KR20110036623A - Calibrating pixel elements - Google Patents

Calibrating pixel elements Download PDF

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Publication number
KR20110036623A
KR20110036623A KR1020117003821A KR20117003821A KR20110036623A KR 20110036623 A KR20110036623 A KR 20110036623A KR 1020117003821 A KR1020117003821 A KR 1020117003821A KR 20117003821 A KR20117003821 A KR 20117003821A KR 20110036623 A KR20110036623 A KR 20110036623A
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KR
South Korea
Prior art keywords
pixel
luminance value
pixel element
composite display
temporal
Prior art date
Application number
KR1020117003821A
Other languages
Korean (ko)
Inventor
클라렌스 츄이
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퀄컴 엠이엠스 테크놀로지스, 인크.
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Publication date
Priority to US12/220,447 priority Critical patent/US20100019993A1/en
Priority to US12/220,443 priority
Priority to US12/220,447 priority
Priority to US12/220,444 priority
Priority to US12/220,443 priority patent/US20100020107A1/en
Priority to US12/220,444 priority patent/US20100019997A1/en
Application filed by 퀄컴 엠이엠스 테크놀로지스, 인크. filed Critical 퀄컴 엠이엠스 테크놀로지스, 인크.
Publication of KR20110036623A publication Critical patent/KR20110036623A/en

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G3/00Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes
    • G09G3/001Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes using specific devices not provided for in groups G09G3/02 - G09G3/36, e.g. using an intermediate record carrier such as a film slide; Projection systems; Display of non-alphanumerical information, solely or in combination with alphanumerical information, e.g. digital display on projected diapositive as background
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2300/00Aspects of the constitution of display devices
    • G09G2300/02Composition of display devices
    • G09G2300/026Video wall, i.e. juxtaposition of a plurality of screens to create a display screen of bigger dimensions
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2300/00Aspects of the constitution of display devices
    • G09G2300/04Structural and physical details of display devices
    • G09G2300/0439Pixel structures
    • G09G2300/0452Details of colour pixel setup, e.g. pixel composed of a red, a blue and two green components
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2320/00Control of display operating conditions
    • G09G2320/02Improving the quality of display appearance
    • G09G2320/0242Compensation of deficiencies in the appearance of colours
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2320/00Control of display operating conditions
    • G09G2320/04Maintaining the quality of display appearance
    • G09G2320/043Preventing or counteracting the effects of ageing
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2320/00Control of display operating conditions
    • G09G2320/06Adjustment of display parameters
    • G09G2320/0626Adjustment of display parameters for control of overall brightness
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2320/00Control of display operating conditions
    • G09G2320/06Adjustment of display parameters
    • G09G2320/0666Adjustment of display parameters for control of colour parameters, e.g. colour temperature
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2320/00Control of display operating conditions
    • G09G2320/06Adjustment of display parameters
    • G09G2320/0693Calibration of display systems

Abstract

A composite display is disclosed. In some embodiments, a composite display includes a paddle configured to sweep one area, a plurality of pixel elements mounted on the paddle, and one or more optics mounted on the paddle to measure luminance values of the plurality of pixel elements. It includes a sensor. At least a portion of the image is rendered by selectively activating one or more of the plurality of pixel elements while the paddle sweeps through the area.

Description

Correction method of pixel element {CALIBRATING PIXEL ELEMENTS}

The present invention relates to a method and system for calibrating a pixel element of a composite display.

 Digital displays are used to display images or images to provide advertising or other information. For example, digital displays can be used in billboards, billboards, posters, highway signs and stadium displays. Digital displays using liquid crystal display (LCD) technology or plasma technology are limited in size due to the size limitations of the glass panels associated with these technologies. Larger digital displays typically include a grid of printed circuit board (PCB) tiles, each of which is packaged with light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Because of the space required by LEDs, the resolution of these displays is relatively poor. In addition, each LED corresponds to a pixel in the image, which can be expensive for large display devices. In addition, composite cooling systems are typically used to reduce the heat generated by the LEDs, which can be overheated at high temperatures. As such, improvements in digital display technology are required.

According to an aspect of the present invention, a method of calibrating a pixel element of a composite display device, the method comprising: obtaining a current luminance value of a pixel element and a reference luminance value of the pixel element; Determining a difference between a current luminance value of the pixel element and a reference luminance value of the pixel element; And adjusting a current for driving the pixel element based at least in part on the difference.

According to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a system for calibrating pixel elements of a composite display device, the system comprising: obtaining current luminance values of pixel elements and reference luminance values of pixel elements; Determine a difference between a current luminance value of the pixel element and a reference luminance value of the pixel element; A processor configured to adjust a current driving the pixel element based at least in part on the difference; And a memory coupled to the processor, the memory configured to provide instructions to the processor.

For reference, according to another aspect of the present invention, a computer program product for calibrating pixel elements of a composite display device, the computer program product includes computer instructions embedded in a computer readable storage medium, Obtaining a current luminance value of the pixel element and a reference luminance value of the pixel element; Determining a difference between a current luminance value of the pixel element and a reference luminance value of the pixel element; And instructions for adjusting a current for driving the pixel element based at least in part on the difference.

Various embodiments of the present invention are disclosed in the following description and the accompanying drawings.

1 illustrates an embodiment of a composite display device 100 having a single paddle;
2A illustrates one embodiment of a paddle for use in a composite display;
FIG. 2B illustrates an example of temporal pixel in a sweep plane; FIG.
3 illustrates an embodiment of a composite display 300 with two paddles;
4A illustrates an example paddle arrangement in a composite display;
4B illustrates one embodiment of a composite display 410 using a mask;
4C illustrates one embodiment of a composite display 430 using a mask;
5 is a block diagram illustrating one embodiment of a system for displaying an image;
FIG. 6A shows an embodiment of a composite display 600 with two paddles;
6B is a flow diagram illustrating one embodiment of a method of generating a pixel map;
7 illustrates examples of paddles arranged in various arrays;
FIG. 8 shows an example of a paddle with in phase motion adjusted to prevent mechanical interference; FIG.
9 illustrates an example paddle with out of phase motion adjusted to prevent mechanical interference;
10 illustrates an example of a cross section of a paddle in a composite display;
11A illustrates one embodiment of a paddle of a composite display;
11B illustrates an embodiment of a paddle of the composite display;
12A illustrates an example of a pass band of a broadband photodetector;
12B shows an example of a spectral profile of a red LED;
12C shows both the pass band of the broadband photodetector and the spectral profile of the red LED;
12D illustrates an example of a spectral profile of a red LED that experiences a decrease in passband and brightness of a wideband photodetector;
13 illustrates one embodiment of a method for calibrating a pixel element;
14A shows an example of a pass band of a red-sensitive photodetector;
14B shows both the pass band of the wideband photodetector and the spectral profile of the red LED;
14C shows an example of a spectral profile of a red LED that has experienced a decrease in the pass band and brightness of the red-sensitive photodetector;
FIG. 14D shows an example of a color coordinate shift of a pass band of a red-sensitive photodetector and a red LED; FIG.
14E shows an example of a spectral profile of a red LED overdriven with a pass band of a red-sensitive photodetector;
15 illustrates an embodiment of a paddle of the composite display;
16 illustrates an embodiment of a paddle of the composite display;
17 illustrates one embodiment of a method for calibrating an LED of a paddle;
18A shows a pass band of one photodetector;
18B shows a pass band of two photodetectors.

The invention can be implemented in a number of ways, including computer readable media or computer networks such as methods, devices, systems, compositions of matter, computer readable storage media, wherein program instructions are transmitted over an optical or communication link. do. In this specification, these embodiments or any other form that the present invention may take may be referred to as a technique. Components, such as a processor or memory, as configured to perform a task, include both general components temporarily configured to perform the task at a given time or specific components manufactured to perform the task. . In general, the order of the steps (steps) of the disclosed method may vary within the scope of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION A detailed description of one or more embodiments of the invention is provided below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings which illustrate the principles of the invention. The invention is described in connection with such embodiments, but the invention is not limited to any embodiment. The scope of the invention is limited only by the claims, and the invention includes many alternatives, modifications and equivalents. Many specific details are set forth in the following description in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention. These details are provided for the purpose of example, and the invention may be practiced according to the claims without some or all of these specific details. For the purpose of clarity, technical material known in the art related to the present invention will not be described in detail so as not to unnecessarily obscure the present invention.

FIG. 1 is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of a composite display device 100 having a single paddle. In the example shown, paddle 102 is configured to rotate at one end about axis of rotation 104 at a given frequency, such as 60 Hz. Paddle 102 sweeps in area 108 for one rotation or paddle cycle. A plurality of pixel elements, eg, LEDs, are installed on paddle 102. As used herein, a pixel element means any element as long as it can be used to display at least part of image information. As used herein, the image or image information can include any image, image, animation, slideshow, or other visual information that can be displayed. Other examples of pixel elements include laser diodes, phosphors, cathode ray tubes, liquid crystals, any transmissive or emissive optical modulators. Although LEDs may be described by way of example herein, any other suitable pixel element may be used. In various embodiments, the LEDs may be arranged on the paddle 102 in a variety of ways, as described more fully below.

As the paddle 102 sweeps in the area 108, one or more of its LEDs are activated at an appropriate time such that an image or part thereof is perceived by an observer looking at the swept area 108. An image is composed of pixels each having a spatial position. It may be determined which spatial location a particular LED is at any given point in time. As the paddle 102 rotates, each LED can be properly activated when its position matches the spatial position of the pixel in the image. If paddle 102 is rotating fast enough, the eye perceives a continuous image. This is because the eye has an inferior frequency response to luminance and color information. The eye integrates the colors you see within a given time window. When a few images stroke in a rapid sequence, the eye merges them into a single continuous image. This low temporal sensitivity of the eye is called afterimage.

As such, each LED on paddle 102 may be used to display multiple pixels in an image. A single pixel in an image is mapped to at least one "temporal pixel" in the display area of the composite display device 100. The temporal pixel can be defined by the pixel element and time (or angular position of the paddle) on the paddle 102, as described more fully below.

The display area for viewing an image or an image may have any shape. For example, the maximum display area is circular and is the same as the sweep area 108. The rectangular image or image may be displayed in the swept area 108 in the rectangular display area 110 shown.

2A is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of a paddle used in a composite display device. For example, paddle 202, 302 or 312 (described below) may be similar to paddle 102. The paddle 202 is shown to include a plurality of LEDs 206-216 and a rotation axis 204, where the paddle 202 rotates about the rotation axis. The LEDs 206-216 can be arranged in any suitable manner in various embodiments. In this example, the LEDs 206-216 are evenly spaced apart from one another and arranged to align along the length of the paddle 202. These are aligned on the edge of paddle 202 such that LED 216 is adjacent to axis of rotation 204. This ensures that as the paddle 202 rotates, there are no blank spots in the center (around the axis of rotation 204). In some embodiments, paddle 202 is a PCB shaped like a paddle. In some embodiments, paddle 202 has aluminum, metal, or other material case for reinforcement.

2B shows an example of temporal pixels in the sweep plane. In this example, each LED on paddle 222 is associated with an annulus (area between two circles) around the axis of rotation. Each LED can be activated once per sector (angle interval). Activating the LED may include, for example, turning on the LED or turning off the LED for a defined period of time (eg, associated with a duty cycle). The intersection of the concentric circles and the sector forms an area corresponding to the temporal pixel. In this example, each temporal pixel has an angle of 42.5 °, so there are a total of 16 sectors while the LED can be turned on to display the pixel. Since there are six LEDs, there are 6 x 16 = 96 temporal pixels. In another example, the temporal pixel can have an angle of 1/10 degrees, so there are a total of 3600 angle positions possible.

Since the spacing of the LEDs along the paddle is uniform in the given example, the temporal pixels become more dense towards the center of the display (near the axis of rotation). Since the image pixels are established based on the rectangular coordinate system, if an image is placed on the display device, one image pixel can correspond to a plurality of temporal pixels close to the center of the display device. Conversely, in the outermost part of the display device, one image pixel may correspond to one or some of the temporal pixels. For example, two or more image pixels may be fitted within a single temporal pixel. In some embodiments, the display device has at least one temporal pixel per image pixel at the outermost portion of the display device. This is to maintain the same level of resolution as the image in the display device. In some embodiments, the sector size is limited by how quickly the LED control data can be sent to the LED driver to activate the LED (s). In some embodiments, the arrangement of LEDs on the paddle is used to make the density of temporal pixels more uniform with respect to the display. For example, the LEDs may be located closer together on the paddle as they move away from the axis of rotation.

3 illustrates an embodiment of a composite display device 300 having two paddles. In the example shown, paddle 302 is configured to rotate at one end about axis of rotation 304 at a given frequency, such as 60 Hz. Paddle 302 sweeps in area 308 for one rotation or paddle cycle. A plurality of pixel elements, for example a plurality of LEDs, are provided on the paddle 302. Paddle 312 is configured to rotate at one end about axis of rotation 314 at a given frequency, such as 60 Hz. Paddle 312 sweeps in area 316 for one rotation or paddle cycle. A plurality of pixel elements, for example a plurality of LEDs, are provided on the paddle 312. Sweep areas 308 and 316 have overlap 318.

It may be desirable to use one or more paddles in a composite display to fabricate larger displays. For each paddle, it is possible to determine which spatial position a particular LED is at any given point in time, so that a given image can be displayed by multiple paddle displays in a manner similar to that described with respect to FIG. In some embodiments, for the overlap 318, there will be twice as many LEDs to pass per cycle than in the non-overlapped portion. This can make the overlap of the display device visible so as to have higher luminance. Thus, in some embodiments, when the LED is in the overlap, it can usually be activated to appear as if the entire display area has the same brightness. This and other examples of handling the overlapping portion are explained more fully below.

The display area for displaying an image or an image may have any shape. The union of the sweep areas 308 and 316 is the maximum display area. The rectangular image or image may be displayed in the rectangular display area 310 as shown.

When using more than one paddle, there are various ways to ensure that adjacent paddles do not collide with each other. 4A shows an example of paddle installation in a composite display. In these examples, cross sections of adjacent paddles mounted on the shaft are shown.

In figure 402, two adjacent paddles rotate in a vertically separated sweep plane to ensure that they do not collide when the paddles rotate. This means that the two paddles can rotate at different speeds and do not have to be in phase with each other. If the resolution of the display device is sufficiently smaller than the vertical gap between the different sweep planes, it is undetectable that the two paddles rotate in that different sweep plane. In this example, the axes are in the middle of the paddle. This embodiment is described more fully below.

In figure 404, both paddles rotate in the same sweep plane. In this case, the rotation of the paddles is coordinated to avoid collisions. For example, the paddles are rotated in phase with each other. This further example is described more fully below.

In the case of two paddles having different sweep planes, when viewing the display area 310 from a point that is not perpendicular to the center of the display area 310, light may leak diagonally between the sweep planes. This can happen, for example, if the pixel element emits unfocused light such that light is emitted in a range of angles. In some embodiments, a mask is used to block light from one sweep plane from being seen in another sweep plane. For example, the mask is placed behind paddle 302 and / or paddle 312. The mask may be fixed relative to paddle 302 and / or paddle 312 or attached to paddle 302 and / or 312. In some embodiments, paddle 302 and / or paddle 312 is of a different shape than that shown in FIGS. 3 and 4A, for example for masking purposes. For example, paddle 302 and / or paddle 312 may be shaped to mask the sweep area of another paddle.

4B is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of a composite display device 410 using a mask. In the example shown, paddle 426 is configured to rotate at one end about axis of rotation 414 at a given frequency, such as 60 Hz. A plurality of pixel elements, for example a plurality of LEDs, are provided on the paddle 426. Paddle 426 sweeps in area 416 (bold dashed line) for one rotation or paddle cycle. Paddle 428 is configured to rotate at one end about axis of rotation 420 at a given frequency, such as 60 Hz. Paddle 428 sweeps in area 422 (bold dashed line) for one rotation or paddle cycle. A plurality of pixel elements, for example a plurality of LEDs, are provided on the paddle 428.

In this example, mask 412 (solid line) is used behind paddle 426. In this case, the mask 412 is the same shape (ie, circular) as the area 416. Mask 412 masks the leakage of light from pixel elements on paddle 428 into sweep area 416. The mask 412 may be installed behind the paddle 426. In some embodiments, mask 412 is attached to paddle 426 to rotate about axis of rotation 414 with paddle 426. In some embodiments, mask 412 is installed behind paddle 426 and secured to paddle 426. In this example, a mask 418 (solid line) is likewise provided behind the paddle 428.

In various embodiments, mask 412 and / or mask 418 may be made of various materials and have a variety of colors. For example, masks 412 and 418 may be black and may be made of plastic.

The display area for displaying an image or an image may have any shape. The union of the sweep areas 416 and 422 is the maximum display area. The rectangular image or image may be displayed in the rectangular display area 424 as shown.

Regions 416 and 422 overlap. As used herein, two elements (eg, sweep region, sweep plane, mask, pixel element) overlap if they intersect in the x-y projection plane. That is, if these regions are projected on the x-y plane (defined by the x and y axes, where the x and y axes are in the plane of the drawing), they intersect each other. Regions 416 and 422 do not sweep the same plane (without the same value z), but they overlap each other at overlap 429. In this example, the mask 412 blocks the sweep area 422 at overlap 429 or blocked area 429. The mask 412 overlaps the sweep area 429 and blocks the sweep area 429 because it is on top of the sweep area 429.

4C is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of a composite display device 430 using a mask. In this example, the pixel element is attached to a rotating disk which functions as both a mask and a structure for the pixel element. Disk 432 can be seen as a circular paddle. In the example shown, disk 432 is configured to rotate at one end about axis of rotation 434 at a given frequency, such as 60 Hz. A plurality of pixel elements, for example a plurality of LEDs, are provided on the disk 432. Disc 432 sweeps in area 436 (bold dashed line) during one revolution or disc cycle. Disc 432 (solid line) is configured to rotate at one end about axis of rotation 440 at a given frequency, such as 60 Hz. Disc 438 sweeps in area 442 (bold dashed line) for one revolution or disc cycle. A plurality of pixel elements, for example a plurality of LEDs, are provided on the disk 438.

In this example, the pixel element may be installed anywhere on the disks 432, 438. In some embodiments, pixel elements are installed on disks 432, 438 in the same pattern. In other embodiments, different patterns are used on each disc. In some embodiments, the density of pixel elements is lower toward the center of each disk such that the density of temporal pixels is more uniform than if the density of the pixel elements is the same throughout the disk. In some embodiments, pixel elements are arranged to provide redundancy of temporal pixels (ie, one or more pixels are disposed at the same radius). Having more pixel elements per pixel means that the rotation speed can be reduced. In some embodiments, pixel elements are arranged to provide a higher resolution of temporal pixels.

The disk 432 masks the leakage of light from the pixel elements on the disk 438 into the sweep area 436. In various embodiments, disk 432 and / or disk 438 may be made of various materials and may have a variety of colors. For example, the disks 432 and 438 may be black printed circuit boards provided with LEDs.

The display area for displaying an image or an image may have any shape. The union of the sweep areas 436 and 442 is the maximum display area. The rectangular image or image may be displayed in the rectangular display area 444 as shown.

Regions 436 and 442 overlap within the overlap portion 439. In this example, disk 432 blocks the swept area 442 at the overlap or blocked area 439.

In some embodiments, the pixel elements are configured to not be activated when they are blocked. For example, pixel elements installed on disk 438 are configured to be inactive if they are blocked (eg, overlapping blocked area 439). In some embodiments, the pixel element is configured to not be activated in some of the blocked regions. For example, it is configured such that an area within a predetermined distance from the edge of the blocked area 439 is not activated. This may be desirable if the viewer is to the right or left of the center of the display area and can also see the edge of the blocked area.

5 is a block diagram illustrating one embodiment of a system for displaying an image. In the example shown, the panel of paddles 502 is a structure that includes one or more paddles. As described more fully below, the panel of paddles 502 may include a plurality of paddles, which may include paddles of various sizes, lengths, and widths; A paddle rotating about the midpoint or the end point; Paddles rotating in the same sweep plane or in different sweep planes; Paddles rotating in phase or in phase with each other; Paddles with multiple arms; And paddles having other shapes. The panels of paddles 502 may all include the same paddle or various different paddles. The paddles may be placed in a grid or in any other arrangement. In some embodiments, the panel includes an angle detector 506 used to detect an angle associated with one or more of the paddles. In some embodiments, there is an angle detector for each paddle on the panel of paddles 502. For example, a light detector may be mounted near the paddle to detect its current (or current) angle.

The LED control module 504 is configured to optionally receive current angle information (eg, angle (s) or information associated with the angle (s)) from the angle detector 506. The LED control module 504 uses the current angle to determine and transmit the LED control data to the panel of the paddle 502. LED control data indicates that the LED needs to be active at that time (sector). In some embodiments, the LED control module 504 uses the pixel map 508 to determine LED control data. In some embodiments, the LED control module 504 takes as input and output the angle at which the LED on the paddle needs to be active in that sector for a particular picture. In some embodiments, the angle is sent from the angle detector 506 to the LED control module 504 for each sector (eg, just before the paddle reaches that sector). In some embodiments, LED control data is sent from the LED control module 504 to the panel of paddles 502 for each sector.

In some embodiments, pixel map 508 is implemented using a lookup table, as described more fully below. For different images, different lookup tables are used. The pixel map 508 is described more fully below.

In some embodiments, it is not necessary to read the angle using the angle detector 506. Since the angular velocity of the paddle and the initial angle of the paddle (at that angular velocity) can be predetermined, it can be calculated at which angle the paddle is at any given point in time. That is, the angle can be determined based on the time. For example, if the angular velocity is ω, the angular position after time t is q initial + ωt, where q initial is the initial angle that is rotating once in the steady state of the paddle. As such, the LED control module can continuously output the LED control data as a function of time (eg, using a clock) rather than using the angle measurement output from the angle detector 506. For example, a table of time (eg clock cycles) versus LED control data can be created.

In some embodiments, when the paddle is initiated from a dormant state, a maneuver procedure is performed to ascend to steady state angular velocity. Once the angular velocity is reached, the initial angle of the paddle is measured to calculate (and determine at what point in the sequence of LED control data) the paddle is at any point in time and at what angle.

In some embodiments, angle detector 506 is used periodically to provide adjustments as needed. For example, if the angle is off, the output stream of LED control data may be mutated. In some embodiments, if the angular velocity deviates, mechanical adjustments are made to adjust that velocity.

FIG. 6A is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of a composite display device 600 having two paddles. In the example shown, a polar coordinate system is indicated for each of regions 608 and 6216, with an origin located on each axis of rotation 604 and 614. As shown in FIG. In some implementations, the location of each LED on paddles 602 and 612 is recorded in polar coordinates. The distance from the origin to the LED is the radius r. The paddle angle is θ. For example, if paddle 602 is in the 3 o'clock position, each LED on paddle 602 is at 0 °. If paddle 602 is in the 12 o'clock position, each LED on paddle 602 is at 90 °. In some embodiments, an angle detector is used to detect the current angle of each paddle. In some embodiments, temporal pixels are defined as P, r and θ, where P is a paddle identifier and (r, θ) is the polar coordinate of the LED.

The rectangular coordinate system is displayed for the image 610 to be displayed. In this example, the origin is located in the center of the image 610, but can be located anywhere depending on the embodiment. In some embodiments, pixel map 508 is created by mapping each pixel in image 610 to one or more temporal pixels in display regions 608, 616. The mapping may be performed in various ways in various embodiments.

6B is a flow diagram illustrating one embodiment of a method for generating a pixel map. For example, this method can be used to create a pixel map 508. In step 622, image pixels for temporal pixel mapping are obtained. In some embodiments, the mapping is to image 610 (resolution of image) over areas 608, 616 (having two polar grids of temporal pixels s (r, θ), see eg 2b). By overlapping its rectangular grid of corresponding pixels (x, y). For each image pixel (x, y), it is determined that the temporal pixel is in the image pixel. Table 1 below is an example of a pixel map:

Image pixels (x, y) Temporal pixels (P, r, q) Strength (f) (a1, a2) (b1, b2, b3) (a3, a4) (b4, b5, b6); (b7, b8, b9) (a5, a6) (b10, b11, b12) Etc Etc

As described above, one image pixel may be mapped to multiple temporal pixels as indicated in the second column. In some embodiments, instead of (r), an index corresponding to the LED is used. In some embodiments, image pixels for temporal pixel mapping are precomputed for various image sizes and resolutions (eg, those commonly used).

In step 624, an intensity f is added to each image pixel based on the image to be displayed. In some embodiments, (f) indicates whether the LED is on (eg 1) or off (eg 0). For example, in black and white images (no gradation), black pixels are mapped to f = 1 and white pixels are mapped to f = 0. In some embodiments, (f) can be a fractional value. In some embodiments, (f) is implemented using duty cycle control. For example, if (f) is zero, the LED is not activated for that sector time. If (f) is 1, the LED is activated for the entire sector time. If (f) is 0.5, for example, the LED is activated for half of its sector time. In some embodiments, (f) can be used to display the gradation image. For example, if the image has 256 gradation levels, the pixel with gradation level 128 (half brightness) would be f = 0.5. In some embodiments, rather than implementing (f) using a duty cycle (ie, pulse width modulation), (f) is implemented by adjusting the current for the LED (ie, pulse height modulation).

For example, after the strength f is added, the table may look like Table 2 below:

Image pixels (x, y) Temporal pixels (P, r, q) Strength (f) (a1, a2) (b1, b2, b3) f1 (a3, a4) (b4, b5, b6); (b7, b8, b9) f2 (a5, a6) (b10, b11, b12) f3 Etc Etc Etc

In step 626, an optional pixel map process is performed. This may include compensating for overlapping regions, balancing luminance at the center (ie, where the density of temporal pixels is higher), balancing the use of LEDs, and the like. For example, if the LEDs are in the overlap region (and / or on the boundary of the overlap region), their duty cycle may be reduced. For example, in composite display 300, when the LEDs are in overlapping region 318, their duty cycle is halved. In some embodiments, there are multiple LEDs within sector time corresponding to a single picture pixel, in which case fewer than all of the LEDs are activated (ie, part of the duty cycle may be set to zero). In some embodiments, the LED can be switched to an active state, for example, to balance usage (eg, every N cycles where N is an integer) so as not to run out earlier than others. In some embodiments, the closer the LEDs are to the center (where the density of temporal pixels is higher), the lower their duty cycle.

For example, after luminance balance, the pixel map can be represented as in Table 3 below:

Image pixels (x, y) Temporal pixels (P, r, q) Strength (f) (a1, a2) (b1, b2, b3) f1 (a3, a4) (b4, b5, b6) f2 (a5, a6) (b10, b11, b12) f3 Etc Etc Etc

As indicated, in the second column, the second temporal pixel has been deleted to balance luminance with respect to the pixel. This could be achieved even with strength up to f2 / 2. As another alternative, the temporal pixels b4, b5, b6 and b7, b8, b9 could be turned on alternately between cycles. In some embodiments, this may be displayed within the pixel map. The pixel map may be implemented in various ways using various data structures in different implementations.

For example, in FIG. 5, the LED control module 504 uses temporal pixel information P, r, θ, f from the pixel map. The LED control module 504 takes? As an input and outputs LED control data P, r, and f. The panel of paddles 502 uses the LED control data to activate the LEDs for that sector time. In some embodiments, there is an LED driver for each paddle, if any, that uses the LED control data to determine which LED is on for each sector time.

Any image (including image) data may be input to the LED control module 504. In various embodiments, one or more of steps 622, 624, and 626 may be calculated live or in real time, ie, immediately before displaying an image. This may be useful for live broadcasting of images such as live footage of a stadium. For example, in some embodiments, step 622 is precomputed and step 624 is calculated live or in real time. In some implementations, step 626 can be performed before step 622 by appropriately modifying the pixel map. In some embodiments, steps 622, 624, and 626 can all be precomputed. For example, advertising images may be precomputed since they are usually known in advance.

The method of FIG. 6B may be performed in various ways in various embodiments. Another example of how step 622 can be performed is as follows. Polar coordinates are calculated for each image pixel (x, y). For example, the image pixel (center of) is converted to polar coordinates for the sweep region, which overlap (there may be multiple sets of polar coordinates if the image pixel overlaps the overlapping sweep region). The calculated polar coordinates are rounded to the nearest temporal pixel. For example, the temporal pixel whose center is closest to the calculated polar coordinate is selected. (If there are multiple sets of polar coordinates, the temporal pixel whose center is closest to the calculated polar coordinate is selected.) In this way, each image pixel is mapped to the most temporal pixel. This may be desirable because it maintains a uniform density of activated temporal pixels in the display area (ie, the density of activated temporal pixels near the axis of rotation is not higher than at the edges). For example, instead of the pixel map shown in Table 1, the pixel map of Table 4 below may be obtained:

Image pixels (x, y) Temporal pixels (P, r, q) Strength (f) (a1, a2) (b1, b2, b3) (a3, a4) (b7, b8, b9) (a5, a6) (b10, b11, b12) Etc Etc

In some cases, using this rounding technique, two image pixels can be mapped to the same temporal pixel. In this case, for example, average the intensities of two rectangular pixels and assign the average to one temporal pixel; Alternating between first and second rectangular pixel intensities between cycles; Various techniques may be used in step 626, including techniques (or techniques) such as remapping one of the image pixels to the nearest temporal pixel.

7 shows examples of paddles arranged in various arrays. For example, any of these arrays can include a panel of paddles 502. Any number of paddles can be combined in one array to create a display area of any size and shape.

Array 702 shows eight circular sweep regions corresponding to eight paddles each having the same size. The sweep regions overlap as shown. In addition, rectangular display areas are shown above each sweep area. For example, the maximum rectangular display area for this arrangement would include the union of all of the rectangular display areas shown. To avoid having a gap in the maximum display area, the maximum spacing between the axes of rotation is √2R, where R is the radius of one of the circular sweep areas. The spacing between the axes is such that the periphery of one sweep area does not overlap with the axis of rotation, and otherwise, there may be interference. Any combination of sweep area and rectangular display area may be used to display one or more images.

In some embodiments, the eight paddles are in the same sweep plane. In some embodiments, the eight paddles are in different sweep planes. It may be desirable to minimize the number of sweep planes used. For example, it is possible for one missed paddle to sweep the same sweep plane. For example, the sweep regions 710, 714, 722, 726 may be in the same sweep plane, and the sweep regions 712, 716, 720, 724 may be in different sweep planes. Can be in.

In some configurations, the sweep regions (eg, sweep regions 710, 722) overlap one another. In some configurations, the sweep regions abut one another (eg, the sweep regions 710, 722 can move away so that they only contact at one point). In some configurations, the sweep regions do not overlap one another (eg, the sweep regions 710 and 722 have a small gap there between), which is acceptable if the desired resolution of the display device is sufficiently low.

Arrangement 704 shows ten circular sweep regions corresponding to ten paddles. The sweep regions overlap as shown. In addition, rectangular display areas are shown above each sweep area. For example, to display three separate advertisement images, three rectangular display regions (each of the regions in each column of the sweep region) may be used.

Arrangement 706 shows seven circular sweep regions corresponding to seven paddles. The sweep regions overlap as shown. In addition, rectangular display areas are shown above each sweep area. In this example, the paddles have various sizes such that the sweep area has a different size. Any combination of sweep area and rectangular display area may be used to display one or more images. For example, all sweep areas may be used as one display area for non-rectangular images, such as those cut out from large snakes.

8 shows an example of a paddle with in-phase movement adjusted to prevent mechanical interference. In this example, an array of eight paddles is shown at three points in time. The eight paddles are configured to move in phase with each other; That is, at each point in time, each paddle is oriented in the same direction (or associated with the same angle using the polar coordinate system described in FIG. 6A).

9 shows an example of a paddle with anti-phase movement adjusted to prevent mechanical interference. In this example, an array of four paddles is shown at three points in time. The four paddles are configured to be moved out of phase with each other; That is, at each point in time, at least one paddle is not oriented in the same direction as the other paddles (or associated with the same angle when using the polar coordinate system described in FIG. 6A). In this case, even if the paddles are moved out of phase with each other, their phase difference (angle difference) is such that they do not mechanically interfere with each other.

The display system described here has a naturally built cooling system. Because the paddle is spinning, heat naturally escapes from the paddle. The further away the LED is from the axis of rotation, the more cooling is accepted. In some embodiments, this type of cooling is at least 10 times as effective as the system in which the LED tiles are fixed and the external cooling system is used to blow the LED tiles with a fan. In addition, significant cost savings are realized by not using an external cooling system.

In the example here, the image to be displayed is provided in a pixel associated with the rectangular coordinates, and the corresponding display area is associated with the temporal pixel described in the polar coordinates. The technique herein can be used with any coordinate system for an image or display area.

While the rotational motion of the paddles is described herein, the movement of any other type of paddles can also be used. For example, the paddle may be configured to move side by side (creating a rectangular sweep area assuming the LEDs are aligned in a straight row). The paddle may be configured to move side by side simultaneously with rotation (creating an elliptical sweep area). The paddle may have a target configured to be stretched and retracted at an angle, eg, to create a more rectangular sweep area. Since the motion is known, the pixel map can be determined and the technique described herein can be applied.

10 is a diagram illustrating an example of a cross section of the paddle in the composite display. This example is shown to include a paddle 1002, a shaft 1004, an optical fiber 1006, an optical camera 1012, and an optical data transmitter 1010. Paddle 1002 is attached to shaft 1004. The shaft 1004 is perforated (ie hollow) and the optical fiber 1006 extends through its center. The base portion 1008 of the optical fiber 1006 receives data through the optical data transmitter 1010. This data is sent to the optical fiber 1006 and at 1016 to a photo detector (not shown) on the paddle 1002. The photo detector provides data to one or more LED drivers used to activate one or more LEDs on paddle 1002. In some embodiments, the LED control data received from the LED control module 504 is thus sent to the LED driver.

In some embodiments, the base portion of shaft 1004 has an appropriate marking 1014 read by optical camera 1012 to determine the current angular position of paddle 1002. In some embodiments, optical camera 1012 is used with angle detector 506 to output angle information supplied to LED control module 508 as shown in FIG. 5.

The performance of the pixel elements constituting the composite display may deteriorate (ie, degrade) with time. Degradation of a pixel element occurs in two forms: reduction in intensity or luminance of the pixel element over time and / or color coordinate shift of the spectral profile of the pixel element over time. In some cases, the decrease in luminance (i.e., the pixel elements become more blurred) is the effect of the first order of degradation and the spectral shift of the pixel elements is the effect of the second rank. As further described below, one of the paddles of a composite display aids in the detection of degradation of pixel elements such that the pixel elements of the composite display can be periodically calibrated to at least partially correct and / or mitigate degradation of performance. It may include the above components.

In some embodiments, one or more optical sensors (eg, photodetectors, photodiodes, etc.) are installed on each paddle of the composite display, which are used to measure the intensity or luminance of light emitted by the pixel elements on the paddle. . Although a photodetector can be described in this example, any suitable optical sensor may be used. The type of photodetector installed on the paddle depends on the type of pixel element degradation desired to be detected and corrected for. For example, a wideband photodetector may be sufficient if only a first order effect of pixel element degradation (i.e. brightness reduction) is desired to be detected. However, if color coordinate variations are also desired to be detected, a red-sensitive photodetector, a green-sensitive photodetector, and / or a blue-sensitive photodetector may be additionally needed. As described further below, in various embodiments, a portion of the light emitted by the pixel element may be reflected back by a structure used to protect the front side of the composite display and received by a corresponding photodetector, or Alternatively, a portion of the light emitted by the pixel element may be concentrated by a custom lenslet attached to the pixel element in the direction of the corresponding photodetector. A photodetector installed on the paddle can be used to initially measure the reference luminance value when the pixel element is calibrated during manufacture or setup. In some embodiments, with other pixel elements (eg, pixel elements in the immediate neighborhood on the paddle or all pixel elements) turned off, the reference luminance value of the pixel element is determined. During subsequent calibration in the field, the photodetector can be used to measure the current luminance value of the pixel element. The current luminance value of the pixel element can be compared with the associated reference luminance value measured when the pixel element was initially calibrated. The current driving the pixel elements can be properly adjusted during field calibration to restore the luminance values of the pixel elements to their reference values if they are degraded. Current luminance values of the pixel elements may also be used to detect color shifts. The color shift can be corrected, for example, by overdriven one or more pixel elements associated with the insufficient color and underdrive one or more pixel elements associated with the excess color to rebalance the colors.

11A illustrates one embodiment of a paddle of a composite display. Paddle 1100 includes a PCB disk that rotates about axis of rotation 1102. The pixel element is mounted radially on paddle 1100, which is shown in the given example as a small square. A photodetector is also mounted on paddle 1100, which is shown in small circles in the given example. In various embodiments, each photodetector may be associated with measuring the intensity or luminance of any number of pixel elements. For example, in some embodiments, each photodetector installed on the paddle is associated with a set of five to ten radially adjacent pixel elements. In the example of FIG. 11A, each photodetector is associated with a set of five radially adjacent pixel elements. For example, photodetector 1104 is associated with measuring the luminance of each of pixel elements 1106. Some of the light emitted by each pixel element in the set 1106 is reflected back to the photodetector 1104 and / or received by the photodetector. The intensity or luminance of each pixel element in the set 1106 as measured by the photodetector 1104 depends at least in part on the angle and / or distance of the pixel element from the photodetector 1104, further away Lower intensity is measured for positioned pixel elements. In this way, when the pixel elements of the paddle 1100 are calibrated during manufacturing, different reference luminance values are passed to the associated photodetector 1104 based on the angle and / or distance of the pixel elements from the photodetector 1104. Can be measured for each pixel element in the set. If only a decrease in the luminance of the pixel element is desired to be detected and corrected, the photodetector may comprise a wideband photodetector. For example, if the pixel element comprises a white LED, the degradation of the LED can result in at least primarily a reduction in the brightness of that LED. In such a case, a wideband photodetector can be used to periodically measure the luminance value of the LED, and if it is found that the LED has a luminance lower than its reference value, then the current supplied to the LED changes the luminance of that LED to its reference value. May be appropriately increased to restore. In some embodiments, pixel elements of paddle 1100 may include color LEDs, ie, red LEDs, green LEDs, and / or blue LEDs. FIG. 11B illustrates one embodiment where each array of pixel elements of paddle 1100 includes a red (R) LED, a green (G) LED, or a blue (B) LED. In this case, a wideband photodetector can be used if only a decrease in luminance is desired to be detected and corrected.

FIG. 12A shows an example of a passband of a wideband photodetector that can ideally be sensed (ie detected) for luminance from light of all wavelengths. 12B shows an example of a spectral profile of a red LED. As shown, the profile is concentrated near the wavelength of 635 nm. FIG. 12C shows both the pass band of the wideband photodetector of FIG. 12A and the spectral profile of the red LED of FIG. 12B. In some embodiments, the brightness of the red LED is determined from the hatched area of FIG. 12C, ie, the portion of the spectral profile of the red LED captured by the photodetector. FIG. 12D shows an example of a spectral profile of a red LED that has experienced a decrease in passband and brightness of a wideband photodetector. As shown, smaller regions are captured by the photodetector of FIG. 12D relative to the region of FIG. 12C. This reduction in brightness can be corrected by increasing the current driving the LED such that the brightness of the LED is restored to its reference value, for example, as shown in FIGS. 12B and 12C.

13 illustrates one embodiment of a method for calibrating a pixel element. In some embodiments, the method 1300 is used to correct for luminance reduction of a pixel element that may be due to, for example, aging of the pixel element. The method 1300 begins at step 1302, where the current luminance value of a particular pixel element is determined. For example, the current luminance value of the pixel element can be determined from the intensity value measured by the photodetector associated with the pixel element. In step 1304, the current luminance value of the pixel element determined in step 1302 is compared with the reference luminance value of the pixel element determined and stored during the initial calibration of the associated composite display, eg, during fabrication or setup. In step 1306, it is determined whether or not the current luminance value of the pixel element has fallen relative to its reference value. If it is determined in step 1306 that the current luminance value of the pixel element has not been lowered relative to its reference value, the method 1300 ends since no correction for correcting the luminance reduction is necessary. If it is determined in step 1306 that the current luminance value of the pixel element is lowered relative to its reference value (the current luminance value is less than its reference value, for example, by a prescribed amount), the current driving the pixel element determines the current luminance value of the pixel element. Incremented to back up to a reference value, the method 1300 then ends. In some embodiments, the method 1300 is used for each of at least a subset of pixel elements of the composite display during calibration.

As described, decreasing luminance, i.e., blurring of pixel elements, may be one effect of performance degradation. In some cases, color coordinate displacement, including variations in peak wavelengths emitted by pixel elements, may be another effect of degradation in performance. If only a decrease in the luminance or brightness of the pixel element is desired to be detected and corrected, a wideband photodetector may be sufficient as described. In some embodiments, it may be desirable to detect a change in chromaticity of the pixel element. For example, if the composite display includes color LEDs, color coordinate shifts may occur as the LEDs age, for example.

In some embodiments, the composite display includes color pixel elements such as red LEDs, green LEDs, blue LEDs, and the like. In such cases, red-sensitive, green-sensitive, and blue-sensitive photodetectors can be used to help detect color shifts of the corresponding color LEDs. For example, a red-sensitive photodetector can be used to measure the intensity or luminance of a red LED. In order to detect red light and filter out other colors, the pass band of the red-sensitive photodetector covers the wavelength associated with the red LED. 14A shows an example of a pass band of a red-sensitive photodetector. FIG. 14B shows both the pass band of the red-sensitive photodetector of FIG. 14A and the spectral profile of the red LED of FIG. 12B. In some embodiments, the brightness of the red LED is determined from the hatched area of FIG. 14B, ie, a portion of the spectral profile of the red LED captured by the photodetector. FIG. 14C shows an example of a spectral profile of a red LED that has experienced a passband and brightness degradation of a red-sensitive photodetector. As shown, smaller regions are captured by the photodetector of FIG. 14C relative to the region of FIG. 14B. The decrease in luminance detected by the red-sensitive photodetector of FIG. 14C can likewise be detected using a wideband photodetector as described above with respect to FIG. 12D. 14D shows an example of the color coordinate shift of the red LED and the pass band of the red-sensitive photodetector. As shown, the peak wavelength of the red LED is shifted from 635 nm to 620 nm, ie towards green. As in FIG. 14C, smaller regions are captured by the red-sensitive photodetector of FIG. 14D for the region of FIG. 14B. However, the color coordinate shift of FIG. 14D is not detectable using only a wideband photodetector, even if the spectrum is shifted, because of the similarity to that of FIG. 12C due to all its passing properties.

Assuming that the hatched area of Fig. 14C and the hatched area of Fig. 14D are the same, the same luminance value is detected by the red-sensitive photodetector in both cases. The luminance value detected by the red-sensitive photodetector can be compared with a reference value determined during manufacturing or setup so that a decrease in luminance can be identified. In the case of FIG. 14C the lower luminance measurement is due to the fading red LED and in the case of FIG. 14D the lower luminance measurement is due to the variation in the peak wavelength of the red LED, resulting in only a red-sensitive photodetector. The tail end of the spectrum of this red LED is captured. The confirmed decrease in brightness can be corrected by increasing the current driving the LED so that the brightness of the LED can be restored to its reference value. In the case of FIG. 14C, increasing the current driving the red LED until the reference luminance value is measured results in restoring the luminance of the red LED to its reference value, for example, as shown in FIG. 14B. In the case of FIG. 14D, increasing the current driving the red LED until the reference luminance value is measured is because the red-sensitive photodetector only captures the tail end of the spectrum of the red LED due to its color coordinate shift. , A red LED that is significantly overdriven as shown in FIG. 14E.

In some embodiments, red-sensitive photodetectors, green-sensitive photodetectors, and blue-sensitive photodetectors are incorporated in color composite displays to help calibrate red, green, and blue LEDs, respectively. In the case of color composite displays, including red LEDs, green LEDs, and blue LEDs, over-driving one or more of the LEDs may change the hue or chromaticity of the white light, which may cause specific temporal pixels (and / or Or a red LED, a green LED and a blue LED associated with rendering a set of rings of temporal pixels simultaneously. In this case, the white may no longer appear white. For example, in a composite display including a red LED, a green LED, and a blue LED for each temporal pixel, the red LED moves toward green and overdriven as shown in FIG. 14E, while the blue and green LEDs Need not be and as a result unadjusted, white (rendered by activating all three color LEDs) will have a slightly greenish tint. As such, in this case, it may be necessary to confirm the color coordinate shift of the particular color LED and / or to confirm the shift in the chromaticity of the white color. Each of the red-sensitive photodetector, the green-sensitive photodetector, and the blue-sensitive photodetector merely assists in determining the change in brightness (e.g., reduction), and the change in brightness (e.g., resulting from the change in brightness). 14C) and the change in luminance (e.g., in the case of FIG. 14D) resulting from the variation of the peak wavelength of the LED cannot be distinguished. In some embodiments, in addition to individual color photodetectors, broadband or white-sensitive photodetectors are also used. If one or more color LEDs are overdriven, the luminance of white will be much higher than the reference value measured and recorded during the initial calibration of the composite display, such as during fabrication or setup. In this case, the current of the color LED adjusted during the calibration process can be fine-tuned individually up and down, while measuring the brightness of white to confirm that the white LED (s) contributes to the increase in white brightness from its reference value. Can be.

One or more suitable actions may be taken to restore the chromaticity of white and / or the luminance of white to its reference value. In some embodiments, the insufficient color is overdriven while the excess color is underdriven to remove bias or pale hue toward a particular color of white and / or restore the luminance of white to its reference value. In the described example of a red LED moving towards green, for example, the green LED can be underdriven to balance the overdrive of the red LED. In some embodiments, the color map of the display device may be globally or locally redefined to account for changes in the primary wavelength over time. Initially, when pixel elements of a particular source picture are mapped to temporal pixels, a color mapping is established that maps the colors of that source picture into the available color space of the display device. If one or more color coordinate shifts have been found to occur during the calibration process, in some embodiments, the color mapping of the entire display is to a color space corresponding to the minimum color gamut available on the display for temporal pixels. Can be reestablished. In some cases, this overall color mapping may not be necessary, and it may be sufficient to locally redefine the color mapping for the temporal pixels being rendered to the LED experiencing the color coordinate shift. This local remapping may be sufficient because it is difficult for the eye to notice slight changes in color. For example, especially when the area associated with each temporal pixel is very small, the red temporal pixel rendered by the red temporal pixel with the peak wavelength of 620 nm and the red temporal pixel rendered by the eye with a peak wavelength of 635 nm. Recognizing differences in pixels can be difficult.

15 illustrates one embodiment of a paddle of the composite display. Paddle 1500 is configured to rotate about axis of rotation 1502 and sweep a circular sweep area. For example, paddle 1500 may be paddle 102 in FIG. 1, paddle 222 in FIG. 2B, paddle 302 in FIG. 3, 312 and / or paddles 426 and 428 in FIG. 4B. Similar to Along the length of the paddle 1500 are red (R) LEDs, green (G) LEDs, and blue (B) LEDs, alternately mounted, and are indicated by small squares in the given example. Each column of red, green and blue LEDs at a given radius from the axis of rotation 1502, such as the topmost column (or row) 1504, is associated with rendering a ring of temporal pixels associated with that radius. A red-sensitive (R) photodetector, a green-sensitive (G) photodetector, a blue-sensitive (B) photodetector, and a wideband or white-sensitive (W) photodetector are also mounted on the paddle 1500. And indicated by small circles in the given example. In the paddle form of FIG. 15, calibration is performed for each row of LEDs. In various embodiments, each photodetector may be associated with measuring the intensity or luminance of any number of LEDs. In the example of FIG. 15, each color-sensitive photodetector is associated with a set of five LEDs of the corresponding color, and each broadband photodetector is associated with five rows of LEDs. For example, photodetector set 1506 is associated with LED column 1508. Each color-sensitive photodetector is associated with measuring the brightness of the LED of the corresponding color. For example, a red-sensitive photodetector in set 1506 is associated with measuring the luminance of each red LED in column 1508. Broadband or white-sensitive photodetectors are associated with measuring the luminance of white, for example, when all three color LEDs in a particular row are activated at the same time. For example, a wideband photodetector in set 1506 is associated with measuring luminance when all of the LEDs in a particular column of column 1508, such as column 1504, are activated. Some of the light emitted by each LED is reflected back and / or otherwise received by a corresponding photodetector. The intensity or luminance value of the LED as measured by the associated white-sensitive photodetector as well as the intensity or luminance value of the LED as measured by the corresponding color-sensitive photodetector is determined by the distance of the LED from the photodetector. And / or depend at least in part on the angle. In this way, when the LEDs of the paddle 1500 are initially calibrated during fabrication or setup, different reference luminance values may be measured for each LED and different reference white luminance values may be measured for each column. This reference value is compared with the value measured for example in the field during the subsequent calibration.

16 illustrates an embodiment of a paddle of the composite display. Paddle 1600 includes a PCB disk configured to rotate about axis of rotation 1602. For example, paddle 1600 is similar to paddle 432, 438 of FIG. 4C or paddle 1100 of FIG. 11B. An array of red (R) LEDs, green (G) LEDs, and blue (B) LEDs are alternately mounted along the radius of the paddle 1600, and in the given example, the LEDs are indicated by small squares. In some embodiments, the LED at the center of paddle 1600 at axis of rotation 1602 comprises a tri-color RGB LED. LEDs at a particular radius from the axis of rotation 1602, such as the LEDs that the ring 1604 traverses, are associated with rendering a ring of temporal pixels associated with that radius. In the given example, each ring of LEDs contains two LEDs of each primary color. A red-sensitive (R) photodetector, a green-sensitive (G) photodetector, a blue-sensitive (B) photodetector, and a broadband or white-sensitive (W) photodetector are also mounted on the paddle 1600 In the example given, it is indicated by a small circle. In the paddle configuration of FIG. 16, calibration is performed for each ring of LEDs, such as ring 1604. In various embodiments, each photodetector may be associated with measuring the intensity or luminance of any number of LEDs. In the example of FIG. 16, each color-sensitive photodetector is associated with a set of four or five radially adjacent LEDs of the corresponding color, and each broadband photodetector is associated with seven rings of LEDs. In the given example, the color-sensitive photodetector is mounted close to the LED array of the corresponding color, and the broadband photodetector is mounted between the LED arrays. In some embodiments, the broadband photodetector is associated with measuring the brightness of white when the LEDs of a particular ring are all active at the same time. A plurality of broadband photodetectors associated with a particular ring can be used to determine the luminance of white for that ring. In some cases, the average of the luminance values measured by multiple broadband photodetectors can be used to determine the luminance of white for the ring. This average of the multiple luminance readings may cause the paddle 1600 to bias the individual broadband photodetector luminance readings toward one or more colors. For example, red-green, green-blue or blue-red bias can occur at each reading of the broadband photodetector of paddle 1600. In this way, in order to obtain the brightness of the white of the ring of paddle 1600, the luminance readings from two or more broadband photodetectors associated with the ring can be averaged. Some of the light emitted by each LED is reflected back and / or otherwise received by a corresponding photodetector. In addition to the intensity of the luminance value of the LED as measured by the corresponding color-sensitive photodetector, the intensity or luminance value of the white measured for the ring by the associated white photosensitive photodetector is determined by the distance of the LED from the photodetector. And / or depend at least in part on the angle. In this way, if the LEDs of the paddle 1600 are initially calibrated during fabrication or setup, different reference luminance values may be measured for each LED, and different white luminance reference values may be measured for each ring. The reference value is compared with the value measured during the subsequent calibration, for example in the field.

17 illustrates one embodiment of a method for calibrating an LED of a paddle. In some embodiments, the method 1700 is used to correct degradation of luminance values and / or color coordinate shifts that may be due to, for example, aging of the LEDs. In some embodiments, the method 1700 is used to calibrate LEDs associated with rendering each ring of temporal pixels of a composite display. For example, the method 1700 can be used to calibrate each column of LEDs, eg, column 1504 of FIG. 15 or each ring of LEDs, eg, ring 1604 of FIG. 16. The method 1700 commences at step 1702 where, as needed (ie, when degraded), the brightness of each LED associated with rendering a particular ring of temporal pixels is restored to its reference value. In some embodiments, the method 1300 of FIG. 13 is used to restore the brightness of the LED at step 1702. The luminance of color LEDs is determined using an associated color-sensitive photodetector. In step 1704, all the LEDs associated with rendering the ring of temporal pixels are activated. In step 1706, the current luminance of white is determined for the ring. The luminance of white is determined using one or more broadband or white-sensitive photodetectors. In some cases, the luminance of white can be determined by averaging the luminance readings of two or more broadband photodetectors. In step 1708, it is determined whether the current luminance of white determined in step 1706 is higher by a prescribed amount than the reference luminance value of white. The reference luminance of white is determined and stored during initial calibration of the associated composite display, for example during manufacture or setup. If at step 1708 it is determined that the current luminance of white is not higher (eg, by a prescribed amount) than its reference value, the method 1700 ends. In some such cases, it may be assumed that no substantial color coordinate shift occurs. If at step 1708 it is determined that the current luminance of white is higher (eg, by a defined amount) than its reference value, the method 1700 proceeds to step 1710. In step 1710, the current delivered to each LED whose brightness has been restored in step 1702 is modulated individually (e.g., increasing or decreasing), while compensating for their color coordinate shifts, i.e. LEDs whose brightness of white exceeds their reference value ( The current luminance of white is measured to determine the LED (s) that are overdriven. At step 1712, one or more appropriate actions are taken to restore the white chromaticity and / or the white luminance to its reference value, and then the method 1700 ends. For example, a color with different color LEDs shifting towards it can be underdriven to balance that color. In some cases, the color map of the display can be redefined based on the minimum color gamut available locally for the LED associated with the ring or globally for the entire display.

The method 1700 of FIG. 17 is an example of a calibration technique. In other embodiments, any other suitable calibration technique and / or combination of techniques may be used. For example, other calibration techniques that may be used include the use of a wideband photodetector to measure the current luminance value of an LED, compare the measured value with a reference wideband luminance value, as well as a color-sensitive photodetector. Measuring the current luminance value of the LED and comparing the measured value with a reference color-sensitive luminance value. The current luminance value as measured by the broadband photodetector is less than the reference broadband luminance value by a prescribed amount or more, and the current luminance value as measured by the corresponding color-sensitive photodetector is the reference color-sensitive luminance. If less than the value, in some embodiments, it can be concluded that the brightness of the LED is reduced and the current delivered to the LED can be adjusted appropriately to restore the brightness. The current luminance value as measured by the broadband photodetector is approximately equal to the reference broadband luminance value or less than a predetermined amount less than the reference broadband luminance value and also as measured by the corresponding color-sensitive photodetector. If the luminance value is less than the reference color-sensitive luminance value by a predefined amount, in some embodiments, it can be concluded that the hue of the LED has been shifted, and one or more appropriate actions to adjust the color shift can be taken. The current luminance value as measured by the broadband photodetector is approximately equal to the reference broadband luminance value, and the color-sensing luminance on which the current luminance value as measured by the corresponding color-sensing photodetector is the reference. If approximately equal to the value, in some embodiments, it can be concluded that the LED is not significantly degraded, so that no adjustment is necessary.

The calibration technique described herein may be used to automatically correct pixel elements of a composite display. The photodetector provided on the paddle of the composite display device can measure the current or real-time luminance value of the pixel element at a given time. As described, in some embodiments, pixel elements of a composite display are initially calibrated in manufacturing and / or setup to obtain a reference luminance value. The pixel element can then be calibrated as desired in that field. For example, pixel elements may be periodically corrected. In some embodiments, the content rendered by the composite display is turned off during calibration of the pixel element. Turning off the content during calibration may be necessary if the paddle needs to be in a predefined position during calibration. Remediation when the content needs to be turned off can be performed, for example, at midnight or at any other time that is acceptable to turn the content off. An advantage of performing a calibration at midnight may be that sunlight, which can vary with time of day and weather, does not affect the measurement. In some embodiments, calibration may be performed while the composite display is rendering content. Since calibration can be performed on one pixel element at a time or on a small number of pixel elements at a time, calibration can be performed while other pixel elements in the display render content. In some embodiments, the frequency domain is used to distinguish between signals associated with calibration and signals associated with rendering of content. For example, the pixel element under calibration can operate at a different frequency than the compound that is rendering the content. In this case, the photodetector associated with the pixel element under calibration is configured to operate at the same frequency as that pixel element. In one embodiment, the pixel element under calibration operates at a high frequency and the associated photodetector is configured to operate or sense this high frequency signal while the pixel element that is rendering the content operates at a relatively low frequency. Calibration in the frequency domain also allows the photodetector to discriminate light emitted by the pixel element being calibrated from ambient light in the environment of the composite display. In some embodiments, each pixel element is being calibrated at a given time, for example, if multiple pixel elements are being calibrated in parallel, its associated photodetector may be applied to another pixel element whose photodetector is being calibrated by another photodetector. The light emitted by the associated pixel element can be distinguished from the light emitted by the light emitted by the other pixel element that is rendering the content and / or ambient light. By operating the photodetection and their associated pixel elements at a predetermined frequency, it is possible for the photodetector to filter out noise from the pixel elements as well as the surroundings of the composite display.

Calibration data, such as the luminance value measured by the photodetector during calibration, can be passed to any suitable component that processes the data in any suitable manner. For example, calibration data may be sent to the master controller associated with the paddle. In some embodiments, calibration data is communicated (or communicated) wirelessly. For example, with reference to FIG. 10, calibration data can be wired from paddle 1002 to paddle base portion 1020, where the base portion is associated with (eg, controlled to) a paddle, such as a master controller or the like. It may include one or more components (eg, integrated circuit or chip) used. In another embodiment, the calibration data may be communicated to the paddle base portion 1020 through the optical fiber 1006. In some embodiments, if enough local logic is included in paddle 1002 to reset the current setpoint based on the calibration data, the calibration data may not need to be passed to paddle base portion 1020.

Light emitted by the pixel element can be captured by associated photodetectors in various ways. In some embodiments, the cover plate is installed in front of the composite display, for example, to protect the mechanical structure of the composite display and / or prevent or reduce external interference. The cover plate may be made of any suitable material, usually transparent (eg, plastic). Some of the light incident on the cover plate is reflected back. For example, the material of the cover plate may reflect 4% of the incident light back. In such a case, the luminance intensity of the pixel element can be measured by the associated photodetector from the portion of light emitted by the pixel element which is reflected back from the cover plate towards the plane of the composite display and captured by the photodetector.

In certain environments, such as sunlight-rich external environments, the cover plate may produce an undesirable amount of reflection. In such an environment, a wire mesh similar to a window screen may be used to protect the front of the composite display. The wire mesh can be made of any suitable material, such as stainless steel, and can be colored appropriately. For example, the outside of the wire mesh may be colored black and the inside may have a specular metallic finishing material that reflects most incident light. The opening of the mesh (ie the amount of viewable area) can be appropriately selected. For example, the mesh may have 96% holes and 4% wires (ie wires). When a wire mesh is used to protect the front side of a composite display, the luminance intensity of the pixel element is reflected back from the inner surface of the wire mesh towards the plane of the composite display and is part of the light emitted by the pixel element captured by the photodetector. Can be measured by an associated photodetector. In some embodiments, initial calibration during manufacture and subsequent in-field calibration may result in the same fixed position as the position of the pixel element relative to the wire mesh may be reflected back and affect the amount of light of the pixel element captured by the associated photodetector. Is performed by a paddle constituting the composite display.

Any suitable optical technique may be used to ensure that at least a portion of the light of the pixel element is somehow captured by the associated photodetector. In some embodiments, it may not be necessary to be at least completely dependent on the reflection of light from the front of the composite display. For example, in some embodiments, custom lenslets are disposed on the pixel element that direct or diffuse a small portion (eg, 4-5%) of the light emitted by the pixel element in the direction of or on the side of the associated photodetector. And / or custom lenslets may be disposed on the photodetector to better capture light from various angles or directions. In the paddle form shown in FIGS. 11A, 11B, 15 and 16, the photodetector is mounted on the front of the paddle. In some embodiments, the photodetector may be mounted on the back of the paddle and the aperture may be formed such that the photodetector may receive or capture light from an associated pixel element mounted on the front of the paddle. In this case, for example, a custom lenslet is attached to a pixel element that concentrates a small portion of the light emitted by the pixel element through the associated aperture so that the associated photodetector on the back of the paddle can capture the light. There may be.

In various embodiments, different types of photodetectors can be used. As described, in some embodiments, for color composite displays, red-sensitive photodetectors, green-sensitive photodetectors, blue-sensitive photodetectors, and / or white-sensitive photodetectors are used. In some embodiments, photodetectors with multiple pass bands may be used, for example, to reduce the number of components and thus reduce component costs. For example, in some embodiments, a single photodetector that is red, green, and blue-sensitive may be used in place of separate red-sensitive photodetectors, green-sensitive photodetectors, and blue-sensitive photodetectors. . 18A illustrates one embodiment of three band pass attributes of such a photodetector. In some embodiments, ie, as shown in FIG. 18A, there may not be sufficient spacing in the three color pass bands in a single photodetector that is red, green, and blue-sensitive, especially when color coordinate shifts are expected. In some such cases, for example, red and blue-sensitive photodetectors and only green-sensitive photo detectors may be used. 18B shows one embodiment of a pass band (solid line) of red and blue-sensitive photodetectors and a pass band (dashed line) of green-sensitive photodetectors.

As described herein, various techniques may be used to detect and correct luminance and / or color coordinate shift as the pixel elements degrade. While some examples are provided herein, any suitable technique or combination of these techniques may be used.

While the above embodiments have been described in some detail for the purpose of clarity of understanding, the invention is not limited to the details provided. There are many alternative ways of implementing the invention. The disclosed embodiments are exemplary and not restrictive.

Claims (60)

  1. A method of calibrating pixel elements of a composite display,
    Obtaining a current luminance value of the pixel element and a reference luminance value of the pixel element;
    Determining a difference between a current luminance value of the pixel element and a reference luminance value of the pixel element; And
    Adjusting a current for driving the pixel element based at least in part on the difference.
  2. The method of claim 1, further comprising determining a current luminance value of the pixel element.
  3. The method of claim 1, wherein the reference luminance value of the pixel element is determined during manufacture or setup of the composite display.
  4. The method of claim 1, wherein the current luminance value of the pixel element and the reference luminance value of the pixel element are respectively determined using an optical sensor associated with the pixel element.
  5. The optical sensor of claim 4, wherein the optical sensor comprises: a red-sensitive photodetector; Blue-sensitive photodetectors; Green-sensitive photodetectors; Broadband photodetectors; Red, green and blue-sensitive photodetectors; And at least one red and blue-sensitive photodetector.
  6. 5. The method of claim 4, wherein the pixel element and the associated optical sensor are configured to operate at a defined frequency.
  7. The pixel element of claim 4, wherein a portion of the light emitted by the pixel element is reflected from a structure covering the front side of the composite display and received by the optical sensor associated with the pixel element. How to calibrate
  8. 8. The method of claim 7, wherein the structure comprises a cover plate or a wire mesh.
  9. The method of claim 1, wherein the step of determining the difference between the current luminance value of the pixel element and the reference luminance value of the pixel element determines that the current luminance value of the pixel element is lowered relative to the reference luminance value of the pixel element. And correcting the pixel elements of the composite display.
  10. 10. The method of claim 9, wherein adjusting the current driving the pixel element based at least in part on the difference comprises: backing up the current luminance value of the pixel element to a reference luminance value of the pixel element. Increasing the current driving the pixel element.
  11. The method of claim 1, wherein adjusting the current driving the pixel element based at least in part on the difference is further provided that the current luminance value of the pixel element differs by at least a prescribed amount from a reference luminance value of the pixel element. Adjusting a current driving the pixel element.
  12. The method according to claim 1, wherein if the current luminance value of the pixel element is less than the reference luminance value of the pixel element, determining whether one of the luminance reduction and the color shift of the pixel element has occurred or both have occurred. A method of correcting a pixel element of a composite display, further comprising.
  13. A system for calibrating pixel elements of a composite display device,
    Obtain a current luminance value of the pixel element and a reference luminance value of the pixel element; Determine a difference between a current luminance value of the pixel element and a reference luminance value of the pixel element; A processor configured to adjust a current driving the pixel element based at least in part on the difference; And
    And a memory coupled to the processor, the memory configured to provide instructions to the processor.
  14. A computer program product for calibrating pixel elements of a composite display,
    The computer program product includes computer instructions embedded in a computer readable storage medium,
    The corresponding computer command
    Obtaining a current luminance value of the pixel element and a reference luminance value of the pixel element;
    Determining a difference between a current luminance value of the pixel element and a reference luminance value of the pixel element; And
    And adjusting the current driving the pixel element based at least in part on the difference.
  15. 15. The apparatus of claim 14, wherein a current luminance value of the pixel element and a reference luminance value of the pixel element are each determined using an optical sensor associated with the pixel element, wherein the pixel element and the associated optical sensor operate at a prescribed frequency. And a computer program product for calibrating pixel elements of a composite display.
  16. The display device of claim 14, wherein a current luminance value of the pixel element and a reference luminance value of the pixel element are respectively determined by using an optical sensor associated with the pixel element, and a part of the light emitted by the pixel element is determined by the composite display device. And reflected by the optical sensor associated with the pixel element, reflecting from a structure covering the front surface of the device.
  17. 17. The computer program product of claim 16, wherein the structure comprises a cover plate or a wire mesh.
  18. 15. The method of claim 14, wherein the command to determine the difference between the current luminance value of the pixel element and the reference luminance value of the pixel element comprises determining that the current luminance value of the pixel element has fallen relative to the reference luminance value of the pixel element. And a computer program product for calibrating pixel elements of a composite display.
  19. 19. The method of claim 18, wherein the instruction to adjust the current driving the pixel element based at least in part on the difference drives the pixel element such that a current luminance value of the pixel element is backed up to a reference luminance value of the pixel element. Computer program product for calibrating pixel elements of a composite display.
  20. 15. The computer program according to claim 14, wherein when the current luminance value of the pixel element is less than the reference luminance value of the pixel element, the computer instruction to determine whether any one of the luminance reduction and the color shift of the pixel element has occurred or both have occurred. And a computer program product for calibrating pixel elements of the composite display.
  21. A method of calibrating pixel elements of a composite display device,
    Comparing the current luminance value of the white light of the temporal pixel corresponding to the set of one or more pixel elements at a given sweep location with the reference luminance value of the white light of the temporal pixel; And
    If the current luminance value of the white light of the temporal pixel is at least as large as a prescribed amount than the reference luminance value of the white light of the temporal pixel, concluding that at least one pixel element in the set of pixel elements has a spectral shift; At least partially compensating for spectral shifts of the at least one pixel element;
    Wherein the current luminance value of the white light of the temporal pixel and the reference luminance value of the white light of the temporal pixel are each determined by simultaneously activating the set of pixel elements using one or more optical sensors associated with the set of pixel elements. A method of calibrating pixel elements of a display device.
  22. 22. The composite representation of claim 21, wherein determining that at least one pixel element in the set of pixel elements has a spectral shift comprises concluding that the at least one pixel element is overdriven. Method of correcting pixel elements of a device.
  23. 22. The method of claim 21, wherein for each of at least a subset of pixel elements included in the set, the current luminance value of the pixel element is determined if the current luminance value of the pixel element is different from a reference pixel value associated with the pixel element. And restoring to a reference luminance value of the element.
  24. 22. The method of claim 21, further comprising determining a current luminance value of white light of said temporal pixel.
  25. 22. The method of claim 21, wherein the reference luminance value of the white light of the temporal pixel is determined during fabrication or setup of the composite display.
  26. 22. The method of claim 21, wherein the set of pixel elements includes one or more of red, green, and blue light emitting diodes (LEDs).
  27. 22. The method of claim 21, wherein the one or more optical sensors comprise one or more broadband photodetectors.
  28. 22. The pixel element according to claim 21, wherein the current luminance value of the white light of the temporal pixel and the reference luminance value of the white light of the temporal pixel are each determined by averaging at least two readings of the optical sensor. How to calibrate.
  29. 22. The method of claim 21, wherein at least partially compensating for the spectral shift of the at least one pixel element comprises restoring a current luminance value of the white light of the temporal pixel to a reference luminance value of the white light of the temporal pixel. A correction method of a pixel element of a phosphorescent composite display device.
  30. 22. The method of claim 21, wherein the step of at least partially compensating for the spectral shift of the at least one pixel element comprises the temporal pixel such that the spectra of the at least one pixel element do not include bias towards a particular color shifted. Restoring the current chromaticity of the white light of the pixel element of the composite display device.
  31. 22. The method of claim 21, wherein the step of at least partially compensating for the spectral shift of the at least one pixel element comprises: underdriving the one or more pixel elements of the set whose spectral shift of the at least one pixel element is of a discolored color. And correcting the pixel elements of the composite display device.
  32. 22. The method of claim 21, wherein at least partially compensating for spectral shifts of the at least one pixel element comprises re-establishing a color map of the composite display device, wherein the color map of the composite display device from a source image. A method of calibrating pixel elements of a composite display device, which maps to a color space.
  33. 33. The method of claim 32, wherein re-establishing the color map comprises the available color space of the set of temporal pixels, including the temporal pixels, rendered by the set of pixel elements. And locally limiting to a minimum color gamut available for any temporal pixel in the display.
  34. 33. The method of claim 32, wherein re-establishing the color map comprises: minimizing the available color space of all temporal pixels in the composite display, including temporal pixels, for any temporal pixel in the composite display. And limiting entirely to the color reproduction range.
  35. 22. The method of claim 21, wherein the current luminance value of the white light of the temporal pixel and the reference luminance value of the white light of the temporal pixel are each associated with a set of temporal pixels, including temporal pixels, rendered by the set of pixel elements. And correcting pixel elements of the composite display device.
  36. A system for calibrating pixel elements of a composite display device,
    Compare the current luminance value of the white light of the temporal pixel corresponding to the set of one or more pixel elements at a given sweep position with the reference luminance value of the white light of the temporal pixel; If the current luminance value of the white light of the temporal pixel is at least as large as a prescribed amount than the reference luminance value of the white light of the temporal pixel, it is concluded that at least one pixel element in the set of pixel elements has a spectral shift, A processor configured to at least partially compensate for spectral shift of one pixel element; And
    A memory coupled to the processor, the memory configured to provide instructions to the processor;
    Wherein the current luminance value of the white light of the temporal pixel and the reference luminance value of the white light of the temporal pixel are determined by simultaneously activating the set of pixel elements while using one or more optical sensors associated with the set of pixel elements. Calibration system of pixel elements of the device.
  37. A computer program product for calibrating pixel elements of a composite display,
    The computer program product includes computer instructions embedded in a computer readable storage medium,
    The corresponding computer command
    Comparing a current luminance value of the white light of the temporal pixel corresponding to the set of one or more pixel elements at a given sweep position with a reference luminance value of the white light of the temporal pixel; And
    If the current luminance value of the white light of the temporal pixel is at least as large as a prescribed amount than the reference luminance value of the white light of the temporal pixel, it is concluded that at least one pixel element in the set of pixel elements has a spectral shift, Instructions for at least partially compensating for the spectral shift of one pixel element;
    Wherein the current luminance value of the white light of the temporal pixel and the reference luminance value of the white light of the temporal pixel are each determined by simultaneously activating the set of pixel elements using one or more optical sensors associated with the set of pixel elements. Computer program product for calibrating pixel elements of a display device.
  38. 38. The method of claim 37, wherein the command to at least partially compensate for the spectral shift of the at least one pixel element comprises restoring a current luminance value of the white light of the temporal pixel to a reference luminance value of the white light of the temporal pixel. A computer program product for calibrating pixel elements of a composite display.
  39. 38. The computer-readable medium of claim 37, wherein the instructions to at least partially compensate for the spectral shift of the at least one pixel element further underdrive the one or more pixel elements of the set whose spectrum of the at least one pixel element is discolored. And a computer program product for calibrating pixel elements of a composite display.
  40. 38. The method of claim 37, wherein the command to at least partially compensate for the spectral shift of the at least one pixel element comprises a command to redefine the color map of the composite display, wherein the color map extracts colors from the source image. A computer program product for calibrating pixel elements of a composite display device that maps to the color space of the display device.
  41. Paddles configured to sweep in one area;
    A plurality of pixel elements mounted on the paddle; And
    One or more optical sensors mounted on the paddle and configured to measure luminance values of the plurality of pixel elements;
    And the paddle renders at least a portion of the image by selectively activating one or more of the plurality of pixel elements while sweeping the region.
  42. 42. The composite display device of claim 41, wherein the one or more optical sensors are used to identify degradation of the pixel element.
  43. 42. The apparatus of claim 41, wherein the at least one optical sensor comprises: a red-sensitive photodetector; Blue-sensitive photodetectors; Green-sensitive photodetectors; Broadband photodetectors; Red, green and blue-sensitive photodetectors; And at least one of a red and a blue-sensitive photodetector.
  44. The composite display device of claim 41, wherein the plurality of pixel elements comprise at least one of a red light emitting diode, a blue light emitting diode, a green light emitting diode, and a white light emitting diode.
  45. 42. The composite display of claim 41, wherein the one or more optical sensors are each associated with one or more of the plurality of pixel elements.
  46. 42. The composite display of claim 41, wherein the pixel element and associated optical sensor are configured to operate at a defined frequency.
  47. 42. The composite display of claim 41, wherein a portion of the light emitted by the pixel element is reflected from the structure covering the front side of the composite display and received by an optical sensor associated with the pixel element.
  48. 48. The composite display device of claim 47, wherein the structure comprises a cover plate or a wire mesh.
  49. 42. The apparatus of claim 41 wherein the plurality of pixel elements are mounted on a front side of the paddle, at least a subset of the one or more optical sensors are mounted on a back side of the paddle, the paddles including one or more holes, And a portion of the light emitted by the pixel element on the front side of the paddle is transmitted through the aperture to the corresponding optical sensor on the back side of the paddle.
  50. 42. A composite display according to claim 41, wherein a custom lenslet is attached to the pixel element to direct or direct a portion of the light emitted by the pixel element towards an associated optical sensor.
  51. 42. The composite display device of claim 41, wherein luminance values of the plurality of pixel elements are measured by the one or more optical sensors during calibration of the plurality of pixel elements.
  52. 42. The device of claim 41, wherein the at least one optical sensor comprises a wideband photodetector, wherein the wideband photodetector comprises one or more luminance values of the plurality of pixel elements and one of red, green, and blue included in the plurality of pixel elements. A composite display device, which is used to measure one or both of luminance values of white light generated by activating the above set.
  53. 42. The method of claim 41, wherein the one or more optical sensors comprise photodetectors detectable for one or more colors, wherein the photodetectors comprise luminance values of one or more pixel elements included in the plurality of pixel elements having the one or more colors. Composite display is used to measure the.
  54. The composite display device of claim 41, wherein the plurality of pixel elements are periodically corrected.
  55. 42. The composite display of claim 41, wherein a subset of one or more pixel elements of the plurality of pixel elements is calibrated while remaining pixel elements not included in the subset render at least one image.
  56. 42. The composite indication of claim 41 wherein calibration data is wirelessly transmitted from the paddle to a paddle base portion having the paddle mounted thereon, wherein the paddle base portion includes one or more components used to control the paddle. Device.
  57. As a method of configuring a composite display device,
    Configuring the paddles to sweep in one area;
    Mounting a plurality of pixel elements on the paddle; And
    Mounting at least one optical sensor on the paddle,
    The at least one optical sensor is configured to measure luminance values of the plurality of pixel elements, wherein the paddles selectively sweep one or more of the plurality of pixel elements while sweeping the area to render at least a portion of the image Method of configuring phosphor, composite display device.
  58. 58. The method of claim 57, wherein the pixel element and associated optical sensor are configured to operate at a defined frequency.
  59. 58. The method of claim 57, wherein a portion of the light emitted by the pixel element is reflected from the structure covering the front side of the composite display and received by the optical sensor associated with the pixel element.
  60. 60. The method of claim 59, wherein the structure comprises a cover plate or a wire mesh.
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