KR20100015483A - Filtration process using microporous filter with a low elution antimicrobial source - Google Patents

Filtration process using microporous filter with a low elution antimicrobial source Download PDF

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KR20100015483A
KR20100015483A KR1020097021176A KR20097021176A KR20100015483A KR 20100015483 A KR20100015483 A KR 20100015483A KR 1020097021176 A KR1020097021176 A KR 1020097021176A KR 20097021176 A KR20097021176 A KR 20097021176A KR 20100015483 A KR20100015483 A KR 20100015483A
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South Korea
Prior art keywords
fluid
antimicrobial
outlet
filter
microporous
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KR1020097021176A
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Korean (ko)
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KR101828603B1 (en
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미켈 베스테르가드 프랑센
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베스테르고르 에스에이
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Priority to PCT/DK2007/000120 priority Critical patent/WO2008110165A1/en
Priority to DKPCT/DK2007/000120 priority
Priority to DKPCT/DK2007/000362 priority
Priority to PCT/DK2007/000362 priority patent/WO2008110166A1/en
Application filed by 베스테르고르 에스에이 filed Critical 베스테르고르 에스에이
Priority to PCT/DK2008/000096 priority patent/WO2008110172A2/en
Publication of KR20100015483A publication Critical patent/KR20100015483A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A47FURNITURE; DOMESTIC ARTICLES OR APPLIANCES; COFFEE MILLS; SPICE MILLS; SUCTION CLEANERS IN GENERAL
    • A47GHOUSEHOLD OR TABLE EQUIPMENT
    • A47G21/00Table-ware
    • A47G21/18Drinking straws or the like
    • A47G21/188Drinking straws or the like with filters to remove impurities
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A47FURNITURE; DOMESTIC ARTICLES OR APPLIANCES; COFFEE MILLS; SPICE MILLS; SUCTION CLEANERS IN GENERAL
    • A47GHOUSEHOLD OR TABLE EQUIPMENT
    • A47G21/00Table-ware
    • A47G21/18Drinking straws or the like
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D29/00Other filters with filtering elements stationary during filtration, e.g. pressure or suction filters, or filtering elements therefor
    • B01D29/62Regenerating the filter material in the filter
    • B01D29/66Regenerating the filter material in the filter by flushing, e.g. counter-current air-bumps
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D61/00Processes of separation using semi-permeable membranes, e.g. dialysis, osmosis, ultrafiltration; Apparatus, accessories or auxiliary operations specially adapted therefor
    • B01D61/14Ultrafiltration; Microfiltration
    • B01D61/145Ultrafiltration
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D61/00Processes of separation using semi-permeable membranes, e.g. dialysis, osmosis, ultrafiltration; Apparatus, accessories or auxiliary operations specially adapted therefor
    • B01D61/14Ultrafiltration; Microfiltration
    • B01D61/147Microfiltration
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D61/00Processes of separation using semi-permeable membranes, e.g. dialysis, osmosis, ultrafiltration; Apparatus, accessories or auxiliary operations specially adapted therefor
    • B01D61/14Ultrafiltration; Microfiltration
    • B01D61/16Feed pretreatment
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D61/00Processes of separation using semi-permeable membranes, e.g. dialysis, osmosis, ultrafiltration; Apparatus, accessories or auxiliary operations specially adapted therefor
    • B01D61/14Ultrafiltration; Microfiltration
    • B01D61/18Apparatus therefor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D63/00Apparatus in general for separation processes using semi-permeable membranes
    • B01D63/02Hollow fibre modules
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D63/00Apparatus in general for separation processes using semi-permeable membranes
    • B01D63/08Flat membrane modules
    • B01D63/082Flat membrane modules comprising a stack of flat membranes, e.g. plate-and-frame devices
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D65/00Accessories or auxiliary operations, in general, for separation processes or apparatus using semi-permeable membranes
    • B01D65/08Prevention of membrane fouling or of concentration polarisation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/001Processes for the treatment of water whereby the filtration technique is of importance
    • C02F1/002Processes for the treatment of water whereby the filtration technique is of importance using small portable filters for producing potable water, e.g. personal travel or emergency equipment, survival kits, combat gear
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/68Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by addition of specified substances, e.g. trace elements, for ameliorating potable water
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/72Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by oxidation
    • C02F1/76Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by oxidation with halogens or compounds of halogens
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2311/00Details relating to membrane separation process operations and control
    • B01D2311/04Specific process operations in the feed stream; Feed pretreatment
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2313/00Details relating to membrane modules or apparatus
    • B01D2313/40Adsorbents within the flow path
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2313/00Details relating to membrane modules or apparatus
    • B01D2313/44Cartridge types
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2321/00Details relating to membrane cleaning, regeneration, sterilization or to the prevention of fouling
    • B01D2321/16Use of chemical agents
    • B01D2321/168Use of other chemical agents
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/28Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by sorption
    • C02F1/283Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by sorption using coal, charred products, or inorganic mixtures containing them
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/44Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by dialysis, osmosis or reverse osmosis
    • C02F1/444Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by dialysis, osmosis or reverse osmosis by ultrafiltration or microfiltration
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/50Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by addition or application of a germicide or by oligodynamic treatment
    • C02F1/505Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by addition or application of a germicide or by oligodynamic treatment by oligodynamic treatment

Abstract

A method for filtration of fluid, primarily liquid, with fluid filtration device having a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and a fluid path between the inlet and the outlet through a microporous filter with a pore size adapted for filtering bacteria or bacteria and virus by mechanical particle size separation. The filtration device comprises further an antimicrobial source adding antimicrobial substance to the fluid in the fluid path between the fluid inlet and the inlet surface of the microporous filter. The fluid filtration device is provided with a design flow through the device, the design flow assuring a proper filtration of the fluid flowing through the device with a cleaned fluid at the flow outlet. The antimicrobial source, for example a halogen source, is configured to release the antimicrobial substance at a low elution rate that is not high enough for killing substantially all the microbes in the fluid during the time it takes the fluid to flow through the device at the design flow, but which is high enough to prevent prevention of a biofilm in the long term.

Description

FILTRATION PROCESS USING MICROPOROUS FILTER WITH A LOW ELUTION ANTIMICROBIAL SOURCE}

The present invention relates to a method for the filtration of fluid (mainly liquid) with a fluid filtration device. The filtration device has a fluid inlet and fluid outlet and a fluid passageway between the inlet and outlet through the microporous filter having a pore size controlled to filter bacteria or bacteria and viruses by mechanical particle size separation. The filtration device further includes an antimicrobial source that adds the antimicrobial material to the fluid with a fluid passageway between the fluid inlet and the inlet surface of the microporous filter.

Typically, household water purifiers to remove microorganisms in drinking water can follow two methods: chemical deactivation or physical filtration.

In the case of chemical deactivation, halogenated media such as chlorine or iodine are generally used. For example, in water purifiers where iodine sources are used, iodine and iodide are generally released from the resin into the water to deactivate microorganisms within a relatively short contact time and residence time in the water flowing through the device. . Inactivation efficacy is the product of contact and residence time and concentration of halogenated medium. Shorter contact-time and residence-time, higher concentrations of halogenated media will necessarily ensure that significant microbial inactivation is achieved. High concentrations of halogens in water absorbed by consumers cause disturbances in taste and smell and, if used permanently, can pose a health risk. To avoid this negative effect, residual iodine and iodide are usually removed by an iodine scavenger in the final treatment step before water is released for consumption. For example, activated carbon, in granular form (GAC), is a commonly used scavenger, and the activated carbon may also be treated with silver or copper to enhance antimicrobial efficacy. Since iodine is a rather expensive material, it is desirable to reduce iodine consumption.

On the other hand, halogen-free mechanical filters can be used for microbial purification by particle size separation. For example, ceramic filters are known in the art, where the filters can be used to filter water without the addition of iodine or chlorine. For example, JP Ceramics Ltd and Fairey Industrial Ceramics Limited (FICL) companies commercially provide ceramic filters.

In the prior art, other systems without halogen treatment of water are disclosed. For example, international patent applications WO98 / 15342 and WO98 / 53901, assigned to Prime Water Systems, disclose fluid filters with bundles of hollow fibers / tubes with micro-porous fiber walls, through which water to be treated flows. Microorganisms prevent flow through these walls due to the micro-filtration or ultra-filtration membrane properties of the microporous wall. Depending on the design of the housing, the assembled microorganisms, inorganic settling and humic acid can be ejected from the membrane surface to restore filtration performance if the filtrate accumulates in a "filtration-cake" and blocks the pores of the membrane. Commercial hollow fiber membrane cartridges with a forward flush system are also available from Dutch companies IMT Membranes® and Filtrix®. The cleaning power and the functional recovery of the membrane surface depend on the power output (flow rate) and the consistency of the filter cake. Most important for the shelf life of the membrane is the propagation of the biofilm upstream of the membrane, which is produced by mechanical separation but does not inactivate the microorganisms associated with humic acid.

Another example of a halogen-free water filter is commercially available as a product having the trade name Nanoceram® disclosed in US Pat. No. 6,838,005 assigned to Argonide and registered with the company Argonide®. In this case, alumina nanofibers are provided to the pore glass fiber matrix which filters the microorganisms by attaching to the nanofibers. Microorganisms and inorganic precipitates are attached by alumina to which high positive charges are added and remain permanently and non-release in the filter matrix. The shelf life of the filter depends on the contamination level of the influent and the filtering capacity.

The advantage of a halogen-free filter is that it has a relatively long shelf life without recharging or exchanging halogen sources and avoids the halogen taste and the health effects of the final, released water. However, there is a disadvantage in that a biofilm is formed inside such a filter, which causes a blockage of pores and a risk that a large amount of microorganisms are released from the biofilm when the membrane ruptures.

For example, as described in US Pat. No. 5,518,613 by Koczur and Garcia, US Pat. No. 4,769,143 by Deutsch and Iafe, and International Application WO94 / 27914 by Hughes, that microorganisms are killed upstream of the membrane filter. If the antimicrobial source is combined with a microporous filter, the biofilm is prevented. However, the killing of microorganisms inside the filter requires the release of a significant amount of antimicrobial agent, especially in the case of very small miniature filters, with severe limitations over the time of proper functioning of the filter.

Detailed Description / Summary of the Invention

Therefore, a general object is to improve the prior art filters by providing a long lasting filter while avoiding or at least rapidly reducing the risk for microorganisms breeding inside the filter.

This object has been achieved by a method for the filtration of fluids (mainly liquids) with the fluid filtration device according to the invention. The filter device has a fluid passageway between the inlet and the outlet through the microporous filter having a controlled pore size for filtering bacteria or bacteria and viruses by fluid inlet and fluid outlet and mechanical particle size separation. The apparatus further includes an antimicrobial source that adds the antimicrobial material to the fluid through a fluid passageway between the fluid inlet and the inlet surface of the microporous filter. A design flow is provided to the fluid filtration device through the device, which ensures proper filtration of the fluid flowing through the device with the fluid cleaned at the outlet. Antimicrobial sources, such as halogen sources, are not sufficient to kill virtually all microorganisms in the fluid for the time it takes for the fluid to flow through the device in the design flow, but at low elution rates that are high enough to prevent long-term biofilm protection. It was arranged to release enough antibacterial material. For example, the velocity is less than that required to reduce microorganisms to a log 4 reduction during the time it takes for the fluid to flow through the device in the design flow.

It is recognized that the device for filtering microorganisms does not filter all microorganisms but only a certain degree of microorganisms, which is the log of the velocity between the level of contaminants in the inlet fluid and the level of contaminants in the outlet fluid of the filter. Generally referred to as 'log reduction'. For example, a log 4 reduction in contaminants corresponds to a 99.99% reduction in contaminants, while a log 5 reduction in contaminants corresponds to a 99.999% reduction.

The term design flow refers to the typical flow rate for the filter. The design flow may be based on the human suction on the portable suction straw as the device according to the invention. For home gravity filters, the design flow depends on the height difference between the fluid inlet and the microporous filter and the pressure obtained by the resistance obtained from the microporous filter and other possible media in the device. Design flows can be well defined within a narrow range of flow figures, but can also cover a wider range of flow values. This depends on the device and the present use.

According to the invention, an antimicrobial source, for example a halogen source, is less than necessary to reduce microorganisms to log 4, log 3, or even log 2 reductions in the fluid for the time it takes for the fluid to flow through the device in the design flow − Or at a substantially smaller rate, sufficient to prevent biofilm formation, for example by reducing microorganisms by at least 1%, 5% or even 10%, and then for the time it takes for the fluid to flow through the device in the design flow. Corresponds to the level. The release of the antimicrobial agent, which is essential for the prevention of biofilms in the long term, is much smaller than the required rate of the antimicrobial agent, if it dies in a relatively short time for the time it takes for the fluid to flow through the device according to the design flow normally used by the microorganism. .

In particular, if a water-filled filter between the interiors is discontinued, sustained release of the antimicrobial material prevents the production of biofilms during the storage time.

By preventing the production of biofilms, the filtered particles upstream of the microporous filter or on the inlet surface of the microporous filter can be easily ejected from the device. It has been experimentally demonstrated that a fluid pressure of 0.1-0.2 bar is sufficient to eject particles in the filtration device according to the invention. In addition, the water pressure obtained in a gravity-operated domestic filter can clean the filter by jetting. This is a clear difference from the prior art filter cartridges, which require a rather high blowing pressure through the filter to remove the sticky biofilm. The jet at a pressure of 0.2 bar is not strong enough to remove, for example, the sticky biofilm in front of the microfiltration or ultrafiltration membranes in the voids of the hollow fibers.

Other advantages of eliminating the production of biofilms are understood from the discussion that follows. Biofilm growth in the filter can evolve into a microbial cluster that has the ability to release a very large amount of microorganisms to the end user if the porous membrane ruptures. Thus, dropping of biofilm growth due to halogen killing or otherwise microbial killing of microorganisms or just inhibition of microbial growth in the filter reduces the risk for infection if the filter is damaged.

Although the size of the pores is defined above to be arranged to filter bacteria and viruses, it is within the scope of the present invention that other biological or non-biological materials can be filtered with the device according to the invention. For example, the device according to the invention can be used to filter mold, parasites, colloidal insecticides or chemicals, humic acids, aerosols and other microparticles from liquids or gases, for example air.

Since the term filtering bacteria and viruses will be understood to hold the bacteria or virus by mechanical particle size separation from entering or traversing the microporous filtration medium, the pores are defined as the microorganisms flowing into or through the pores. It is smaller than microorganisms to prevent it. This principle is distinguished from the commercially available NanoCeram®, in which the particles bind to nanoalumina particles inside the filter media due to electrical charge.

The fluid passageway is confined to the path that carries the fluid from the inlet through the strainer to the outlet.

The singular forms “a”, “an” and “the” in the claims and the description are not intended to limit the invention to a single device, but it is to be understood that the context includes plural forms unless the context clearly dictates otherwise.

Antimicrobial Sources

Another definition of a low dissolution antimicrobial source is provided by the following. Also in this case, assuming that the fluid filtration device is provided with a design flow through the device, the design flow ensures proper filtration of the fluid flowing through the device with the fluid cleaned at the outlet. In this case, however, the antimicrobial source, e.g., the halogen source, causes the antimicrobial to be released at a rate that indicates the content of the antimicrobial in the fluid after microfiltration or ultrafiltration below a predetermined limit according to a predetermined health protocol. Are arranged. In other words, the amount and rate of antimicrobial release are chosen at low values that do not violate a predetermined health protocol, such as the WHO protocol, and even the antimicrobial scavenger filter is not used in one part of mechanical filtration.

Experiments can be kept low so that antimicrobial, eg, iodine or chlorine levels, are effective in preventing biofilm formation and attachment, so as not to violate typical health protocols. This is due to, for example, the relatively long time of antimicrobial action on microorganisms during storage between intermittent sequences of use.

For example, the CDC (Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, USA) recommends permanent iodine intake of 0.01 mg / day daily for infants aged 0-3 months. Based on the estimated moisture, which requires 0.5 liters / day at this age, the maximum iodine concentration in the ingested moisture cannot be more than 0.02 mg / l. Thus, ideally, the source does not dissolve more than 0.02 mg iodine per liter of water flowing through the device.

As an antimicrobial source for the present invention, a wide variety of options are available, for example antimicrobial including halogens. Such materials may be in the form of resins. The advantages of using low eluting halogenated resins in contrast to high dose resins are as follows. First, low eluting halogenated resins last longer than high eluting resins with the same halogen content. Because of the low dose, the use of halogen scavenger can be prevented by halogen without significantly affecting health to the consumer. If halogen scavengers are used, the requirement for scavenging is low. In addition, low doses allow for the amount of resin and scavenger to be reduced which reduces the size, weight and cost of the filtration device according to the invention in connection with the prior art devices.

Alternatively, the halogen source described above can be a halogenated liquid or gas provided from the reservoir at a rate controlled appropriately for the fluid passing through the device. As a further alternative, the halogen source may be a solid medium, for example in the form of tablets or granules, which dissolve at a suitable rate in the fluid path. Among suitable candidates, related to the present invention are tablets having a high trichloro isocyanic acid content (TCCA). Preferably, this TCCA tablet has slow dissolution properties, resulting in low elution of halogen. Alternatively, TCCA tablets with high elution properties can be installed in a rigid, porous purification chamber, where the influent mostly bypasses the TCCA purification chamber, while only a portion of the inflow passes through the purification chamber. This will cause dilution of the halogenated influent, in contact with the TCCA purification, by the residual influent, bypassing the TCCA purification.

For example, the ratio may be, for example, 1 ppm, 0.5 ppm or 0.1 ppm to 0.01 ppm in the fluid if halogen is iodine while the fluid is flowing through the device to yield a relative content between 0.01 ppm and 1 ppm. Likewise, it can be adjusted to a concentration of about 0.1 ppm or less.

In this regard, the target value may be 0.01 to 0.05 ppm, preferably 0.02 ppm when the other device is operated without iodine scavenger. If the killing of microorganisms is necessary with halogen and without the use of microporous filters for short contact times and residence times, this contrasts with iodine concentrations of 4 ppm or higher in the device. With regard to chlorine, concentration ranges and target values are 5 to 10 elements higher than iodine, for example 0.1 to 0.5 ppm, preferably 0.25 ppm.

It is well known that iodine resins yield higher concentrations of iodine if the resin is newer than the resin being the object of long-term flow of fluid through the resin. With regard to the above-mentioned ranges and target values according to the present invention, this relates to the long term value rather than the initial value of the resin.

In this case, if the resin or halogen source has a steeply high peak value for halogen released during the first flow through the device, this steep peak halogen concentration can be removed by the halogen scavenger after filtration. Optionally, this scavenger was devoid of scavenger remaining as soon as the peak concentration was exceeded and could be designed to be used at peak values such that a resin or other type of halogen source would enter the halogen release in a seemingly steady state.

Halogen release from resins or other media, such as tablets, may depend on temperature, pH, flow rate, viscosity of the fluid, and contamination levels. However, the influence of these parameters is not very important, since the rate of halogen release is not only very important for the filtration characteristics but also has the task of preventing biofilm growth. For low halogen concentrations, as mentioned above, the halogen source is a low eluting iodine resin.

To ensure that microorganisms do not propagate inside the strainer, when some microorganisms enter the membrane, the membrane material may contain antimicrobial material, for example incorporated into its material. Examples of such materials are AEGIS Microbe Shield ® or colloidal silver. For hollow fiber membranes, biodestructive materials are described in European patent EP 1 140 33 by Adriansen, Genne and Scharstuhl.

Porous filter type

The term “microporous” means voids in the micrometer and / or sub-micrometer range, for example in the range 0.01-1 micrometer. Thus, in the context of the present invention, the term is not intended to limit the pore size to micrometers for microfiltration, but means to be fairly equivalent to the pores that can be used for ultra-filtration.

Micro-filtration membranes (MF) typically have a porosity of about 0.1-0.3 microns and can filter bacteria, parasites and inorganic particles larger than the pores. Typically the ultra-filtration membrane (UF) has a porosity of about 0.01-0.04 microns and can filter bacteria and other parasites larger than the pores, and viral and inorganic particles. MF membranes usually have a higher flow rate than UF membranes. The porosity according to the number relates to a well-known test method of this kind of filter called bubble point measurement, which also relates to the parameters as described above in connection with the present invention.

To be tubular or sheet-like, microporous membranes can be made with various porosities for particle size separation. In order to filter bacteria microporously, microporosity having a size of 0.1 micrometers to 0.3 micrometers can be applied, but in order to filter viruses, smaller pore sizes, for example pores in the range of 0.01 to 0.04 micrometers, are required. do.

When used to filter bacteria, the preferred microporous filter device according to the invention has a porosity of about 0.1 micrometers, for example 0.05 to 0.15 micrometers.

Typically, in the United States, according to the EPA protocol, the filter is tested to yield log 4 filtration for bacteriophage MS2 virus with a size of 20 nm-30 nm. However, among viruses that are dangerous to humans and are typically present in tropical waters, only polio viruses have this small size. Other viruses that are dangerous to humans are typically larger, such as rotaviruses having a size on the order of 70 nm. Very sparse on Earth, such as polio viruses, will in many cases be sufficient to have a log 4 reduction of viruses with a size greater than 50 nm.

There is a commercially available UF membrane that delivers a moderate flow at low working pressures. From Prime Water International®, an ultra-filtration single hole hollow tube membrane with 0.02 micron porosity is available, which has a cleaning water flow rate of ˜1000 liters / hxm 2 x bar based on single hole flow rate measurement. h is time, m 2 is the square meter area, and bar is the pressure. Other candidate materials as microporous filters associated with the present invention are commercially available from INGE AG® as ultra-filtration 7-hole hollow tube membranes having a flow rate of 700 liters per hour x 2 bar. For example, a filter module having a size of 30 mm diameter x 250 mm length (relative to size as a commercially available LifeStraw®) can be made from 0.08 to 0.3 m 2 , for example, depending on the outer diameter of the filter housing and the number of fibers. For example from 0.08 to 0.15 m 2 , active membrane surface area (average 0.20 m 2 ).

In addition, the use of the filter according to the invention as a gravity filter, sometimes also commonly referred to as a siphon filter, indicates that a cartridge of 0.1 m 2 membrane area provides a theoretical flow of about 10 liters per hour at a 1 meter pressure differential of 0.1 bar. Means that.

Another possible kind of microporous filter for the present invention may be ceramic type. For example, such membranes may be in the form of one or more sheets, the latter being loaded to provide a large filtration surface.

In order to remove the taste and odor upstream of where the halogen is released, the filtration device according to the invention can be provided with a halogen absorber before the fluid outlet. Some of these halogen absorbers, for example iodine scavengers, are commercially available. One possible candidate is, for example, activated carbon contained in the granular form (GAC) or contained in the fiber, and potentially concentrated silver. If iodine is halogen, other possible halogen absorbers are Dow Marathon A® or Iodosorb®. In the ideal case, however, elution of the halogenated medium is very low only to prevent the production of biofilms, but no halogen absorber is required to reduce the concentration before humans absorb it.

As an option, the filtration device according to the present invention is characterized by nanoceram®, as disclosed in US Pat. No. 6,838,005, for example, as disclosed in US Pat. No. 6,838,005, although experiments have shown that this does not require it. Additional filtration steps.

One preferred option is the use of a filter membrane with a hydrophilic porous polymer membrane. Hydrophilic membranes are useful for liquid filtration, especially for water filtration. Commonly used polymers are polyether sulfone (PES), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) or polyacrylonitrile (PAN).

In further embodiments, the shape of this membrane is preferably a hollow fiber tube, but may optionally be a flat membrane. The hollow fiber may have a single hole structure or a multi hole structure (eg 7-hole). In the case of the device according to the invention, the IN-OUT filter stream is preferred, as it ensures that it removes the filter debris with a more concentrated jet.

For liquid filtration, the hollow fibers are hydrophilic while the membrane is advantageously hydrophobic when the gas is filtered. The discussion here is described in European patent EP 1 140 333 by Adriansen, Genne and Scharstuhl. As described in international patent WO98 / 53901 by Scharstuhl, hydrophilic membranes can be combined with hydrophobic membranes to prevent air from accumulating in the device.

In the case of microporous membranes or membranes in the form of hollow fibers / tubules, the fluid passages may be arranged from the inside of the fibers to the outside of the fibers. As an alternative, a halogen absorber may be provided between the hollow fibers, which arrangement protects the overall space of the entire filtration device according to the invention.

Numerous candidates for microporous filters or electron-active filters that can be used with respect to the present invention include:

Carbon nanotube filters,

Dendritic polymers,

-Microsieve and nanosieve

-Polyoxomethylate

Found in the following documents.

Figure 112009062020160-PCT00001

The device according to the invention can be composed of various antimicrobial sources, as described above. For example, the device according to the invention may use a halogenated resin provided in the passage between the fluid inlet and the microporous filter as the antimicrobial source for the flow of fluid through the resin chamber. The halogenated resin may be a granular resin. However, since halogenated resins are relatively expensive antimicrobials, antimicrobial sources can be used alternatively without granular halogenated resins or without any halogenated resins. In fact, as described above, many other antimicrobial materials may be used, for example, halogenated tablets without halogenated resins. As a further alternative, the filter media or the entire device may be free of antibacterial resin.

Type of device

In order for the device to have a storage capacity, in particular in the case of filters with gravity filters, the device may have a fluid storage container between the microporous filter and the fluid outlet. If the fluid storage container does not pose a risk for microbial propagation, it may be provided with an antibacterial surface therein. Alternatively or additionally, the dirty water storage container may also be connected to the inlet.

The application of the present invention has infinite possibilities due to its general nature. For example, the present invention can be used for a portable water filtration device. For example, such a portable filtration device is a beverage of 3 centimeters to 6 centimeters in diameter, such as 3 centimeters in diameter, and 10 centimeters to 40 centimeters in length, such as 25 centimeters, as is known as a commercially available water filter LifeStraw®. It can be a straw. Such beverage straws are particularly suitable for assisting in the provision of emergency equipment and water in rural areas as well as for camping, hiking and military purposes.

Another application is in the form of a gravity filter, where water or other liquid is filled in the first container and flows through the filter into a second container arranged at a low level. The force on the liquid for flow through the filter depends on the liquid level in the first vessel relative to the liquid filter. If the liquid is water and the water level exceeds the filter 2 meters, the pressure is 0.2 bar. For example, the height can be chosen from 0.2 to 2 meters, which corresponds to a pressure of 0.02 and 0.2 bar in the case of water. Using this principle, long-lasting, cost-effective, easy to maintain household filters for emerging worlds has been achieved. The filter operates only with gravity, without man-made pressure devices such as pumps.

In a preferred embodiment, the microporous filter hosts 0.1-0.3 m 2 membrane surface area. In addition, the filter can provide 10 liters per hour at a fluid inlet pressure of 0.1 bar. This is a parameter value that has been demonstrated experimentally. In more densely packed membranes, the filter area of a home or portable filter can be three to ten times larger. In particular, when the filter device according to the invention is used for a larger volume of water, the membrane surface area can be larger than that mentioned above, for example by installing a large device in or on the roof of the house.

housing

In a preferred embodiment, the device comprises a cartridge having a housing or inlet and an outlet and containing a microporous filter and a halogen source. The cartridge may include a disposable, reusable housing. Optionally, the device comprises a housing with halogenated resin separation that can be recharged or exchanged from the microporous filter.

The housing with the hollow fibers is advantageously assembled in a so-called forward-jet arrangement. During the use of the filtration device according to the invention, the filtered bacteria and viruses and other particles will aggregate into the filter, which may result in reduced filtration over time. Depending on the amount of turbidity by inorganic sedimentation and the amount of organic contaminants (bacteria, viruses and parasites) as well as organic particles such as humic acids, the flow rate can drop very quickly during use because the pores are clogged. The membrane must then be cleaned or replaced to restore performance. To regenerate the filter, a forward ejection mechanism can be included in the device according to the invention. The ejection mechanism provides a second fluid passageway from the fluid inlet through the microporous filter along the pore filter wall to the second outlet, but without passing through the pore filter wall, and can be established at the second outlet. A valve system is provided for ejecting the object during the process.

In a specific embodiment, the fluid filtration device according to the invention comprises a housing, inside where a microporous filter is provided. The housing may have an inner wall that releases antimicrobial material. The antimicrobial coating prevents biofilm formation on the inner wall surface of the housing.

Many coatings are available. Examples of antimicrobial or organosilane coatings are disclosed in US Pat. Nos. 6,762,172, 6,632,805, 6,469.120, 6,120,587, 5,959,014, 5,954,869, 6,113,815, 6,712.121, 6,528,472, and 4,282,366. It is.

Another possibility is an antimicrobial coating containing silver, for example in the form of colloidal silver. Colloidal silver containing silver nanoparticles (1 nm to 100 nm) can be suspended in the matrix. For example, silver colloids can be released from minerals such as zeolide, which have an open porous structure. Silver may also be embedded in a matrix such as a polymer surface film. Optionally, it may be embedded in the matrix of the entire polymer during the plastic forming process, typically injection molding, extrusion or blow molding.

Silver containing ceramics, which may be used in the present invention, are disclosed in US Pat. No. 6,924,325 to Qian. Silver for water treatment is disclosed in US Pat. No. 6,827,874 to Souter et al., 6,551,609 to King, which is generally known to use silver reinforced granular carbon for water purification. Silver coatings for water tanks are disclosed in European patent application EP1647527.

Other antimicrobial metals that may be used in connection with the present invention are copper and zinc, which may optionally or additionally be incorporated into the antimicrobial coating. Antimicrobial coatings containing silver and other metals are disclosed in US Pat. No. 4,906,466 by Edwards and references herein.

Additionally or alternatively, the coating may comprise titanium dioxide. Titanium dioxide can be applied to thin films synthesized by the sol-gel method. Amatase TiO 2 is a photocatalyst and thin film films with titanium dioxide are useful for exterior surfaces exposed to UV and ambient light. In addition, nanocrystals of titanium dioxide can be embedded inside the polymer. Moreover, silver nanoparticles can form complexes with titanium dioxide to improve efficiency.

For example, thin film coatings can have a thickness as small as several micrometers. Additionally or alternatively, the coating may comprise a reactive silane quaternary ammonium compound, as known from the company AEGIS® under the trademark Microbe Shield ™ used for air conditioning. When applied to the material as a liquid, the active ingredients in the AEGIS® antimicrobial form a colorless, odorless, positively charged polymer that can be chemically bound & visually removed from the treated surface.

From the inner wall, the release of the antimicrobial material not only provides a range to prevent microorganisms from surviving on the wall surface and prevent biofilm formation on the wall, but may also provide a range such as biofilm formation blocked in and on microporous filters.

In this regard, the following information is important. If a filter of the type of the invention is used in rural areas as a clean water filter for the family, the filter is used repeatedly only for short time intervals. Water typically comes out of or near the water hole and is then filtered. This happens several times a day but for a short time. This means that the filter is no flow in most cases. In the case where an antimicrobial is provided on the surface of the inner wall, the release of the antimicrobial does not require that all water passing through the filter be provided in a particular dose of antimicrobial. It is sufficient that the content of the antimicrobial material is released at a very sufficient rate to prevent biofilm formation between the time periods between the filtrations. Moreover, by considering this tendency for filtration, even low elution of the antimicrobial material released from the inner wall of the housing is sufficient to prevent contamination and biofilm formation. Only low elution needs also facilitate the provision of long lasting antimicrobial housings.

Release of the antimicrobial material from the inner wall of the housing may be caused by a surface coating of the inner surface, for example a surface coating that releases silver, as described above. Substitutes may be used to provide a surface on which the antimicrobial material can move from within the wall, for example, due to the antimicrobial agent incorporating the material of the wall or due to the antimicrobial material provided in a reservoir behind the wall and able to move through the wall into the fluid in the housing. It has an inner wall. The inner wall of the housing may also be formed from part of the laminate containing the reservoir.

The term housing also means multiple housings and tubes between these multiple housings as well as the multiple containers and the device according to the invention in conjunction with one another.

In a specific embodiment, the device according to the invention is a portable filter having a mouthpiece connected with a housing and a first fluid outlet arranged for contact with a human mouth. When the mouthpiece is an antibacterial surface, bacteria from the drinker with the mouthpiece are killed upon contact so that the second person using the mouthpiece is not infected. In fact, the concentrated mouthpiece does not have an antimicrobial surface, but if part of it is an antimicrobial surface, in particular the portion provided for contact with the mouth of the drinker with the mouthpiece is sufficient. In this case, the present invention is suitable for a compact water stagnation device with dimensions as a commercial product of the patented trademark LifeStraw®.

 Generally, when the housing has an antimicrobial surface, bacteria or other microorganisms of the person holding the housing are killed upon contact so that a second person touching the housing is not infected by the microorganisms on the housing. Also, even though the filter is stored in an unsanitary location, it does not become a bacterial breeding site. In fact, if a part of the housing has an antimicrobial surface, then a part of the housing, which is arranged especially for hands in contact with the housing, is sufficient.

In another aforementioned embodiment, the device according to the invention is applied to a household filter without a mouthpiece arranged for contact with a human mouth.

Fluid filtration device according to the present invention implies the possibility of various embodiments as it shows from above. For example, it can be arranged as a modular device with several modules or as a non-module device, for example made in one piece. In addition, as described above, the device according to the invention may comprise granular resins, for example water for purifying several types of granular resins or only one type of granular resin. In some embodiments, the device does not include a first module and a second module containing different water to purify the granular resin. Optionally, the device may be free of granular resin. By having only one resin or granule resin or without granule resin, this means that no separation means for preventing mixing of the resin, for example, no permeable mesh with a mesh size smaller than the crystal size of the resin something to do. The fluid filtration device may have a mouthpiece disposed to contact the mouth of a person and may be manufactured without the mouthpiece. If mouthpieces are used, the mouthpieces can have an antimicrobial surface, but they can also be provided without an antimicrobial surface. The housing may also be provided with an external or internal antimicrobial surface or without an internal or external antimicrobial surface or even without any antimicrobial surface.

In some embodiments, the fluid filtration device according to the present invention may not be in the form of a tube housing having a length of less than 50 cm and a width of less than 80 mm. In some embodiments, the fluid filtration device according to the invention may lack a mouthpiece for ingesting water through the device. In some embodiments, it has a mouthpiece, but the mouthpiece may not have an antimicrobial surface. In some embodiments, it may have those that have a mouthpiece and a housing and both have no antimicrobial surface. In some embodiments, the device may be free of at least a first module and a second module containing different water to purify the granular resin, where the first module has a first connector and the second module uses a second connector. And the first and second connectors are tubular and connected to restrict water flowing through the first and second modules. In some embodiments, the device may be free of the first module or the second module or with at least one water permeable mesh having a mesh size smaller than the crystal size of the resin to prevent mixing of the resin.

Blowout principle

As mentioned above, during the use of the device according to the invention, microorganisms accumulate upstream of the fluid of the microporous filter. Such microorganisms can be released and ejected by tangential flow along the microporous filter. The first portion of the ejection fluid released from the device contains a large portion of the microorganisms and is harmful if consumed. Preferably as a warning, as indicated, the first outlet for the cleaning fluid has a first marking and the second outlet for the flushing fluid has a different color, which is distinguished from the second marking, for example the first marking. Have

Alternatively or additionally to warn, the ejection fluid itself can be distinguished, for example, by color, taste and / or smell. In addition, in a further embodiment, the chamber is provided upstream of the second outlet. The chamber accumulates a volume of fluid from the inlet and the user opens the valve for release of the fluid from the second outlet and provides a specific color to the volume of the fluid when the released first fluid is the fluid from the chamber. Add marking material to this part of The volume of this fluid is colored, for example, green or red, indicating to the user that this fluid has not been consumed. In addition to or alternatively to the color, the fluid may be provided with a substance which gives the fluid a particular taste, for example a bitter taste and / or a particular smell, for example a foul smell. In order to separate the volume of the chamber from the fluid across the filter, the chamber comprises in one embodiment a one-way valve that separates the chamber from the microporous filter.

During forward ejection, the fluid enters through the fluid inlet, flows along the microporous filter surface, and exits the device through the second fluid outlet after crossing the chamber upstream of the second outlet. When the second outlet is closed again, the chamber is filled with fresh fluid filled with the marking material. The marking material can be provided in small amounts and moreover is produced gradually in the fluid of the chamber until the next forward ejection. The volume of the chamber may be as small as necessary to alert the user as soon as the second outlet is opened. This indicates that the source of color, odor or taste is a slowly dissolving tablet provided in a small source such as a chamber.

Preferably, the first fluid outlet is closed during forward ejection, although this is not strictly necessary.

It is advantageous if the microporous filter is subjected to some countercurrent jet before or during the forward jet. Counterflow is performed by pressurizing the cleaning fluid in the reverse direction through a microporous filter, for example, to prevent forward ejection for several hours. In a further embodiment, the apparatus has a counterflow jet container connected to the outlet side of the microporous filter for countercurrent jet of cleaning fluid from the counterflow jet container through the microporous filter.

In particular, in order for the house to accommodate a filter or a portable filter, the flexible container is advantageously a passively activated resilient bellows / balloons connected to the outlet of the microporous filter, for example in the form of a squeeze pump. ballon). By manually pressurizing the flexible container together, the cleaning fluid accumulated in the container is pushed into the microporous filter to clean the counterflow filter. Microorganisms and other microbial particles are pressurized upstream of the microporous filter. From this upstream volume, the particles are then removed by forward blowing.

Countercurrent blow vessels, such as bellows / balloons, are connected to the microporous filter in a dead-end arrangement of a specific embodiment, which allows the vessel to separate from the downstream portion of the microporous filter relative to the first outlet. Means to have.

In certain cases, the device according to the invention has a unique orientation for proper use. For example, the device according to the invention is a water filter and has a tubular housing around the microporous filter, and the proper use of the device can mean a vertical arrangement of the housing. If the first outlet is at the bottom of the housing and the backflow vessel is connected to the top of the housing, there is a risk that the air is blocked in the backflow vessel instead of the cleaning water such that proper backflow is not possible. In addition, it is advantageous because if the countercurrent jet container is located below the first outlet, the level for the jet of water passing through the first outlet will fill the container.

Optionally, the counterflow vessel may be part of a tube connecting the microporous filter at the first outlet. In this case, the cleaning fluid flows through the vessel, for example bellows / balon, to leave the first outlet. Moreover, the flexible countercurrent jet container will be at least partially easily filled with cleaning fluid.

In a specific embodiment, the housing is a tube having a lateral size of less than 6 cm, and the resilient backwash jet of the housing is configured to manually activate the resilient backwash jet by grasping around the housing and by pressurizing the backflow jet container. It is provided on the outer side. During each hour, the housing is grasped by a person and the backflow is activated by removing microorganisms from the pores of the filter.

The invention will be described in more detail with reference to the following figures, wherein:

1 illustrates the principles of the invention,

2 illustrates the ejection principle,

3 shows the loaded film configuration,

4 shows a film configuration loaded in a zig-zag;

5 shows a hollow fiber arrangement with a halogen absorber between the fibers,

6 illustrates a hollow fiber arrangement with a storage container,

7 illustrates a gravity filter,

8 illustrates in detail the container of gravity fibers,

9 is a capillary filter with backflow option;

10 is a sheet membrane filter with counterflow option;

11 shows a flexible housing.

Detailed Description / Preferred Embodiments

1 illustrates the principles of the invention. The fluid filtration device 1 has a fluid inlet 2 and a fluid outlet 3. The fluid is preferably a liquid, but the present invention is of general nature and may also be used for gases, aerosols or vapors. The downstream part of the fluid inlet 2 is a chamber 4 provided with an antimicrobial material 5, preferably halogen. The source can be a halogenated liquid or gas that can be provided at a suitable rate for the fluid through the device. However, halogenated resins through which the fluid passes are preferred, which is indicated by arrow 7. After the step of adding halogen to the fluid, the fluid traverses the microporous filter 8, preferably the membrane, before the fluid passes through the fluid outlet 3 and leaves the device. Optionally, the device 1 also has a halogen absorber 9 in the third chamber 10. Substances 11, such as bacteria, viruses and other substances, are contained in the microporous inlet surface of the wall 12 of the membrane 8. In a vertical arrangement, the device can be applied on the principle of gravity as illustrated in FIG.

The chamber 4 with the antimicrobial material 5, preferably a halogenated source, for example resin or tablet, is extruded when an integrated part of the housing 1 or for example a source, for example resin or tablet, is extruded. It may be a chamber that can be detached to the module from the remaining part of the housing 1 in order to replace the chamber 4. If the invention is used with a drinking straw, similar to the commercial product LifeStraw®, a mouthpiece may be provided at the first outlet 3.

In Fig. 2, the basic principle of the apparatus according to the present invention including a forward ejection mechanism is illustrated. The device 1 comprises a first fluid outlet 3 for discharging the filtered liquid. At the first fluid outlet 3, a valve may optionally be provided for regulating the flow through the outlet 3. In addition, the device 1 comprises a second fluid outlet 13 with a valve 14, which can be opened for ejecting conditions, wherein the ejecting fluid has a membrane surface for absorbing the filtered foreign matter 11. It flows parallel along (15). If a valve is provided at the first fluid outlet 3, the valve can be closed during the ejection state.

In FIG. 3 the loaded planar membrane arrangement is shown in cross section. The membrane 8 may be of a ceramic type or a microporous polymer membrane type. Water flows into the microporous filter between the outlet walls of the adjacent membranes 8 and exits the microporous filter and into the volume 6 between the outlet walls of the adjacent membranes 8. Since the membrane 8 fits tightly to the surrounding seal, the water flow from the inlet to the outlet is only possible through the membrane 8. In the volume 6 between the outlet walls of the adjacent membrane 8, a halogen absorber, for example an iodine scavenger resin, can be arranged. The deposited membrane arrangement may be part of the ejectable device principle, an example of which is illustrated in FIG. 2. As an alternative, although not shown, the loaded membrane can be bent. Additional alternatives may be provided in pairs of helical membranes.

In Fig. 4, another loaded film arrangement is shown, where the film 8 forms a zigzag pattern. This may be convenient if the membrane is a foldable microporous membrane 8, which is folded into a harmonica-shaped form before climbing up the housing. Zig-zag loaded membrane arrangements may be part of the ejectable device principle, an example of which is illustrated in FIG. 2.

In FIG. 5A, the arrangement of the merged hollow fibers 16 is illustrated. A number of hollow fibers 16 are arranged in the housing 40 and the fluid 7 passes through the chamber 5 with antibacterial, for example halogenated resin 5, before flowing through the fiber wall 16. And flow out of the filter through the spaces between the fibers 16, illustrated by arrows. In the spaces between the fibers 16, a halogen absorber 9 may optionally be provided to absorb residual halogen from the fluid before exiting from the filtration device 1. The antimicrobial material 5, for example halogenated resin, may be included in the rechargeable chamber 4 as illustrated. As hollow fibers 16 pass through, this means that they do not close their ends. When the valve 14 is opened, as illustrated in FIG. 5B, the fluid will seek the easiest possible way out through the valve 14. Biomaterials and other materials that are retained in the fibers will exit the fibers 16 and eject by the flow of the fluid.

6A and 6B illustrate a principle similar to FIG. 5. However, the storage vessel 17 surrounds the membrane to absorb water or other filtered fluid before it is released for consumption. Storage containers are particularly useful in the case of gravity filters, where water can flow through the filter for a considerable time before consumption. For example, water may flow through the filter for night time and accumulate in a storage container for consumption the next day.

In one of the embodiments, the storage container 17 is arranged around the tubular housing 40 and is made of a flexible material. By grasping around the housing and the container 40, pressure is applied to the container. At the same time, when the first outlet 3 is closed, the cleaning fluid in the vessel 17 will be pressurized back into the space between the fibers 16 and perform a backflow through the fiber walls. The backflow will remove the particles and microorganisms from the inside of the fiber 16 after the microorganisms and particles are ejected in the forward ejection batch, even if the valve 14 is open as illustrated in FIG. 6B.

7 illustrates a gravity filter 20 having a supply vessel 21 for feeding to a filtration device 22 arranged at a low level of water. The container 21 is provided with a handle 23 for easy transportation of the container 21. The lower part of the vessel 21 includes a chamber 24 having an antimicrobial material, preferably a source chamber 24 containing low elution halogenated, for example chlorinated, tablets. Optionally, the vessel 21 may contain an alternative or washable pretreatment filter for filtering larger particles from water.

The halogenated source chamber 24 of the vessel 21 is connected to the filter device 22 by a flexible pipe 25. Filter device 22 contains a forward blow-forming porous hollow fiber unit, for example, a unit having a maximum pore size of 0.04 micrometers or 0.02 micrometers. Apart from the cleaning water outlet 26 with the valve 27, the strainer device also includes a jet water outlet 28 with a jet valve 29 to be opened for ejecting the object.

8 shows the supply vessel 21 in more detail. At the top the pretreatment-filter insert 30 with the fluid inlet is releasably inserted into the container 21. The cylindrical replacement filter to be placed in the pre-filter insert 30 is not shown. A hole 31 is provided in the container 21 for hanging the container 21 on a hook or nail in the wall. The handle 23 of the vessel 21 has a cross-sectional U-shape to press the handle into a snug fit of the strainer device 22 to facilitate transportation and storage.

9 illustrates a further embodiment of the present invention. The microporous filter 1 comprises a plurality of microporous capillaries 16 through which water or other fluid enters through the fluid inlet 2. Water flows through the capillary tube 16 to the outlet chamber 45 at the lower end and can be discharged through the valve 14 at the second fluid outlet 13 in the case of forward ejection. When the valve 14 at the second outlet 13 is closed, the pressure on the water causes water to pass through the capillary wall 43 and into the space 44 between the capillaries. From the space 44 between, water can also be released for consumption through the first outlet 3 with the valve 46. In addition, the filtration device 1 has a container 42 in which washing water is accumulated. Since the vessel 42 is located lower than the first outlet 3, it is filled with cleaning water before the water is discharged through the first outlet 3. The container 42 is made of a compressible material, for example a polymeric bellows / balloon, which can be manually compressed. When the first outlet 3 is closed by the valve 46, pressure exerts on the vessel 42, which causes water to flow from the vessel back through the capillary wall 43 into the capillary 16. This countercurrent blows microbes and other particles out of the capillary pores and away from the inner surface of capillary 16. Continuous or simultaneous forward ejection through the second outlet 13 removes microorganisms and particles from the filtration device 1.

In order to provide adequate flow through the filtration device 1, the outlet chamber 45 between the open outlet end 48 and the second outlet 13 of the capillary tube 16 is a curved wall 49, for example. It is formed into a wall with a hemispherical shape. The advantage of such a wall is that even capillaries located close to the housing 40 provide adequate flow without significant anxiety. This is in contrast to the conventional flat end cap, which restricts flow through the outermost capillary, in particular to provide a non-flat flow, which is a disadvantage in forward ejection. Likewise, in order to provide adequate flow to the outermost capillary, an inlet chamber 47 is provided with a curved chamber wall 49 '.

Optionally, the outlet chamber 45 is ranged by one-way valve 10, which allows water, preferably water, to enter the outlet chamber 45 from the capillary tube 16 but prevents it from flowing back into the capillary tube 16. Can be determined. During the forward ejection situation, the outlet chamber 45 is filled with unfiltered water from the capillary. When the outlet valve 14 is closed, water is moored in the outlet chamber 45. This water slowly dissolves the tablet 51 which gradually colors the water in the outlet chamber 45 until the next forward ejection. Upon the next forward jet, the user is informed that the first portion of water released has a certain color and that the water has not been consumed. As an alternative to colored tablets, granules, a coating of the inner surface of the outlet chamber, or a colorant incorporated into the material of the wall of the outlet chamber to move to the inner surface of the wall of the outlet chamber may be used instead. Moreover, the colorant may be replaced or supplemented by a taste providing agent and / or an odor providing agent. One-way valve 50 prevents the added color, odor or taste providing material from reaching the capillary 16 and the liquid at the first end.

Alternative embodiments are illustrated in FIG. 10. The liquid enters the first chamber 5 ′ at the upper fluid inlet 2, and the antimicrobial material is released into the liquid before it enters the inlet chamber 47 through the filter or membrane 57. This antimicrobial material may be halogen, preferably iodine or chlorine, from a source in the first chamber 5 '. From the inlet chamber 47, the liquid enters the outlet chamber 45 through one directional valve 50 similar to the embodiment described above in FIG. 9. When the second outlet valve 14 is closed, the liquid crosses from the microporous membrane 8, for example the ceramic membrane, to the outlet reservoir 53 before it is discharged through the outlet 3 for consumption. Also in this case, the vessel 42 is used for back-flowing through the microporous membrane 8. The outlet chamber is separated from the outlet reservoir 53 by the fluid tight wall compartment 56. In addition, the outlet reservoir 53 may contain a halogen scavenger.

Optionally or additionally to the first chamber 5 ', by exiting from the wall 55 of the inlet chamber, for example by coating the inner wall of the housing 40 or of the wall of the housing 40. The antimicrobial material may be added to the liquid in the inlet chamber 47 by movably deficient in the material. As a further alternative, or as a further addition, antimicrobial material may be added to the liquid in the inlet chamber 47 through the wall 55 'of the inlet chamber by the movement of material from the reservoir 54. From the inner wall 55, 55 ′, the release of the antimicrobial material provides a degree of microbial survival on the surfaces of the walls 55, 55 ′ and prevents the formation of biofilm there, but within the microporous filter 52. And provide a degree that includes release of the antimicrobial at a rate sufficient to provide a fluid with sufficient antimicrobial, such that biofilm formation in the phase is also prevented.

11a and lb illustrate further embodiments according to the present invention. In this embodiment, the housing 40 has two rigid portions 40a and 40b between which a flexible bendable portion 40c is provided. For filtration, the fluid flows (7) through the fluid inlet (2) to the device and is discharged to the cleaning fluid (58) through the fluid outlet (3). The microporous filter in the housing 40 can be bent, followed by the bending of the housing 40. When the housing is bent, since the flexible portion 40c of the housing is deflected from the cylinder, it tends to reduce the capacity in the housing. When the fluid outlet 3 is closed by the valve 46, the housing is bent, as illustrated in FIG. 11B, and a reduction in capacity inside the housing presses the fluid back through the strainer and out of the fluid inlet. This method, which is a simple arrangement, is provided for countercurrent jetting purposes.

Claims (65)

  1. As a fluid filtration method, the method
    A fluid inlet through a microporous filter 8 having a pore size suitable for filtering microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses from the fluid by fluid inlet 2 and fluid outlet 3 and mechanical particle size separation and Providing a fluid filtration device 1 having a fluid passageway between the fluid outlets,
    Providing an antimicrobial source 5 formed for adding antimicrobial material to the fluid in the fluid passageway between the fluid inlet end and the microporous filter at a rate to prevent biofilm formation,
    Providing a design flow to the fluid filtration device, the design flow comprising ensuring proper filtration of the fluid flowing through the device with the fluid cleaned at the outlet,
    The method is
    Arranging the antimicrobial source to release the antimicrobial at a rate less than necessary to reduce the microorganism to a log 4 reduction in the fluid for the time it takes for the fluid to flow through the device in the design flow.
  2. The method of claim 1, wherein the method comprises releasing the antimicrobial material at a rate less than necessary to reduce the microorganisms to a log 3 reduction in the fluid for the time it takes for the fluid to flow through the device in the design flow.
  3. The method of claim 2, wherein the method comprises releasing the antimicrobial material at a rate less than necessary to reduce the microorganisms to a log 2 reduction in the fluid for the time it takes for the fluid to flow through the device in the design flow.
  4. The method of claim 1, wherein the method comprises arranging an antimicrobial source to release the antimicrobial material at a rate that includes the antimicrobial content in the fluid after microfiltration below a predetermined limit according to a formal health protocol. How to be.
  5. The method of claim 1, wherein the antimicrobial source comprises a halogen source and the antimicrobial material comprises halogen.
  6. 6. The method according to claim 5, wherein the method is characterized in that the fluid flowing through the device in the design flow yields a concentration of less than 1 ppm if the antimicrobial is iodine and a concentration of less than 10 ppm if the antimicrobial is chlorine. And arranging a halogen source to release the carbon dioxide.
  7. The method of claim 5 wherein the method comprises adjusting the rate to yield a concentration of less than 0.1 ppm if the antimicrobial material is iodine in the fluid flowing through the device in the design flow and less than 0.5 ppm if the antimicrobial material is chlorine. Way.
  8. 8. The method of claim 6 or 7, wherein the concentration in the fluid flowing through the device in the design flow is at least 0.01 ppm if the antimicrobial material is iodine and at least 0.1 ppm if the antimicrobial material is chlorine.
  9. The resin chamber (4) according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the antimicrobial source is in a passage between the fluid inlet (2) and the microporous filter (8) for the flow of fluid through the resin chamber. ) Is a halogenated resin provided.
  10. The method of claim 1, wherein the antimicrobial source is free of halogenated resin.
  11. The method of claim 1, wherein the device is free of antimicrobial granule resin.
  12. The method of claim 11, wherein the device is free of antibacterial resin.
  13. The method of claim 1, wherein the microporous filter comprises a micro-filtration membrane.
  14. The method of claim 13, wherein the micro-filtration membrane has a porosity of 0.05 to 0.4 micrometers.
  15. The method of claim 13, wherein the micro-filtration membrane has a porosity of 0.05 and 0.15 micrometers.
  16.  The method of claim 1, wherein the microporous filter comprises an ultra-filtration membrane having pores of pore size adapted to filter the virus.
  17. The method of claim 16, wherein the ultrafiltration membrane has a porosity of less than 0.04 micrometers.
  18. The method of claim 1, wherein the microporous filter includes a solid microporous ceramic wall having a fluid passage through a wall separating the fluid inlet from the fluid outlet.
  19. 19. The microporous hydrophilic polymer wall (8) according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the microporous filter has a fluid passage through a wall separating the fluid inlet (2) from the fluid outlet (3). How to include.
  20. 20. The flow tube (6) according to claim 18 or 19, wherein the microporous filter comprises a sheet separating the fluid inlet (2) from the fluid outlet (3) and a fluid passage through the microporous wall of the sheet. And a loaded microporous polymer or ceramic sheet forming a film.
  21. 20. The method of claim 19, wherein the microporous filter comprises hollow, microporous polymer fibers (16) having a fluid passage through a fiber wall separating the fluid inlet (2) from the fluid outlet (3).
  22. 20. The microporous filter of claim 19, wherein the microporous filter comprises a plurality of hollow, microporous polymer fibers 16 having a fluid passageway through the microporous wall of fibers separating the fluid inlet 2 from the fluid outlet 3. How to do.
  23. 23. The microporous polymer fiber (16) of claim 22 passes through the microporous wall (43) of the fiber separating the fluid inlet (2) from the hollow interior of the fiber and at the fluid outlet (3). Having a fluid passage with a halogen scavenger (9).
  24. 24. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 23, wherein the device comprises a halogen scavenger (9) between the microporous wall of the microporous filter (8, 16) and the fluid outlet (3).
  25. The method according to claim 23 or 24, wherein the halogen scavenger (9) is Iodosorb® or Dow Marathon A®.
  26. 26. The method of any one of claims 1-25, wherein the device comprises activated carbon resin in the fluid passageway between the microporous filter and the fluid outlet.
  27. The method of claim 26, wherein the activated carbon is concentrated silver.
  28. 25. The method of any one of claims 1 to 24, wherein the device is free of halogen scavenger.
  29. 29. The method of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the fluid is water.
  30. 30. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the method has a housing (40) or cartridge having an inlet (2) and an outlet (3) and a microporous filter (8) and an antimicrobial source (5). And providing a device comprising the same.
  31. 33. The method of claim 30, wherein the cartridge is contained in a disposable, reusable housing.
  32. 32. The method of claim 30 or 31, wherein the device comprises a housing having a rechargeable or replaceable antimicrobial source separate from the microporous filter.
  33. 33. The method according to any one of claims 30 to 32, wherein the housing (40) has an inner wall with an antimicrobial source for the release of antimicrobial material from the surface of the wall.
  34. The method of claim 33, wherein the antimicrobial source is a coating on the surface of the wall.
  35. The method of claim 33, wherein the antimicrobial source is incorporated into wall material.
  36. 36. The method of claim 35, wherein the antimicrobial source is contained in a reservoir behind a wall and the wall is arranged to move the antimicrobial material through the wall to the surface of the wall.
  37. 37. The method of any one of claims 33-36, wherein the antimicrobial material contains silver.
  38. 38. The device of claim 1, wherein the device comprises a porous ceramic structure or a porous hollow polymer fiber having a pore size suitable for filtering bacteria, wherein the device comprises a Nanoceram® downstream of the microporous filter. And a filter.
  39. 38. The method of any one of claims 1 to 37, wherein the device is not positively attracting ultrafiltration or microfiltration media such as Nanoceram®.
  40. The device of claim 1, wherein the device is from the fluid inlet 2 to the second outlet 13, 28 along the porous filter wall 8, but not through the porous filter wall. A second fluid passageway, wherein the second outlet provides a valve (14, 29) system for forward ejection purposes during an open valve state.
  41. 41. The method according to claim 40, wherein the first outlets (3, 22) have a first marking and the second outlets (13, 28) have a second marking, the second marking being distinctly different from the first marking. .
  42. 42. The method according to claim 40 or 41, wherein the method provides a chamber 45 upstream of the second outlet 13, which chamber comprises a one-way valve 59 separating the chamber from the microporous filter 16. And providing a colorant (51) to the chamber to color the fluid in the chamber as a warning to the consumer that the fluid has not been consumed from the second outlet (13).
  43. 43. The method according to any one of claims 40 to 42, wherein the method provides a chamber 45 upstream of the second outlet 13, which chamber separates the chamber from the microporous filter. And odor providing 51 or taste providing to the chamber to provide odor or taste or both to the fluid in the chamber as a warning to the consumer that no fluid has been consumed from the second outlet 13. Method comprising providing 51.
  44. 44. The outlet face of any one of claims 40 to 43, wherein the device is provided with an outlet face of the microporous filter (16, 52) for countercurrent jet of cleaning fluid from the countercurrent jet container (42) and through the microporous filter (16). And a flexible, manually compressible countercurrent jet container (42) associated with the coupling.
  45. 45. The method of claim 44, wherein the countercurrent jetting vessel (42) is connected to the microporous berry (16, 52) in a dead-end arrangement.
  46. 46. The method according to claim 45, wherein the method comprises providing a device having a unique orientation for proper use, wherein the orientation is that the countercurrent jetting vessel (42) is located below the first outlet (3).
  47. 47. The method according to any one of claims 43 to 46, wherein the method is provided by providing the housing 40 as a tube having a side size of less than 6 cm and a countercurrent jet container along the outer side of the housing and holding it around the housing. And manually activating the countercurrent jet by applying pressure to the vessel.
  48. 48. The method of claim 47, wherein the counterflow jet container is part of a tube connecting a microporous filter having a first outlet.
  49. 45. The method of claim 44, wherein the method provides a minimum portion of the resilient walled housing 40c and pressurizes the wall to pressurize the cleaning countercurrent jet fluid through the microporous filter from the outlet face of the microporous filter. Comprising.
  50. 50. The method according to claim 49, wherein the method provides a microporous filter and housing (40, 40a, 40b, 40c) as a resilient bendable tubular filter, and through the microporous filter from the microporous outlet face. And bending with a filter to pressurize the fluid.
  51. 51. The method of any one of claims 1-50, wherein the device has an internal antimicrobial surface and a fluid storage container between the microporous filter and the fluid outlet, wherein the fluid storage container has an internal antimicrobial surface.
  52. The method of claim 1, wherein the device is a portable device.
  53. The method of claim 52, wherein the device has a size of 2 to 6 centimeters in diameter and 10 to 40 centimeters in length.
  54. 54. The method of claim 53, wherein the device is a beverage straw having a mouthpiece for contacting the mouth of a human.
  55. 55. The method of claim 54, wherein the mouthpiece, or at least a portion thereof, preferably the portion provided for contact with the mouth of a person drinking water from the mouthpiece has an antimicrobial surface.
  56. 53. The method of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the device is devoid of a mouthpiece disposed for contact with the mouth of a person.
  57. 53. The method of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the device is a gravity liquid filter (21, 22).
  58. 58. The method of claim 57, wherein the filter is a gravity filter (21, 22) operating at pressures of 0.01 and 0.2 bar.
  59. The method of claim 1, wherein the microporous filter hosts 0.1 to 0.5 m 2 membrane surface area.
  60. 60. The method of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the device is formed to provide 6 to 10 liters per hour inlet pressure, in terms of 0.1 bar.
  61.  61. The method of any one of claims 1 to 60, wherein the material of the microporous filter contains an antimicrobial material.
  62. 60. The method of any one of claims 1 to 59, wherein the method comprises the use of a filtration device for cleaning water in connection with camping.
  63. 60. The method of any one of claims 1 to 59, wherein the method comprises the use of a filtration device to clean water in connection with military activities.
  64. 60. The method of any one of claims 1 to 59, wherein the method comprises the use of a filtration device to clean the water in connection with an emergency.
  65. 60. The method of any one of claims 1-59, wherein the method comprises the use of a filtration device for cleaning water in rural areas.
KR1020097021176A 2007-03-09 2008-03-08 Filtration process using microporous filter with a low elution antimicrobial source KR101828603B1 (en)

Priority Applications (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
PCT/DK2007/000120 WO2008110165A1 (en) 2007-03-09 2007-03-09 Microporous filter with a halogen source
DKPCT/DK2007/000120 2007-03-09
DKPCT/DK2007/000362 2007-07-18
PCT/DK2007/000362 WO2008110166A1 (en) 2007-03-09 2007-07-18 Microporous filter with an antimicrobial source
PCT/DK2008/000096 WO2008110172A2 (en) 2007-03-09 2008-03-08 Filtration process using microporous filter with a low elution antimicrobial source

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KR1020157026464A KR20150121188A (en) 2007-03-09 2008-03-08 Filtration process using microporous filter with a low elution antimicrobial source

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CN101677701B (en) 2011-12-28
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AP2454A (en) 2012-08-31
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MA31301B1 (en) 2010-04-01
EP2136683A2 (en) 2009-12-30
US20100044321A1 (en) 2010-02-25
IL200805D0 (en) 2010-05-17
TW200906475A (en) 2009-02-16
EP2139590A1 (en) 2010-01-06
KR20150121188A (en) 2015-10-28
BRPI0808473A2 (en) 2014-07-15
CN101668580A (en) 2010-03-10
WO2008110172A3 (en) 2009-01-15
AP3005A (en) 2014-10-31
BRPI0721407A2 (en) 2013-04-24
WO2008110166A1 (en) 2008-09-18
HK1141215A1 (en) 2012-05-18
WO2008110165A1 (en) 2008-09-18
US20100051527A1 (en) 2010-03-04
MX2009009608A (en) 2009-10-12
MX2009009609A (en) 2009-10-20
AP200904981A0 (en) 2009-10-31
KR101828603B1 (en) 2018-03-22
KR101547362B1 (en) 2015-08-25
AP200904999A0 (en) 2009-10-31
CN101677701A (en) 2010-03-24
KR20090127163A (en) 2009-12-09
IL200806D0 (en) 2010-05-17
MA31302B1 (en) 2010-04-01
WO2008110167A1 (en) 2008-09-18

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