frame core systems, subject to the height of the building. Vertical loads in the building unit are transmitted through the side walls to the connected structural segments.

The most basic type of building unit can be regarded as a box frame supported in four positions with open ends. The structure is light and can withstand wind and seismic loads very much. It is also weatherproof enough to allow internal elements to be moved and built without water damage.

The interior of the building unit is not affected by structural elements if all columns are outside the appearance of the units in the column area of 100 mm to 150 mm. This area is the same regardless of the height of the building, which reaches 50 stories. This is accomplished by maintaining column widths while increasing column depth and strength.

For some structures, usually low to medium floor structures, the lateral load can be eliminated by turning certain building units perpendicular to the general direction of other building units. This will be determined by the design of the building. Alternatively, the ends of the units can be hardened by using heavier frame and / or bracing additional walls, or by introducing additional elements that fit the load conditions or location of each particular building. Lifts and stairs can also be framed to have lateral loads. Lifts and stairs can be integrated within the building unit assembly or can be configured separately.

For buildings with 12 to 15 floors or more, more conventional bracing systems utilizing on-site concrete cores may be advantageous. If a field concrete core is utilized as the primary bracing element, the core can be partially or fully configured before installation of the fabricated building unit assembly.

In very high buildings, it may be necessary to introduce concrete or steel moving structures where practical and economical requirements are required or to meet the modified load or bracing requirements described by the building design and site conditions.

This breaks down a tall building into two or more stacks of units carried by concrete on a steel core structure. If a concrete core is utilized, it can be used as a support element through the use of a moving structure that transfers a vertical load back to the core, thus reducing the size of the structural segment connected to the building unit, thereby building the series into smaller structures. Zoom out. For example, a 20 story building can incorporate three moving structures, thereby reducing the efficient height for the structural segment to the height required for the 5 story building.

The moving structure can be connected to the structure of the building unit assembly such that the moving structure can be assembled with the building unit assembly.

Alternatively, the moving structure may be provided as individual steel or concrete structure, depending on the situation.

As mentioned above, the building unit assembly may have a size that may vary depending on requirements and movement constraints. Typically, however, each building unit assembly may have a width of 2 to 5 m, a length of 10 to 28 m, and a height of 2.7 to 3.3 m.

It will also be appreciated that in a building, building unit assemblies of different sizes and shapes may be arranged to produce the necessary floor flat areas for the useful space of the building. The side walls of the building unit may have openings formed in the building for doors, windows, and the like. Corridors and balconies can be added.

1 shows a schematic view of a building unit assembly 2 constructed according to an embodiment of the invention. The building unit assembly 2 comprises two side walls 4, 6, a floor 8 and a roof 10, having structural segments in the form of column elements 16, 18, 20, 22 attached thereto. It includes a building unit.

In the described arrangement, the ends 12, 14 are open but can be closed according to requirements. As described in more detail below, the side walls 4, 6, floor 8, and roof 10 are sturdy constructions such that the building unit assembly 2 can be self-supporting during movement and lifting. Has It can also withstand the loads applied in use, such as internal fit-outs and live loads. As will be explained in more detail below, the building unit assembly 2 may be manufactured at a factory remote from where the building using the unit 2 is built (eg at a factory in another production facility). Manufacturing building unit assemblies in an industrial manner provides a cost and time savings and a better improvement of manufacturing tolerances in finished units.

In the described arrangement, the building unit assembly 2 has four column elements 16, 18, 20 and 22 connected to the side wall, the elements 16 and 18 connected to the side wall 4 and the elements ( 20, 22 are connected to the side wall 6. As described below, the function of the structural segment is to provide mounting points for the building unit assembly 2 and to withstand vertical loads when the building unit assemblies are stacked on top of each other. The elements 16, 18, 20 and 22 comprise individual bottom mounting means 24 and individual top mounting means 26. The upper mounting means 26 may form an attachment point for the lifting cable during the movement and construction phases. Members 24 and 26 may also be used to join adjacent building unit assemblies 2 to each other in a finished building, as discussed in more detail below.

The building unit 2 may be composed of various materials. FIG. 2A shows an arrangement in which the side walls 4, 6 and the roof 10 are wood framed with plywood cladding. The bottom 8 may consist of a profiled steel plate. 2b shows an alternative arrangement in which the building unit 2 is steel framed and has braced side walls and a roof, and the floor 8 is a profiled steel sheet. 2C shows an alternative arrangement in which the side walls and roof are in the form of framed trusses and the profiled sheet steel bracing not only for the side walls and the roof but also for the floor.

2D shows an alternative arrangement in which the building unit has side walls, floors and roofs all made of profiled steel sheets. FIG. 2E shows an alternative arrangement in which the building unit is formed of glass fiber reinforced concrete (GRC) or other composite panels, and the floor 8 has a profiled steel sheet, GRC or composite configuration.

3A is a schematic plan view showing two building unit assemblies 2A and 2B located adjacent to each other. As shown in FIG. 3A, structural segments 16, 18 on sidewall 4 are offset relative to the position of structural segments 20, 22 on sidewall 6. This arrangement allows the structural segments to be positioned adjacent to each other in the final mounting position of the building unit assemblies 2A and 2B, as shown in FIG. 3B.

It will be appreciated that there is a space 28 between adjacent sidewalls 4, 6 of the building unit assembled as shown in FIG. 3B. Space or column area 28 is defined by the width of the columns and provides space to accommodate vertical structural support. In addition, column region 28 aids in sound and heat shielding between adjacent units.

Upper and lower mounting means 24, 26 are shown schematically in FIGS. 1-3. As explained in more detail, the top mounting means may have a different type than the bottom mounting means. Some embodiments will be described in more detail below.

It will be appreciated that similar units may be stacked in various arrangements as required. The units can also be arranged such that their ends are adjacent to each other, in which case the structural segments (not shown) in FIGS. 3A and 3B can be provided on the end walls 12 or 14 so that the units are shown in FIGS. 3A and 3B. It is possible to connect the ends to the ends in a similar way (rather than side by side). Since the mounting means 24, 26 protrude below and above the floor 8 and the roof 10, respectively, the mounting means also create a space between the vertically stacked building units, so that the building units of the other floor in the building are different. It has a similar function in improving fire rated, sound and heat shielding between.

Mounting means 24, 26 are used to interconnect adjacent building unit assemblies and preferably a combination of self-supporting building units and interconnected structural segments may constitute one framework of the building. Depending on the design of the building unit, the height of the building and the relevant site conditions, additional stability or bracing elements may be added.

The building unit 2 shown in FIGS. 1 to 3 has a rectangular shape in plan view. 4B, 4C, and 4D show three of the many alternative planar shapes for the units. More specifically, FIG. 4B shows a unit having a planar shape that is irregular quadrilateral; 4C shows a unit having a wedge shaped (or trapezoidal) planar shape; 4D shows a unit with three orthogonal linear sides and one curved side. Other forms are also possible. As can be appreciated, the units can be interconnected similarly to the manner shown in FIGS. 2 and 3.

The building unit assembly 2 can be stacked in various ways to construct buildings of different shapes. FIG. 5A shows a four storey building 32 having a pair of units forming each floor, with four units stacked on top of each other (2.1, 2.2, 2.3) to form a four storey building 30. 2.4 is shown schematically. FIG. 5B shows an arrangement in which a pair of units 2.3 of three layers are effectively rotated at right angles to the first, second and fourth floors and thereby cantilevered with respect to units 2.3 and 2.4 with respect to units below units 2.3 and 2.4. To provide.

5C shows two of the wedge shaped units 40, 42 having a different length from the central bank 44 of the units and mounted in an offset relationship to the central bank 44 of the rectangular units to create a more complex building. A four story building 38 having a bank is shown. FIG. 5D shows a building 46 having a central bank 48 of rectangular building unit assemblies disposed next to it by banks of lateral units 50, 52, with a portion of the upper unit, for example 50.4 and 50.5 has rounded ends to create buildings with curved contours. 5E shows a five storey building 54 consisting of banks of units having an irregular quadrilateral shape. 5F shows a building 55 with six banks 57.1-57.6 of building unit assemblies stacked side by side and two banks 59.1 and 59.2 stacked at the ends. The combination of banks in the orthogonal direction provides the bracing for the building.

FIG. 5G shows yet another building (3) with three banks of building unit assemblies 69.1, 61.2, 61.3 arranged such that each bank is orthogonal to a neighboring bank to provide inherent bracing due to the orientation of the building unit assemblies. 61).

6 schematically shows a 20 story building 56 with a central concrete core 58. Core 58 generally includes a lift shaft. The floors of the building are erected from a building unit assembly that is manufactured off site and lifted in place. In tall buildings of this size, the core 58 contributes to the bracing of the building. In the described arrangement, building 56 includes three delivery structures 60, 62, 64 supported by core 58. The delivery structure can be formed from a reinforced concrete or steel structure connected to the core. The main function of the transfer blocks 60, 62 and 64 is to transfer the vertical load from the five layers of stacked building unit assemblies to the core, so that the total vertical load of the building is transmitted through the structural segments of the various building unit assemblies underlying it. It doesn't work. In this way, the size of the structural segment need not be so large that the total vertical load of the building is supported by the lowest structural segments in the structure. However, it is surprisingly shown in the initial calculations that for buildings up to 50 stories high, it is not necessary to utilize the transmission structure as described above. The calculation also shows that the space between the building units or column area 28 can be kept constant throughout the building and that the depth, wall thickness, wall thickness, material strength, or grade of the column elements of the structural segment is at a location within the entire building. It will be explained that it can be changed to provide sufficient strength accordingly.

Table 1 below is a summary of typical values for axial pressure applied to structural segments as a function of building height. The table contains data for different width column sizes as indicated.

In Table 1, the vertical column "Storey" indicates the number of floors the unit will occupy when counting from the top of the building. Thus, floor 1 is the top floor and floor 50 is the floor in a 50-story building. The longitudinal stage "Axial Compression" represents the load on each column of the building unit assembly in this layer. The column column "Column size" identifies the wall thickness and column cross-sectional dimensions required for each of the 100 mm, 125 mm and 150 mm column widths to support the identified load. For rectangular columns, the width x depth dimension is given in millimeters and the wall thickness is given in mm. For square columns, only a single wide wall length and thickness is shown. If four measurements are given, this represents the dimension of the column element formed from the I-beam. Thus, 125x250x40x25 represents the use of an I-beam having a full width along the end flange 125 mm and a width along the central axis of 250 mm. The thickness of the end flange is 40 mm and the thickness of the central web is 25 mm.

The last group of longitudinal stages marked "Column Capacity" is for RHS and SHS having the size specified in the corresponding "Column Size" column, when mounting members made of 450 MPa steel and having 350 MPa steel are provided. Indicate the load capacity.

Figure pct00001

As can be seen from Table 1, the load capacity of the column elements can be greater in the lower floor building unit assemblies of the building because it needs to absorb or transmit higher vertical loads. This in turn means that higher floors can use less rigid column members to avoid unnecessary weight and cost at the top of the building. For convenience, groups of floors in a building may be provided with columns having the same intensity rather than having different columns in each floor. The relative increase in strength is provided by increasing the wall thickness or column size in the lower layer, for example, as shown in Table 1.

The column elements may be in the form of reinforced concrete columns that are firmly attached to the side wall of the building unit. Alternatively, the column elements may comprise steel column elements that are bolted or welded to the side wall. Other materials can also be used.

Table 1 assumes that a single column element is used in each structural segment, but two or more column elements may be used. In this case, individual members can be used to balance the load between multiple column elements. This load distribution function can be performed by an attached mounting means or by an individual dedicated structure, for example by bracing between a plurality of column elements. In some cases, the structural segments may include wide columns such as blade columns or walls to support the required vertical loads. In these cases, the mechanism for operation will be similar to that of the narrow column elements described in connection with the preferred embodiment.

With this flexibility, the concept of vertical alignment must be considered extensively, ie vertical alignment needs to be sufficiently accurate to the extent necessary to transfer vertical loads to the aligned structural segments. For example, for narrow structural segments with small mounting means, vertical alignment will require relatively tight tolerances so that vertical loads from the upper structural segments can be adequately supported by the lower structural segments. However, if the wall-shaped structural segment is adjacent to a column-like structural segment (or several column-like structural segments), the degree of vertical alignment (in the direction along the column space) needs to be accurate as long as the vertical load is transmitted. There is no.

FIG. 7A is a schematic isometric view of a group of five floors 70, 72, 74, 76, and 78 that may form part of a building 56 as shown in FIG. 6. The orientation of the building unit 2 constituting the floors 70, 72,... 78 can be changed according to the requirements.

7B shows a building 63 with a central core 58 but with a bank of building units in a different arrangement. The building unit is arranged to surround the core 58. FIG. 7C shows another building 65 consisting of banks of building units and braced by the side core 67.

FIG. 8 shows a building 80 having a distributed service arrangement rather than the central core 58 of the arrangement shown in FIGS. 6 and 7. In this arrangement, building 80 has five floors 82, 84, 86, 88, and 90, and the components that make up the distributed service arrangement may be built into building units that form various floors. In the arrangement shown, there are a lift core 98, two stairwells 100 and 102 and a duct core 104. As can be seen from the floor plan compared to the use of a single center arrangement, these components are separated from each other and by using heavy structural components these service arrangements increase the overall stability of the building, which means that the various vertical ducts have a larger area. Because it can be distributed to.

9 is made of a building unit assembly in which 1-5 layers are indicated by reference numeral 112; 6-10 floors are made of the building unit assembly indicated by reference numeral 114; 11-15 floors are made of the building unit assembly indicated by reference numeral 116; A schematic side view of a multi-story building in which 16-20 floors are made of a building unit assembly indicated by reference numeral 118. Structural segments coupled to the building unit at various groups of floors increase the load bearing capacity downwards, depending on the height of the building. The column area between neighboring units remains constant throughout the height of the building, so it is desirable for the maximum column width to be fixed. Therefore, to accommodate the increased load near the floor of the building, columns 120, 122, and 124 may be deeper (in the length direction) at the floor than at the top. In this arrangement, the first group of layers 112 has a first larger sized column and the second group of layers (eg 114) has a second smaller size. This continues in the building. This progression of column size increasing down the building (preferably in a grouping / stepwise manner) can be seen in Table 1. This ensures that all units remain constant regardless of the height of the building.

FIG. 10 is a perspective view of a building 130 having five floors 132, 134 136 138 140 and 20 floors shown in the central core 142 for simplicity. As shown in FIG. 11A, floor 132 is comprised of a first bank of three building units 132A, 132B, and 132C and a second bank of three building units 132D, 132E, and 132F. Floor 132 includes two further building units 132G, 132H, which are directed at 90 ° relative to the other building units, as shown in FIG. 11A. 11B, 11C, 11D and 11E show similar arrangements of building units. There is no set order of installation of the various building unit assemblies in the building, depending on the location of the building and the variables of the design.

12 is a more detailed schematic view of the floor 132 of the building 130. It can be seen that the structural segments of the building unit assemblies 132A, 132B, 132C and the building unit assemblies 132D, 132E, 132F are interconnected with each other in a manner similar to that shown in FIG. The inner ends of building unit assemblies 132A, 132C, 132D, and 132F include end structural segments 150 and 152 that cooperate with complementary structural segments on adjacent building unit assemblies 132G and 132H. In the case of the building unit assemblies 132B and 132E, the end structural segments 150 and 152 are cast plates 154, 156, 158 and 160 that are cast or otherwise connected to the core 142, as shown. Bolted directly to

12 also diagrammatically illustrates the use of facade elements to provide a facade to building 130. In particular, the end facade elements 162 are connected to each of the building unit assemblies 132A-132F. Side facade elements 164 are connected to the outer sides of building unit assemblies 132A, 132C, 132D, and 132F. Side facade elements 164 are connected to structural segments 16, 18, 20, and 22 of these building assemblies, as shown. End facade elements (not shown) are connected to the ends of the building unit assemblies 132G and 132H. Side facade elements 166 are connected to the sides of building unit assemblies 132G and 132H through structural segments 168, as shown. The end facade element 162 may be a load support and may be integrated into the building unit assembly. Steel and / or reinforced concrete can be utilized as features and support structures that depend on the structural requirements of the building. The facade element may be solid or hollow to allow for site jointing or mass concrete filling of the concrete element. This can provide a large rigid shear wall constructed of exterior elements. Balconies, balustrades, and screens can be added to the exterior as needed. Appearance elements can include various structural panels such as metal panels, wood, terracotta, glass, and the like.

13A shows a plan view of an apartment building 69 with ten apartments on each floor. The building has a distributed core arrangement similar to that shown in FIG. 8 and includes two stairways 71 and 73 and two elevator passageways 75 and 77. As shown in Figs. 13B and 13C, each individual apartment is formed of two adjacent building units 72.1 & 72.2, 72.1 & 72.2, which are equipped to provide the necessary rooms for the apartment. In this arrangement, the staircase passages 71 and 73 are embedded in the building unit.

13D and 13E show alternative apartment designs using three and two building units, respectively.

14A and 14B show two floors of a hotel building 79 having 14 rooms on the lower floor 81 (FIG. 14A) and 12 rooms on the upper floor 83 (FIG. 14B). In this general arrangement, the elevator passage 91 constitutes a side core similar to the side core 67 of FIG. 7C, while the stairways 87 and 89 are inside similarly to the arrangement of FIG. 8. Basically in this arrangement, as shown in FIG. 14C, a single building unit 93 is used for each room in the hotel building. In this configuration, the elevator passages and the staircase passages are configured separately rather than as part of the building unit. This contributes to the bracing and stability of the building.

15A and 15B show a mixed use building 85 having both office space at the lower floor of the building and residential facilities at the higher floor. 15A shows a typical top view of a residential facility using various building units. Similar or different types of building units can be utilized on lower floors and used for commercial office space.

As mentioned above, the building unit 2 may be partially or substantially fully equipped depending on the requirements of the finished building. The technique relating to the arrangement of the various building units to achieve a specific floor plan need not be described in detail as similar techniques are used in the low-rise structure, as described in the prior art mentioned above.

Other parts of the design and / or structure of the building may be performed using known techniques or techniques similar to known techniques. For example, the footing of any building assembled in this manner will have a footing that is typically configured to match the height and location conditions of the building. However, the size and capacity of the footing will be reduced and therefore less expensive than conventionally constructed concrete buildings because of weight reduction in buildings constructed in accordance with the present invention.

If a parking lot is required, the parking lot may be constructed of concrete in a conventional manner, and this type of configuration is most suitable. If necessary to transfer the load from the units to the parking lot structure, a transfer layer may be formed on the top floor of the parking lot. In this way, the most economical and efficient design of the structural member can be achieved.

The roof of the units can be made of individual framed sections and mounted on top of the top units and connected in the same way as the connections between the units. The roof is formed of short stub columns, steel side beams and steel purlins that align with the structural segment below. A parapet is formed around the perimeter of each unit such that the entire roof consists of sections of unit size each independently draining. After installation, metal capping is provided on all parapets to waterproof the joints between the units. Covering the roof may be a roof steel sheet with conventional troughs and flashings or may be sheeted with plywood and bitumen waterproofing membranes. Additional finishes such as concrete pavement or wood decking can be added to the resulting roof terrace. Plant platforms or walkways may be added if needed.

Drainage can be achieved by using a downpipe from the gutter in the steel plated roof or by using a downpipe connected to the roof outlet. The trough will generally be located on the exterior face of the building.

Drainage to the balcony can be achieved in the same way as a membrane roof with a trough connected to the balcony drainpipe. Balcony drains are typically aligned with roof outlets, so a single downspout connecting the roof outlet and balcony drain can be used, respectively.

Services and fittings can be included in each unit and can be equipped with a suitable center point for connection from fixtures and fixtures after installation.

Installation and cabling (electrical, telephone and data, etc.) of major vertical pipes (eg water, gas, sewer pipes, etc.) are performed on-site in the usual manner.

The factory facility is established in the same way as in a typical building. The type of factory is determined by the building size, the type of service available or required and the availability.

16 illustrates in more detail the structure of an embodiment of the building unit assembly 2 and the new connection assemblies for interconnecting the various units. In general terms, the construction of such a building unit assembly constitutes a self-supporting unit, followed by the process of attachment of one or more support columns to the outside.

In the arrangement shown, the side wall 6 is formed from a profiled steel plate 179 similar to that used in a shipping container. Typically the plate thickness is 1.6 mm and a single plate is used for the entire wall, which may have a height of 2700 mm and a length between 10 m and 20 mm. The side wall 6 includes an upper rail 180 that is welded to the upper edge of the profiled wall plate 179. Typically the rail 180 is 60 x 60 mm and the wall thickness of the rail is 3 mm. The side wall 6 also includes a lower rail 182 having a generally C-shaped section with a wide top flange 185 and a bottom flange 183 welded to the bottom edge of the plate 179. The depth of the central web of the lower rail 182 is typically 160 mm and the thickness of the material is 4.5 mm.

The floor 8 may be constructed from a plurality of steel purlins 184 extending axially across the building between the side walls 6 and may be centered 400 mm. The end of the middle flare is welded or bolted to the central web of the lower rail 182 of the side wall 6, as shown. The bottom also includes plywood flooring 486 mounted with screws or the like with a purlin 184.

The roof 10 consists of a profiled steel plate 186 which may be the same as that used for the side wall 6. The roof also includes a roof rail 188 having a wall thickness of 6 mm in the arrangement shown and an L-section channel of 55 x 55 mm. The roof rail 188 may be welded or bolted to the upper rail 180 of the side wall 6.

The other side wall 4 of the building unit 2 has a similar configuration and need not be described.

The components of the side walls 4 and 6 and the floors and roofs 8 and 10 define a box-like structure of a building unit capable of supporting the weight and live load applied in use. In the arrangement shown, a double layer of fire rated plasterboards 190 and 192 connected to the interior of the plate 179 by upper and lower battens 194 and 196 is placed within the interior sidewalls. have. Likewise, two plasterboards 198 and 200 connected to the inner surface of the panels by a sealing batten 202 are placed in the roof. The dual layer of plasterboard with the air space between the plasterboard and the profiled plate 179 and the panel 186 increases the fire resistance and sound insulation of the building unit and between the building units.

16 also shows column element 22 and lower and upper mounting blocks 24 and 26. In the described arrangement, the column element 22 is formed from a square section steel beam having a thickness of 100 x 100 mm and a wall thickness of 9 mm. The upper end 20 is directly welded to the upper rail 180 of the side wall 6. The upper part of the column element 22 is welded to the upper mounting block 26 and the lower part of the column element 22 is welded to the lower mounting block 24. In the arrangement shown, the lower mounting block 24 is slightly wider than the upper block 26 and the inner side of the lower mounting block extends into and welds to the channel forming the lower rail 182 of the side wall 6. This completes the connection of the column element 22 and the mounting blocks 24, 26 to the side wall 6. The other column elements 16, 18 and 20 of the building unit assembly are connected in a similar manner and do not require explanation.

It is advantageous to perform the stress relief step prior to attaching the structural segment 22. For example, when the unit is configured with a jig or by clamping, the stress relief step typically includes the step of releasing the clamping force applied by the jig or clamp. For units having a welded metal configuration, this may include causing any thermal stress in the metal to dissipate, for example by cooling. In this way, the box-like unit or monocoque relaxes in its original form, which may include variations or deviations from the designed form. Column element 22 may then be attached as described in the present invention. In this way an accurate placement of the column elements can be achieved (relative to the original design) as the column elements do not depend on the accuracy in the form of the unit monocoque. Typically the mounting means for attaching the column element 22 to the unit has sufficient tolerance to continue the deviation of the unit.

As mentioned above, since only these parts of the building unit assembly that need to be accurately positioned are formed with demanding tolerances, this separation of the construction of the building unit and the structural segment of the building unit assembly improves ease of manufacture. The remaining, for example, building unit shells are formed at different tolerance levels.

Because of the accuracy of the placement of the structural segments, these (or points on them) can be used as material for the fitting of the interior design of the unit and any exterior elements. Rather than using walls of the building unit to guide the design or attachment of the facade, it is taken from the structural segment 22, since it is not straight or vertical. To do this, measurements are taken from data points (eg, points on the inner wall of the columns) and passed into the interior of the self-supporting unit. From this forwarded reference point, a measurement can be made for the internal design. As can be appreciated, such reference points may be needed.

In the form of a lower mounting block 24, the first mounting means is described in more detail in FIGS. 17-20. The mounting block generally takes the form of a hollow cuboid body with an open end, as can be seen in FIG. 17. More specifically, the block has an upper wall 210, a lower wall 212 and side walls 214 and 216. The block has inner and outer open sides 218 and 220. The upper and lower walls 210 and 212 have aligned holes 222 and 224 that are offset towards the outer open side 220, as best shown in FIG. 18. Block 24 typically has a width of 165 mm, a height of 160 mm, and a length of 160 mm. It is preferably made from structural steel and the sidewalls are 16 mm thick while the top and bottom walls 210 and 222 are 20 mm thick.

 21 to 24 diagrammatically show the structure for the upper mounting block 26. Block 26 is generally a hollow body of a cuboid. It has an upper wall 230, a lower wall 232 and side walls 234 and 236. It also has open sidewalls 238 and 240. Sidewalls 234 and 236 include aligned centered holes 242 and 244 of the sidewalls. The bottom wall 232 includes an opening 246 that is generally in the center of the bottom wall. Top wall 230 includes a larger tapering opening 248. Opening 248 is generally rectangular but has curved edges. The taper is approximately 10 ° in the wider portion of the opening 248 located on the top surface of the top wall 230, as shown. In the arrangement shown, the upper mounting block 26 has a height of approximately 195 mm, a width of 120 mm and a depth of 160 mm. The block is made from structural grade steel and the wall thickness of the side walls 234 and 236 is 16 mm, the wall thickness of the lower wall 232 is 20 mm and the wall thickness of the upper wall 230 is 40 mm.

25, 26 and 27 are partial views illustrating how a pair of lower adjacent building unit assemblies 2A and 2B are connected to a pair of adjacent upper building unit assemblies 2C and 2D. It can be seen from FIG. 25 that the lower mounting block 24A of the upper unit 2C is mounted directly on the upper mounting block 26A of the lower building unit assembly 2A. More specifically, the lower wall 212C of the upper building unit assembly 2C bears directly on the upper wall 230A of the lower unit. It can also be seen that the column elements 22A and 22C are aligned with each other. Similar arrangements exist at different points where the mounting blocks of the two building unit assemblies 2A and 2C mesh with each other. In this way, the total vertical load of the upper building unit assembly 2C is transferred via the mounting block to the lower building unit assembly 2A through the mounting blocks.

FIG. 26 is a view similar to FIG. 25 except that it shows the location of some of the components of building unit assemblies 2B and 2C located next to building unit assemblies 2A and 2C. More specifically, FIG. 26 shows the positions of the structural material segments 16B and 16D together with the positions of the mounting blocks 26B and 24D.

In the arrangement shown, there are three types of connections, referred to as type 1 connection 250, type 2 connection 252 and type 3 connection 254 for convenience. Generally speaking, as shown in FIG. 28, type 1 connection 250 is used to connect the top mounting block of the bottom building unit assembly together to the bottom mounting block of the top unit. In the arrangement shown, the Type 1 connection 250 is used to connect the upper mounting block 26A to the lower mounting block 24C as shown. Likewise, type 1 connection 250 is used to connect top mounting block 26C to the next vertically adjacent mounting block.

As shown in FIG. 29, type 2 connections 252 are used to connect adjacent upper mounting blocks 26 together. In the described arrangement, the type 2 connection 252 is used to connect the top mounting blocks 26A and 26B together. Similarly, type 2 connections 252 are used to connect top mounting blocks 26C and 26D together.

As will be described in detail below, since the interior of the lower mounting block 24 cannot be accessed, as shown in FIG. 30, the type 3 connection 254 vertically adjoins adjacent units where the type 1 connection 250 cannot be used. Used to connect with. The type 3 connection 254 includes an elongate connecting rod that extends from the top mounting block 26 of one building unit assembly to the top mounting block 26 of the next vertically adjacent unit.

28 shows the type 1 connection 250 in more detail. Type 1 connection 250 includes a bolt 260 having a rectangular head 262 with a tapered side as shown. The connection includes a tapered spacer 264 having a side that is generally cuboidal in shape but tapered to be complementary to the shape of the opening 248 in the top wall 230 of the top mounting block 26. Tapered spacer 264 includes a center bore 265 through which the shaft of bolt 260 penetrates. The connection includes a washer 266 and a nut 268. It can be seen in FIG. 25 that the lower and upper mounting blocks 24 and 26 have open sidewalls 218A and 238C exposed to building workers to access the interior of the mounting block. Before placing the upper building unit assembly 2C on the lower building unit assembly 2A, the tapered spacer 264 is first placed in the opening 248. The building unit assembly 2C may be lowered into position and the shaft of the bolt 260 may pass through the bore 265 of the spacer 264 and then the opening 246 in the lower wall 232 of the lower mounting block 24. Can be put through. The building worker may place a washer 266 and nut 268 on the shaft of the bolt 260 and tighten the nut and access is made through the open sidewall 218 of the lower mounting block 24. The complementary taper of the spacer 264 and the opening 248 ensures that the shaft of the bolt is exactly centered to provide accurate alignment between the upper and lower building unit assemblies. 31 shows diagrammatically the position of the head 262 of the bolt of the type 1 connection 250 before lowering the upper building unit assembly into place. It can be seen that the tapered sides of the head 262 are generally aligned with the tapered side of the tapered spacer 264. After lowering the top unit into place, the head 262 may be rotated 90 ° to estimate its position as shown in FIG. 28 which may be supported against the underside of the top wall 230 of the top mounting block 26. Can be.

29 schematically shows a type 2 connection 252 between adjacent top mounting blocks 26A and 26B. The connection includes a bolt 270, a nut 272 and a washer 274.

As can be seen, the side walls 236A and 234B are adjacent to each other and their respective openings 244A and 242B are also aligned. The shaft of the bolt 270 may pass through openings aligned so that the operator can then mount the washer 274 and tighten the nut 272. The interior of the mounting blocks 26A and 26B is accessed through their open sidewalls 238A and 238B.

30 shows diagrammatically a type 3 connection 254 used to vertically connect building unit assemblies 2B and 2D together. Type 3 connection 254 includes an elongated rod 271 and a head 273. Head 273 has a tapered side and is generally cuboid and similar in shape to head 262. The connection includes a tapered spacer 275 having a generally complementary shape with the tapered opening 248B of the upper mounting block 26B. Tapered spacer 275 includes center bore 276 to allow rod 271 to penetrate. The upper end of rod 271 is threaded to receive washer 278 and nut 280 thereon. In the arrangement shown, the head 271 engages with the underside of the top wall 230B of the mounting block 26B. The shaft of the rod 271 extends through the openings 222D and 224D of the lower mounting block 24D through the structural segment 16D so that the free end is located in the upper mounting block 26D as shown. 32 shows the position of the head 271 of the type 3 connection 254 as it is lowered into position. After lowering the top building unit assembly 20 in place, the head 273 may be rotated 90 ° to reengage with the bottom of the top wall of the mounting block 26B. The aligned tapered face of the bolt head and tapered spacer helps to align the unit during installation and fastening. The building worker may tighten the nut 280 to firmly interconnect the building unit assemblies 2B and 2D.

Normally, the building unit assembly can be lifted using a crane that can have hooks or other fastening means that can be connected to the four upper mounting blocks 26 of the building unit assembly. The type of connection may be similar to the type used for lifting and transporting the shipping container.

Reference is made to FIG. 27, which shows a side view of the connection between a pair of adjacent lower building unit assemblies 1A, 2B and a pair of adjacent upper building unit assemblies 2C, 2D. This arrangement includes all three connections (type 1, type 2 and type 3) for connecting the units 2A, 2B, 2C and 2D and is assembled into an assembly as follows: The building unit assembly 2C is Mounted on the building unit assembly 2A and the vertical connection is made by the type 1 connection 250. It is then lowered to the position of building unit assembly 2B adjacent to building unit assembly 2A and connected horizontally using type 2 connection 252. If the building unit assembly 2B is lowered into place, manufacturers cannot place components of type 1 connections because they no longer have access to the interior of the mounting blocks 26A and 26B. Thus, type 3 connections are needed.

33 is a side view illustrating a four-story building 280 that includes a plurality of building unit assemblies of the type described above. The units are interconnected using type 1, 2 and 3 connections 250, 252 and 254 as indicated. The figure shows the desired sequence of assembly of the various building units in building 280, in large bold numbers. The exact order of installation of the units is determined by the location and lifting conditions but generally works diagonally. In the figure, the building includes a foundation 282 that includes a mounting plate on which a type 1 connection 250 is coupled to securely secure the building to the foundation.

34 to 51 illustrate an alternative set of mounting means. This can be used in embodiments of the present invention. In this regard, instead of mounting blocks, each column is secured with connecting plates which are used to secure adjacent building unit assemblies together as described. Details regarding another embodiment of the lower and upper connecting plates 24 and 26 will be described with reference to FIGS. 34 to 51. In the preceding description, the lower connecting plate was generally identified by reference numeral 24. However, in a preferred form of the invention there are two types of lower connecting plates. The first lower connecting plate 206 is shown schematically in FIGS. 34, 35 and 36. Basically it comprises a rectangular plate 210 of steel with a nominal thickness of 25 mm but the thickness can be changed as required. In the arrangement shown, the plate is 290 mm long and 145 mm wide and these dimensions can be changed as required. The tapered protrusion 211 is on the underside of the plate 210. The protrusion 211 is generally cuboidal in shape and has a depth of 20 mm, a length of about 91 mm, and a width of about 53 mm. The taper corresponds between approximately 2.5 mm or approximately 5 ° or 10 ° on each of the sides. The corners of the protrusions are preferably rounded and have a radius of curvature in the range of 5 mm to 15 mm. Plate 210 includes first, second and third bores 212, 213 and 214. Bore 212 is larger in diameter than other bores and is located on a central longitudinal axis. Preferably the diameter is 32 mm. Bore 213 and 214 are generally symmetrically aligned between protrusion 211 and one of the ends of the plate. The bores 213 and 214 are preferably 26 mm in diameter.

The second type of lower connecting plate 215 is shown in FIGS. 36 and 37. The second type of connecting plate 215 comprises a square plate 216 having the same thickness as the plate 210, the edges of which are half the length of the longitudinal length of the plate 210.

Thus, in the arrangement shown, the length of the sides is 145 mm. The underside of the plate 216 includes symmetrically arranged protrusions 217 that are identical in shape to the protrusions 211. The cross-sectional view shown in FIG. 36 for the first type of lower connecting plate 206 is the same as that of the second type of lower connecting plate 215. Plate 216 does not include any bore.

In the foregoing description, the upper connecting plate is shown generally at 26. In practice there are two types of upper connection plates. As described below, similar components are used to make other types of top connecting plates but they are otherwise directed in the building unit assembly.

38-41 diagrammatically show a preferred form of the upper connection plate 218. The connecting plate 218 can be formed from an initial rectangular plate 219 of steel, the dimensions of the plate 219 being the same as the plate 210 shown in FIG. 16 except for a thickness that is preferably 40 mm. . The upper connection plate 218 has one edge removed from the plate to define the rectangular tab portion 220. The removed edge is preferably 75 mm x 75 mm. The plate 219 includes tapered recesses 221 located in complementary centers in size and taper angle with protrusions 211 and 217 of the lower connecting plates 206 and 215. The plate 219 includes a first bore 222 located along the longitudinal axis of the plate 219 between the plate and the recess 221 and a second bore 223 located in the center of the tab portion 2220.

Preferably the diameters of the bores 222 and 223 have 34 mm and 28 mm, respectively. As will be explained in more detail below, the upper connecting plate 218 can be mounted on the building unit assembly 2 in different directions such that the upper and lower connecting plates can laterally and vertically adjacent the adjacent building unit assembly 2. Can be used to interconnect. All of the connecting plates are made of 350 grade steel or higher grade steel.

42 and 43 schematically show how the mounting means in the form of connecting plates 206, 215 and 218 are connected to column elements 18 and 20 to form structural segments 4218 and 4220. FIG. 42 shows a column element (18) which is a hollow steel column of square cross section with a connecting plate in this arrangement having a length and width of 125 mm and 125 mm, a wall thickness of approximately 4 to 10 mm and a total length of 3050 mm. ). One of the upper connecting plates 206 is welded to the lower end of the column element 18 such that the center of the recess 221 is aligned with the longitudinal axis of the column 18. This ensures that the recess 221 projects exactly with the protrusion 217.

43 schematically illustrates structural segment 4220. This structural segment is formed by welding one of the upper connecting plates 218 to the upper end of the column element 20 and one of the lower connecting plates 206 to the lower end of the column element 20. The center of the recess 221 and the protrusion 211 is aligned with the longitudinal axis of the column element 20. Column element 20 is formed from the same section as used to form element 18 and has the same dimensions.

In alternative embodiments, the structural segments may have integrally formed mounting means and column elements. In this case, the mounting means will be the part of the column element which engages with the neighboring column element in use and the part used to fasten together.

FIG. 44 shows the location of a pair of structural segments of laterally adjacent building unit assemblies 2A and 2B. For the structural segment 18A of the building unit assembly 2A, the direction of the upper connecting plate 218 is selected such that the tab 220 is adjacent to the side wall 4 and is directed away from the structural segment 16A. In the same aspect, structural segment 16A has tab 220 directed to structural segment 16A in the same manner. The structural segment 16A is identical to the structural segment 18A so the lower connecting plate 215 will be located at the lower end of these structural segments.

At the other side wall 6A, the structural segment 20A is positioned such that its tab portion 220 is oriented opposite to the tab portion adjacent to the side wall 4A. Structural segment 22A has the same connection as structural segment 20A. It will therefore be understood that both structural segments 20A and 22A will have a first lower connecting plate 206 at the lower end.

The building unit assembly 2B has the same configuration in the building unit assembly 2A and therefore the column elements and the upper and lower connecting plates will be identical to those of the building unit assembly 2A.

FIG. 45 shows building unit assemblies 2A and 2B stacked laterally together such that tab portions 220 of lower connecting plate 206 inter-engage as shown.

The column elements 16, 18, 20 and 22 are not only vertically connected as described in more detail below, but also the building units 2A and 2B at selected locations so that they can be connected laterally together as shown in FIG. 45. Welded to the sidewalls and / or the framework to.

46 schematically illustrates an isometric view of a plurality of building unit assemblies assembled together. The front most visible unit 2B has a structural segment 18B connected to the side wall 4B of the building unit assembly 2B. The length of the structural segment 18B is selected such that the top of the upper connecting plate 18B is located approximately 100 mm above the face of the roof 10B.

As described in more detail below, an elongate connecting rod 207B having a threaded end is passed through the bore 222B and its lower end is located adjacent to the bottom of the structural segment 218B (not shown in FIG. 41). Meshes with a threaded engagement member. The nut 209B is tightened on the threaded end of the connecting rod 207B. As shown in FIG. 47, the laterally adjacent building unit assembly 2A may be positioned such that its side structural segments 20A are adjacent to the structural segments 18B as shown. In this position, the tab portions 220A and 220B are side by side. At the other end of the building unit assemblies 2A and 2B, the structural segments 22A and 16B are likewise arranged.

After alignment of the building unit assemblies 2A and 2B, the third building unit assembly 2C has a building unit assembly 2B having the structural segment 20C aligned vertically with the structural segment 20A as shown in FIG. 48. Can be lowered onto the top of the panel. Coupling member 233B may be connected to the projecting end of connecting rod 207B, as shown.

The engagement member 233B is an essentially elongate nut capable of receiving the threaded lower end of the elongate connecting rod 207D adjacent upwards (as shown in FIG. 50). The built-in unit assembly 2C is lowered so that the protrusion 211C of the column 20C enters the recess 221A of the column 20A and because of the complementary tapering shape, it is automatically and accurately aligned with the building unit assemblies 2C and 2A. Will be aligned. As the building unit assembly 2C is lowered, all of its protrusions 211 and 217 will enter the corresponding recesses 221 of the building unit assembly 2B. Bolts 224, 225, and 226 may then be put through bores aligned with plates 206C, 218A, 218B. More specifically, bolt 224 penetrates bores 212C and 222A, bolt 225 penetrates bores 214C and 223A and bolt 226 penetrates bores 213C and 223B. Nuts 227, 228 and 229 may be tightened on individual bolts to securely join the plates together, as shown in FIG. 49.

After all nuts have been tightened, the fourth building unit assembly 2D can be lowered to a position above the building unit assembly 2A. For clarity of explanation in FIG. 49, the structural segment 20D of the building unit assembly 2D is shown. The protrusion 217D is lowered into position to enter the recess 221B of the building unit assembly 2B. The four tapered protrusions of the building unit assembly 2D assist in the correct alignment of the building unit assembly 2D above the building unit assembly 2A.

50 shows the final position of the various plates. As shown, it can be seen that the plate 215D is held against the plate 218B and held in place by the elongate connecting rod 207D. Preferably the elongate connecting rod 207D is made of a 30 mm diameter steel rod and threaded at the end or along its entire length.

It will be appreciated that the nuts 227, 228 and 229 may be tightened before the fourth building unit assembly 2D comes down into position. If this occurs, the connecting plate is inaccessible and the use of the elongate connecting rod 207D allows for final connection by assembly work from the roof of the upper building unit assemblies 2C and 2D. The usual procedure for fitting the elongate connecting rod 207D is to screw the lower end with the coupling member 233B before positioning of the fourth building unit assembly 2D. The building unit assembly 2D is positioned above the building unit assembly 2A and the upper end of the rod 207D is aligned with the bore 222 of the top plate (not shown) of the structural segment 18D.

The building unit assembly 2D may then be lowered such that the upper end of the rod 207D passes through the bore. Similar sequences occur for all structural segments of the building unit assembly 2D.

It will also be appreciated that the arrangement shown provides a rigid connection vertically and laterally to the connecting plate and the structural segment. In addition, complementary plates may be used for the lower plate rather than the illustrated arrangement in which the upper plate is complementary.

52-67 show yet another embodiment of the mounting means and methods thereof used to connect the building unit assemblies to each other. This example shows a hybrid between previous embodiments using both a connecting plate and a mounting block.

Exemplary lower connection plate 310 is described in detail in FIGS. 52, 53 and 54. It can be seen that the plate 310 includes a rectangular base 312 having a sidewall 125 mm long and 25 mm thick, with the upper edge of the base chamfered. Plate 310 includes locating protrusions 314 that are cast or made of steel and welded to the underside of base 312. The protrusion 314 is generally cuboid as shown but has side and end walls tapered downward. Lower connection plate 310 includes a center bore 316 extending through base 312 and protrusion 314. Typically the diameter of the bore 316 is approximately 332 mm.

In the building unit assembly 300, the upper ends of the structural segments 16, 18, 20, and 22 have upper connecting plates 318 or upper mounting blocks 320 as the units are disposed. Basically, as will be described in more detail below, a building mounting block 320 is used, similar to the type 3 connection 254 of the initial embodiment, with access issues and requiring an elongated connector.

55 to 57 show the upper connecting plate 318 in more detail. It can be seen that the shape of the rectangular plate is the same size as the base 312 of the lower connection plate. It includes a rectangular opening 324 having a tapered sidewall complementary to the tapered sidewalls of the protrusion 314 so that the protrusion 314 can fit.

58-60 show the upper mounting block 320 in more detail. The top mounting block 320 is used in places where an elongated rod is required because it is welded and inaccessible to the top end of the column element, as shown below, as in the case where type 3 connections 254 are required. The upper mounting block 320 has a generally similar configuration to the upper mounting block 26 shown in FIGS. 21 to 24 and the same reference numerals are used to indicate the same or corresponding parts as those of the embodiment. In this case, when the building unit assembly 300 is stacked on top of each other, the opening 248 has a complementary shape to the protrusion 314 so that these elements can fit together.

61-65 show bolts 330 that can be used with the lower and upper connecting plates 310 and 320 for connecting together. Bolt 330 has a head 332 and a shaft 334. Head 332 is generally cuboid in shape but has side and end walls tapered at about 10 degrees. The shaft 334 has two lengths, with a short length (similar to type 1 connections) of about 120 mm and a long length (similar to type 3 connections) so that it can extend to the full height of the building unit 300. Has a length. Typically the long form is 3025 mm in length. In both cases, the upper end 336 of the shaft is threaded to receive the nut 338. As best shown in FIGS. 63 and 65, the square protrusion 340 protrudes past the thread.

66A and 66B show that the upper connecting plate 310C is welded to support the columns 22A and 22C, respectively, to cooperate to align the units 310C and 310A with each other for connection using the features as described. Explain. 67 shows a similar example, but uses an upper mounting block 320 and a lower connection plate 310C.

67 shows how bolt 330 is used to interconnect four adjacent building unit assemblies 300A, 300B, 300C, and 300D. This arrangement is similar to the arrangement shown in FIG. 27 of the previous embodiment and therefore need not be described in detail. However, it can be seen that the lower end of the structural segment 22 includes an access opening 360 to allow access to the nut 338 for connecting the upper and lower connecting plates. In addition, where the column element has an upper connecting plate 318, access openings 362 provide for horizontally arranged bolts 364 to extend through the openings to interconnect the structural segments as shown. do. In the arrangement shown, the head of the bolt 364 is located outside the hollow interior of the column element 22A. This allows it to be retained to facilitate tightening of the nut 365 located inside the upper mounting block 320D. In this arrangement, the bolt comprises a flange 367 and a washer is located on the shaft of the bolt 364 between the upper mounting block 320B, which arrangement is such that tightening the nut 365 is the top of the structural segment 22A. Effectively clamping the end, washer 369 and top mounting block 320B together. FIG. 68 shows a view similar to FIG. 16 but showing another unit configuration. In the arrangement described, the side wall 6 is formed of a profiled steel plate 179 similar to that used in the shipping container. Typically the plate is 1.6 mm thick and a single plate can be 2700 mm high and is used for the entire wall between 10 and 20 m in length. The side wall 6 includes an upper rail 180 that is welded to the upper edge of the profiled wall plate 179. Typically the rail 180 is 60x60 mm and the wall thickness of the rail is 3 mm. The side wall 6 also includes a lower rail 182 having a generally C-shaped section with a wider upper flange 185 and a lower flange 183 welded to the lower edge of the plate 179.

The floor 8 may consist of a purlin running laterally across the building unit. However, the bottom is made of a profiled steel sheet panel 184, which is preferably similar to the material of the sidewalls except that the material has a depth of 200 mm. The panels extend laterally and the arrangement provides sufficient rigidity and strength to the building unit. The ends of the bottom panel 184 are welded to the lower rails 182 on both sides of the building unit. The roof 10 is preferably made of a roof panel 186, examples of which are shown in FIGS. 69, 70, and 71. Normally four to eight panels can be welded together to form the entire roof for the building unit. Each panel 186 is formed of longitudinal and lateral reinforcement ribs, as shown schematically in FIG. 70. The panel is preferably made of steel 2 mm thick, 1045 mm wide and 2356 mm long. The bottom also includes plywood or other floor material 186 located on top of the profiled floor panel 184. The other side wall 4 of the building unit 2 has a similar configuration and need not be described.

The components of the side walls 4 and 6 and the floor and roof 8 and 10 define a box-like structure that can support their weight and live loads applied thereto in use. In the arrangement shown, the inner sidewall is lined with a layer of fireproof plasterboard 190 adjacent to the insulating panel 192. The roof is inboard with two plasterboards 198 and 200 connected to the interior face of panel 186 by a sealing batten 202. The dual layer of plasterboard with air gaps between the plasterboard and profiled plate 179 and panel 186 increases the fire protection and sound insulation of the building unit and between them.

In the arrangement described in FIG. 76, the column element 20 is directly welded to the upper rail 180. At the lower end, two connecting plates 187, one of which is shown in FIG. 68, are preferably used to connect the lower end of the column element 20 to the lower rail 182 by welding. The other structural segments of the building unit assembly are connected in a similar manner.

72 to 77 schematically illustrate a modified building unit assembly 300 and the same reference numbers are used to indicate the same or corresponding parts to the number of the building unit assembly 2. The main difference between the building unit assembly 300 and the building unit assembly 2 is the construction of the floor 8 and the connecting plates 24 and 26. In the arrangement of FIGS. 72 to 74, the floor purlin 184 is replaced with a floor panel 304 having a generally corrugated steel configuration as shown in FIG. 76. Panel 304 is similar to that used for sidewalls and roofs, except that it is deeper, typically 200 mm (as measured in the vertical direction). The pitch of the goal is typically about 650 mm. Multiple panels 304 may be welded together in a single piece to make up the overall structure of the floor to unit 300. Typically the wall thickness of panel 304 is 1.6 mm. Structural segments 16, 18, 20, and 22 are secured to side walls 4 and 6 as before. As explained in more detail above, the connecting plates 24 and 26 of the building unit assembly 2 are the same as described above.

In the described arrangement, the building unit assembly 300 includes two cross bracing panels 306 and 308 provided to provide additional stiffness. Panels 306 and 308 are welded to sidewalls 4 and 6 and roof 10 inwardly adjacent structural segments 16, 22, 18, and 20.

FIG. 74 shows the location of the structural segments 20 and 22 where the building unit assembly 300 is used in the cantilever configuration. As indicated in this figure, the center span, which is between the structural segments 20 and 22, can reach 16 mm 16 meters and each of the ends can be cantilevered up to 6 mm 6 meters.

FIG. 75 shows six building unit assemblies 300B, 300C, 300D, 300E, 300F, and 300G stacked as before. The spacing or column area between adjacent building units 300 is selected to fit structural segments of different widths. As in the previous embodiment, the spacing may remain the same throughout the height of the building.

As best seen in FIG. 77, the lower ends of the column elements 16, 18, 20 and 22 have lower connection plates 310 welded to the lower ends of the column elements and the lower mounting of the earlier embodiments. Replace block 24.

77 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a more detailed portion of the building unit assembly 300. FIG. 44 is a view similar to FIG. 68 but showing other details regarding the construction of the building unit assembly 2. It can be seen in this arrangement that the lower rail 182 is formed of rolled steel and has upper and lower flanges projecting in opposite directions. The lower flange 183 is welded to the underside of the bottom panel 304 as shown. The upper flange 185 is welded to the lower edge of the profiled wall plate 179a, as in the previous embodiment.

78 shows another modified building unit assembly 350 that joins the elements of building unit assembly 2 and 300. More specifically, floor 8 includes a purlin 184 but the connections on the top and bottom of the structural segment are the same as in building unit assembly 300. In this embodiment, the reinforcing beam 352 may be welded between the bottom of the structural segment and the rail 182 if desired.

79 illustrates a configuration of another alternative building unit that can be used in the embodiment of the present invention. This embodiment differs from the previous embodiment in that it uses primarily flat plate materials for wall, floor, and roof configurations rather than the corrugated profiled plates used in the previous embodiments. In the embodiment of FIG. 79, the walls, floors and roofs are reinforced by placing midway at intervals along the length of the section. In FIG. 79, a partially enlarged cross-sectional view of building unit 400 can be seen. The building unit includes a wall panel 402, a roof panel 404 and a floor panel 406.

The roof panel 404 has a corner angular section 408, which may be, for example, an angular section 110 mm x 110 mm having a thickness of 4 mm. It may be welded to the wall plate material 410, which may be made of a 1.6 mm thick steel sheet.

The series of purlins 411 extend across the roof panel 404 to another angular section identical to the section 408. The purlin 411 is welded to the angle 408 along the upper edge and on the end face with the plate 410. Similar purlins 411 are spaced apart and spaced along the roof panel at a center, for example, 600 mm. In a preferred embodiment, the core is a core of the C10019 specification.

The wall panel 402 configuration is similar to that of the roof panel 404. There is an angled section 412 on top of the wall panel 402. Angled section 412 supports the roof panel and may have dimensions similar to angled section 408 on the roof panel. The second angled section 414 is located below the roof panel 402. This angled section 414 supports the bottom panel 406. The bottom angle 414 in this example is 210 mm by 210 mm in size and 3 mm thick. The wall panel is skinned with a steel sheet, for example a 2.4 mm 450 MPa steel sheet. It is welded to angle 412 at the top and angle 414 at the bottom. Steel plate wall panel 416 is reinforced using a C purlin 418 that extends between lower angled section 414 and upper angled section 412. C centerways are spaced along the length of the wall and are welded at intervals. In the described embodiment, the purlin 418 may be a purlin of the C7519 specification set at a 600 mm center along the wall.

As in the previous embodiment, the roof panel, floor panel and wall panel will be interlocked and welded together.

It is to be understood that in the embodiments described herein the building unit structures are described as being welded together. However, those skilled in the art will readily understand that alternative fastening and attachment means may be used. For example, instead of welding, rivets, bolted, or other mechanical fastening systems may be used to join the components together. Depending on the constituent material used, gluing may also be suitable. In addition, other welding techniques may be used, such as MIG welding, TIG welding, spot welding or other alternatives, depending on accessibility and the materials used.

FIG. 80 shows another alternative wall configuration very similar to that of FIG. 79. The only difference is that the angled section at the lower end of the wall panel is inverted in the embodiment of FIG. 80. Thus, further description of this embodiment is not required and similar features are numbered corresponding to the features of FIG. 79.

81 shows a perspective view of an alternative connecting plate usable in an embodiment of the invention. In general, the structural segment 800 shown in FIG. 81 is substantially similar to the structural segment already described herein, so only one end is described in this figure. In this regard, the structural segment 800 includes a support column 802 and a connecting plate 804. In this example, the connecting plate 804 has a generally rectangular first end 806 and a tapered second end 808. Thus, in plan view, the shape of the connecting plate 804 is trapezoidal as best shown in FIG. 82. In conjunction with the previous embodiment, the connecting plate comprises a central recess 810 for receiving engagement means from a similar connecting plate of vertically adjacent structural segments and a plurality of bolt holes 812 for securing to other connecting plates of adjacent structural segments. 814). In use, the structural segment 800 is mounted to the building unit with the wider side of the trapezoidal connecting plate 804 closest to the building unit. Thus, the face 816 of the connecting plate 804 tapers towards the wall of the building unit to which it is attached.

82 shows a plan view of the connecting plate 804 to better show form. In a preferred form of this structural segment 800, the column element 802 is such that one of its surfaces is substantially aligned with the surface 818 of the connecting plate and more preferably the vertex of the trapezoidal connecting plate 804 ( And an edge 820 that is vertically aligned with 822. The reason for this preferred arrangement will be explained below.

83 shows three building unit assemblies 828, 830, 832 arranged side by side to form one floor of a building. Each building unit assembly 828, 830, 832 includes a rectangular building unit having four structural segments to which it is attached. As can be seen in building unit assembly 828, structural segments 834 and 836 are mounted such that their tapered sides 834A and 836A face inward toward each other. On the other side of the building unit, structural segments 838 and 840 are mounted oppositely such that tapered faces 838A and 840A taper away from each other. In this way, the tapered faces of the connecting plate act like a tapered key assembly with respect to the horizontally adjacent building unit assembly. This key effect between neighboring building unit assemblies allows for accurate and easy placement of the building unit assemblies relative to each other in the field.

84A-84C illustrate how neighboring building unit assemblies merge using this key effect. In FIG. 84A two building unit assemblies 844 and 846 are located side by side and spaced apart. In this position, the connecting plates 844A and 844B in opposite directions are aligned. In FIG. 84B, when the building unit assemblies 844 and 846 are joined, the tapered faces of the connecting plates 844A and 846A of the individual structural segments are joined to engage them. The tapered face is angled and provides a guide surface that is used to guide building unit assemblies 844 and 846 in precise relative alignment when the units are moved together. To illustrate the misalignment, building unit assemblies 844 and 846 are not aligned by distance X in FIG. 84B. If aligned correctly in this case, the Z purlins 850 and 852 will be straight-although the sorting of the structural segments is important for structural integrity, they are referenced for convenience in describing the alignment distance.

Reference is made to FIG. 84C showing the correctly positioned final positions of the building units 844 and 846. As can be seen, the building unit assembly is in a position such that the structural segments 844A and 846A are aligned along the column space 854 between the building units and substantially in contact with the tapered face. It may be joined together as described herein by bolt bonding, welding or other means.

As can be seen in FIGS. 84A-84C, the tapered face of the connecting plate acts as a guide surface to allow for easy alignment of the building unit in the horizontal direction. However, the horizontally extending edge of the column element substantially aligned with the outermost face of the column of the structural segment and in particular the obtuse vertex of the trapezoidal connecting plate also has misaligned vertical alignment between the building unit assemblies during placement. In this case it acts as a guide surface. This vertical guide is almost always necessary when the building unit assembly is typically lowered into place using a crane. To further illustrate this, FIG. 85 shows the same parts of the structural segments as shown in FIG. 81 but is cross-hatched to illustrate these parts of the structural segments 800 that can be used as guide surfaces during assembly of the building. cross-hatching.

To facilitate smooth guidance of the building unit assemblies in place, the guide surface of the column element 802 is generally aligned with the guide surface of the connecting plate 804. As can be appreciated, perfect alignment is not necessary, especially if there is only a small discontinuity at the guide surface, such as at the welded connection point between column element 802 and connecting plate 804. In this case, the weld attempts to provide an angled surface that acts as part of the guide surface to bridge the discontinuities relatively smoothly in alignment. As can be appreciated, with this preferred alignment, the guide surface 860 of the column element 802 corresponds to that of adjacent building units, even if the two building units come into contact so that the connecting plates of the two building units are not aligned horizontally. It will be in contact with the guide surface of the connecting plate and will allow smooth guidance of the building unit elements in place in the correct alignment as described above.

Advantages of embodiments relating to the system of the present invention include:

Lightweight construction - the intermediate layer and uses a steel instead of concrete as a structural component in a high-rise building (typically about 500 kg / m 2 as compared to the standard concrete construction and typically about 200 kg / m 2);

Fire protection—building units and exo-structures are fully protected from fireproof plasterboard from the point of ignition inside the building unit;

Construction is undertaken within the production facility and building unit assemblies can be stacked one, two or three stories high;

The system allows a wide range of employees to be utilized, including semi-skilled workers, apprentices and women;

Less use of energy-lightweight materials have significantly lower realized energy;

Less building weight estimated at 200 kg / m 2 than typical concrete structures, typically 500 kg / m 2 ;

Constructing a building unit assembly away from a site in a production facility typically uses 50% less mobile energy, produces 75% less waste, and takes 50% less time than a building built on site.

Acoustic separation is higher than the standard configuration because the outer perimeter of one building unit is isolated from the outer perimeter of the other building units. Physical contact between building units is only at the outer-structure junction point so that acoustic separation is inherent in the system;

Significantly reduces construction time by replacing the normal linear sequence of vertical construction that can be prepared and carried out by on-site work such as excavation, footing, parking structures, concrete cores, and at the same time building unit assembly in production facilities Is built.

More recyclable than concrete structures. They can be disassembled in the reverse order to the assembly. The gypsum content can be recycled back to the gypsum board, while the concrete must be broken up as aggregate or gravel. Building unit assemblies are general spaces that contain once dismantled structures and can be used to build new structures for a variety of potential uses;

Significantly high dimensional accuracy can be maintained and the overall design of the building can be constructed on the ground to ensure correct fit during assembly;

The design contained within the building unit is variable due to the fact that the wall positions are not related to the structural system;

Various modifications will be apparent to those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

It is to be understood that the invention disclosed and defined herein is extended by combining two or more individual features mentioned or evident in the description or drawings. All these other combinations consist of various alternative aspects of the invention.

Included in the context of the present invention.

Claims (65)

  1. A building construction method having a plurality of floors using a plurality of building unit assemblies each structurally self-supporting and each having at least one side wall, a floor and a roof,
    Lifting the building unit assembly into place in the building such that each floor of the building includes a predetermined number of units;
    Connecting units adjacent to each other in each layer; And
    Connecting units of one floor to corresponding units of at least one adjacent floor above or below in a vertical direction of the floor.
  2. The method of claim 1,
    Configuring at least one core; And
    Connecting units adjacent to the core to the core,
    A method of building construction in which vertical loads between adjacent floors are mainly transmitted through the building unit assembly and lateral loads are transmitted to the core.
  3. The method of claim 1,
    Attaching structural segments to at least one sidewall of the building unit to form a building unit assembly; And
    Stacking the building unit assembly to form the floors of the building using the structural segments of one layer that are vertically aligned with the structural segments of the at least one adjacent layer,
    The building construction method whereby all generally vertical loads of the building unit assembly are transmitted through the structural segments.
  4. The method of claim 3, wherein
    A building construction method in which lateral loads can be carried by a building unit.
  5. The method of claim 3, wherein
    A building construction method in which lateral loads can be carried by one or more cores.
  6. The method according to claim 4 or 5,
    Wherein each of the structural segments comprises connecting plates at the top and bottom of the segment, and using fastening means to connect the upper and lower plates of the structural segment vertically adjacent to each other.
  7. The method of claim 3, wherein
    The structural segment is located on the side wall of the building unit such that when the building unit is laterally adjacent to another structural segment in a predetermined relative alignment, the structural segment of the building unit assembly is positioned side by side with the structural segment on the laterally adjacent building unit assembly. Attached; And connecting together structural segments located next to each other.
  8. The method of claim 7, wherein
    Connecting the units of one floor to the corresponding units of the vertically adjacent floor comprises connecting the top of the lower floor structural segment to the bottom of the higher floor structural segment.
  9. The method of claim 8,
    Mounting upper and lower connecting plates on the upper and lower ends of the column element, respectively; And
    Connecting together the upper connecting plates of the structural segments located next to each other.
  10. The method of claim 9,
    Connecting the upper connecting plates of the structural frame segments located next to each other to one of the lower connecting plates of the structural segments located next to each other in the next upper floor.
  11. The method of claim 10,
    Clamping the other one of the lower connecting plates between the upper connecting plates vertically adjacent by an elongate clamping rod.
  12. A plurality of building unit assemblies structurally self-supporting and each having at least one side wall, a floor and a roof; And structural segments attached to the at least one sidewall, the groups of building unit assemblies being stacked to form a layer in the building, wherein the building unit assemblies are vertically aligned with the structural segments of at least one adjacent layer. A building having a plurality of floors stacked using structural segments of floors, whereby substantially all vertical loads are transmitted through the structural segments, and lateral loads can be carried by the building unit assembly.
  13. The method of claim 12,
    A building having a plurality of floors further comprising a core, wherein groups of building unit assemblies are arranged around the core and connected to the core such that vertical loads between adjacent floors are primarily transmitted through the building unit assembly rather than through the core.
  14. The method according to claim 12 or 13,
    One or more elongate connecting means extending between the top of the corresponding first structural segment attached to the building unit on one floor and the top of the vertically aligned second structural segment attached to the building unit assembly on the other floor; And a plurality of floors wherein a top of the first building element can be connected to the top of a second structural segment by the elongate connecting means.
  15. The method according to any one of claims 12 to 14,
    The plurality of floors include at least one building unit assembly located in a first direction and at least one second building unit assembly located perpendicular to the first direction such that the building unit assembly is laterally oriented in first and second orthogonal directions. A building with multiple floors operated by bracing to support a load.
  16. The method of claim 12,
    An end of the column element has a mounting means connected thereto whereby the mounting means and the structural segment have a plurality of floors which can be connected to adjacent plates of the structural segment generally perpendicularly above or below the one structural segment.
  17. 17. The method of claim 16,
    The mounting means comprise upper and lower connecting plates and the position of the structural segments relative to the building unit to which the structural segments are connected is such that at least several structural segments of adjacent building unit assemblies are paired next to each other within one floor of the building. At least one lower connecting plate of the structural segment of another building unit assembly stacked on one building unit of the adjacent building unit overlying at least a portion of the pair of upper connecting plates, whereby the at least One lower connecting plate may be connected to the upper connecting plate, the building having a plurality of floors connecting the adjacent building unit assembly and the another building unit assembly together.
  18. 17. The method of claim 16,
    The mounting means comprise upper and lower connecting plates and the position of the structural segments with respect to the building unit to which the structural segments are connected is such that at least several structural segments of adjacent building unit assemblies are located next to each other on one floor of the building. And the arrangement of the connection plates has a plurality of floors such that at least three connection plates can be connected together for a vertically aligned pair of structural segments.
  19. The method of claim 12,
    First connecting means for connecting adjacent building unit assemblies within one floor to each other; And
    And a second connecting means for connecting the building unit assembly in one floor to an adjacent building unit assembly in a floor adjacent to said one floor.
  20. A plurality of self-supporting building units each having a plurality of floors, wherein at least some of the floors each comprise structural segments connected to a building unit formed to support a vertical load of another floor above the floor:
    The building includes at least one high floor and one low floor, wherein the structural strength of the frame segment of the building unit on the lower floor is greater than the structural strength of the corresponding frame segment of the high floor.
  21. The method of claim 20,
    The building includes one group of high floors and one group of low floors, wherein the structural strength of the corresponding structural segment within the group of low floors is generally the same and the structural strength of the corresponding structural segment within the group of high floors is generally the same.
  22. The method of claim 21,
    The structural strength of the structural segment in a group of low floors is greater than the structural strength of the corresponding structural segments in the group of high floors.
  23. The method according to any one of claims 20 to 22,
    Structural segments are buildings that are outside of self-supporting building units.
  24. The method according to any one of claims 20 to 23,
    The structural segment comprises a column element attached to a self-supporting building unit.
  25. The method according to any one of claims 20 to 24,
    A building unit is a building arranged in one floor to define the space between neighboring self-supporting building units in which structural segments are located.
  26. The method of claim 25,
    Buildings with substantially the same width of space between self-supporting building units of neighboring pairs aligned vertically.
  27. The method of claim 26,
    Buildings with substantially the same width of space between all neighboring self-supporting building units.
  28. The method according to any one of claims 25 to 27,
    All structural elements are buildings of substantially equal width across the space between neighboring self-supporting building units in which they are located.
  29. 29. The method of claim 28,
    The relative difference in strength between the two structural elements is:
    Relative wall thickness of structural elements; And
    A building provided by changing at least one of the relative depths of the structural elements measured along the space between neighboring self-supporting building units.
  30. Structural segment for installation in self-supporting building units,
    At least one load bearing column element; And
    A structural segment comprising mounting means on each end of the load bearing column element for securing the structural segment to another similar self-supporting building unit or building element.
  31. 31. The method of claim 30,
    And the mounting means comprise engaging portions for engaging the cooperatively engaged engagement of the structural segments vertically aligned in use.
  32. The method of claim 31 or 32,
    And the mounting means are connecting plates attached to the ends of the column elements.
  33. The method according to any one of claims 30 to 32,
    At least one column element comprises any one of a steel column or a concrete column.
  34. 33. The method of claim 32,
    In use, the position of the column elements with respect to the building unit to which the column elements are connected allows at least several column elements of adjacent building units to be located next to each other in pairs within one floor of the building, one of the adjacent building units. At least one lower connecting plate of the column elements of another building unit stacked on the building unit of the at least one lower connecting plate overlying at least a portion of the pair of upper connecting plates can thereby be connected to the upper connecting plate. Structural member that connects the adjacent building unit and the another building unit together.
  35. 33. The method of claim 32,
    The position of the column elements relative to the building unit to which the column elements are connected ensures that at least several column elements of adjacent building units are placed next to each other in pairs on one floor of the building, and the arrangement of the connecting plates is arranged in a vertically aligned pair. For the column element, the structural segment allowing at least three connecting plates to be connected together.
  36. The method according to any one of claims 30 to 35,
    Structural segments are structural segments having mounting means adapted to match mounting means of horizontally adjacent structural segments in use.
  37. The method according to any one of claims 30 to 35,
    The structural segment comprises a plurality of column elements joined by means for distributing a load between at least pairs of the plurality of columns.
  38. The method according to any one of claims 30 to 37,
    Structural segments comprising guide surfaces for allowing alignment with other building elements.
  39. The method of claim 38,
    The guide surface comprises at least part of the surface of the mounting means.
  40. The method of claim 38 or 39,
    The guide surface comprises at least a portion of the column element.
  41. The method according to any one of claims 30 to 40,
    The mounting means comprise, in use, an oblique guide surface for guiding the mounting means in the correct alignment of the mounting means of the corresponding type.
  42. The method according to any one of claims 38 to 41,
    The guide surface comprises a vertical extension in use where the vertical alignment of the structural segment relative to another building or the like can be adjusted by sliding the guide surface relative to the building unit.
  43. The method according to any one of claims 30 to 42,
    The mounting means comprise at least one mounting plate comprising a taper to provide an oblique guide surface.
  44. The method according to any one of claims 30 to 43,
    The mounting means generally comprise a trapezoidal plate that provides a tapered guide surface to a corresponding structural segment that is horizontally aligned in use.
  45. The method according to any one of claims 38 to 44,
    Generally comprising at least one column element extending from the surface of the mounting plate in a vertical direction, the column element forming part of the guide surface of the mounting means and extending away so that a portion of the surface of the column element provides a continuous guide surface Wherein the vertex of the trapezoidal top plate is positioned such that at least a portion of the surface of the column element is generally aligned.
  46. A method of constructing a building unit for use in building a building having a plurality of floors,
    (a) constructing a self-supporting unit comprising a floor, a roof and at least one side wall to define the interior of the unit and the exterior of the unit; And
    (b) attaching at least one frame segment to an exterior of the unit for structurally supporting the building unit assembly arranged above the building unit assembly in use.
  47. The method of claim 46,
    (c) performing a stress relief procedure prior to step (b).
  48. The method of claim 47,
    Step (a) comprises constructing a self-supporting unit with a jig or clamp; Step (c) comprises relaxing the clamping force applied by the jig or clamp.
  49. The method of claim 47,
    Step (c) comprises dissipating heat induced stresses in the self-supporting unit.
  50. The method according to any one of claims 46 to 49,
    Step (a) is:
    Forming a floor from the plurality of floor panels;
    Forming at least one wall from the plurality of wall panels;
    Forming a frame from the plurality of frame members;
    Forming a roof from the plurality of roof panels;
    Attaching at least one of a wall, floor, or roof to the frame;
    Attaching at least one wall or wall component to the floor; And
    A method of constructing a building unit comprising at least one construction step of attaching a roof or at least one roof panel to at least one wall.
  51. The method according to any one of claims 46 to 50,
    46. A method according to claim 30, wherein the frame segments comprise structural segments according to any of claims 30 to 45.
  52. The method of any one of claims 46-51,
    Defining at least one reference point outside of the self-supporting unit in relation to the one or more structural segments.
  53. The method of claim 52, wherein
    Enclosing at least a portion of the interior of the building unit in relation to the at least one reference point.
  54. The method of claim 52, wherein
    And attaching at least one facade element to the building unit assembly in relation to the at least one reference point.
  55. The method of claim 54, wherein
    Delivering a measurement from at least one reference point into the interior of the self-supporting unit.
  56. Designing a design of the plurality of layers;
    Defining a structural column grid common to the plurality of vertically adjacent layers; And
    Defining a plurality of units of each floor between columns of the column grid such that the column grid lies in space between horizontally adjacent units.
  57. The method of claim 56, wherein
    And adjusting the design to accommodate the space and column grids between horizontally adjacent units.
  58. The method of claim 56, wherein
    A method of designing a building having a plurality of floors, further comprising defining a structural column grid common to all floors.
  59. The method of claim 56, wherein
    And defining a plurality of column grids corresponding to the plurality of groups of floors.
  60. The method of claim 59,
    A method of designing a building having a plurality of floors, further comprising disposing a delivery structure between the groups of floors forming the plurality of groups.
  61. 60. A building design using a method according to any one of claims 56 to 60; And
    Manufacturing a plurality of self-supported building units corresponding to the units of the design, each of the self-supported building units having at least one combined structure attached to the building unit that is aligned with the defined column grid; Method of construction of a building having a supporting segment.
  62. 62. The method of claim 61,
    And constructing at least one site component of the building.
  63. The method of claim 62,
    Stacking the plurality of self-supported building unit assemblies in a defined array using the building site components and connecting the self-supported building unit assemblies together to the self-supported building unit assemblies. How to build a building.
  64. 64. The method of any of claims 61-63,
    And arranging a plurality of self-supporting building unit assemblies in relation to each other as defined by the design prior to construction of the building.
  65. The method of claim 64, wherein
    On a self-supported building unit assembly deployed:
    Inspecting tolerances between at least components of a neighboring self-supporting building unit assembly;
    Inspecting correct vertical and / or horizontal alignment between structural support segments of a neighboring self-supporting building unit assembly;
    Chairing at least a portion of the interior of the self-supporting building unit assemblies;
    Temporarily connecting a service between at least two self-supporting building unit assemblies;
    Releasing the temporarily connected service from the self-supporting building unit assembly; And
    A method of constructing a building comprising performing one of the steps of equipping a self-supporting building unit assembly with an exterior or exterior component.
KR1020117008757A 2008-09-18 2009-09-18 Unitised building system KR20110079882A (en)

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CN102216539B (en) 2014-12-17

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