KR20100130220A - System and method for deicing of power line cables - Google PatentsSystem and method for deicing of power line cables Download PDF
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- KR20100130220A KR20100130220A KR1020107023298A KR20107023298A KR20100130220A KR 20100130220 A KR20100130220 A KR 20100130220A KR 1020107023298 A KR1020107023298 A KR 1020107023298A KR 20107023298 A KR20107023298 A KR 20107023298A KR 20100130220 A KR20100130220 A KR 20100130220A
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- H02—GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
- H02G—INSTALLATION OF ELECTRIC CABLES OR LINES, OR OF COMBINED OPTICAL AND ELECTRIC CABLES OR LINES
- H02G7/00—Overhead installations of electric lines or cables
- H02G7/16—Devices for removing snow or ice from lines or cables
- B—PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
- B60—VEHICLES IN GENERAL
- B60M—POWER SUPPLY LINES, AND DEVICES ALONG RAILS, FOR ELECTRICALLY- PROPELLED VEHICLES
- B60M1/00—Power supply lines for contact with collector on vehicle
- B60M1/12—Trolley lines; Accessories therefor
TECHNICAL FIELD This specification relates to the field of overhead power transmission lines. More specifically, it relates to a system and method for preventing or eliminating excessive ice accumulation on cables of such power transmission lines to prevent damage due to excessive ice weight.
Ice stroms are quite common in some parts of the United States. Such storms cause the accumulation of ice on expensive power transmission lines and buildings, including associated poles and towers; This ice may reach several inches thick. This icing storm is fortunately manifested by only a slight probability of the total operating time of the power transmission line, and any power transmission line generally encounters these situations only a few times a year.
Accumulated mass of ice causes significant problems by mechanically pressing cables and structures. For example, a 2 "ice cylinder adds a weight of 5.7 tonnes / mile per 1" lead. The modified contour of the cable will also increase wind pressure, and in addition, increase the probability that the cable will not work. Accumulated ice caused power transmission lines and poles to fail and towers to collapse; One of these disrupts power transmission and can pose a serious risk of damage to people and property on the ground.
Some power transmission lines are trolley wires used to transfer power to electrical vehicles. Since ice is not a good conductor, ice on the trolley wire can interfere with power transfer to the vehicle.
Power transmission lines are generally designed to have a constant, low overall resistance to avoid excessive power loss and operation of the wire at high temperatures. When the wire reaches a high temperature, it tends to get longer and weaker, whether due to electrical magnetic heating, high ambient temperatures, or both. This sagging can cause lines (or lines) to sag between poles or towers, which may harm people or property on the ground. In addition, low resistance during normal operation is desirable to avoid excessive power loss—all kilowatts lost by heating of lines are kilowatts that must be generated but not reachable to the customer. Finally, excessive voltage drop in the transmission line due to high resistance may lead to instability of the power grid system.
Many power transmission lines have cables with several individual leads, usually spaced several inches apart, and are electrically connected in parallel for each phase. While allowing higher ampacity by improving cooling at high ambient temperatures for cables of conductors in thermal contact with each other, this design provides an additional surface for ice ice crystal formation that can be accumulated. Increase the amount of ice For example, a system with three cables with five conductors per cable, stacked in two inches of ice, each with two parallel transmission lines, each separated by a spacer, It may have an additional weight of over 172 tons. In addition, such a design is not compatible with a single switch deicing design, since only the powered leads or the leads in thermal contact with the powered leads are deiced.
Not only can the large weight and increased air resistance of the lines stacked with ice not only cause the lines to break and collapse the ellipse, but also the sudden change in force of the tower resulting from the initial failure of the line and the initial collapse of the pole or tower Additional adjacent towers or poles can cause shattering like dominoes-repairers may find the remains of 12 or more adjacent towers entangled between broken lines, not just one flat tower. Sudden collapse of a transmission line can also cause damage to switching devices and generators, and can lead to instability of the power supply network. In the worst case, sudden collapse of a transmission line can cause a power outage, resulting in a loss of sufficient capacitance and instability of the power supply network, which can occur across multiple states. Therefore, it is desirable to prevent, reduce or eliminate ice accumulation on these lines.
U.S. Pat.Nos.6396132 and U.S. Pat.Nos. 2003/0006652 and 2008/0061632 for Couture disclose systems having load cells or other devices for sensing accumulated ice on transmission lines. do. In this system, when ice is detected, one or more parallel conductors on the transmission line are disconnected by closing parallel mechanical and electronic switches, and the current flowing in the transmission line passes through selected one or several of the parallel conductors. It is switched and ice-making. Next, the pattern of open switches is rearranged to divert current through the other one or several of the parallel leads.
Other systems for deicing power transmission lines are known in the art. For example, US Pat. No. 4190137 to Shimada connects parallel lines of a trolley system in a loop, and then superimposes an electric current around the loop to defrost the line. Do it. In one embodiment, Shimada discloses a DC trolley line having an AC current superimposed around a loop of the trolley line for inducing joule heating to defrost the line.
Power transmission lines do not carry the same amount of current at all times. The current transmitted for a line varies in a wide variety of factors, including the load condition—in turn, by the time and weather of the day, the specific area of the generator operating at any moment and other factors. For example, a power transmission line that transfers power from wind and solar power to the grid will transmit current that can vary greatly with cloud, time of day and wind conditions. Even a conventional generator, such as having a plurality of units, may provide power line current that will change over time (eg, one of the two unit generators may be stopped for repair), and similarly, power A power transmission line connecting an energy storage system including a pump generator and a battery storage generator to the supply chain may intermittently conduct current.
In a system for deicing a power transmission line, the power transmission line has cables with at least three mutually insulated conductors (one for each phase of a three phase line, or one for each polarity of a DC line). The system has switches, placing all three leads in parallel for normal, low resistance, operation when the switches are closed; And, when open, all three leads are electrically placed in series to defrost the cable. The system operates under the control of the system controller.
In a particular embodiment, the power transmission line is a line for powering an electrical vehicle such as a locomotive, tram or trolley bus. One of several conductors is in direct electrical contact with a sliding mechanical connection such as a pantograph or trolley wire. In certain embodiments, the lead in contact with the pantograph is made of a material having greater electrical resistance but greater mechanical strength than the material of the two other wires. For example, the lead for contacting the pantograph may be made of steel, stainless steel, bronze, brass, or copper-clad or aluminum-clad steel In parallel, two parallel conductors are made of aluminum, aluminum alloy or copper.
In certain embodiments, each cable has at least five mutually insulated conductors; All five are in parallel for normal operation and all five are in series for deicing. Other embodiments disclose three, seven, and other numbers of leads.
In another embodiment of the system for deicing cables of a power transmission line, each cable is divided into at least two zones. Each zone has at least three conductors located in parallel for normal operation and in series for ice making. The system controller is provided for the sequential deicing of the sections of the cable to prevent excessive disturbance of power transmission by the transmission line.
In certain embodiments, an apparatus is provided for monitoring the temperature of a cable and returning the conductors in parallel when overheating of the cable is detected.
In another embodiment, a switchbox for switching conductors of a transmission line cable between a parallel configuration and a series configuration includes an energy storage device having a charging portion, a control signal receiver for receiving an indication, and a current flow through at least one conductor of the cable. At least one switch controlled by the control signal receiver to determine, and an apparatus for overriding the control signal receiver and for placing the cable leads in a parallel configuration if a high temperature is sensed in the leads of the cable.
In another embodiment, the cable need not have multiple conductors, but has an electrically resistant rigid core (eg, steel wire) and at least one conductor, wherein the system is in a first mode of operation. With a switchbox for diverting sufficient current from the lead through the resistive rigid core to defrost the cable, substantially all current flows through the lead in the second mode of operation.
In certain embodiments, the switchbox converts current through the rigid core by placing or increasing inductance in series with the lead; The rigid core is in parallel with the coupled series inductance and lead, resulting in increased current due to the inductive reactance of the inductance.
In another particular embodiment, the switchbox has a transformer and a switch, in normal operation the transformer is bypassed and acts as a boost transformer to convert power to a rigid core during the ice making mode.
In another particular embodiment, the switchbox includes devices for sensing the temperature of the cable and for reducing the current in the rigid core towards the normal operating level if a high temperature is detected.
A method for deicing a cable of a transmission line is disclosed, wherein the cable has an area with several conductors between the first switch box and the second switch box. The section of cable has a normal operating mode in which the conductors are electrically connected in parallel. If ice is detected and deicing is required, the switchboxes are reconfigured to electrically connect some of the leads in series, thereby putting the area of the cable into a high resistance deicing mode. The current flow in the area of the cable provides resistive heating and deicing the area of the cable. After deicing, the switches of the switchboxes are reconfigured so that the section of the cable returns to the normal operating mode.
In a particular embodiment of the method, the current in the cable is sensed. In this embodiment, the controller selects between the ice making configurations of several switches according to the current in the cable. In addition, if the current is very low for ice making, the controller may request an increase in the current in the cable.
1 is a schematic diagram of a system for preventing or removing ice accumulation from a power transmission line.
FIG. 2 is a diagram illustrating one embodiment for preventing or removing ice accumulation from a trolley wire used to transfer power in a transportation system.
3 illustrates an alternative embodiment of a cable for use in the system of FIG.
4 is an electrical circuit diagram showing one section of one cable of an alternative embodiment of the system for preventing ice accumulation with five leads per cable.
FIG. 5 is an electrical circuit diagram illustrating an alternative method of operating one section of the cable of an alternative embodiment of the system for preventing ice accumulation with five leads per cable.
FIG. 6 is an electrical circuit diagram illustrating an alternative method of operating a section of the cable of an alternative embodiment of the system for preventing ice accumulation with five leads per cable.
FIG. 7 is an electrical circuit diagram showing one section of one cable of an alternative embodiment of the system for preventing ice accumulation having six leads per cable. FIG.
8 is an electrical circuit diagram showing one section of one cable of an alternative embodiment having seven leads per cable.
FIG. 9 is a cross-sectional view of a cable with seven conductors and steel strength members in thermal contact with each other. FIG.
10 is a block diagram of a switch box powered by a solar cell for use in the system.
11 is a block diagram of an alternative switchbox for use in the system.
12 is a diagram illustrating a system with multiple cable zones, each of which performs an independent or sequential deicing or deicing action.
FIG. 13 shows a cross section of a first cable for use in the system of FIG. 1; FIG.
FIG. 14 shows a cross section of a second cable for use in the system of FIG.
FIG. 15 shows a cross section of a third cable for use in the system of FIG. 1; FIG.
16 is a diagram illustrating an alternative embodiment with switches connected in series.
FIG. 17 is a diagram illustrating an ice making system for power lines as disclosed in PCT / US2004 / 27408.
FIG. 18 shows a cross section of a cable having a steel rigid core electrically insulated from an outer conductive layer. FIG.
19 shows two leads, a single switch de-icing system per zone.
FIG. 20 is a schematic diagram of an inductive switchbox suitable for use with the ice making system of FIG. 19.
21 illustrates an alternative core for use with the inductive switchbox of FIG. 20.
It is a schematic drawing which shows.
FIG. 22 is a schematic diagram of an alternative per-zone single switchbox deicing system with a boost transformer to reduce voltage loss in the cable.
FIG. 23 is a schematic diagram of an alternative embodiment with some features of FIGS. 1 and 15.
A system for preventing the accumulation of ice on the power transmission line 100 or electrically removing the accumulated ice is shown in FIG. 1. For simplicity, only one of the three cables 102 or phases of a typical three-phase AC line is shown. In the embodiment of FIG. 1, the cable 102 is constructed from three parallel conductors 104, 106 and 108. The three leads 104, 106 and 108 are tied together by an insulating spacer 110 along the cable 102.
Cable 102 is suspended by insulators 112 from towers 114, or poles (not shown) in alternative embodiments. At the ends of the zone of the cable 102, the first switch box 116 and the second switch box 118 are suspended from the insulator 112 like the cable 102. Each switchbox 116 and 118 includes a switch 120 and a switch actuation controller 122.
For a given zone of power transmission line, switch boxes 116 and 118 are in a first switch closed state or a second switch open state. During normal operation, the switchboxes are in the closed state with all parallel leads 104, 106 and 108 of the cable 102 electrically connected in parallel. If ice accumulation is known or suspected along the power transmission line 100, or if ice accumulation is required due to icing weather conditions, the switches 120 in boxes 116 and 118 are switched open Is placed on. This allows the three conductors 104, 106 and 108 of the cable 102 to be electrically connected in series instead of in parallel, where one conductor 104 transmits power in the reverse direction, thereby Zone effective resistance increased by 9 times.
With the switches placed in the switch open state and the effective resistance of the cable 102, which is 9 times greater than the normal state, the corresponding 9 times increase in voltage along the compartment is the self heating of the cable 102 compared to the normal switch closure state. This results in a corresponding nine-fold increase in self-heating, which provides heating of the cable 102 to melt the accumulated ice and prevent further accumulation of ice. For the purposes of this specification, anti-icing is the action of a cable compartment in a manner that provides heating of the cable 102 to melt the accumulated ice or prevent further accumulation of ice.
The switches 120 of the switch boxes 116 and 118 operate under the control of the system controller 124. In one embodiment, the system controller 124 is located at a network operation center. In another embodiment, the system controller 124 is an automated device capable of detecting local weather conditions, including ice buildup, and is attached to the tower 114 near an area of the cable 102 susceptible to ice buildup. It has switch boxes 116 and 118 under the control of. In this way, even though the switch boxes 116 and 118 are spaced one mile or more apart, the switches of all the switch boxes 116 and 118 can be basically opened or closed simultaneously.
The embodiment of FIG. 1 may also be applied to a cable, a polarity of a DC transmission line, or a trolley power line as shown in FIG. 2. In the embodiment of FIG. 2, three parallel conductors 150, 152 and 154 are shown connected in a serpentine configuration between two switch boxes 156 and 158. One of the three leads (contact lead 154) is arranged to facilitate contact with the pantograph 160 or another trolley wire contact device of the electrically powered vehicle 162.
Vehicle 162 may be an electric locomotive or a tank as shown, having a return path for vehicle current through rail 164. In an alternative embodiment, a dual trolley wire contact device 160 (one for each phase or polarity of a DC or AC trolley wire system) to two sets of parallel leads 154 and switchboxes 156 and 158. Is provided, the vehicle 162 is connected to two phases or two polarities. In this alternative embodiment, the vehicle 162 may be a vehicle with rubber tires, such as powered buses that have been in service for several years in San Francisco.
In the embodiment of FIG. 2, the switches 168 and 166 can be opened to enter ice making mode and closed for normal operation mode. Opening of these switches 168 and 166 causes current flow through the leads 154, 152 and 150 (eg, current flowing by the vehicle 162 in the back zones of the system), rather than in parallel. All three conductors 154, 152 and 150 flow through them, increasing the current density and heating the conductors.
In the embodiment of FIG. 2, contact lead 154 may be made of a material different from that of other or non-contact leads 152 and 150, although it may not be necessary. For example, the parallel leads 150 and 152 and the contact leads made of low resistance copper or aluminum can be high strength, medium resistance bronze, brass, copper clad steel, stainless steel or aluminum clad steel. This embodiment has the advantage that the high strength contact leads can better withstand mechanical pressure due to contact with the pantograph or trolley wire contact device 160. In addition, it may be desirable to defrost non-contact leads 152 and 150 to avoid the weight and wind associated with damage, while ice on contact leads 154 may contact pantograph or other trolley wire contact from contact leads 154. May disrupt power transfer to device 160. The greater resistance of the contact lead 154 may contribute to ensuring immediate and rapid deicing of the contact lead 154 to ensure continued running of the vehicle 162 during the icing state. In this alternative embodiment, the opening of the switches 166 and 168 for a short time may defrost the contact lead 154 to ensure continued operation, while ice accumulation may be associated with the weight or wind associated with damage. When showing signs, opening of switches 166 and 168 for repeated or long periods of time can defrost non-contact leads 152 and 150.
In some embodiments of the trolley system of FIG. 2, the non-contact leads 150 and 152 are tied away from the contact lead 154 or near the conductors 150, 152 and 154 separated by a spacer. ; In an alternative embodiment as shown in FIG. 3, the contact lead 154 may form a shell comprising an insulative material and non-contact leads 150 and 152.
The system 100 differs from KATOUR in that the direction of the current of one conductor 104 of the cable 102 is in the reverse direction, while KATOUR deices only one or a few conductors at the same time, while the system ( 100 differs in that all three conductors of the compartment are iced at the same time-in the case of spaced conductor cables. Kartour requires several sequential de-icing operations to clean all the wires in the cable. The system 100 also differs from KATOUR in the number and location of the switches. Kartur places a set of switches at one point between two ends of the zone, while in system 100 the switches are located at two zone ends. Kartour's system for three lead lines has three switches, while system 100 has only two switches. Another difference is that if all system switches do not operate in the open position, current flow, i.e., power transfer, will be disturbed, whereas, for example, lightning may cause the system to become inoperable or fail. As such, the system 100 provides continuous current flow even when all switches are open. Similarly, system 100 is different from time to time because no loop is formed and no additional current is applied to the loop.
An alternative embodiment of the system 200 for removing or preventing ice accumulation in FIG. 4 has five instead of three leads per cable 202. In this embodiment, each switchbox 204 and 210 has two sets of switches 206, 207 and 209 and an operation controller 208. In this embodiment, opening of the switches 206, 207, and 209 results in an increase in the effective resistance of the cable 202 by 25 times; This increases the self heating of the cable 102 to melt the accumulated ice and retard the accumulation of additional ice. In the embodiment of FIG. 4, two of the five wires carry current in the reverse direction, while three conductors carry current in the forward direction.
In the embodiment of FIG. 4, the effective length of the entire lead in the compartment of cable 102 is increased five times. Since the wavelength of a 60-cycle power line AC current is about 3,000 miles, if a few miles of length are deiced, the phase change caused by the increase in length is dependent on the power flow in the transmission line when operated in the power supply network. It will not have a significant effect, which will not result in a significant phase change. In addition, since the length (and lead resistance) can be increased simultaneously in all three phase-lines by actuating the switches in all three phases simultaneously, the prominent phase added by the de-icing action between the different phase conductors of the transmission line There should be no change.
The increase in resistance and power consumption described above is assumed to be embodiments having the same resistance for each lead of the cable, as may be the case with an open-air spacer-separated-lead cable. In another embodiment, the resistance of the individual leads in the cable may have an achieved resistance ratio that will vary by different resistances and the actual resistances of the leads.
An increase of 25 times the self heating of the cable 102 may be desirable if the cable carries low currents, but if the cable is operating at high currents and / or several conductors are tied together instead of being spaced apart by the spacers If so, it may be excessive. The switch arrangement shown in FIG. 4 may be operated in alternative ways, as shown in FIG. 5, causing other effective power consumption increases.
In the embodiment of FIG. 5, switches 206 and 209 are opened to enter ice making mode, while switch 207 is closed. In this embodiment, assuming the same resistance per lead, the effective resistance of the cable compartment increases by five times.
Similarly, in the embodiment of FIG. 6, switches 206 and 207 are open while switch 209 is closed. In this embodiment, assuming that each lead has a resistance R, the effective resistance of the cable section increases by 15 times the resistance from (1/5) * R to 3R.
Embodiments with cables of six or more conductors may have an even number of conductors. In the six lead embodiments 220 of FIG. 7, the resistance of the cable compartment increases nine times from (1/6) * R to (3/2) * R when the switches 206 and 222 are open. . Other configurations of the system with different power increases in the ice making mode are possible; For example, if the switches 206 are open while the switch 222 is closed, the resistance increases 9/2 times, from (1/6) * R to (3/4) * R.
Similarly, alternative embodiments 250 include seven wires in each cable and three or four switches (252, 254, 256, etc.) in each switchbox 268 and 270, respectively. 258, 260, 262, 264 and 266). In the embodiment of FIG. 8, the effective resistance of the cable can be programmed according to which switches are open up to a range of 49 times the resistance of the closed cable, as shown in FIG. 1. Note that there are additional alternatives and patterns not shown in FIG. 1. To some extent, the pattern of open switches can also select which leads are heated in the deicing action and which leads are not powered. In alternative embodiments, the switches 266 and 252 may be replaced with a wire that results in a minimal reduction in the resistance options provided. The mode of operation between the minimum and maximum resistance configurations for the system is referred to herein as the intermediate resistance mode; Most of these are shown in Table 1. In one embodiment, the system controller monitors the current through the transmission line, determines the resistance required for ice making, and selects an ice making mode from the minimum resistance, maximum resistance, and middle resistance modes as appropriate for the current in the transmission line. In some embodiments, the system controller may also send a request for the energy storage system, power generation system, or network operation center to increase the current in the transmission line to provide sufficient current for ice making.
Other alternative embodiments may have a different number of leads, for example, an embodiment having nine leads in each cable and four switches in each switchbox increases the effective resistance by 81 times when the switches are open. Has
In a particular embodiment, the transmission line system has phase cables 267 each having a plurality of compartments corresponding to the diagram of FIG. 8. In this embodiment, the cables 267 are made of aluminum or copper according to the cable cross section of FIG. 9, and are seven conductors 253, 255 tied together in thermal and mechanical contact with each other and with the central steel rigid member 280. , 257, 259, 261, 263 and 265. Seven conductors correspond to the seven conductors of FIG. 8. In this embodiment, the phase cables are suspended from the towers and have a system controller 124 in a manner similar to FIG. 1.
In this embodiment, the controller 124 monitors the current through the transmission line cables. If ice is detected, the controller 124 will determine an increase in resistance and provide adequate heating to the cable 267 until the cable 267 is avoided to avoid damage to the cable 267. The controller then automatically determines the configuration of the open switches for the switches 252, 254, 256, 258, 260, 262, 264 and 266 of the switchboxes 268 and 270, and the switchboxes 268 And 270 to cause the system to enter an ice making mode for a particular cable 267 section. Upon completion of the deicing of the cable 267 compartment, the switches are closed and return to normal operation.
Ice is detected and deicing is required, but cable 267 transmits a very small current to switch 252, 254, 256, 258, 260, 262, 264 and 266 of switchboxes 268 and 270. If even in the maximum resistance configuration, the controller 124 fails to provide adequate heating for ice making, the controller 124 sends a request to the supply chain management system to reconfigure the power supply network, so that sufficient power is transmitted through the cable 267 to provide a cable 267. ) May be iced. If the transmission line connects the energy storage systems to the power grid, it may be required that the storage system store or release sufficient power to defrost the line.
Resistance self-heating of a transmission line is proportional to the square of the current I through the transmission line times the resistance R of the line (I 2 * R). The resistance increase in Table 1 was calculated on the assumption that each lead of the cable had the same resistance. Since the current in the transmission line is very low, there may be a transmission line system in which it is desirable to have conductors of different resistance so that the maximum resistance increase can be significantly greater than that achieved with leads of the same resistance. For example, in a modified embodiment of the embodiment of FIG. 8, the wires 263 and 265 may have a resistance ten times the resistance (or lower resistance) of the other leads 253, 255, 257, 259 and 261. Have During normal operation, these leads 263, 265 carry little current and the effective resistance R is slightly less than one fifth of each resistance of the low resistance leads 253, 255, 257, 259 and 261. . If all seven leads are configured in series with only the switches 252 and 256 closed, the effective resistance increases to 125R, and if the switches 258 and 260 are closed, they have an intermediate increase to 70R. Other classifications of intermediate resistance increase may also be used to allow the controller 124 to select from them, and the classifications of other intermediate resistance increases may be easily calculated.
In yet another alternative embodiment, lead 263 has a resistance ten times the resistance of each low resistance lead 253, 255, 257, 259, and 261, and lead 265 has a resistance of each low resistance lead 253, 255, 257, 259, and 261). In this embodiment, an intermediate increase to 70R can be used and a maximum increase to 225R can be used. In these embodiments, the controller 124 selects an appropriate switch configuration to provide sufficient heating for ice making based on the amount of current available in the line. This configuration is then sent to switchboxes 268 and 270 to set their switches accordingly. The controller continuously monitors the current in the transmission line, and if the current changes to provide adequate heating for deicing until it avoids excessive heating that can damage the transmission line, the switch boxes 268 and 270 You can also reconfigure the switches. The controller 124 may be an independent controller or integrated into the switch boxes 268 and 270.
In one embodiment, the transmission line compartment 267 transfers power from solar or wind generator systems having an energy storage subsystem. In this embodiment, if the transmission line delivers little or no current, it enters the icing mode; The controller 124 may send a request to the energy storage subsystem requiring some stored energy to be released to the transmission line to provide current for deicing the line.
Alternative embodiments may have additional wires (see N wires for example), each of which is mutually insulated from each other within the cable. Each lead of embodiments similar to the lead of FIG. 8 may be assembled from one or more of the N wires. In one embodiment with M effective leads shown by the switch boxes and N insulated wires in the cable, M is less than or equal to N. The number of wires in each lead may be different between the leads, and conductors with higher resistance may have fewer wires than conductors with lower resistance.
Local power distribution transmission lines operate primarily between 3,500 and 25,000 volts, while many "high-voltage" three-phase transmission lines operate between 60,000 and 1,200,000 volts. Embodiments with conventional configurations may be suitable for use in some local distribution transmission lines, while operation on high-voltage transmission lines presents additional challenges.
In one embodiment that is particularly suitable for use in high-voltage transmission lines (see FIG. 10), since all configurations of switchboxes 204, 116, and 118 operate near power line cables 102 and 202, the switchbox 204 , 116 and 118 are attached to the ends of the cables 202 and 102 of the insulators 112 and suspended with the cables. In this embodiment, it is not practical to power switchboxes 204, 116 and 118 from typical 115V AC power. In conclusion, switchboxes 204, 116, 118 and 300 are powered by an internal energy storage 302 such as an ultracapacitor or battery.
In most embodiments, the energy store 302 is small in inductive pickup 304, solar panel 306, or ground that surrounds one or more conductors of cables 102 and 202. The charging unit 310 is charged by a device selected from devices such as capacitor 308 of value. The energy storage unit 302 supplies power to the control signal receiver 312, which is generally the only component that consumes power in the switch box 300.
When the control signal receiver 312 receives a correctly encoded " ice-making " instruction from the system control 124 (instructions include a high frequency carrier superimposed on the cables 102 and 202 with the power being transmitted from the control 124). Via optical fiber or wirelessly to the receiver 312 via the optical fiber), the receiver 312 activates a high current switch or an electrically operated switch actuator 314 that opens the switches 316. . The switch actuator 314 may include a solenoid, an electromagnet or an electric motor, and may include additional springs for quick opening and closing as is known in the art of electrically operated switching devices. In an alternative embodiment, switch 316 is an electronic switch; Another embodiment has electronic switches in parallel with electrically operated mechanical switches.
In one embodiment, the actuating portion 314 operates to oppose the force of the spring 318 which tends to keep the switch 316 closed.
Unintentional opening of the switches 316 on a hot summer day during operation under full load will not only cause excessive power consumption and line heating, but also cause sufficient sag, such as risking people or property on the ground. Because it may or may cause damage to the cable 102; The actuator 314 does not operate on the case of the switch box 300, but is a clamp attached to one conductor such as the conductor 104 of the cable 102 at a short distance from the switch box 300. Operate through fusible link 320 to 322 to pull switch 316 open. Fusible link 320 is adjacent to lead 104 and is a low-melting metal or plastic to break before lead 104 reaches a temperature at which excessive deflection or damage to cable 102 occurs. And a spring 118 to close the switch 116. Thus, if the system for ice removal or ice protection does not work, the switches 116 do not operate in the closed (low resistance) state.
An alternative embodiment as shown in FIG. 11 is a solid-state relay and / or contacts commercially available for switching configurations of switchboxes that may have to interfere with significant current. It has the advantage that it can be used. In this embodiment, control signal receiver 312 generally switches cables 102 and 202 between low and high resistance states by actuating electrically operated contact modules 340. Contact modules 340 may include electromechanical switching devices, or solid state relay devices, or both, because the maximum voltage seen across the switch is much less than the operating voltage of the transmission line. The advantage of using solid state relay devices in parallel with an appropriately timed electromechanical switching is that the electromechanical switching devices provide low switching resistance to power line currents that can be about several hundred amperes, and the magnetic properties of solid state relay devices. While reducing heating, solid state relay devices are closed before the electromechanical devices are closed and open after the electromechanical devices are opened, thereby suppressing any contact arc associated with the opening and closing of the electromechanical devices.
In the embodiment of FIG. 11, the contact modules 340 are safety switches that are closed by the spring 344 whenever the fusible link 320 melts due to excessive heating in the conductor 346 where the clamp 322 is fixed. 342 is connected in parallel. This effectively overrides both the control signal receiver 312 and the switches 340 when the lead 346 reaches a high temperature. This will prevent excessive sagging or overheating of the cables 102 and 202 in the case of inoperative switchboxes, but if left unrepaired, there is some risk of ice damage, especially for the cables 102 and 202 afterwards. .
In another embodiment, the control signal receiver 312 monitors the temperature sensed by the temperature sensor 324 and parallels all the conductors at a temperature that indicates successful deicing but below the temperature required to melt the fusible link 320. Close the switches 340 to return to operation. In one embodiment, the temperature / state transmitter 326 sends an indication of the closure of the switches 340 due to the high temperature to the system controller 124, such that the switchbox located at the other end of the leads may also You can return to parallel operation. The fusible link 320 has the highest current when there are switchboxes in the line compartment in the opposite state of one switchbox with open switches 340 and another switchbox with closed switches 340. The branch is preferably located on the lead.
In order to provide feedback to the system controller 124 and to facilitate the repair of non-operating switchboxes, the state of the sensor switch 347 in conjunction with the safety switches 342 may cause the fusible link 320 to fail. And transmits the information to the system controller 124 through the transmission unit 326.
To help control the system, a temperature sensor 324 (FIGS. 10 and 11) may be attached to the clamp 322, and the temperature records are sent to the system controller 124 by the temperature transmitter 326, eg For example, the temperature of the lead 104 of the cable 102 has exceeded the freezing point of water so that it indicates when the deicing of the zone will be completed.
Alternatively, the sensor 324 can be used to maintain the cable temperature at a preset value, for example + 10 ° C, during the deicing or deicing action. In this way, the switches are closed when the temperature reaches a preset value and open when the temperature drops below that value. This effectively reduces the total power consumed for ice making / deicing and also prevents overheating of the cable.
In the embodiment of FIG. 12, each cable 400 of a transmission line, which may be hundreds of miles long, traversing various terrain and climatic regions, may comprise, for example, an area 402 of length from one tenth to one mile; It can be divided into zones such as zone 404. Each zone has a first switch box 406, 410 and 414 and a second switch box 408, 412 and 416. In order to prevent excessive voltage drop in the transmission line, when it is determined that deicing of the cable 102 is desired, the switch boxes 406 and 408 of the first zone 402 are operated to open the switches. When the zone is iced, the switches of the first zone are closed, the switch boxes 410 and 412 of the second zone are operated to open the switch boxes, and all of the ice covered zones of the cable 400 are defrosted. Until it continues sequentially. Similarly, the splitting of the cable 400 into zones allows for the deicing of the areas of the cable 400 that have been exposed to, or have been exposed to, until the zones exposed to different weather allow the normal operation to continue. Allow.
Limiting the voltage drop by sequential deicing of the lines of the line contributes to maintaining the stability of the power supply network and avoids the voltage drop in the transmission line that may be notified by customers.
FIG. 13 is a cross-sectional view of a cable suitable for use with a single switch per switchbox, currently three lead cables of a cable deicing system. Triangular spacers 502, which may be metal with non-conductive plastics, ceramics or rubber insulators, are attached to each lead 504 of the cable. Attachment to the conductor 504 of the spacer 502 is performed by screws that glue the cap onto the base of the molding, cable and insulator, and secure the cap to the insulator base. Or by other methods known in the art of spaced conductor cables. Each lead 504 may be a conductive copper or aluminum shell to an optional steel support center 506 or may be aggregated from conductive copper or aluminum strands surrounding the support center of multiple steel strands. The spacer 502 is located at regular distances along the cable and the spacing of the spacers is chosen small enough to prevent direct electrical contact between the conductors of the cable.
In the embodiment of FIG. 14, four leads 602 are positioned by spacers 604 around the center lead 606, each of the five leads having essentially the same transmission capacity. In embodiments in which conductor 606 is shown, one or all five conductors 602 and 606 may have a steel core 608 to provide the strength needed for the long width between the towers. Since all five leads 602 carry current during ice making, all five will be deiced even if these leads are not in thermal contact with each other.
In the embodiment of FIG. 15, the cable 700 for use as the cable 102 or 202 is three (shown), five, seven or nine gathered around a rigid core 708 which may be strand steel. Two conductors 702, 704 and 706. Conductors 702, 704 and 706, which may be strand copper or aluminum, may be insulated from each other and coated with an extruded plastic insulation layer 701.
13, 14 and 15, it is envisaged that the leads 504, 602, 606, 702, 704 and 706 and the steel support cores 506, 608 and 708 need not be solid; In most embodiments, these are strand configurations for flexibility and ease of installation as is known in the art of transmission line cables. The conductors and steel cores may be mixed - these may be stranded copper weld ® (Copperweld) (copper clad steel) wire strand having a plurality of individual wire strands of the coated steel such as a wire. Furthermore, embodiments may have more smaller insulated wires grouped into the conductors referenced herein; For example, a transmission line cable may have six wires grouped into three groups of two wires each for the purpose of ice making in accordance with the present invention, each pair of wires having a lead for ice making as described so far. Is treated as.
The principles described herein can also be applied to DC power transmission lines. While it is not possible to power switchboxes of a DC power transmission line by inductive pickup from a current in a transmission line or through a high voltage capacitor, it includes, but is not limited to, solar cells and battery devices. Other switch box power supplies may also be used.
The system described herein uses a control signal transmitted from the system controller 124 to the switch boxes 300. The control signals are preferably transmitted in encrypted form and encoded to prevent accidental opening of the switches of the switchboxes or interference of the system by unauthorized persons.
In the embodiment of Figure 16, alternative switch configurations provide a similar effect. In this embodiment of phase 800, the cable 802 has an odd number of conductors 810, 812, 814, 816 and 818 greater than three running between the two switchboxes 804 and 805. During normal operation, the serially connected switches 806 and 807 connect the leads 812, 814, 816 and 818 to the lead 810 and the input 820 and the output switchbox 805 where the corresponding switches are closed. ) In parallel. When switchbox control and actuator 808 opens switches 806 and 807, current is forced to flow in series through all five leads 810, 812, 814, 816 and 818, thereby Causes resistive self heating of the leads. This configuration has the effect of reducing the voltage seen across either switch at increasing losses of current in the first switches (eg, switch 806) in successive order.
De-icing systems for power transmission lines have been proposed where each of the three common phases are inverted relative to cable 900, and the cable is divided into two conductors 904 and 906 as shown in FIG. 17 and disclosed in PCT / US2004 / 27408. Lose. A switch 908 located at the end of the cable zone 910 is comprised of a normal operation in which the two leads 904 and 906 are in parallel and an ice making operation in which only one of the two leads 904 and 906 flows. Is switched on; Where the resistance of the cable is high enough to defrost the cable and produce enough self heating to prevent further ice buildup, one conductor 906 sized is used during deicing, while being placed in parallel during normal operation. The lead 904 being sized is sized to provide a low resistance suitable for low loss during normal operation. At the opposite end of the zone 910 from the switch 908, and before the switch 914 of the next zone 916, the two leads 904 and 906 are electrically shorted 912 together. Except for the short 912, the conductors 904 and 906 are separated by an insulating layer 918. In the design disclosed in PCT / US2004 / 27408, the first conductor 904 to be defrosted is the outer layer of the cable physically close to the ice to be removed, while the normal second conductor 906 is the central bulk of the cable, It may also include a core.
High-voltage transmission line cables comprising strained cable 1000 (FIG. 18) are generally strands of lead such as aluminum or copper that surround a rigid core having strands 1004 of stronger but more resistive material, such as steel. It has many fields 1002, and steel helps to support cables that allow for tower or pole spacing larger than other possible. In the modified cable 1000, there is an additional insulating layer 1006 that leaves electrical contact between the rigid core strands 1004 and the conductive strands 1002.
As shown in FIG. 19, a modified ice making system 1100 for a power transfer cable includes a cable 1102 having a steel core 1104, a conductive layer 1108, and a steel core 1104 and a conductive layer 1108. Has an insulating layer 1106 that prevents contact therebetween; Each or the steel core 1104 and the conductive layer 1108 are generally formed of a plurality of strands. There may be additional layers such as an outer insulating layer and a vapor phase protective layer. The cable 1102 is divided into zones 1110, with a switchbox 1114 at one end of the zone 1110, and a short circuit connection between the steel core 1104 and the conductive layer 1108 at the other end. 1116).
During normal operation, the switchbox 1114 maintains electrical connections between the conductive layers 1108 of each zone of the cable 1102. In this normal mode, most of the current through the cable 102 flows through the conductive layer 1108. To defrost the zone 1110 of the cable 1102, the controller 1118 of the switchbox 1114 associated with the zone 1110 of the cable 1102 opens the switch 1120, whereby the conductive layer 1108. Reducing or eliminating the current in the circuit) and correspondingly increasing the current in the steel core 1104 of the zone 1110 because the cable is part of the transmission line that continues to deliver power.
In an alternative embodiment as shown in FIG. 23 with reference to FIGS. 15 and 1, the conductive layer is several conductors 702, as shown in FIG. 15 connected to switch boxes similar to FIG. 1 or 4. , 704 and 706). Rigid core 708 is electrically connected between switch boxes 1401 and 1403 at each end of the compartment of the cable. When the switches 1402 and 1404 are open, the effective resistance of the conductive layers 702, 704, and 706 increases as compared to the cable in which the switches are closed, so that not all currents but more currents are still in the steel rigid cores 1104 and 708. To switch.
In one embodiment, switchbox 1114 includes inductor 1122. When the switch 1120 is open, the inductor is placed in series with the low resistance outer conductive layer 1108 of the cable zone 1110, and this continuous connection of the inductor 1122 and the conductive layer 1108 is connected to the zone. Electrically parallel with the inner steel core 1104; As a result, some but not all current in cable 1102 is diverted through steel core 1104; The amount of this current is significantly greater than through the steel core 1104 during normal operation in which the switch 1120 is closed.
The switch box 1114 has power supply devices and high temperature override devices as described above with reference to FIGS. 10 and 11.
In an alternative embodiment as shown in FIG. 20, a switchbox 1200 suitable for use in place of the switchbox 1114 does not have a switch 1120. In this embodiment, the switchbox 1200 is connected to both the outer conductive layer 1108 and the inner steel core 1104 of the preceding cable section and for connection to the inner steel core 1104 of the cable section 1110. Has a power input connection 1202 connected to a power output connection 1204; In some embodiments, this connection may include a steel core 1104 of a locally exposed cable.
The embodiment of FIG. 20 also has a coil 1206 having a slight rotation of the high capacitance wire, the coil 1206 having a power input connection for connection to the outer conductive layer 1108 of the cable section 1110. 1202 and a second power output connection 1208. The switch box 1200 has an energy storage 1212 and charging devices and control signal receiver 1214 as described above with reference to FIGS. 10 and 11. When the control signal receiver 1214 is instructed to deiculate the cable zone 1110, the receiver 1214 activates a motor actuator 1216 that pulls the nonmagnetic cable 1218. The nonmagnetic cable 1218 operates on the pulley 1220 with respect to the magnetic core element 1222, and the operation of the motor actuator 1216 pulls the core element 1222 into the coil 1206. When the core element 1222 is pulled into the coil 1206, the inductance of the coil 1206 is increased, whereby a portion of the current in the cable is diverted through the resistive inner steel core 1104.
The pulley 1220 is attached to the case of the switchbox 1200 via a release catch 1224 and has a spring with sufficient strength to overcome the solenoid attraction of the core element 1222 into the coil 1206. 1226 is connected to pull core element 1222 from coil 1206. When the switch box 1200 control signal receiver 1214 receives an instruction to stop deicing the cable zone 1110, the control signal 1214 is directed to the motor actuator 1216 to release the nonmagnetic cable 1218. Instruct. This allows the spring 1226 to pull the core element 1222 out of the coil 1206 and returns the cable zone 1110 to normal operation.
If the fusible link as described above with respect to the fusible link 320 of FIG. 11 is melted due to excessive heat in the cable zone 1110, the safety actuation rod 1230 is driven by the spring 1232 by the switch box ( 1200) is pulled into. The actuation rod 1230 pulled into the switchbox 1200 causes the release catch 1224 to release the pulley 1220, which allows the spring 1226 to pull the core element 1222 out of the coil 1206. Return the cable zone 1110 to low impedance operation; This effectively reduces the current in the rigid core 1104 and reduces the magnetic heating of the cable 1102.
In one embodiment of the switchbox of FIG. 20, the switchbox includes a circuit, such as sensor 324, and a temperature / state transmitter 326 of FIG. 11 so that when the system controller 124 (FIG. 1) is de-iced The system controller 124 will then instruct the switchbox 1200 to return to normal operation and initiate deicing (if necessary) of the next cable zone. In one embodiment, the control signal receiver 1214 also monitors the sensor 324 and pulls the core 1222 at a temperature lower than the temperature required to melt the fusible link 320 so that the switchbox 1200 is normal. Attempt to return to operation.
In an alternative embodiment similar to FIG. 20, instead of a single-piece movable core 1222, a two-piece core is used as shown in FIG. 21. In this embodiment, the first L-shaped core portion 1240 is secured to the switch box. The second L-shaped core portion 1242 is drawn from the coil 1232 in the first position, as indicated by reference numeral 1242 in FIG. 21 to give a low inductance setting or to the second position shown by the dashed line in FIG. 21. And pulled into coil 1232 to give a high inductance setting. In this embodiment, when the second core portion 1242 is in a high inductance position, the first and second L-shaped core portions 1242 and 1240 form a loop for magnetic flux.
19 and 20 operate under the control of the system controller 124 as described above with reference to FIG. 1; In one embodiment, some sections of the cable are deiced as described with reference to FIGS. 19 and 20 while some other sections are deiced as described with reference to FIGS. 1 and 4.
The embodiment of FIG. 22 also heats the cable 1302 by converting a portion of the cable power through the boost transformers (windings 1304 and 1306) and through the steel support strands 1308 of the cable 1302. System 1300 for deicing a transmission line cable. In this embodiment, the steel strands 1308 are surrounded by an insulator 1310 and then surrounded by a stranded aluminum or copper conductive layer 1312. The switch box 1313 has an open switch 1314 and a closed switch 1316 in a normal operating mode, and allows current to flow uninterrupted through the conductive layer 1312. The switch box 1313 also has a power storage unit 1322 and an instruction receiving unit 1324 similar to the power storage unit 302 and the indication receiving unit 312 described with reference to FIG. 11 and having an equal charging circuit. ; As with other embodiments, the indication receiver 1324 is in communication with the system controller 124.
When deicing the cable 1302 is required, the instruction receiving unit 1324 receives the instruction, closes the switch 1314 for the first time, and opens a current path through the steel support strands 1308; Instruction receiver 1324 then opens switch 1316 to apply a significant current to transformer primary winding 1306. As a result, transformer secondary winding 1304 provides power to support strands 1308. The transformer primary winding 1306 has only a slight rotation, and the transformer core 1318 is made of magnetic material that can be saturated so that only a small amount of power available in the cable is supported to the support strands 1308. Add; On a 600 kV transmission line drawing-1000 amps, such as 100 to 300 watts per meter of cable, 150 kW required to heat all three cables in one mile of the line at 300 watts per meter is one of the total power flowing through the transmission line. Less than / 10 percent, the voltage drop across primary winding 1306 may stay at a low level.
As with other embodiments, the embodiment of FIG. 22 has an apparatus (not shown in FIG. 22) for sensing overheating of cables, such as fusible links and temperature sensors. If the device for detecting the overheating of the cable detects the overheating condition of the cable, the switch 1316 or auxiliary switch (not shown) is closed to bypass the transformer primary winding 1306 so that the current in the cable core 1308 Decreases; As in the normal operating mode, bypassing the primary winding 1306 greatly reduces the current in the cable core 1308 and reduces the resistive heating of the cable 1302.
Switchboxes of all embodiments described herein, such as the switchboxes of FIGS. 10, 11, 21, and 22, may be used to overtemperature cables and switchboxes, such as through a temperature sensor 324, for example. ) Senses and attempts to return from ice making to normal operation below the temperature required to melt the fusible links, such as fusible link 320. If system control 124, electrical switch actuator 314, electrically actuated switches 340, 1120 and 1316, motor actuator 1216, temperature sensor 324 or other components do not operate within the ice making mode, The mechanical sensing and return to low resistance operation provided by fusible links 320 and associated devices is an overriding mechanical backup intended to prevent overheating damage to the transmission line and its cables.
While the foregoing has been particularly shown and described with reference to specific embodiments, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various other modifications of form and details may be made without departing from the purpose of this specification. It is to be understood that various modifications may be made without departing from the broader concepts disclosed herein and applied to other embodiments by the claims that follow.
- A system for deicing and deicing actions of AC and DC power transmission lines,
At least one section of the cable for power transmission in a transmission line comprising at least first, second and third leads (the first, second and third leads are electrically insulated from each other along the length of the section, Connected at the ends of the zone to form a serpentine path of at least three conductors connected in series;
At least one first switch located at a first end of said section of cable; And
At least one second switch located at a second end of said section of cable,
And the first and second switches are operable to connect the first, second and third leads in parallel in a normal mode and to operate in series in an icing mode.
- The system of claim 1, wherein the connections for power transmission through the zone of cable are made to the first lead at the first switch and to the third lead at the second switch.
- The method of claim 1, wherein the at least one switch further comprises a switching device and a switch controller,
The switching device and controller are electrically isolated from ground, and the switch is controlled by control signals from an ice protection system controller located elsewhere.
- The method of claim 1 wherein the zone of cable further comprises fourth and fifth leads,
A third switch is located at the first end of the region of the cable for connecting the fourth and fifth leads to the first lead, and a third switch for connecting the third and fourth leads to the fifth lead. A fourth switch is located at the second end of the zone,
And the third and fourth leads are electrically connected near the fourth switch, and the fourth and fifth leads are electrically connected near the third switch.
- 5. The system of claim 4, wherein connections for power transmission through the zone of cable are made to the first lead at the first switch and to the fifth lead at the second switch.
- The system of claim 4, wherein the system is
And a controller for monitoring the current in the transmission line, determining when ice protection is required, and determining a switch configuration for an anti-icing action based on the current in the transmission line.
- The method of claim 4, wherein the one conductor selected from the group consisting of the second lead, the third lead, the fourth lead and the fifth lead has a resistance substantially larger than that of the first lead. System.
- The apparatus of claim 4, wherein the at least one switch further comprises a switching device and a controller,
The switching device and controller are electrically isolated from ground, the switch is controlled by control signals from a system controller, and the system controller is located at a remote location from the at least one switch.
- A system for the anti-icing of power transmission lines,
At least one cable with at least two zones
At least first, second and third conductors insulated from each other;
A first switch connecting the second and third leads to the first lead at a first end of the cable; And
A second switch connecting the first and second leads to the third lead at the second end of the cable;
The second and third leads are electrically connected near the first switch, the first and second leads are electrically connected near the second switch, and the third lead of the first zone is the second zone. Connected to the first conductor of; And
A system that increases the resistance of the at least one cable by simultaneously opening the first and second switches in each zone, placing the first, second and third leads in series to act as a deicing of the cable in this zone. Including the controller,
The system controller is capable of sequentially opening the switches of the zones.
- The system of claim 1, wherein the system is
And detecting an overheat of at least one lead of the cable, and if the overheat is detected, placing the first, second and third leads in parallel to reduce the resistance of the cable.
- A switch box for switching conductors of a transmission line cable between a parallel configuration and a serial configuration,
An energy storage device for supplying power to the switch box;
A device for charging said energy storage device;
A control signal receiver for receiving switch operation instructions (the control signal receiver receives power from the energy storage device);
At least one switch for determining current flow through at least one lead of the cable, the switch being electrically operated under control of the control signal receiver; And
And an apparatus for overriding the control signal receiver and for locating the cable conductors in a parallel configuration when a high temperature is sensed in the cable conductors.
- A system for deicing a cable of a power transmission line,
The cable comprises N conductors, where N is an integer greater than 1, each of the N conductors is electrically insulated from other conductors,
First and second switch boxes (the first switch box is connected to the first end of the cable, the second switch box is connected to the second end of the cable, each switch box is at least (N-1) / 2 switches, in the first mode the switches of the switchboxes connect all N conductors of the cable in parallel, and in the second mode the switches of the switchboxes connect all N conductors in series To increase cable resistance for efficient deicing actions); And
And a system controller for positioning the switch boxes in a first mode for normal operation and in a second mode for deicing the cable.
- In the system for the anti-icing action of the cable of the power transmission line,
The cable includes a resistive rigid core and at least one conductor, the rigid core is electrically insulated from the at least one conductor,
Further comprising a switch box configured to switch sufficient current from the lead through the resistive rigid core for the anti-icing action of the cable in a first mode of operation,
The majority of the current flows through the leads in a second mode of operation.
- 14. The system of claim 13, wherein the switchbox places an inductance in series with the leads during the first mode of operation, and the rigid core is electrically parallel with a series combination of inductors and leads.
- 15. The method of claim 14, wherein the switch box inserts a magnetic core material into the coil to electrically position the inductance in series with the leads during the first mode of operation.
The magnetic core material is removed from the coil during the second mode of operation.
- The method of claim 13, wherein the switch box,
A device for switching between the first mode of operation and the second mode of operation under the direction of an external system controller;
An apparatus for detecting an overheating state of the cable; And
And a device for reducing the current in the resistive rigid core when an overheat condition is detected.
- The method of claim 16, wherein the switch box comprises a transformer,
The transformer having a secondary winding connected to the rigid core during ice making.
- The cable of claim 12, wherein the cable comprises a stiffness-strengthening conductor of greater electrical resistance and mechanical strength than the N conductors of the cable.
The rigid-strengthened conductor is electrically insulated from other conductors along the length of the zone, but is connected to a first lead of the N leads at the end of the first zone and at the second end of the zone of the N leads Connected to the Nth wire,
Opening of the switches in the switchboxes increases the effective electrical resistance of the N conductors between the switchboxes, such that a larger current is converted into the stiff-enhanced conductors to ice.
- A system for the deicing of power transmission lines,
At least one section of a cable for power transmission in a transmission line comprising at least first, second and third leads (the first, second and third leads are electrically insulated from each other);
At least one first switch located at a first end of said section of cable;
At least one second switch located at a second end of the region of the cable, wherein the first and second switches have at least a low resistance configuration, a middle resistance configuration and a high resistance configuration. Operable to be connected); And
Determine when a deicing action is required, select an appropriate deicing configuration from the medium and high resistance configurations, set the switches to a deicing configuration if a deicing action is required, and to the low resistance configuration if no deicing action is required A system controller for setting the switches.
- A method for deicing an area of a cable of a power transmission line,
The cable includes a plurality of conductors extending between the first switch box and the second switch box, the region of the cable having a normal operating mode, the plurality of conductors being electrically parallel,
The method comprises:
Detecting ice buildup on the area of the cable;
By electrically connecting the plurality of conductors of the cable in series, the switch of the switchboxes to position the zone of the cable in an ice making mode having an ice making mode resistance greater than the resistance of the zone of the cable in the normal operating mode. Constructing the hearing;
Resistive heating of the zone of the cable such that current flows into the zone of the cable to defrost the zone of the cable; And
Reconfiguring said switches of said switchboxes to return said zone of cable to said normal operating mode.
- 21. The switch box of claim 20, wherein the switches in the switch boxes comprise at least a first configuration corresponding to the normal operating mode, a second configuration corresponding to the deicing mode having a first resistance between the switch boxes. Has a third configuration corresponding to the second ice making mode having a second resistance therebetween,
The method comprises:
Monitoring current flow in said zone of cable to determine an appropriate ice making mode for said current.
- The method of claim 21, wherein the method is
If the current in the cable is insufficient for deicing, sending a message requesting an increase in the current flow in the region of the cable.
- 22. The method of claim 21, wherein the first lead of the plurality of cables has a resistance substantially different from the resistance of the second lead of the plurality of cables.
- 21. The method of claim 20, wherein the power line is configured to transmit power to electrical vehicles.
Priority Applications (4)
|Application Number||Priority Date||Filing Date||Title|
|US12/193,650 US20090250449A1 (en)||2008-04-02||2008-08-18||System And Method For Deicing Of Power Line Cables|
|Publication Number||Publication Date|
|KR20100130220A true KR20100130220A (en)||2010-12-10|
Family Applications (1)
|Application Number||Title||Priority Date||Filing Date|
|KR1020107023298A KR20100130220A (en)||2008-04-02||2009-01-23||System and method for deicing of power line cables|
Country Status (9)
|US (1)||US20090250449A1 (en)|
|EP (1)||EP2258030A1 (en)|
|JP (1)||JP2011517267A (en)|
|KR (1)||KR20100130220A (en)|
|CN (1)||CN101552444A (en)|
|CA (1)||CA2720352A1 (en)|
|EA (1)||EA201071153A1 (en)|
|RU (1)||RU2009103371A (en)|
|WO (1)||WO2009123781A1 (en)|
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|US4190137A (en) *||1978-06-22||1980-02-26||Dainichi-Nippon Cables, Ltd.||Apparatus for deicing of trolley wires|
|CA2253762A1 (en) *||1998-12-04||2000-06-04||Hydro-Quebec||Apparatus and switching method for electric power transmission lines|
|EP1028464B1 (en) *||1999-02-11||2006-07-26||SGS-THOMSON MICROELECTRONICS s.r.l.||Semiconductor device with improved interconnections between the chip and the terminals, and process for its manufacture|
|US6018152A (en) *||1999-04-13||2000-01-25||Allaire; Marc-Andre||Method and device for de-icing conductors of a bundle of conductors|
|CA2469778A1 (en) *||2004-06-04||2005-12-04||Pierre Couture||Switching modules for the extraction/injection of power (without ground or phase reference) from a bundled hv line|
- 2008-08-18 US US12/193,650 patent/US20090250449A1/en not_active Abandoned
- 2009-01-23 WO PCT/US2009/031826 patent/WO2009123781A1/en active Application Filing
- 2009-01-23 EA EA201071153A patent/EA201071153A1/en unknown
- 2009-01-23 EP EP09726680A patent/EP2258030A1/en not_active Withdrawn
- 2009-01-23 KR KR1020107023298A patent/KR20100130220A/en not_active Application Discontinuation
- 2009-01-23 JP JP2011502999A patent/JP2011517267A/en not_active Withdrawn
- 2009-01-23 CA CA2720352A patent/CA2720352A1/en not_active Abandoned
- 2009-02-02 RU RU2009103371/07A patent/RU2009103371A/en not_active Application Discontinuation
- 2009-02-18 CN CNA2009100095373A patent/CN101552444A/en not_active Application Discontinuation
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