KR20080107475A - Marine asset security and tracking (mast) system - Google Patents

Marine asset security and tracking (mast) system Download PDF

Info

Publication number
KR20080107475A
KR20080107475A KR1020087026431A KR20087026431A KR20080107475A KR 20080107475 A KR20080107475 A KR 20080107475A KR 1020087026431 A KR1020087026431 A KR 1020087026431A KR 20087026431 A KR20087026431 A KR 20087026431A KR 20080107475 A KR20080107475 A KR 20080107475A
Authority
KR
South Korea
Prior art keywords
data
radio frequency
tag
method
sensor
Prior art date
Application number
KR1020087026431A
Other languages
Korean (ko)
Inventor
크리스토퍼 알렌 던칸
에릭 레스리 돕슨
로베르토 레나르두치
마이클 로이 무어
제프리 스코트 블레어
스티븐 풀톤 스미쓰
그레고리 리챠드 한슨
Original Assignee
네비게이셔널 사이언시즈 인코포레이티드
유티-배틀, 엘엘시
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US10/840,092 priority Critical patent/US7394381B2/en
Priority to US10/840,092 priority
Priority to US10/840,553 priority
Priority to US10/840,553 priority patent/US7525431B2/en
Application filed by 네비게이셔널 사이언시즈 인코포레이티드, 유티-배틀, 엘엘시 filed Critical 네비게이셔널 사이언시즈 인코포레이티드
Publication of KR20080107475A publication Critical patent/KR20080107475A/en

Links

Images

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01TMEASUREMENT OF NUCLEAR OR X-RADIATION
    • G01T1/00Measuring X-radiation, gamma radiation, corpuscular radiation, or cosmic radiation
    • G01T1/16Measuring radiation intensity
    • G01T1/169Exploration, location of contaminated surface areas ; in situ measurement, e.g. floor contamination monitor

Abstract

Methods and apparatus are described for marine asset security and tracking (MAST). A method includes transmitting identification data, location data and environmental state sensor data from a radio frequency tag. An apparatus includes a radio frequency tag that transmits identification data, location data and environmental state sensor data. Another method includes transmitting identification data and location data from a radio frequency tag using hybrid spread-spectrum modulation. Another apparatus includes a radio frequency tag that transmits both identification data and location data using hybrid spread-spectrum modulation. ® KIPO & WIPO 2009

Description

MARINE ASSET SECURITY AND TRACKING (MAST) SYSTEM}

Statement of rights to inventions made under federally-funded research or development

The invention was completed with US federal government support under a prime contract number (DE-AC05-00OR22725) awarded to UT-Battelle, L.L.C. by the US Department of Energy. The United States government has certain rights in the invention.

Embodiments of the invention relate generally to the field of security and tracing. More specifically, embodiments of the present invention relate to maritime asset security and tracking (MAST).

Global maritime-transportation freight transport infrastructure, known as the maritime transport management system (MTS), has terrorism, aging technology, environmental constraints, timely payment manufacturing practices, overlapping national / federal / regional jurisdiction, and It is under pressure from a number of issues, including the lack of a basic technical infrastructure. Terrorist attacks can focus on economic terrorism to influence the changes in the modern world. In order to find a simple, effective and efficient means of large-scale economic damage, it is necessary to watch the open movement of container cargo (RFID Journal, 2003). At some important ports, the disruption or interruption of flows can damage the national economy and render the state ineffective in about a few weeks (Flynn, 2003). As a result, it is necessary to develop and deploy tracking and monitoring technologies at the container level to help safeguard global supply chains and critical port facilities that provide economic prosperity for the country and others (Gills and McHugh, 2002; Bonner, 2002). 2002; Verton, 2002).

Ports include federal officials (eg, US Customs Service, Coast Guard, DOD, TSA, FBI, etc.), state officials (eg, port work, state law enforcement, emergency preparedness, etc.) and local officials ( For example, an assembly of many facilities, entities, and functions, including local law enforcement, local fire departments, port security, and commercial terminal operators, unions, and the like. To provide port security / management and shipping / cargo security / tracking / management, the development of additional facilities to network critical components of operations at each port will assist in the efficient use and security of each port. As a result, these regional port facilities should be linked to regional centers and / or national centers with potential for international expansion. As a result, geographic information systems (GIS), global satellite communications, the Internet and wireless monitoring, in managing / secure the current supply chain, preferably with open systems, to engage a plurality of public and private entities. There is a need to adopt technologies such as / tracking / security infrastructure.

The calendar year contributed $ 750 billion to US gross domestic product in 1999, and shipments through the maritime transport system (MTS), which totaled $ 480 billion in cargo, and are now expected to double in volume over the next 20 years. (USDOT, 1999). International shipping shipments are expected to triple over the same period (Prince, 2001). Many port facilities securely and efficiently coordinate container management systems, including obsolete technology, environmental constraints, timely payment manufacturing practices, overlapping federal / national / regional jurisdictions, and basic technical infrastructure. Economic pressures are under pressure from the above-mentioned problems, including lack of structure. In addition, land competition and environmental regulations will restrict the geographical expansion of most current port facilities. Information systems responsible for the management of containers still rely heavily on manual data entry. As a result, automated technical solutions are needed to increase the efficiency and security of port facilities (Gills and McHugh, 2003; Verton, 2002; Gillis, 2002).

In addition to concerns about MTS 'economic inefficiency, MTS now places unprecedented emphasis on national security. In 2001, 5.7 million containers entered the United States through MTS (Gills and McHugh, 2002). The US Customs Service relies on information about "profile" containers to manually investigate less than 2% of these containers. The Coast Guard and the US Customs Service do not have the manpower or resources to manually inspect each container entering the United States, which would lead to catastrophic disruption to the supply chain (Loy, 2002). Intelligent profiling of cargo and containers is important to enable global supply chain security and legitimate commerce. Tracking and monitoring will provide better data for building intelligent profiles. Thus, as a key to increased security and economic efficiency, investment in appropriate tracking and monitoring techniques is required (Flynn, 2003).

An important concern in container cargo transportation is the relative ease with which radioactive or nuclear fusion devices for "pollution bombs" can be smuggled into the shipping country's target country. A particular issue important to national security is the potential shipment of radioactive material to the United States for "pollution bombs" in shipping containers. Standard sea shipping containers have become the dominant way of importing and exporting goods around the world. The number of containers entering and leaving the US ports every day is very large, so only a very small portion is being investigated. Since only a small portion of the containers can be inspected, some method for "flaging" containers for the survey must be used. Positioning sensor portals that require each container to pass through each port facility are considered impractical. Working disabilities can cost the US economy billions of dollars each day. The use of a radiation sensor in a cargo container, on or near a container to find an increase in radiation level would be one way to flag the containers.

However, there are problems with existing radiation sensors proposed in shipping containers. First, existing radiation sensors must use power during dose integration (activity sensing) time. Conventional active radiation sensors will have to use very short integration times, which will weaken the sensitivity or consume the available battery power long before the end of the service life of the container. Replacement of batteries requires personal maintenance time, coordination between the maintenance schedule and the physical location of the container and logical support. There will be a need for radiation sensors with longer, risk free service life.

Second, existing active radiation sensors do not produce dose integral data that is available for secure, uninterrupted monitoring of each container. Reading the dose integral data requires each sensor to be removed and read, or at least individually read, which leads to problems such as expensive personal maintenance time, coordination between the data collection schedule and the physical location of the container and logical support. For intelligent profiling and analysis, there will be a need for radiation sensors that automatically generate remotely available dose integration data.

Third, existing active radiation sensors tend to make false alarms. Conventional active radiation sensors cannot distinguish between different types of radiation, which of course include bananas that contain concentrations of substances used in medical diagnostics and even ionizing radiation substances (eg potassium). False alarms from harmless cargo such as More sophisticated, differential radiation sensors will be needed.

To date, container-level tracking and monitoring requirements by long-lived sensors have not been met to generate sensitive data and reduce false alarms that are automatically and remotely available for intelligent profiling and analysis. There will be a need for universal container security and asset (ship and cargo) tracking systems that meet these requirements (preferably all of them simultaneously).

Embodiments of the present invention are cost effective and can be beneficial for at least the following reasons. Embodiments of the invention may provide world-wide asset and / or cargo tracking, monitoring and security. Embodiments of the present invention may include the integration of RFID tag data in a GIS-based system for asset tracking, management, and visualization. Embodiments of the present invention may include RFID tag communications using hybrid band-spread signaling. Embodiments of the present invention may include a multi-access technique that allows communication with more than 10,000 RFID tags, but ignores up to 90,000 tags in the same RFID tag reader zone. Embodiments of the present invention improve quality and / or reduce cost over conventional approaches.

The following examples of the invention will be needed. As a matter of course, the present invention is not limited to these embodiments.

According to one embodiment of the invention, a method comprises transmitting identification data, location data and environmental state sensor data from a radio frequency tag. According to yet another embodiment of the present invention, an apparatus comprises a radio frequency tag for transmitting identification data, location data and environmental state sensor data.

According to another embodiment of the invention, a method comprises transmitting identification data and position data from a radio frequency tag using hybrid spread spectrum modulation. According to yet another embodiment of the present invention, an apparatus includes a radio frequency tag for transmitting both identification data and position data using hybrid spread spectrum modulation.

According to yet another embodiment of the present invention, a method comprises transmitting dosimetric data from first passive integral ionizing radiation sensors and second passive integral ionizing radiation sensors. a suite) insitu polling the passive integral ionizing radiation sensors, wherein the first passive integral ionizing radiation sensors and the second passive integral ionizing radiation sensor comprise radiation dose measurement data. It is located where it is integrated as it is read. According to yet another embodiment of the present invention, an apparatus comprises: a first passive integral ionizing radiation sensor; A second passive integral ionizing radiation sensor coupled to the first passive integral ionizing radiation sensor; And a communication circuit coupled to the first passive integral ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integral ionizing radiation sensor, wherein the first passive integral ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integral ionizing radiation sensor comprise radiation. The amount measurement data is transmitted to the communication circuit.

According to another embodiment of the present invention, a method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially distributed array; Determining relative positions of each of the plurality of sensors to define a volume of interest; Collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the ionizing radiation sensors; And triggering an alert condition when the dose level of the ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed the threshold. According to yet another embodiment of the present invention, an apparatus comprises a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors arranged in a spatially distributed array, wherein the relative position of each of the plurality of arrays of sensors is determined to define the volume of interest; Data collection circuitry coupled to the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to collect ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; And i) calculating a dose level of the ionizing radiation source and comparing the dose level to a threshold, and ii) a computer coupled to the data collection circuit to trigger an alarm when the dose level matches or is greater than the threshold. .

The above and other embodiments of the present invention will be better understood and understood by reference to the following detailed description and accompanying drawings. However, while the following detailed description shows various embodiments of the present invention and numerous specific details thereof, it is to be understood that this is provided by way of example and the invention is not limited thereto. Many alternatives, modifications, additions, and / or reconfigurations may be made within the scope of the present invention without departing from the spirit of the present invention, and embodiments of the present invention may include all such alternatives, modifications, additions, and / or the like. Or reconstructions.

The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and form a part of this specification, are included to illustrate certain embodiments of the present invention. Embodiments of the present invention, a more apparent idea of components combinable with the embodiments, and the operation of the systems provided in the embodiments are further elucidated by reference to the exemplary and non-limiting embodiments shown in the drawings. Will be done. Embodiments of the invention may be better understood by reference to one or more of these drawings in connection with the detailed description set forth herein. It should be noted that the features shown in the figures are not necessarily drawn to scale.

Embodiments of the present invention, various features, and advantageous details thereof are described more fully with reference to the non-limiting embodiments illustrated in the accompanying drawings and illustrated in the following detailed description. Descriptions of known starting materials, processing techniques, components, and equipment have been omitted so as not to unnecessarily obscure embodiments of the present invention in detail. However, while the description and the specific examples show preferred embodiments of the invention, it is to be understood that these are provided by way of example only, and the invention is not limited thereto. Various alternatives, modifications, additions and / or reconfigurations that fall within the scope and / or spirit of the inventive concept below will become apparent to those skilled in the art from this disclosure.

US patents, published PCT applications and US patent applications, which are incorporated by reference below, disclose embodiments useful for the purposes for which they are intended. Herein, the entire contents of US Pat. Nos. 6.603.818, 6,606,350, 6,625,229, 6,621,878, 6,556,942 are incorporated herein by reference for all purposes. The entire contents of the published PCT applications WO 02/27992, WO 02/19550, WO 02/19293, and WO 02/23754 are incorporated herein by reference for all purposes. U.S. Patent Application Nos. 09,671,636, filed September 27, 2000, 09,653,788, filed September 1, 2000, 09 / 942.308, filed August 29, 2001, 09 / 660,743 (filed September 13, 2000), 10 / 726,446 (filed December 3, 2003), 10 / 726,475 (filed December 3, 2003), and 10 / 817,759 The entire contents of the issue (filed December 31, 2003) are incorporated herein by reference for all purposes. The present application also includes disclosures that are also included in the currently pending, pending co-pending US Patent Application (Attorney Docket No. UBAT1570) filed May 6, 2004, the entire contents of which are pending. It is incorporated herein by reference for all purposes.

One embodiment of the invention may include a method and / or apparatus for monitoring the location and monitoring the status of shipping containers at a terminal on board and during road (truck and rail) transportation. Thus, the present invention may include a true "inter-modal" tracking and monitoring system. The method and / or apparatus may utilize hybrid spread spectrum (HSS) communications for robust two-way data transmission to and from containers on board and at shipping terminals. The phrase “hybrid band spreading (HSS)” as used herein is described, for example, by US patent application Ser. No. 10 / 817,759 and / or published PCT application WO 02/27292, filed December 31, 2003. Direct Sequence Band Spread (DSSS), for example Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), and Frequency Hopping, Time Hopping, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), and / or Space Division Multiplexing. It is defined as a combination of at least one of the connections (SDMA). Fast HSS is a particularly preferred embodiment, where spreading and hopping occur during one bit time (ie, each bit is individually spread and hopped). The present invention may use cellular and / or satellite data transmissions for communications during transport on the road. Sensors that monitor container cargo conditions and conditions can be included in the system. The location of the container can be determined by using a universal positioning system (GPS) during transportation on the road, and by using more local radiolocation techniques using RF signals of HSS communication. The location and status of the containers can be relayed to the domestic operations center, where the domestic operations center combines this data with the manifest of the geographic information system database for monitoring, tracking, managing and displaying container information.

One embodiment of the present invention provides maritime asset security and tracking that links robust long-range RFID technology and GIS-based tracking infrastructure via a universal satellite network to create a truly universal asset management and cargo tracking / visualization system that uses an open system architecture. (MAST) system. The MAST system is included to provide real-time ship / road / railway container and cargo tracking in an open system architecture environment for port and supply chain security needs. This tracking technology can be used to finance the expansion and adoption of the system, including a number of commercial services involving national security, supply chain management, port automation, insurance applications, and potential recovery / construction of lost, cumbersome cargo in the commercial market. Will create opportunities. The MAST system approach will also facilitate the development of new standards and "best management" practices for tracking and security monitoring of container cargo and assets.

The present invention can be designed to provide real-time asset, container and cargo tracking for port security / management needs, as well as to increase the safety of life and property across linkage transport networks. The ability to track containers in real-time and in real time, along with internal condition monitoring, is essential to the security of supply chains and port systems. Preferred HSS, two-way low power wireless communications will work well in an environment of ship and / or terminal communication distances (eg in the range of 300 to 500 meters) at a power of approximately 10 mW.

RF propagation problems within and around hermetically stacked steel shipping containers are very robust data-communication techniques (e.g., to successfully transmit telemetry signals from each container RF tags to ship receivers (readers). For example, improved spread spectrum modulation and diversity reception systems). In particular, the purpose of highly accurate radioexpression of such containers in tightly packed stacks on ship's docks is that many receivers (readers) span yard facilities, across decks and docks of each ship. It will not be achieved if it is not dispersed. If in some cases loss of positioning can be tolerated in normal operation, in most cases, carefully manufactured container RF tags adapted to their deployment to a special environment (ie, yard or ship) And the use of infrastructure components provides effective remote control of container ID and status data (eg door security, temperature) and fairly accurate container location information (ie, information within one stacking location) in most specialized environments. Measurements should be provided.

Preferred MAST system implementations may use the 2450-2483.5 MHz ISM band in accordance with international regulations, in particular for ships loaded in foreign ports. Moreover, foreign port facilities will undoubtedly use some sort of RF telemetry to track containers. If the MAST system is suitable for the international allocation of the 2.4 GHz ISM band, it will be adopted worldwide to track shipping containers (first adopted at the ports and consequently at other locations such as railroads, planes and trucks). ). For narrowband system warning signals, beacons, etc., other ISM band possibilities include 13.56 and 433 MHz slots, while the 868 MHz (Europe) and 915 MHz (North America) bands are somewhat wider for high speed and spread spectrum use. to provide. The data protocol of commercial embodiments of the present invention provides very wide bandwidths (> 1 MHz), long code lengths (e.g. ≥63) for better process gain, jamming resistance, and lower collision statistics. It can be a hybrid or direct-sequence spread spectrum signal with

In order to deploy a MAST system in a marine (yard / ship) environment, several areas of functionality need to be combined into the system. The first functional group includes the basic architecture of a marine-based system, which includes (1) communication links, (2) antennas, (3) electronics, (4) container-unit power sources, (5) Ship-to-shore system interface, e.g. satellite link, (6) container telemetry system integration, (7) container position detection [GPS, optionally increased by local RF triangulation], (8) sensors, ( 9) system central monitoring units, and (10) container database interfaces. The second functional group includes a port container-yard system, which is very identical in terms of configuration and functionality on board except that additional system logic is required to manage tracking system handoffs between ship and yard systems.

1. Overview

Referring to FIG. 1, one or more radio frequency identification tags 101 coupled to the containers 105 are in two-way radio frequency communication with the reader 107 on the vessel 110. Vessel 110 also includes a site server (not shown in FIG. 1), but is in two-way radio frequency communication with low earth orbit satellite 120. The low orbit satellite 120 is in two-way radio frequency communication with the ground station 125.

At the same time, another radio frequency identification tag 102 and associated transport container 106 (carried by the chassis of the truck) are also in contact with the low orbit satellite 120. It should be noted that the radio frequency identification tag 102 may also communicate with the cell tower 130 (alternatively and / or simultaneously). While the radio frequency identification tag 102 is shown in direct communication with the low orbit satellite 120 and / or the cell tower 130, the radio frequency identification tag 102 may be adapted to a reader and / or site server located at a truck vehicle. It should be noted that it can be relayed through.

The network operation center 140 is in bidirectional communication with the ground station 125 and the cell tower 130. The Network Operations Center (NOC) also downloads the data to a plurality of recipients in this embodiment, including Customs, DoD, NSA, National Security Council, US Coast Guard, FBI, and commercial officials.

The maritime asset security and tracking (MAST) system shown in FIG. 1 is a marine industry-standard 20-foot and 40-foot shipping container during loading, unloading, and hauling operations at port side dock facilities and during offshore transportation of containers on board. Wireless (RF) -based communication and sensing / telemetry systems for tracking and monitoring them. The system uses both local-terminal communication systems and other wide area commercial communication systems (including satellite and / or cellular / PCS) on ships, railroads, aircraft, trucks on the road, and their It can provide a true linked transport tracking and monitoring system that can operate within the relevant terminal facilities. The RFID tag system includes RFID tags attached to each shipping container, local site readers located throughout the ship and at the shipping terminal, one central site server on each ship or at each terminal, and a network operations center (NOC). Where all data is collected, combined, stored, analyzed, and disseminated). The shipping containers can be both freezer-freight shipping containers (freezers) and dry-freight shipping containers (dry-boxes). In addition to identifying and tracking the location of containers or other equipment adapted to one of the RFID tags, each tag may be equipped with a sensor interface (eg IEEE 1451) and optional additional serial interfaces. This allows a wide range of sensors to be connected to RFID tags to monitor the condition of container cargo or other tagged equipment. Sensors that may be connected to an RFID tag include, but are not limited to, temperature, pressure, relative humidity, accelerometer, radiation, global positioning system (GPS). Additional sensors may be included for condition monitoring of a machine, such as refrigeration compressors, or for reading from diagnostic data ports on some refrigerated cargo containers.

The MAST system includes three main modes of operation: first when the RFID tag is on the ship, second when the RFID tag is at the terminal, and third when the RFID tag is transported on the road or by rail. This includes all cases where the RFID tag is not on the ship or at the terminal). The terminal can be thought of as any local area that is served by the RF communication system. The RFID tag system may comprise a) a network operations center (NOC), where the network operations center may include status and data relating to all RFID tags and associated freight containers (or other assets), and this information is presented to users. -And; b) local site servers (one per ship or terminal)-where local site servers manage local-area communications (ie, each ship or terminal) and can relay RFID tag data to a central system server There is -and; c) RFID tag readers, where the RFID tag readers receive communication from RFID tags in the local area and relay them to the local site receiver; And d) RFID tags.

2, the coastal and / or ship communication flexibility of the present invention is shown. A first radio frequency identification tag 201 coupled to the first container 211 is communicatively coupled to a plurality of radio frequency identification tag readers 221, 222, 223 and 224 located on the vessel 230. . A plurality of radio frequency identification tag readers 221, 222, 223 and 224 are communicatively coupled to the site server 235 on the vessel 230. Site server 235 is communicatively coupled to a satellite (not shown in FIG. 2), but is also communicatively coupled to a network operations center.

A second radio frequency identification tag 202 coupled to the second container 212 is communicatively coupled to the plurality of radio frequency identification tag readers 221, 222, 223, and 224, and at the same time is located within or around the terminal. Communicatively coupled to a plurality of site radio frequency identification tag readers 241 and 242 located on the light poles or towers. The plurality of site radio frequency identification tag readers 241 and 242 are communicatively coupled to the site server 250 associated with the terminal. Site server 250 is communicatively coupled to a network operations center via a satellite data link or other communication circuitry (eg, a hardwire internet connection).

A third radio frequency identification tag 203 coupled to the third container 213 is communicatively coupled to the plurality of site radio frequency identification tag readers 241 and 242. The third radio frequency identification tag 203 is not shown in communication with a plurality of radio frequency identification tag readers 221, 222, 223 and 2240, although the third container 213 is physically near the vessel 230. It should be noted that it may be communicated when moved to.

Still referring to FIG. 2, ship or terminal communication RFID tags may use RF communications to communicate with RFID tag readers. Preferred RF communications are hybrid band spread (HSS) RF data links operating in the 2.45 GHz band. Radiometric or triangulation of RF signals from each tag may be used to determine each RFID tag location.

Referring to FIG. 3, the network operations center 310 is bidirectionally coupled to the land side site server 320 via an Ethernet or satellite data link. At the same time, the network operations center 310 is bidirectionally connected to the on-site site server 330 via a satellite data link.

Land-side site server 320 is bidirectionally coupled to first radio frequency identification tag reader 340, second radio frequency identification tag reader 350, and third radio frequency identification tag reader 360. In this embodiment, it should be noted that the communication coupling between the site server 320 and the three tag readers 340, 350, and 360 may be one or more of radio frequency wireless, powerline, Ethernet, or optical data links. A plurality of radio frequency identification tags located at terminal 345 are communicatively coupled to at least one of three tag readers 340, 350, and 360 in both directions.

The on-site site server 330 is communicatively coupled to the fourth radio frequency identification tag reader 370, the fifth radio frequency identification tag reader 380, and the sixth radio frequency identification tag reader 390 in both directions. It should be noted that the on-site site server 330 is coupled to three tag readers 370, 380 and 390 via one or more of a power line, radio frequency wireless or Ethernet data link. A plurality of radio frequency identification tags located on the vessel 375 are in bidirectional communication with at least one of the three tag readers 370, 380, and 390.

As shown in FIG. 3, RFID tag communications are picked up by RFID tag readers to provide several possible methods: (a) an RF data link; b) Ethernet; c) power line data links; d) light; And / or e) other methods). Once the tag data is relayed to the local site server, the data can be uploaded to the NOC by satellite-based data link or other internet service provider link (eg Ethernet). Local site servers can also generate reports for use by local personnel such as engineers on a ship. The NOC may again communicate tag instructions, verifications and / or queries. The data for any particular container can be made available to any user around the world with internet access and proper security effectiveness.

4, a network operations center 410 is coupled to a first cellular or satellite system 420, a second cellular or satellite system 430, and a third cellular or satellite system. Bidirectional communication couplings between the network operations center 410 and the systems 420, 430, and 440 may be via telephone line or base station connections. Each of the three systems 420, 430, and 440 is associated with a subset of a plurality of radio frequency identification tags outside the local area (RF coverage) zone 450. Bidirectional communication coupling between three systems 420, 430, and 440 with each subset of RFID tags outside the local-area zone 450 may be via a cellular or satellite data link.

For road and rail communications, as shown in FIG. 4, RFID tags may be communicated to the NOC by cellular or satellite data links. The preferred method is direct satellite communications, because cellular does not provide worldwide coverage. The satellite or cellular system may relay RFID tag data to the NOC through a base station (satellite) coupled to the NOC or through a modem bank (cellular) coupled to the NOC. Operation on the road may include all operations when the RFID tag is not on a ship or terminal (any local area served by the RF communication system). The GPS receiver of each tag can be used to track the movement and location of the container while transported on the road. It is preferred that the containers are not stacked during road operation. As is possible on some rail cars, satellite or cellular modem data links and GPS system may not function if a tagged container is stacked onto another container thereon. Other tagged containers on the stack can act as repeaters or repeaters (extenders) for the first container. More specifically, the first container can use HSS RF communications when other methods fail. The second container receives these communications with its HSS RF receiver, which may then relay them to the NOC using satellite or cellular modem data links.

2. RFID Tag Description

Each RFID tag has four main functional blocks; (1) a microprocessor control subsystem; (2) sensor subsystems; (3) a communication subsystem; And (4) power supply subsystem. 5 shows a block diagram of an RFID tag.

Referring to FIG. 5, a radio frequency identification tag 500 includes a microprocessor control subsystem 510, a power subsystem 520, a sensor subsystem 530, and a communication subsystem 540. Microprocessor control subsystem 510 includes input / output interface circuit 511. Microprocessor circuit 512 is coupled to input / output interface circuit 511. Flash memory circuit 513 is coupled to microprocessor circuit 512. Random access memory circuit 514 is also coupled to microprocessor circuit 512. Microprocessor circuit 512 is coupled to power supply subsystem 520 via power line 515.

Power subsystem 520 includes power management module circuitry 521. AC to DC power circuit 522 is coupled to power management module 521. Battery 523 (eg, lithium ions) is coupled to power management module 521. An alternative power source 524 is coupled to the power management module 521. Power subsystem 520 provides power to sensor subsystem 530 via a set of power lines 525. The power supply subsystem 520 provides power to the communication subsystem 540 via the set of power lines 526.

Sensor subsystem 530 includes a serial interface 531 coupled via line 532 to input / output interface circuit 511 of microprocessor control subsystem 510. Temperature sensor 533 is coupled to the serial interface 531. A relative humidity sensor 534 is coupled to the serial interface 531. A door ajar sensor 535 is coupled to the serial interface 531. Other sensors 536 (eg, ionizing radiation sensors) are coupled to the serial interface 531. Sensor subsystem 530 includes GPS module 537 coupled to input / output interface circuit 511 of microprocessor control subsystem 510. Sensor subsystem 530 includes refrigeration unit data port 538 coupled to input / output interface circuit 511 of microprocessor control subsystem 510 via interface converter circuit 539.

Communication subsystem 540 includes local / serial communication circuitry 541, cellular modem module 542, hybrid spread spectrum radio frequency module 543, and satellite module 544, all of which are line 545. Through the input / output interface circuit 511 of the microprocessor control subsystem 510. One or more antennas 546 are coupled to cellular modem module 542, hybrid spread spectrum radio frequency module 543, and / or phase module 544.

Microprocessor Control Subsystem: The microprocessor control subsystem can operate as a controller for RFID tags. It can interface with communication modules, sensor modules, and power modules. The microprocessor can use both nonvolatile and volatile memory to store system software, system instructions, and sensor data.

Sensor Subsystem: The sensor subsystem may use IEEE 1451-compliant protocols to communicate with one or more sensor modules. This allows the addition of any future sensors as long as it complies with the 1451 protocol. Some basic sensors such as GPS and freezer data port readers may use serial communication ports on the microprocessor. Sensor types that may be part of RFID tags may include temperature, relative humidity, radioactivity, biology, chemistry, accelerometers, door switches, intrusions, and the like.

Communication subsystem: The communication subsystem allows a plurality of different types of communication links to be included in the tag platform. They can be connected, for example, via a serial port or an Ethernet port.

Basic communication modes are as follows.

RF Communication—RF communication may take the form of any number of available wireless communication protocols. However, the preferred method is a hybrid spread spectrum protocol. This protocol provides higher reliability, lower power, and robust communications than other wireless technologies. RF communications may be intended for use mainly when tags are located on a ship or at a terminal (local-area communications).

Cellular / PCS Communications—Standard commercial cellular analog or digital modems such as CDMA or GSM may be used by the tag for on-road (truck or rail transport) communications. However, there is no standard cellular infrastructure installed around the world. Thus, each tag requires different protocols to operate over a limited market area. In addition, tags can move through areas that do not have cellular coverage.

Satellite communications-Use satellite-based communication networks to provide on-road communication links that can function anywhere in the world. This provides a simpler, more robust and more secure communication system as an alternative to or in addition to the cellular system. Preferred embodiments may utilize a low orbit (LEO) satellite network system.

Local communications-each tag developed. It may be provided with a serial port used for troubleshooting and / or initial setup. The serial port can take the form of, for example, RS232, USB or IrDA (infrared).

Power Subsystem: The power subsystem may provide power to all other subsystems. The power sources that may be used include batteries, AC power and photovoltaic cells (eg, from refrigeration power sources on refrigeration vessels), vibration converters, electrostatic rechargeable batteries, radio frequency power rectifiers, thermo-electric generators and / or radioisotope decay energy recovery. Other power scavenging and / or generating devices such as a device. For RFID tags located in assets other than containers, DC power from the asset electrical system may also be used. The power supply subsystem can convert the power supply voltage to the voltage required for each subsystem. It may also perform power management functions to monitor battery status and power availability.

3. RFID Tag Reader

RFID tag readers relay communication of RFID tags to (and from) a site server. RFID tag readers may be similar to RFID tags, but with other communication modules, optionally without sensors. RFID tag readers may communicate with RFID tags via a local RF communication module (preferably, using the HSS protocol). RFID tag readers are one of several possible techniques: wireless RF communications (preferably, HSS communications at a different frequency than RFID tag communications, such as for example 5.8 GHz), (such as powerline communications, Ethernet or serial). ) Communicate with site servers by wireless communications, and / or optical communications (such as optical fiber or transmit / receive direct line laser communications).

Referring to FIG. 6, a plurality of associated transport shipping containers 610 are stacked in two tier height arrays. Each of the transport transport containers 610 includes a radio frequency identification tag 620. A plurality of tag readers 630 are located at the ends of the open passageways defined by the two tire height arrays.

Another optional feature of the MAST system is the use of "hand-held readers" to read RFID tag data and cargo lists directly from the container. Hand-held readers can be used by customs, coast guards, consigners or other authorized groups to verify the contents of a container and cargo status (sensor data, travel history, etc.). The hand-held reader is located near the container and can be operated later. An appropriate identification code (or perhaps barcode) may be entered into the hand-held reader, after which RF communications are used to communicate the RFID tags to the hand-held reader. RF communications may preferably use HSS communications used for local terminal and ship communications. The RFID tag then downloads the trip list of the container sensor (s) and the container list (stored in the RFID tag or downloaded from the NOC via a request uplinked from the RFID tag) to the hand-held reader. something to do. This travel log may include historical reports of all sensors, any sensor alerts (including container intrusions, temperature excursions, etc.), and container specific geographic routes.

Hand-held readers can also be used to upload a freight list of containers (which can also be done by using a portal). When the container is loaded, barcodes or other types of packaging-type RFID tags can be read into the hand-held reader. From the hand-held reader (or other type of RFID reader), the cargo identifiers are loaded into the container list on the container's RFID tag, which can then be uploaded to the NOC.

An alternative approach is to use IrDA (infrared) data ports on the container. Thereafter, the hand-held reader will be directed to the IrDA port, and communication is established. After this, the data download will be the same as above.

4. Site Server

Site servers may receive RFID tags data from RFID tag readers. Site servers may send RFID tag data to the NOC. The site server also performs local analysis of the RFID tags data and can manage the multi-access aspect of the present invention, with tens of thousands of tags on the terminal or on the ship. Site servers include three main subsystems: (1) a computer-based server and a system controller; (2) an RFID tag reader communication subsystem that includes the same communication modules as the RFID tag readers for communicating with RFID tag readers (ie, they are different from RFID tag communications, preferably wireless RF communications (such as 5.8 Ghz). HSS communications at frequency), wired communications (such as powerline communications, Ethernet or serial), or optical communications (such as fiber or transmit / receive direct line laser communications); And (3) a NOC communications subsystem that may utilize hardwire, cellular, optical or satellite communications modules.

5. Network Operations Center

The Network Operations Center (NOC) can be an information center for maritime transport control systems around the world. All RFID tag data from all RFID tags located throughout the world can be relayed to the NOC by a local site server or via direct cellular or satellite communications. The NOC collects, stores, and disseminates RFID tag data including location, sensor data, and RFID tag status.

The present invention provides a global positioning system, a radio frequency identification (RFID) based tracking system for assets and freight containers; Globally available commercial satellite and internet communication systems; Geographic information systems (GIS) and real-time logic analysis capabilities; Hardened continuous data flows include private sector asset and cargo owners, relevant state and federal entities (such as Coast Guard, TSA, Customs, NTSB, and DoD), and local first responders (law enforcement, Fire resistant systems provided to the Fire Department, local governments; And merging technologies in a central operations center architecture, including existing federal systems and commercial programs for asset and cargo tracking.

The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) at NOC will allow for the analysis and presentation of asset locations in a variety of formats, from simple web-browser based latitude / longitude reports to map-based city / state / zip code / country information. . The system can provide the ability to monitor and profile assets in real time based on specified conditions including geographic patterns. This approach also provides for incorporation of real-time logic analysis of the movement of assets. The long-term goal of GIS development is to create an information infrastructure to analyze the movement of goods and assets across the supply chain, as well as intelligently profile containers containing geographic patterns.

RFID tag data can be integrated into a central GIS-based tracking infrastructure via a global satellite communications network to create a MAST system. A preferred embodiment of the MAST system invention utilizes one or more global satellite networks.

Satellite networks provide the ability to efficiently concentrate all information at one location, and to track and monitor assets globally and in real time. This provides advantages for security, fault tolerance, data backup / archiving, and maintenance. The NOC can integrate geographic information systems (GIS) technology, satellite communications, global positioning systems, RFID (electronic sealing, etc.), and the Internet in an open system architecture to create a real-time tracking and asset management system. The NOC is dedicated to global management of mobile assets using a web-based tracking system that allows individuals or organizations to manage their assets in real time over the Internet with strict information protection protocols (eg, login and / or encryption). Only one location can be provided for real-time logic support. Information is distributed to interested parties through secure transactions in a need-to-know manner, thereby excluding the use of a system aimed at theft of assets.

The NOC includes one or more of the following resulting operational capabilities: 1) real time, global vessel positioning with detailed history; 2) container location tracking with tampering notifications and internal environmental radiation status; 3) Initial alert / threat notice of arrival of ships and containers in US territorial waters and ports with an audit trail identifying potential threats, risks and responsibilities; 4) detecting and monitoring suspicious shipping activities (such as unplanned port calls) and identifying long-term patterns of activity at both ship and container levels; 5) to (and / or from) the Department of Defense, US Coast Guard, US Customs, National Security Commission, as well as local "first response" law enforcement agencies for national security, port security, smuggling, and theft concerns. Security of data; 6) security of data (and / or from them) to consignors and ports for planning and management of cargo arrival and distribution as needed; 7) “high speed tracking” for customs inspection and comprehensive port, ship and container management systems; 8) Real-time monitoring of frozen, hazardous and HAZMAT cargoes; 9) remote control tower (s) for the marine industry to maximize efficiency and contact centers for important information (e.g., rules, regulations, weather forecasts, notifications to crew, etc.); And 10) on a global scale, integration of linked warehouse management, port, ship, road, and rail supply chain management and insurance applications.

6. Multi-access

The multiple access approach described herein is distributed to terminals or vessels located in an environment that may include more than 90,000 additional RFID tags (potential sources of interference) located in or near the terminals or vessels. It may enable a multiple access network that can operably accommodate approximately 10,000 RFID tags. Such a multi-access design may utilize one or more of CDMA, FDMA, TDMA and / or SDMA (Space Division Multiple Access) to achieve these requirements. Each of the RFID tags may report electronic identification codes, sensor data, and location information to an array of RFID tag readers that form a grid around or across the terminal or vessel. RFID tag reader locations can now utilize the existing infrastructure of lighting towers in the yards. These RFID tag readers can report all useful data to the adjacent site server as well as coordinate the data from the tags. The site server can then relay important events and sensor data to the NOC. A description of terminal / ship area communications with focus on RFID tag to RFID tag reader links will follow.

Overall strategy

The following describes the elements of a preferred overall communication strategy. One embodiment of the present invention is a combination of code division multiple access (CDMA), time division multiple access (TDMA) and space division multiple access (SDMA) using both direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) and frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS). And may be used for tag-to-reader links. One embodiment of the invention may include a reader-to-server link that uses a different frequency band (eg, 5 GHz). Embodiments of the present invention may include bidirectional communications that allow power control to be used to optimize CDMA and SDMA methods. Embodiments of the invention may include independent terminals (yards) provided with identifiable groups of spreading codes from adjacent neighboring yards. Embodiments of the invention may include an option to subdivide the yard into micro cells.

The following describes key performance parameters of the preferred overall communication strategy described above. The site server may receive updates from 10,000 adjacent tags at once every 100 seconds with a 99.99% chance of success. A network comprising a site server may have the capability to "ignore" up to 90,000 anti-adjacent tags. High priority message (s) from the tag (s) may be sent within a one second delay.

avatar

The following implementation analysis includes the following assumptions. One thousand bits are used from each node every 100 seconds. Offset- quadrature phase modulation keying (QQPSK) modulation with 5 MHz bandwidth and nearly constant envelope signals is used. 16 or more hop frequencies with managed overlap. Length-63 spreading codes for the direct sequence are used.

Based on the above explicit assumptions, 1000 bit (125 byte) packets can be transmitted once every 100 seconds from each of 10,000 nodes at a bit rate of 80 kbps with a chipping length of 63. Thus, embodiments of the present invention have a chipping rate of approximately 2.5 Mbps which translates into a spatial bandwidth of approximately 5 MHz with QQPSK modulation. It is assumed that RFID tag readers need to communicate with each RFID tag approximately once every 100 seconds. Thus, 10,000 RFID tags are converted to an average of 20,000 packets every 100 seconds. These 2000 packets are assumed to be 4000 timeslots (25 ms long) and 32 CDMA users (maximum concurrent users are approximately the product of the square root of the chip length and the square root of the hop numbers—a combination of 63 length codes and 16 hops. Can be multiplexed).

Perimeter RFID tag readers may use directional antennas aimed between rows of containers for RFID tag communications. Directional antennas operating in other frequency bands (eg 5 GHz) (or alternatively, power line communications) may be used for tower-to-tower / server communications. Depending on the yard size and other environmental parameters, towers may also be required to provide relayed communications.

The main functions of RFID tag readers are to capture information from all RFID tags, which can then be relayed to the site server. They can coordinate with each other in a way that optimizes multiple access plans for tags over 10K, or they can only communicate directly to the site server. For example, if multiple readers capture data from one RFID tag, the readers can cooperatively determine the lowest power level at which the at least one reader can reliably communicate with the RFID tag.

Power control

As mentioned above, power control can be used to optimize network communications. Naturally, power control preferably uses DS-CDMA in a large range. This multiple access approach can include protocols for network discovery, power back-off, and interface mitigation techniques, all of which include control of power transmitted from the RFID tag.

Re-transmission Redundancy

The analysis assumes that the system needs to listen from all RFID tags at once rate every 100 seconds, and that approximately 1000 bit messages are sufficient. This includes a conservative estimate of the packet protection interval of 100% packet length. In this example, the packets are approximately 12.5 ms and the average guard time will also be approximately 12.5 ms. This protection time is very short and can be reduced by perhaps 90% or more, thus allowing almost another double throughput or redundancy. A small part of the guard time is used for "emergency" events in the CSMA manner. Moreover, most applications will not require 100 second update rates, so successive time slots for the next 100 second cycle can be used to re-send bad packets. For example, update rates once an hour, once every second, or even once every three hours may be sufficient for most applications.

In order to perform power control as described above, and to perform typical duties of channel allocation and network optimization, a tight control flow must be established for the start-sequence of all nodes. The following description with respect to FIGS. 7 and 8 (flow diagrams) gives an example of the design of this process.

Discovery process

As shown in FIG. 7, the nodes will start on a system control (default) RF channel. The nodes will cycle through a small set of "pilot" channels until they establish a link with one of the RFID tag readers. This loop is essentially an infinite loop until or until successful communication with the reader (or another tag, where alternative tag-to-tag access is used in a given system) is established. Embodiments of the invention may include power enhancement and / or this process.

Referring to FIG. 7, an exemplary tag start sequence may begin with a tag turn on step 710. In step 720, the tag sets a default receiver code. In step 730, the tag listens for a pilot transmission signal from the tower. At step 740, if a signal from the tower is identified, the tag proceeds to transmit-to-network communications 750. If the tower is not identified, the tag determines if the timeout period has elapsed (step 760). If the timeout period has not elapsed, the tag continues to attempt to identify the tower. If the timeout period has elapsed, the tag proceeds to step 770 which includes setting of alternative receiver frequency codes. After setting the alternative receiver frequency code, the tag proceeds to step 730 and again listens for a pilot transmission from the tower.

During the discovery process, it may be desirable to minimize the number of tags transmitted at any given time. This can be done by having the reader node control the discovery process. The reader will send an ID request that prompts mode tags within range to transmit in a certain order with respect to a given temporary code (see network ID transmission order below). Thereafter, the reader will begin to receive and process messages from the tags. After the first cycle of node identification is completed, the reader will send a message to the tags to confirm receipt, as well as specify both the network ID and time slot month for the tag. This cycle will be repeated on condition that all tags with network ID assignments (associated with this reader ID) have not acknowledged the ID request message. The invention may include protocols for resolving conflicts and the like.

Network ID Transmission Order

The reader may require that all tags that can decrypt the ID request (and were not previously logged by this reader) send a 5-ms message x times 10 ms after receipt of the request, where x is the tags UUID Are the three lowest digits of. (Eg, a tag with a UUID of 2345678 may wait 6,780 ms before sending to the reader). In addition, the tag may select the combination of FH and DS codes using the next two higher digits (45 in this example). Thus, the reader must clearly be able to handle 100,000.

Once the RFID tag and the RFID tag reader establish a link, the reader will assign the RFID tag a code and frequency combination that makes the tag part of the optimized network. This process is shown in FIG.

Referring to FIG. 8, under transmission from communication discovery (810), the tag obtains or adopts a default transmission frequency code at step 820. In step 830, the tag sends a default transmission frequency code to the tower. In step 840, if the tower has identified the default transmit frequency code, the site server will assign a code frequency and time slot to the tag in step 850. If the tower did not confirm at step 840, the tag proceeds to step 860, where it is determined whether the timeout period has elapsed. If the timeout period has not elapsed, the tag returns to step 840 and will continue to wait for confirmation from the tower. If the timeout period has elapsed in step 860, the tag proceeds to step 870, where an alternative transmission frequency code will be obtained or adopted. Thereafter, the tag will proceed to step 830.

Packet structure

This section focuses on packet parts that are dedicated to ensuring robust communication such as preamble and error correction / detection coding. The payload of the packet can be any useful payload (eg, identification, location, radiation dose, etc.).

Since the preferred waveform uses direct sequence band spreading as well as frequency hopping, the preamble may have two parts: a 64-bit constant frequency DSSS part and then a 63-bit hybrid FH / DSSS part. The receiver correlator may retrieve the beginning of the transmitted waveform for autocorrelation peaks with known frequencies. Once the receiver derives the (timely) position of the "bit" edges, it may begin hopping the carrier frequency. The transmitted waveform may begin hopping at the beginning of the second portion of the preamble, which may act as a data delimiter word. The receiver may re-establish synchronization with the hopping sequence at the beginning of this second (63 bit) sequence. This causes the receiver to miss a sequence of more than 5 bits and still find the start of the data payload successful. The 32 bits (length) of the CRC word will complete the packet and can be used to guarantee the integrity of the actual data payload.

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum

DSSS assignments may be selected from a Kasami code generator that generates approximately 520 codes of length 63. Only about 32 codes can be used within a given cell, within a given time slot. However, the use of such a large set of codes makes the code allocation processes easier to manage.

Frequency Hopping Band Spread

During any given packet slot, some of the channel orthogonality may be achieved through frequency hopping assignments. Since the assumed RF tag spectrum is approximately 5 MHz and the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band of 2.45 GHz is 80 MHz, only 16 hopping center frequencies will be used in this example. While hybrid spreading is primarily desirable to improve the robustness of individual links exposed to a harsh multipath environment, DSSS spreading can be used to distinguish multiple concurrent users on its own.

7. Nautical System Observations and Analysis

The size of the ship terminal facility will greatly affect the configuration of the coast-side RF system (ie the number and distribution of receivers) required to track containers throughout this facility space. Light poles of the terminal are preferred locations for facility receivers and transmitters (or transceivers).

The RF container-monitoring receiver (s) on the ship may be located on the mast at the bow end of the ship. It should be noted that the containers are not always stacked on the deck at a uniform height or with a very constant distribution. There may be essentially little existing into or out of covered docks (steel hatches), so it is necessary to provide RF system receiver (s) in the docks to facilitate monitoring of containers there. Do.

In loaded ships, containers are often stacked up to the edges of the hull above the deck. Bridge wings and masts can be used to mount the RF infrastructure components for the MAST system. Gaps between each row and stack of containers allow the RF signal of the appropriate wavelength to be bound back and forth before finally reaching the edge of the ship. In order to achieve constant coverage of all containers on the deck, it may be desirable to position the system antenna along the periphery of the ship at each end of this space.

Containers are typically stacked hermetically in a dock. The containers slide down the vertical retaining rails attached to the vessel structure. Metal bulkheads effectively partition the areas around the ends of the containers and additionally interfere with RF propagation from the containers in the dock. Once the hatch is positioned over the dock, a fairly good Faraday cage is formed, with very little RF coming in or out. Thus, if near real time (eg daily) telemetry is required from containers stacked on the docks, some in-hold RF infrastructure (ie, relevant data to the central monitoring station on receivers and ship bridges). Links may be required. The container locking mechanism ensures 2-3 inches gaps between the tops and bottoms of the stacked containers. Approximately two to three inches of spacing between the tops and bottoms of the containers should be sufficient to provide an RF path between the containers (at suitable frequencies). The corresponding spacing between the sides of the containers varies from 0.5 inch to approximately 2 inches. Such a configuration may create ohmic (lossy) and / or capacitor connections at radio frequencies between containers, which may somewhat damage signal propagation from the stack.

Referring to FIG. 9, a plurality of associated transport vessel containers 910 are arranged in an orthogonal array. A radio frequency identification tag 920 is shown on top of one of the associated transport vessel containers 910. A plurality of readers 930 are located at the ends of the passageways formed by the plurality of transit ship containers 910.

Figure 9 shows a plan view of a group of hermetically stacked containers (nominal 40 feet), which may be arranged on the ship's deck or on the ground in the terminal yard. One RF emitter (indicated by the radiating red dot in the figure) may be mounted near the upper center of the container. Since the container's substructures and the upper side rails tend to send a signal in the longitudinal direction, most of the RF energy will leak into the adjacent passages in both directions (up and down in the drawing) at the two ends of the container. These signals will bound between the ends of the containers, bounding the passageway until they appear at the edges of the array, which will result in moderate losses and significant waveform distortion. Very wideband (ie several MHz) spread spectrum signals with high immunity to distributed and multipath-type distortions can be best received. Of course, the invention is not limited to any particular configuration.

Potential RF receiving and / or transmitting positions are indicated by the points at the ends of the passages in FIG. 9. Although each point may represent an individual antenna, a more practical, robust configuration may use short pieces of “leakage coaxial” cables to enlarge passages and standard low-loss coaxial sections there between. For better physical protection, a "leakage" cable can be housed in heavy-walled PVC pipe sections, where the PVC pipe provides a relatively low loss up to several GHz frequencies. Standard cables can be implemented in PVC or even metal conduits because traditional coax is completely shielded. Such receiving and / or transmitting location systems may be (semi) permanently mounted at the periphery of the vessel, or near the deck levels, perhaps even on handrails or other convenient structures. On each side of the cargo docks there is typically an employee passage between rows of containers. It is possible to position the RF system antennas for container telemetry links on appropriate locations on the passage assemblies.

The exact positions and mode (s) for the mounting of these antenna components depend a lot on the specific features of the individual ship structure. In the case of containers in one of the ship's docks, a leak-coaxial cable can be installed along the side wall in approximately the same vertical plane as the container guide rails. In both cases, the direction of the leak-coaxial cable should be maintained to provide the most efficient energy with respect to the polarization and direction of the antennas on the containers. For example, for horizontal container RF launchers, the cable may also be approximately horizontal to maintain relatively low coupling losses in container-to-local receiver RF links (assuming horizontally polarized container antennas). It must proceed.

Other major system design considerations are in the selection of appropriate RF operating frequencies. Legal and license restrictions cover the current Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) bands of 13.56, 27.55, 433, 902-928, 2450-2483.5, and 5725-5825 MHz and the US and the rest of North America [and / or Similar assignments in other regions of the world] are encouraging the use of assigned non-licensed bands, such as the so-called unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) bands of 5150-5250 and 5250-5350 MHz. The first three parts are narrow (much below 1 MHz) and the latter five are for various forms of spread spectrum signaling.

Although narrowbands can support very low speed data transmission, their performance over radiolocation and very robust links is firmly limited. On the other hand, spread spectrum bands allow for significantly higher RF power levels and will support much more flexible modulation techniques. Overall, the 902-928 MHz band will provide the largest range, but 2450-2483.5 MHz is essentially universal and can be used (at least in part) throughout the world. There are several emerging RF standards in the general fields of wireless facial expression and telemetry. The HSS protocol is already explicitly allowed in the ISM and U-NII bands by current Federal Communications Commission protocols.

Although the disadvantages in tag cost, power efficiency and complexity can be quite serious, the flexibility of multi-band and / or multi-protocol devices for container tracking can also be utilized by the present invention. The present invention may utilize highly integrated multi-band RF devices (including transmitter and receiver electronics, filter structures, and antennas) that are desirable for global versions of the MAST system idea.

An additional consideration is the specific type of RF system architecture required to achieve the desired level of functionality. Two-way data-telemetry system provides accurate RF-signal power control, remote reprogrammability; Individual tag (addressable) queries; Multi-tag relay capabilities; Ad-hoc dynamic tag-to-tag data routing to overcome nodes with RF path obstacles and low power battery conditions; And allow for a more sophisticated set of tag-device characteristics, including networking tasks such as rolling security codes, remote software changes / updates over the network, and node-state queries. Full node power efficiency and energy utilization are also typically optimized for bidirectional protocols, which results in the longest possible battery lifes and the most timely node-alarm reporting and diagnostic capabilities. Naturally, the disadvantages for such RFID tag nodes are increased complexity and cost due to the presence of onboard RF receivers, but the additional acquisition cost will be more than compensated for by increased battery life, and thus the ship's crew or Maintenance interference by other maintenance / service personnel is reduced.

In contrast, a basic one-way network generally includes autonomous tags operating in "dumb chirper" mode, where the tags simply burst out data to the system infrastructure receiver (s) at predetermined intervals. do. These transmission intervals can be regular, randomized, slot randomized or even changed by the nature of tag data. For example, a very preferred embodiment simply omits the transmissions of extra data, instead it is a "smart" tag that only transmits new, modified reads. Some modifications to these protocols can be repeated at a selectable interval to convey some basic state information to ensure that the node is still operating properly, as well as repeating true data values (if changes are inadvertently missed). This will involve direct insertion of additional transmissions.

The third type of telemetry system architecture will support strategic (or even accidental) combining of bidirectional and unidirectional tags as indicated by the particular implementation scenario. Although there is some cost in overall RF system performance and an overall reduction in tag battery lifetimes, this format allows considerable flexibility in the selection of tag types. Although the preceding descriptions are nominally based on single-band network configurations, despite the significant cost penalty (primarily at the total price of all tags), more flexibility and higher performance may be obtained in a multi-band system. Can be. In all such cases, the use of the HSS technique is superficial to bit-error rates, packet loss, collision rates, RF power efficiencies, and other facility RF systems (especially those that share the same general purpose bands). Enables advantages in interference levels. One embodiment of the present invention may include a combination of bidirectional relay tags and “dump chipper” tags in one system.

Frozen containers (" reefers ") typically include a three phase power cable plugged into the deck exit that is supplied from the ship distribution system. In general, refrigerator-monitoring applications are particularly important because of the high values of chilled cargo (eg, pharmaceuticals, perishable foods, and medical supplies). Current practice is for ship personnel to manually monitor and record a single internal temperature periodically (ie with a pencil and clipboard) while sailing, with any deviations reported to the ship's engineer. In addition to the internal temperature (perhaps in several locations), additional data such as relative humidity, compressor pressures, coolant flows, power supply voltage / current, and container integrity (door breakage) can be obtained via automatic monitoring and alarm telemetry. Can be obtained. This information provides early warnings of refrigeration failures, thereby facilitating rapid repairs and adding significant economic value to embodiments of the present invention by avoiding costly cargo damage. This telemetry can be handled via RF techniques as described above, or via robust data transmission through the ship's ac power system. More advanced methods, such as electrical signal analysis, provide a more accurate assessment of the status of operating compressors, fans, pumps, valves, and other motor-driven and solenoid-driven loads, and provide high-level real-time for critical ship equipment. Provides state-monitoring performance.

8. Analysis of RFID Tag System Communication Requirements

Perhaps the best technical issue in the deployment of an operable RF-based tag system protocol is the particularly reliable, robust, low-power RF communication links between sensor / ID tags mounted on containers and the facility or ship receiver infrastructure. It is a need. Hybrid (direct sequence / frequency-hopping) band-spreading to significantly improve RF tag performance (with respect to data and location accuracy) while reducing RF interference generation and sensitivity with respect to other tags and facility RF systems. A telemetry approach using will preferably be used. As noted above, the phrase “hybrid band-spreading (HSS)” as used herein is described, for example, by US patent application Ser. No. 10 / 817,759, filed Dec. 31, 2003 and published PCT application WO 02/27992. Direct sequence band-spreading (DSSS), for example code division multiple access (CDMA), and frequency hopping, time hopping, time division multiple access (TDMA), orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), and / or spatial division as described. It is defined as a combination of at least one of multiple access (SDMA). Another advantage of the present technology lies in the area of power usage-the HSS protocol limits the number of RF transmissions from each tag while dynamically minimizing collisions with other tags and thus tag data messages (e.g., For example, properties that facilitate power reduction by (absolutely) minimizing the requirements for retransmission (s). Another important system operation issue is internal power management for tag subsystems (ie, logic, RF circuitry, and sensors).

To maintain useful battery-charge intervals, both the command-receive and data-transmit functions of RFID tags can be performed on a very small duty-cycle basis, where receive-system power consumption levels are often much higher than those of transmitters. Because it is not low. In addition to this, all data from smart-tag sensors can be processed to remove redundant transmissions together. Finally, where low-battery warnings are desired, they may be sent to the facility receiver (s) to ensure proper tag operability (ie, data access and tag location) at all times. Alternative tag-energy options may include a local passive-style power supply via interrogator wands, onboard photovoltaic cells, or other energy sources. Some of the system protocols described above assume bidirectional transmission to container tags, but it is feasible to consider unidirectional “dum-chuffer” tags for some system implementations that do not require on-demand query capabilities.

Related port (coastal) facility-system design issues include the use of RF repeaters to provide adequate and consistent spatial RF coverage throughout the facility, internal infrastructure signaling options, and the deployment of distributed transceiver / wireless units. . The basic infrastructure may use twisted pair wires, coaxial cables, powerline RF transmission techniques, or wireless RF transceivers for data transmission between facility transceivers and central container monitoring and control points. Yard RF transceivers may be mounted on existing structures, but this configuration will depend heavily on the specific setup of the terminal. The corresponding onboard RF infrastructure will be further constrained by the limited opportunities to selectively deploy RF equipment for vessel layout and best coverage. Numerous compromises can be accommodated because fixed RF devices will need to be operated from the ship's power and will need to be mounted in locations that will not interfere with normal ship operations and maintenance activities. To this end, it is highly desirable to handle RF infrastructure data communications through the ship's AC distribution system. This will provide a physically protected path and eliminate the need for additional cabling throughout the vessel when installing the system embodiments of the invention on a vessel.

9. Requirements for Container Monitoring and Sensors

Container location tracking may require different solutions for ship versus rail and truck transport. On a ship, a GPS-based tag may not exist on its own if it is not combined with triangulation. More specifically, GPS is a transmit / receive direct positioning system where the receiver must be able to see three or more satellite sources. Containers embedded in stacks on deck or in the docks of a ship will not be able to obtain the transmit and receive direct-line signals required to use GPS satellite sources. The addition of a local GPS repeater on board would not solve this problem. Even when GPS signals of appropriate intensity are received and repeated, high levels of local RF multipath reflections in the stacks can cause major uncertainties in position accuracy, and the results are generally unacceptable. Moreover, the requirements for very low tag operating powers will almost certainly exclude individual GPS receivers even where adequate satellite reception is possible. Preferred marine solutions include the use of local triangulation systems. The use of a local triangulation system adapted to the local onboard environment may allow for the best possible container-location performance. Due to severe multipath reflections and limited (power-constrained) tag transmission times, this system cannot provide accurate container position in all cases, but possibly ± 1 container up / down, front / rear. And approximate locations within the port / starboard. In most cases, this level of accuracy should be fairly appropriate.

For linear triangulation, multiple receivers may be required. Lack of transmit and receive direct line propagation from a given container to a fixed central receiver will require a set of receivers to localize the container transmission position for containers stacked on the deck. In addition, it would be difficult to localize containers in the docks, beyond identifying the docks in which they are located. Due to overwhelming levels of multipath and disturbances in RF signal paths, each dock has one receiver per antenna and one receiver mounted on the bulkhead near the end of each container to accurately localize the container position within the dock. You can ask for up to This possibly exceeds the number acceptable for cost-effective solutions by current technology. Moreover, the incremental value of knowing the exact location of each container on the dock is not great because there is no practical way to access most containers once they are stacked on the dock. In any event, the priority of finding a particular container within the dock is clearly lower than accurately tracking the container via loading and unloading, which has a strong economic effect (due to time) on the overall cargo loading and transportation process.

The solution to this problem is to deploy smart antenna structures (ie a plurality of interconnected, horizontally polarized wire-type dipole antennas are mounted on the walls of the docks, all with a remote controlled RF PIN-diode switch). Coupled to common cables). This setup effectively implements a group of scanning antenna arrays for the dock, where the antenna arrays can identify the container loaded on the dock and provide its location when loaded. The positioning function for a particular dock can be triggered by a local container-tagged RF question signal (ie, a burst of RF energy coded at 13.56 or other convenient frequency), where the question signal is a "warning" or "weather" signal. As will be detected manually or semi-manually by container tags. Thereafter, each of these queried containers whose codes (the last few digits of the container serial ID number) match the alert signal will respond with an HSS burst signal in a pseudo-random-timely manner. The dock receiving subsystem will acquire these signals and will relay the results to the main shipboard system for correlation with the full serial numbers of the vessel's container inventory database.

Another key part of the MAST system is the tracking of containers at loading docks or container yards. Assuming that large volumes of containers move in and out of these facilities, a tracking system that can tell facility operators where a particular container is located can be a significant time-saving. Within the yard, a local band-spread RF triangulation system can be used to track the container location. Four or more strategic locations around the yard (more locations for very large installations) will provide dynamic tracking of container locations. Additional receiving units can be located at the exits and entries of the terminal as a whole, where their data can be used to record the departure of containers from the entry and the facility. Typical open transmit / receive direct line communication distances in open yards should be approximately 300 m to approximately 500 m for tag RF transmit power levels of 10 mW, which easily extends to approximately 1 km for 100 mW tags. Radiolocation accuracy may be good within 1m for typical (short) tag-read average times. In addition to this, when longer average times are used, larger position resolution can be obtained. A set of wireless positioning receivers equipped with adaptive beam steering antennas are mounted on each loading crane to obtain complete telemetry and position data for each container in a short range, typically when the container is moved into or out of the vessel. Will be installed. This data set can be the most reliable validation of a tracking database system, with certain containers actually moving from yards to ships or vice versa. An optional feature that can be included in container-location monitoring software is movement detection. That is, whenever a container location changes by more than an incidental amount (i.e. greater than the system location-uncertainty specification), a security routine that tracks the container's movement because the container's ID is compared against the active vessel lists. Can be activated. If the container is moved a considerable distance (over normal yards where destacking / relamination operations typically involve) but does not plan to move, the yard personnel will automatically be alerted to potential placement errors or theft attempts.

In general, GPS container location tracking is theoretically possible for containers that have a clear transmit / receive direct line for GPS satellites, but this is due to the reasons outlined previously for shipboard containers (ie, sufficient transmit / receive direct line reception of In terms of terminal yard), in particular in laminations. The same logic applies to containers carried by rail or truck.

The invention also provides a choice for monitoring and sensing container cargo conditions, including a wide range of sensor devices capable of detecting interference to container cargo, container temperature, mechanical shock, radiation, smugglers, or chemical / biological factors. Techniques may be included. Some of these sensors (eg, temperature sensors, door switches, accelerometers, bead-type shock sensors) are off-the-shelf requiring only a small technical effort to be included in the container monitoring system. ) Devices.

Door integrity monitoring will use sensors to indicate whether container doors are open or removed. This sensor can be a mechanical or magnetic switch, but other means such as light, capacitor, or reluctance-measuring devices can also be used. All these items are off-the-shelf and should be easily deployed at low cost.

Radiation monitoring can be performed using sensors that record the interaction of the material with radiation, such as standard thermoluminescent radiation dose measurements (TLDs) of the type used for general staff dosimetry monitoring. Analysis of radiation-induced changes in a material over several days can detect very low levels of radiation. The sensor does not require continuous battery power, only battery power that intermittently measures changes in the sensing medium. While TLDs are off-the-shelf and reasonably cheap automated reader units are commercially available, container applications can dictate appropriate optimization-technology efforts. In order to provide continuous, radiation sensing inside the container, a number of methods are available at a reasonable cost, depending on whether the alpha, beta, gamma, X-ray, and / or neutron radiation is desired and the sensitivity levels. For large scale applications, the present invention may include inexpensive multilayer detector materials capable of responding to small radiation fluxes with low-level photocurrents readable by low power CMOS electrometer circuits (similar to cheap home smoke detectors). have. Radiation monitoring may also be performed using passive integral ionizing radiation sensors described below.

An alternative strategy for rapid, wide-scale radiation screening of containers will be best performed via a sensitive multi-detector array scanning system mounted on a loading crane or in a coastal installation. However, due to the extremely economical time pressure in loading / unloading operations, these container scans are offline or on-the-fly before (or immediately after) the crane-transporting operation so as not to affect the overall container throughput rate. on-the-fly).

Monitoring for smugglers in containers can be performed with various types of sensors. The present invention may include the use of a heart rate detector known as an Enclosed-Space Detection System. These sensor systems, including vibration probes (e.g., accelerometers) and detection and recognition electronics, periodically record the microvibrations of the container, and wavelets for time / frequency signal codes of human (or animal) heartbeats. Analyze them through conversion methods. This system is most efficient for monitoring single, isolated containers (eg, in dock-yadu), but can even be adapted for onboard use. Another potential method of detecting smugglers or other unauthorized items inserted into containers is a device that generates a special electromagnetic pulse inside (or in a container). Thereafter, field levels at two or more locations are detected, telemetered, and recorded. Periodic retransmission of the electromagnetic pulses and comparison of the new and original responses will indicate any significant changes in the field patterns determined by the dispersion of the material in the container. It will also indicate the movement of material in the container due to cargo movement or the presence of humans (or animals). Although the technology is commercially available, more traditional (and possibly less expensive) approaches to this problem are simpler but less sensitive steady-state or pulsed ultrasound and similar in function to commercial intrusion alerts. And / or RF (microwave) systems. The latter techniques are essentially off-the-shelf, but can be blocked or screened by cargo stacked in front of the sensor.

Chemical / biological factors are difficult and expensive to detect, mainly because extremely small quantities of these factors must be detected with high accuracy (low inaccurate negatives and inaccurate positives). The present invention may include a chemical or biological "lab-on-a-chip" detector. Less expensive chemical / biological detection systems for containers can be equipped with detectors on or near mobile cranes, where containers can pass through a "sniffer tunnel" for rapid online inspection. . In addition, individual chemical / biological detector (s) may be mounted to and / or on the container (s).

Shock and / or acceleration detection for sensitive cargoes can be achieved by MEMS / electronic devices (similar to automotive airbag sensors), glass beads or granules (for shock or tilt-limit detection), piezoelectric devices (E.g., classic accelerometers), microcantilevers, and inductive sensors (e.g., geophones). . The main constraint is generally the available power. Many of these devices require so much power that they cannot be easily handled by small batteries for a significant amount of time (eg a month). However, the use of a continuously time-sampled acceleration profile is of great value in determining cases of excessively rough handling of containers during tracking and transport of fragile cargoes. Most of these types of sensors are now commercially available, and proper packaging and interfacing to them into container telemetry systems will be quick and easy.

Frozen container systems, in particular compressor and cooling system components, will ideally be monitored using the techniques described above in connection with refrigerators. This compressor and cooling system technology, including electrical signal analysis components, is readily commercially available and will be simple to perform for the transport environment.

Preferably, a typical container tag (whether simply a long-range ID device or a more sophisticated data acquisition / telemetry device for detailed monitoring of container security and internal conditions (ie temperature, humidity, shock)) is a battery- Power is supplied. Thus, careful unit and system designs are also desirable that ensure wide acceptance by the ship industry by ensuring proper member operation over long intervals. Preferably, the tags should have maintenance-free periods of at least approximately one year. Most shipping companies will want intervals of three to five years that approximate the lightly loaded life of camera-style lithium batteries, which is the best energy-dense format currently available in readily available commercial products. Since the shelf life of lithium ion batteries is typically around 10 years, sealed container tags stored in a power off state for several years prior to use should still indicate a 3-5 year normal operating life target. The suggested tag lookup intervals in most planned scenarios range from 1 to 4 times per day, including container type; Relative destructiveness or sensitivity of the cargo; And depend on other factors such as security, cargo value, theft potential, and traumatic events (eg containers going underwater). Some of the latter factors may also affect the deployment of emergency transmitters or beacons on containers to facilitate immediate seamen's response to these urgent situations. Assuming typical battery performance of 1400 mAH (3-V AA size), one routine inquiry per hour (consuming 10 mA on average for 10 seconds) will result in a little more than five years of active operating battery life. If charging is performed, this interval may easily exceed 20 years, possibly close to the expected life of the electronics package. Although solar charging is the preferred charging mechanism used, micro fuel cells, kinetic generators (eg, micro-pendulum or MEMS types), thermocouples (temperature-differential), and even RF energy scavenging ( Other power mechanisms are possible, including scavenging.

Embodiments of the present invention may include embedding an RFID tag in a container structure. Embodiments of the invention may include providing a plurality of RFID tags on one container for redundancy or as (non) functional handout (s).

Nominal charge radiation dose measurement for extreme low voltage measurements of ship containers

Electron dosimetry devices can measure the dose of a container, but they must be powered on during integration times. Thus, they must integrate for short periods of time to conserve battery power (thus reducing sensitivity). The use of large size or large quantities of batteries is not economically feasible and do not replace batteries during the life of the container (typical ship container life is 5 to 7 years).

There is a need for a simple, rugged, low cost, low power device that can be installed in any ship container to manually integrate the radiation dose. During transportation, the device can integrate the radiation dose for very long periods of time to obtain a very sensitive measurement of the presence of radiation in the container. Even well shielded radioactive material will result in a slight increase in the background radiation levels of the container. There is also a need for a device that can reduce the occurrence of incorrect positives.

Space charge dosimetry (SCD) can continuously integrate the radiation dose manually and only requires power for reading or for charging the device. These devices work by charging or generating an initial potential between the anode and the cathode. The dielectric medium is located between the cathode and the anode. This potential creates an electric field across the dielectric medium. As radiation passes through the dielectric material, it causes ionization of the dielectric. The electric field then sweeps away ions or charge carriers from the dielectric, thus reducing the potential between the anode and the cathode. The measurement of the depleted charge during the exposure period is a measure of the ionization integrated during the measurement period. The charge (or some physical aspect of the device controlled by the charge) is read before and after exposure to obtain the dose rate.

By using various materials as filters around the SCD, the type of radiation detected is determined, or the energy range of the radiation is determined. A set of (multiple) of these low cost sensors in each container with different filters around each SCD can provide an indication of the type of radiation and energy levels as well as an indication of increased background radiation. This may help to identify the potential type of radioactive material in the container, which identifies, for example, whether the increased radiation levels of the container are due to bananas (potassium-40) rather than from cobalt-60 in a lead shielded box. can do.

Embodiments of the present invention can solve the problem of how to measure radiation in a ship container, where the radiation sensor is low cost, the battery is powered but still has many years of battery life. Embodiments of the present invention provide field effect transistors such as very low cost spatial charge radiation meters (SCDs), IGFETs (insulated gate field effect transistors), such as an electret ion chamber to manually integrate the radiation dose. FETs, MOSFETs (oxide semiconductor field effect transistors), and / or micro-cantilevers. In such devices, radiation passing through the sensitive volume of the radiation meter (air chamber or dielectric layers for FETs and micro-cantilevers) for the EIC ionizes the gas or dielectric (ie, generates charge pairs). Thereafter, these radiation induced charges cause a change in the potential or electric field of the device. This change in potential or electric field is proportional to the received radiation dose.

Embodiments of the invention may include active radiation detection volumes of materials that are electrical insulators. When radiation collides with this volume, charges are trapped in the volume. This trapped charge changes the electric field distribution in the volume. Embodiments of the invention can then detect such a change in the electric field by placing the electrode on opposite sides of the volume. Note that these electrodes will respond to this electric field. If these electrodes are, for example, gates and bodies of IGFET transistors, embodiments of the present invention may indirectly measure changes in the electric field by monitoring the channel conductance of the transistors without dispersing the trapped charge. Can be. Alternatively, where an embodiment of the present invention includes a detection volume (eg, such as a microcantilever) that moves in the direction of the insulated electrode, the embodiment of the present invention reads the cantilever deflection and the same Results can be achieved.

Intermittent readings of the voltage or potential of the SCD radiation meter provide a reading proportional to the radiation dose received by the device. One or more SCDs may optionally be mounted to a shipping container in a radio frequency identification tag environment. During container transportation (such as by ship or rail), SCDs integrate the received radiation dose. After a time interval, such as every 24 hours, the voltage potential of each SCD can be read. The potential change per reading is proportional to the radiation dose.

Multiple SCDs with various types of filters can be used to distinguish between radiation types (eg gamma, x-ray, neutron or beta) as well as between energy levels of these particles or photons. SCD located outside the container or well shielded inside the container can be used to remove ambient or background radiation.

The data from these radiation sensors can then be relayed to an RFID tag on the container. This RFID tag collects radiation sensors, data from other sensors (eg, temperature, acoustic, etc.) and location information (eg, from GPS or triangulation), all of which are May be transmitted to the receiver coupled to the central database by wireless communications (eg, HSS). In the central database, radiation dose readings can be analyzed to find indications that the container has a higher field than the normal radiation field. Radiation fields higher than normal radiation levels may indicate that dangerous (radioactive) cargo is in the container, and therefore certain containers need to be flagged for further investigation.

Embodiments of the present invention may include a system using spatial charge radiation dose meters (SCDs). SCDs include semiconductor devices such as charge film ionizers (EICs), insulated gate field effect transistors (IGFETs) and / or microcantilevers. SCDs can be used to continuously monitor radiation levels in shipping containers. These radiation sensors can be combined with communications and tracking systems located on each container, thereby allowing real-time worldwide monitoring of the container's radiation level as well as the container's location. Radiation levels higher than those not described or expected in the container may be used to flag the container for more detailed investigation at US ports (or preferably before the vessel enters US ports).

As noted above, the basic principle of the operation of SCDs is that ionizing radiation interacts with a material (such as air or dielectric) to create charge pairs (ionization). Thereafter, these charge pairs travel through the material due to the presence of an electric field. Thereafter, the movement and collection of charge carriers causes a reduction in the voltage potential across the device. Once the SCD is charged, ionization in the active region reduces the potential. Charging the device takes a very small amount of power. Once charged, the device continuously integrates the receive dose, which is measured as the drop in potential. Thus, reading this potential before and after exposure provides an indication of the receive dose. Importantly, the SCD does not require any power during the dose integration period. The only time power is required is to charge the device or read the potential. As also noted, three possible SCDs that can integrate the dose manually are a charge film ionization (EIC) radiation dose meter, an isolated gate field effect transistor (IGFET) radiation dose meter, and a microcantilever radiation dose meter.

Preferred operating methods of the radiation sensors of the present invention are as follows. The container is adapted to one or more radiation sensors and an RFID communication system, which is then loaded onto the cargo. The container is then shipped to a shipping terminal. Thereafter, the container is loaded on board for transportation to the United States or other importing country. During sea navigation, a signal is sent to the RFID system to activate the radiation sensor (read the sensor to get a base-line reading, or get a baseline reading after charging the sensor). The radiation sensor then manually integrates the received radiation dose, which is performed until the RFID system instructs the sensor for another reading or a predetermined amount of time has elapsed. The radiation sensor then powers up, reads the voltage level, and sends the reading to the RFID system. This reading is then relayed to the surrounding RFID system for collection and analysis at one or more central locations. The dose integration time (interval) can be from several minutes to several days. Since sea navigation can last for several days, it can allow for several days of integration for highly sensitive measurements.

The central RFID system may send a message to each container to get a baseline reading as the ship leaves the port. Thereafter, the central system may instruct the RFID tags to read the radiation sensors at regular intervals (eg, every 12 hours or 24 hours) during navigation. Sensor readings can be delivered to an RFID central system by RFID tags, tag readers, site servers, and the like, where received doses are collected and analyzed. As the ship passes through the ocean (ie, during navigation) any radiation dose readings above expected background levels will be flagged and notified to the appropriate authorities. This will stop the vessel before it reaches US ports (or other importing countries) and allow the container to be inspected.

EIC Radiation Dosimeters

The EIC consists of an electrically filled polymer (eg, Teflon) filament or disc called an electret, located inside an electrically conductive plastic chamber with a known air volume. The electret serves as the high voltage (anode) source required for the chamber to operate as an ion chamber. It also serves as a sensor for ionization measurements in chamber air. Negative ions generated inside the sensitive volume of the chamber by radiation induced ionization of air are collected by the electret causing charge depletion. The measurement of the depleted charge during the exposure period is a measure of the ionization integrated during the measurement period. The electret charge can be read before and after exposure, or on a known schedule using a non-contact electret voltage reader.

In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the electret charge read voltmeter is a very compact low cost electronic circuit, or possibly an ASIC chip, which not only reads the electret charge but also charges the electret as needed. The circuit or chip also contains enough data to convert the measured voltage into a radiation dose and can transmit this data via a sensor bus (eg, IEEE 1451 compliant).

An additional optional feature of the present invention is that each EIC is sensitive to different radiation types (eg, neutrons, gamma or x-rays) or energies (hard x-rays, soft x-rays, etc.) around the EICs. Radiation filtering materials or converters. The measurement of some qualitative features of the radiation, as well as the presence and amount of increased radiation levels, may help distinguish dangerous radioactive cargo from normal safe cargoes that normally have higher radiation levels (typically bananas, some pottery, etc.). Can be. Additionally, one EIC sensor can be mounted and shielded for measuring background radiation to background remove from sensor measurements inside the container.

EIC devices are shock sensitive and can be partially discharged when shaken or dropped. In order to prevent inaccurate positive radiation measurements due to the severe handling experienced by shipping containers, the present invention may include active and passive prevention measures. First, the ability to communicate to each sensor via an RFID tag on each container allows radiation sensors to integrate doses and then be read during known low impact potential times, such as during sea transport. Readings begin when the ship leaves the port and can be taken during the sailing period. Second, an accelerometer can be positioned with the sensors to identify shock events of sufficient magnitude that cause discharge of the EIC. After these events, the EIC is read and the dose integration time can be resumed.

Field Effect Transistor Radiation Meters

FET dosimetry operation is based on the generation of electron-hole pairs in the oxide (or other insulator material with very low hole mobility) of the structure (gate oxide) due to ionizing radiation (eg, IGFET). The energy for generating one electron-hole (e-h) pair of silicon oxide is approximately 18 eV. The electron mobility is that electrons are collected on the gate of the transistor (assuming an n-channel device), but the hole mobility is much smaller. Thus, the holes are effectively fixed in the oxide between the gate and the body. This causes a change in the field between the transistor's channel and the gate, which changes the channel's current-carrying capabilities. This change can then be read at any time without affecting the electric field being changed by radiation dose measurement. Thus, the gate bias voltage is a direct measure of the absorbed radiation dose. This technique can be applied to FETs deliberately manufactured in a given CMOS process or to both field-oxide FETs (parasitic FETs, IGFETs). The latter case would indicate more sensitivity due to the thicker oxides.

Microcantilever Radiation Dosimeters

Microcantilever radiation dose meters are created by having the microcantilever be an electrode separated from the ground by an insulator. Electric charge is applied to the microcantilever. This charge does not change until the radiation creates electron-hole pairs in the insulator. Thus, the absorbed radiation dose is continuously and manually integrated. To read the radiation dose, the change in the voltage potential of the microcantilever is measured. This potential or change in potential is determined by measuring the deflection of the microcantilever.

Filters and converters for distinguishing between radiation types or energy levels

The present invention may include the use of materials of different types and thicknesses to produce radiation sensors that are sensitive to certain types of radiation or to different energy levels. The present invention may include the use of a plurality of (eg, array) low cost detectors, each with a different filter, in a shipping container. Since the above mentioned SCD radiation detector types can be produced in large quantities at low cost, the array of detectors can be located throughout the container. Filters of variable density metals such as lead, tin, and aluminum can be used to roughly determine the energy of impinging gamma or x-rays. Radiation converters such as boron or lithium-6 can be used to create devices that are sensitive to thermal neutrons. Teflon or high hydrogen containing plastics can be used to increase the sensitivity to medium energy neutrons. By using an array of detectors, each using a different filter and a converter, located inside the container, any radiation detected in the container can be converted into energy bands (e.g., low, medium, and high) and radiation type (beta, x-ray, gamma).

RFID communication system

The present invention can combine radiation sensors with a communication and tracking system that relays sensor data and container location to a central database, where the radiation data from all containers is analyzed to flag containers requiring further detailed investigation. Can be. The entire RFID system may be referred to as a "Marine Asset Security and Tracking (MAST) System". The MAST system is preferably radio-based for tracking and monitoring of marine industry-standard shipping containers, both at port side dock facilities as well as on board during loading, unloading, and transport operations of containers overseas. Communication and sensing / remote measurement system. The system also provides a true linked transport tracking and monitoring system that can operate within ships, railroads, trucks on the road and related terminal facilities, which includes satellite and / or cellular / PCS. Both communication systems and other wide area commercial communication systems are used. This RFID tag system collects RFID tags attached to each shipping container, local site readers located throughout the vessel and at the shipping terminal, one central site server on each vessel or at each terminal, and all data, It may include a National Operations Center (NOC) that is integrated, stored, analyzed, and disseminated. The shipping containers can be both freezer-freight shipping containers (freezers) and dry-freight shipping containers (dry-boxes). In addition to identifying and tracking the location of containers or other equipment fitted to one of the RFID tags, each tag allows the connection of a wide range of sensors to the RFID tag to monitor the condition of container cargo or other tagged equipment. For example, an IEEE 1451 sensor interface and extra serial interfaces are equipped. Other sensors that can be connected to RFID tags include, but are not limited to, temperature, pressure, relative humidity, accelerometer, radiation, door seals, and GPS (global positioning system). Additional sensors may also be included to read the status data of machinery such as refrigeration compressors and read diagnostic data ports for some refrigerated cargo containers.

The present invention may include the implementation of a radiation sensor system for MAST system RFID tags. The MAST system provides a solution to the problem of combining the data from the container plant with the entire monitoring, tracking or communication system, and the problem of no power during the dose integration time is addressed by using a set of passively integrated radiation sensors. . An embodiment of the present invention continuously and manually integrates the radiation dose, transmits this data to an RFID tag on a container via an IEEE 1451 sensor interface, and subsequently transmits this positional and other sensor data to the MAST system national operation. And a class of radiation dose meters that transmit to the center NOC. In the NOC, all sensor data, container lists, routes moved by containers, and other information can be analyzed and used to identify containers for further investigation in the Ports of Entry.

The invention may include manually integrating the radiation dose over long periods of time using only power to read the received dose. The invention may include linking a radiation sensor with an RFID system, where the RFID system will communicate sensor data to the central database in near real time, identifying and flagging containers with abnormal radiation readings in the central database. Analysis of the sensor data may be performed.

The present invention may include an in-situ polling of a set of passive integral ionizing radiation sensors comprising reading radiation dose measurement data from the first passive integral ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integral ionizing radiation sensor. The first passive integral ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integral ionizing radiation sensor are positioned where the radiation dose measurement data is integrated while reading the radiation dose measurement data, and the first passive integral radiation sensor and the second passive integral. The type radiation sensor is connected to readout circuits which present very high impedances during the passive integral mode and during the active readout mode, which is capable of providing a first passive ionizing ionizing radiation sensor and a first integrated sensor without destroying the integrated radiation dose measurement data. 2 Passive integral ionizing radiation sensor allows a maximum range of continuous integration of ionizing radiation The. Under the detection of reaching the maximum integration limits, the readout circuits reset the passive integral radiation sensors and can accumulate the number of sensor reset cycles in a non-volatile manner.

The present invention provides a first passive integral ionizing radiation sensor; A second passive integral ionizing radiation sensor; A readout circuit coupled to both the first passive integral ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integral ionizing radiation sensor, wherein the reading circuit has a very high impedance both during the passive integration mode and during the active reading mode; Presented to both the passive integral ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integral ionizing radiation sensor; And a communication circuit coupled to the reading circuit, wherein reading of the radiation dose measurement data from both the first passive integrated radiation sensor and the second passive integrated radiation sensor is presented to the communication circuit.

One or both of the first passive integral ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integral ionizing radiation sensor may comprise a thick oxide insulated gate field effect transistor space charge radiation dose meter. The readout circuits can present an impedance of approximately 10 11 ohms to approximately 10 15 ohms, preferably approximately 10 12 to approximately 10 14 ohms, most preferably approximately 10 13 ohms.

As noted above, the present invention may include a thick oxide radiation dose meter (TOD). In such a TOD, the FETs may be arranged such that the gates are connected to two or more levels of metal or polysilicon. This will increase the active volume of SiO 2 which can interact with ionizing radiation. These devices have a significant optional advantage of temperature and process compensation by reading the voltage between the drains assuming the sources are connected to a common electrical potential. Gates and drains for a given IGFET may be connected together.

This technique can be extended by simply adding FETs and stacking metal layers on top of them, with the limitations of the semiconductor fabrication process used. The advantage is that the active volume of the oxide used for detection increases, but the electric field generated by the charge trapped between any two plates is reduced by increasing the distance between the plates. As many plates as the manufacturing process allows can be used to obtain the largest electric field for a given ionizing radiation event to ensure the detection of the greatest probability.

10 and 11 show two IGBT examples of the present invention. In the description of the elements shown in these figures, the use of the terms "first, second and third" is merely to distinguish between similar elements, and the designation of such terms is arbitrary.

Referring to FIG. 10, a set of passively integrated ionizing radiation sources includes a first sensor 1010 shielded by a first filter 1011. This set of passive integral ionizing radiation sensors also includes a second sensor 1020 shielded by a second filter 1021. Both the first sensor 1010 and the second sensor 1020 are coupled to the communication circuit 1030. The temperature compensation circuit 1040 is coupled to the communication circuit 1030. Calibration circuit 1050 is also coupled to communication circuit 1030. Each of sensors 1020 and 1030 is based on a pair of insulated gate field effect transistors.

The present invention may include a device consisting of a thick oxide dosimeter and a readout circuit coupled to the thick oxide dosimeter, where the thick oxide dosimeter and readout circuitry are on a single high impedance and low leakage substrate. Is configured on. The thick oxide radiation meter can include a thick oxide insulated gate field effect transistor space charge radiation meter. One high impedance and low leakage substrate may comprise a composition of silicon on sapphire, silicon on insulators and / or modified high resistivity silicon. The substrate may have an impedance of about 10 11 ohms to about 10 15 ohms, preferably about 10 12 to about 10 14 ohms, most preferably about 10 13 ohms.

Referring to FIG. 11, the passive integral ionizing radiation sensor 1100 includes a first active region (area) 1110 and a second active region (area) 1120. The first active region 1110 is sandwiched by the common conductor 1130 and the first active region conductor 1140. The second active region 1120 is sandwiched by the common conductor 1130 and the second active region conductor 1150. The first active region conductor 1140 is coupled to the gate of the first insulated gate field effect transistor 1160. The second active region conductor 1150 is coupled to the gate of the second insulated gate field effect transistor 1170. Sources of both the first insulated gate field effect transistor 1160 and the second insulated gate field effect transistor 1170 are connected together and coupled to the common conductor 1130. The third insulated gate field effect transistor 1180 provides integrated temperature compensation functionality.

During the passive-mode radiation dose measurement operation of the examples shown in FIG. 11, ionizing radiation passes through the active region and generates net charge trapped in the oxide. This charge generates an electric field between adjacent conductors, thus creating a net change in resistance seen between the gate and the source of the FET where the active region strikes. The net dose is proportional to the change in resistance. Temperature compensation is applied by tracking changes in the third IGFET with much lower radiation sensitivity than others.

A first insulated gate field effect transistor comprising a first source, a first drain, and a first insulated gate; A second insulated gate field effect transistor comprising a second source, a second drain and a second insulated gate, wherein the second source is coupled to the first source; A first conductor coupled to the second gate; A first active region coupled to the first conductor; The first active region accumulates radiation dose measurement data from incident ionizing radiation; A second conductor connected to the first active region; A second active region coupled to the second conductor, wherein the second active region accumulates radiation dose measurement data from incident ionizing radiation; And a third conductor coupled between the second active region and the first gate, wherein the second conductor couples to both the first source and the second source. The third insulated gate field effect transistor may provide temperature compensation data.

The invention may include arranging a plurality of sensors in a spatially distributed (eg, array) configuration, and setting an alarm condition based on readings of the plurality of sensors.

The present invention may include pattern recognition. For example, the method may comprise arranging a plurality of passively integrated ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; Determining relative positions of each of the plurality of passive integral ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; Collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of passive integral ionizing radiation sensors; And triggering an alarm condition when the ionizing radiation data collected from the subset of the plurality of passively integrated ionizing radiation sensors meets a predetermined spatial pattern criterion. The predetermined spatial pattern criterion may comprise a plurality of alternative patterns. The predetermined spatial pattern criterion may comprise a radiation dose measurement data pattern defined by a function including the cube root of the radius from the approximate location of the ionizing radiation source.

The phrase “hybrid band-spreading (HSS)” as used herein refers to direct sequence band-spreading (DSSS) (eg, code division multiple access (CDMA)), and frequency hopping, time hopping, time division multiple access (TDMA). ), Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and / or spatial division multiple access (SDMA). The singular expression used in the present invention includes the plural expression. As used herein, the plural expressions are defined to include at least two or more. As used herein, the terms “comprise, comprising”, “comprise, constitute” and / or “comprise, comprise” are defined in an open sense (ie, require what is described later, but even Open to including unspecified process (s), structure (s) and / or component (s) in quantities). As used herein, the terms “consisting (constructed, constituting)” and / or “comprising (comprising, comprising)” refer to those commonly described except those of related aids, appendages and / or impurities. Closes the disclosed method, apparatus or configuration for the inclusion of other procedures, structure (s) and / or component (s). The description of the term “essentially” in conjunction with the terms “consisting of” or “comprising” refers to any unspecified process (s) in which the disclosed method, apparatus and / or configuration does not materially affect the basic novel properties of the configuration, Only open to the inclusion of the structure (s) and / or component (s). As used herein, the term “coupled” is defined as being directly, and not necessarily mechanical, but “connected”. As used herein, the term “any” is defined as at least a subset of all applicable members or a set of all applicable members. As used herein, the term “approximately” is defined as being at least close to a predetermined value (eg, preferably within 10%, more preferably within 1%, and most preferably within 0.1%). As used herein, the term "substantially" is defined as generally but not necessarily in full of what is specified. As used herein, the term “overall” is defined as approaching at least a predetermined state. As used herein, the term "developed" is defined as designing, constructing, shipping, installing and / or operating. As used herein, the term "means" is defined as hardware, firmware and / or software to achieve the result. The term "program" or phrase "computer program", as used herein, is defined as a sequence of instructions designed for execution on a computer system. A program or computer program is a subroutine, function, process, object method, object implementation, executable application, applet, servlet, source code, object code, shared library / dynamic load library, designed for execution on a computer or computer system. And / or other instruction sequences. As used herein, the term “proximity” is defined as near, near, and / or coincident, and includes spatial situations in which certain functions and / or results may be performed and / or achieved. As used herein, the phrase “radio frequency” is defined as including frequencies below approximately 300 GHz as well as infrared.

All embodiments of the invention disclosed herein can be formed and used without unnecessary experimentation in light of the present disclosure. Embodiments of the invention are not limited to the theoretical statements described herein. Although the best mode of carrying out the embodiments of the invention contemplated by the inventor (s) has been disclosed, the implementation of the embodiments of the invention is not so limited. Accordingly, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that embodiments of the present invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically disclosed herein.

It will be apparent that various substitutions, modifications, additions and / or reconfigurations of the features of the embodiments of the invention may be made without departing from the spirit and / or scope of the inventive concepts below. The spirit and / or scope of the inventive concepts below, as defined by the appended claims and their equivalents, are considered to encompass all such substitutions, modifications, additions and / or reconfigurations.

All disclosed elements and features of each disclosed embodiment may be combined with or replaced with the disclosed elements and features of each other disclosed embodiment, except where such elements or features are mutually excluded. Changes in the steps or sequence of steps that define the methods described herein can be made.

Although sensor (s) with or without the filters described herein may be in a separate module, it will be apparent that the sensor (s) may be integrated into the relevant system. Individual components need not be formed in the disclosed shapes or combined into the disclosed configurations, but may be provided in all shapes and / or combined in all configurations. Individual components need not be made from the materials disclosed, but can be made from all suitable materials.

The appended claims are not to be construed as including any means-plus-function limitations (except using the phrase (s) "means for" and / or "steps for" Except where expressly set forth in the claims such limitations). Subgeneric embodiments of the invention are illustrated by the appended independent claims and their equivalents. Certain embodiments of the invention are differentiated by the appended dependent claims and their equivalents.

1 is an overall schematic diagram of a marine asset security and tracking (MAST) system representing an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 2 is a radio frequency RF data link operation for use on both a terminal and on board with radio frequency identification (RFID) tags capable of simultaneously communicating with coast-based and ship-based receivers, representing an embodiment of the invention. Schematic diagram of.

3 illustrates land-side and on-board sites when tags use RF for local-area communications (eg, for on-board and terminal local area (land-side) operations), representing an embodiment of the present invention. It schematically shows the communications between RFID tags and a network operations center (NOC) via a server.

4 schematically illustrates two-way communications between RFID tags and a network operations center (NOC) when using cellular or satellite communications over road or during rail transportation, representing an embodiment of the present invention.

5 is a schematic block diagram of functional elements including an RFID tag, representing an embodiment of the invention.

6 is an overall schematic diagram of readers and RFID tags in the context of containers in a stacked array, representing an embodiment of the invention.

7 is a flowchart of an RFID tag boot-up sequence including a node discovery sequence mode that may be performed by a computer program, representing an embodiment of the present invention.

8 is a flowchart of an RFID tag start sequence mode that may be performed by a computer program, representing an embodiment of the invention.

9 is hermetically stacked (at nominal 40 feet) on the deck of a ship or in a terminal yard with a single RF emitter (represented as radiation dots) mounted near the center of the top of the host container, representing an embodiment of the present invention. A schematic top plan view of a group of containers, wherein the arrows leak from the ends of the container into adjacent passageways, and then indicate the RF energy reflecting along the passageways, with potential RF receiving locations at the ends of the passageways. It is indicated by the dots located.

10 is a schematic block diagram of a series of polled pairs of sensors, representing an embodiment of the present invention, wherein each sensor has a different filter.

11 is a schematic structural diagram of an event polled sensor with integrated temperature compensation, representing an embodiment of the present invention.

Claims (149)

  1. Transmitting identification data, location data, and environmental state sensor data from a radio frequency tag, wherein the radio frequency tag adjusts a set point for lower power consumption with respect to the environmental state sensor data; And switch to a transceiver mode to allow tag to tag communication, and wherein the radio frequency tag can be switched to the transceiver mode when an alarm condition is activated.
  2. 2. The method of claim 1, further comprising depicting the location of the radio frequency tag using a geographic information system.
  3. 2. The method of claim 1, wherein the radio frequency tag adjusts a set point for lower power consumption with respect to the environmental state sensor data.
  4. 2. The method of claim 1, wherein the radio frequency tag can be switched to a transceiver mode to allow tag to tag communication.
  5. 2. The method of claim 1, wherein the transceiver mode comprises transmitting the radio frequency tag during a randomized transmission interval, and then receiving and buffering.
  6. 5. The method of claim 4, wherein the radio frequency tag is switched to the transceiver mode when an alarm condition is activated.
  7. The power source of claim 1, wherein the radio frequency tag comprises an energy storage device comprising an energy storage device charged by at least one current source selected from the group consisting of an electrostatic rechargeable battery, a thermo-electric generator and a radioisotope decay energy recovery device. Method comprising a.
  8. 2. The method of claim 1, further comprising receiving identification data, location data and environmental state sensor data from the radio frequency tag at a reader.
  9. 9. The method of claim 8, wherein the radio frequency tag can be switched to a transceiver mode to allow tag to tag communication.
  10. 2. The method of claim 1, wherein the transceiver mode comprises transmitting the radio frequency tag during a randomized transmission interval, and then receiving and buffering.
  11. 2. The method of claim 1, wherein the radio frequency tag is switched to tag to tag mode when not receiving a response from the reader.
  12. 10. The method of claim 9, wherein the radio frequency tag is switched to the transceiver mode when an alarm condition is activated.
  13. 9. The method of claim 8, further comprising representing a location of the radio frequency tag using a geographic information system.
  14. The method of claim 1 wherein the radio frequency tag comprises a sensor.
  15. 15. The method of claim 14, wherein said sensor is characterized by at least one member selected from the group consisting of ionizing radiation, chemical moiety, and species.
  16. 15. The method of claim 14, wherein the sensor is at least one member selected from the group consisting of electromagnetic radiation, humidity, temperature, vibration, acceleration, and mechanical linkage.
  17. 17. The method of claim 16, wherein the radio frequency tag adjusts a set point for lower power consumption with respect to the sensor.
  18. 2. The method of claim 1, further comprising a sensor coupled to the radio frequency tag.
  19. 19. The method of claim 18, wherein the sensor is characterized by at least one member selected from the group consisting of ionizing radiation, chemomers, species, acoustic exports, mechanical vibrations, and actinic radiation.
  20. 19. The method of claim 18, wherein the sensor is at least one member selected from the group consisting of electromagnetic radiation, humidity, temperature, vibration, acceleration, and mechanical linkage.
  21. 19. The method of claim 18, wherein the radio frequency tag adjusts a set point for lower power consumption with respect to the sensor.
  22. 19. The method of claim 18, wherein the sensor comprises a power source that is not required for the tag to transmit identification data and location data.
  23. 23. The device of claim 22, wherein the power source comprises an energy storage device charged by at least one current source selected from the group consisting of an electrostatic rechargeable battery, a thermo-electric generator and a radioisotope decay energy recovery device. Way.
  24. 19. The apparatus of claim 18, wherein the sensor is wirelessly configured by at least one member selected from the group consisting of hybrid band-spreading, direct sequence band-spreading, frequency hopping, time hopping, time division multiplexing, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, and infrared. And coupled to the radio frequency tag.
  25. 25. The apparatus of claim 24, wherein identification data, location data, and environmental state sensor data from the radio frequency tag are transmitted in a first frequency band, wherein the sensor is wireless in a second frequency band that does not overlap the first frequency band. And coupled to the radio frequency tag.
  26. The identification data, location data and environmental status of claim 1, wherein the reader receives identification data, location data and environmental status sensor data from the radio frequency tag, and provides data accumulation and analysis from the reader to the site server. Retransmitting sensor data.
  27. 27. The method of claim 26, further comprising representing a location of the radio frequency tag using a geographic information system.
  28. 27. The system of claim 26, wherein the transmission of identification data, location data, and environmental status sensor data from the radio frequency tag occurs within a first frequency band, wherein the identification data, location data, and environmental status sensor from the reader to the site server. Retransmission of data occurs within a second frequency band that does not overlap the first frequency band.
  29. 27. The method of claim 26, wherein retransmission of identification data, location data, and environmental status sensor data from the reader to the site server comprises hybrid band-spreading, direct sequence band-spreading, frequency hopping, time hopping, time division multiplexing, orthogonal frequency division. And wireless transmission by at least two alternatives selected from the group consisting of multiple and infrared.
  30. 27. The method of claim 26, wherein retransmission of identification data, location data, and environmental status sensor data from the reader to the site server includes transmission over a reader power line.
  31. 31. The method of claim 30, wherein retransmission of identification data, location data, and environmental state sensor data from the reader to the site server comprises hybrid band-spreading, direct sequence band-spreading, frequency hopping, time hopping, time division multiplexing, orthogonal frequency division. And at least one member selected from the group consisting of multiple and infrared.
  32. 31. The apparatus of claim 30, wherein retransmission of identification data, location data, and environmental state sensor data from the reader to the site server is at a frequency selected from the group consisting of approximately 50 Hz, approximately 60 Hz, and substantially all harmonics. And noise canceling and diversifying.
  33. 27. The method of claim 26, wherein retransmission of identification data, location data, and environmental state sensor data from the reader to the site server comprises hybrid band-spreading, direct sequence band-spreading, frequency hopping, time hopping, time division multiplexing, orthogonal frequency. And wireless transmission by at least one member selected from the group consisting of split multiplex and infrared.
  34. 34. The method of claim 33, wherein wireless transmission with hybrid band-spread modulation includes removing and diversifying noise at a frequency selected from the group consisting of approximately 50 Hz, approximately 60 Hz, and substantially all harmonics. Characterized in that.
  35. 27. The system of claim 26, wherein the site server receives identification data, location data, and environmental status sensor data from the reader, and identifies at least one server in a common database that provides analysis, comparison, and tracking from the site server. Retransmitting data, location data and environmental state sensor data.
  36. 36. The method of claim 35, further comprising representing a location of the radio frequency tag using a geographic information system.
  37. 36. The method of claim 35, wherein the common database defines a global database.
  38. 36. The system of claim 35, wherein retransmission of identification data, location data, and environmental state sensor data from the site server to the common database is selected from the group consisting of satellites, cell phones, acoustics, power lines, telephone lines, coaxial lines, optical fibers, and optical cables. Which may include transmission by at least two alternatives.
  39. 36. The method of claim 35, wherein retransmission of identification data, location data, and environmental state sensor data from the site server to the common database includes transmission over the Internet.
  40. A radio frequency tag that transmits identification data, location data, and environmental state sensor data, wherein the radio frequency tag adjusts a set point for lower power consumption with respect to the environmental state sensor data; And switch to a transceiver mode to allow tag communication, and wherein the radio frequency tag can be switched to the transceiver mode when an alarm condition is activated.
  41. 41. The power source of claim 40, wherein the radio frequency tag comprises an energy storage device comprising an energy storage device charged by at least one current source selected from the group consisting of an electrostatic rechargeable battery, a thermo-electric generator and a radioisotope decay energy recovery device. Apparatus comprising a.
  42. 41. The apparatus of claim 40, wherein the radio frequency tag comprises a sensor.
  43. 43. The device of claim 42, wherein the sensor is at least one member selected from the group consisting of ionizing radiation, chemomers and species.
  44. 43. The apparatus of claim 42, wherein the sensor is at least one member selected from the group consisting of electromagnetic radiation, humidity, temperature, vibration, acceleration, and mechanical linkage.
  45. 41. The apparatus of claim 40, further comprising a sensor coupled to the radio frequency tag.
  46. 46. The apparatus of claim 45, wherein the sensor is at least one member selected from the group consisting of ionizing radiation, chemomers, and species.
  47. 46. The apparatus of claim 45, wherein the sensor is at least one member selected from the group consisting of electromagnetic radiation, humidity, temperature, vibration, acceleration, and mechanical linkage.
  48. 46. The apparatus of claim 45, wherein the sensor comprises a power source that is not required for the tag to transmit identification data, location data, and environmental status data.
  49. 49. The device of claim 48, wherein the power source comprises an energy storage device charged by at least one current source selected from the group consisting of an electrostatic rechargeable battery, a thermo-electric generator and a radioisotope decay energy recovery device. Device.
  50. 46. The apparatus of claim 45, wherein the sensor is wirelessly enabled by at least one member selected from the group consisting of hybrid band-spread, direct sequence band-spread, frequency hopping, time hopping, time division multiple, orthogonal frequency division multiple and infrared. And coupled to the radio frequency tag.
  51. 51. The apparatus of claim 50, wherein identification data, location data, and environmental state sensor data from the radio frequency tag are transmitted in a first frequency band, wherein the sensor is in a second frequency band that does not overlap the first frequency band. And wirelessly coupled to the radio frequency tag.
  52. 41. The apparatus of claim 40, wherein the radio frequency tag is coupled to a shipping container.
  53. 53. The apparatus of claim 52, wherein environmental condition sensor data includes an environmental condition within the shipping container.
  54. 53. The apparatus of claim 52, further comprising an antenna coupled to the shipping container.
  55. 53. The apparatus of claim 52, wherein the shipping container comprises a shipping container power source, and wherein the radio frequency tag can be connected to the shipping container power source.
  56. 56. The apparatus of claim 55, wherein the shipping container comprises a member selected from the group consisting of a dry box and a freezer.
  57. 41. The apparatus of claim 40, further comprising a reader wirelessly coupled to the radio frequency tag, wherein the reader receives identification data, location data, and environmental state sensor data from the radio frequency tag and accumulates data from the reader. Re-send identification data, location data, and environmental status sensor data to a site server providing analytics.
  58. 58. The system of claim 57, wherein transmission of identification data, location data, and environmental status sensor data from the radio frequency tag occurs within a first frequency band, wherein the identification data, location data, and environmental status sensor from the reader to the site server. And retransmission of the data occurs within a second frequency band that does not overlap the first frequency band.
  59. 59. The method of claim 58, wherein retransmission of identification data, location data, and environmental state sensor data from the reader to the site server comprises hybrid band-spreading, direct sequence band-spreading, frequency hopping, time hopping, time division multiplexing, orthogonal frequency division. And wireless transmission by at least two alternatives selected from the group consisting of multiple and infrared.
  60. 58. The apparatus of claim 57, wherein the reader is electrically coupled to the site server through a reader power line, and retransmission of identification data, location data, and environmental state sensor data from the reader to the site server is through the reader power line. And a transmission.
  61. 61. The method of claim 60, wherein retransmission of identification data, location data, and environmental state sensor data from the reader to the site server comprises hybrid band-spreading, direct sequence band-spreading, frequency hopping, time hopping, time division multiplexing, orthogonal frequency division. And at least one member selected from the group consisting of multiple and infrared.
  62. 61. The apparatus of claim 60, wherein retransmission of identification data, location data, and environmental state sensor data from the reader to the site server is at a frequency selected from the group consisting of approximately 50 Hz, approximately 60 Hz, and substantially all harmonics. Apparatus comprising removing and diversifying the noise.
  63. 59. The method of claim 57, wherein retransmission of identification data, location data, and environmental state sensor data from the reader to the site server comprises hybrid band-spreading, direct sequence band-spreading, frequency hopping, time hopping, time division multiplexing, orthogonal frequency division. And wireless transmission by at least one member selected from the group consisting of multiple and infrared.
  64. 64. The method of claim 63, wherein wireless transmission with hybrid band-spreading modulation comprises removing and diversifying noise at a frequency selected from the group consisting of approximately 50 Hz, approximately 60 Hz, and substantially all harmonics. Device characterized in that.
  65. 59. The apparatus of claim 57, further comprising a site server wirelessly coupled to the reader, the site server receiving identification data, location data and environmental status sensor data from the reader, as well as analyzing, comparing and And resend identification data, location data, and environmental status sensor data to at least one server in a common database providing tracking.
  66. 66. The apparatus of claim 65, wherein the common database defines a global database.
  67. 67. The method of claim 65, wherein retransmission of identification data, location data, and environmental status sensor data from the site server to the common database is selected from the group consisting of satellites, cell phones, acoustics, power lines, telephone lines, coaxial lines, optical fibers, and optical cables. Which can include transmission by at least two alternatives.
  68. 66. The apparatus of claim 65, wherein retransmission of identification data, location data, and environmental state sensor data from the site server to the common database includes transmission over the Internet.
  69. A vehicle comprising the apparatus of claim 40.
  70. A port area network comprising the apparatus of claim 40.
  71. A regional area network comprising the apparatus of claim 40.
  72. A national area network comprising the device of claim 40.
  73. A global area network comprising the apparatus of claim 40.
  74. Transmitting identification data and position data from a radio frequency tag using hybrid band-spreading modulation.
  75. 75. The method of claim 74, further comprising representing a location of the radio frequency tag using a geographic information system.
  76. 75. The method of claim 74, further comprising transmitting environmental state sensor data from the radio frequency tag using hybrid band-spreading modulation.
  77. 77. The method of claim 76, wherein the radio frequency tag adjusts a set point for lower power consumption with respect to the environmental state sensor data.
  78. 75. The method of claim 74, wherein the radio frequency tag can be switched to a transceiver mode to allow tag to tag communication.
  79. 80. The method of claim 78, wherein the transceiver mode comprises transmitting the radio frequency tag during a randomized transmission interval, and then receiving and buffering.
  80. 79. The method of claim 78, wherein said radio frequency tag transitions to said transceiver mode when an alert condition is activated.
  81. 81. The apparatus of claim 80, wherein the radio frequency tag is charged by at least one current source selected from the group consisting of photovoltaic cells, vibrating transducers, electrostatic rechargeable batteries, radio frequency power rectifiers, thermo-electric generators, and radioisotope decay energy recovery devices. A power source comprising an energy storage device.
  82. 75. The method of claim 74, further comprising receiving identification data and location data from the radio frequency tag at a reader.
  83. 83. The method of claim 82, wherein the radio frequency tag can be switched to a transceiver mode to allow tag to tag communication.
  84. 84. The method of claim 83, wherein the transceiver mode comprises transmitting the radio frequency tag during a randomized transmission interval, and then receiving and buffering.
  85. 84. The method of claim 83, wherein the radio frequency tag switches to tag to tag mode when not receiving a response from the reader.
  86. 84. The method of claim 83, wherein the radio frequency tag transitions to the transceiver mode when an alarm condition is activated.
  87. 75. The method of claim 74, further comprising representing a location of the radio frequency tag using a geographic information system.
  88. 75. The method of claim 74, wherein said radio frequency tag comprises a sensor.
  89. 89. The method of claim 88, wherein the sensor is at least one member selected from the group consisting of ionizing radiation, chemomers, species, acoustic exports, mechanical vibrations, and actinic radiation.
  90. 89. The method of claim 88, wherein the sensor is at least one member selected from the group consisting of electromagnetic radiation, humidity, temperature, vibration, acceleration, and mechanical linkage.
  91. 93. The method of claim 90, wherein the radio frequency tag adjusts a set point for lower power consumption with respect to the sensor.
  92. 75. The method of claim 74, further comprising a sensor coupled to the radio frequency tag.
  93. 93. The method of claim 92, wherein the sensor is at least one member selected from the group consisting of ionizing radiation, chemomers, species, acoustic exports, mechanical vibrations, and actinic radiation.
  94. 93. The method of claim 92, wherein the sensor is at least one member selected from the group consisting of electromagnetic radiation, humidity, temperature, vibration, acceleration, and mechanical linkage.
  95. 93. The method of claim 92, wherein the radio frequency tag adjusts a set point for lower power consumption with respect to the sensor.
  96. 93. The method of claim 92, wherein the sensor comprises a power source that the tag is not required to transmit identification data and location data.
  97. 97. The apparatus of claim 96, wherein the power source is charged by at least one current source selected from the group consisting of photovoltaic cells, vibratory converters, electrostatic rechargeable batteries, radio frequency power rectifiers, thermo-electric generators, and radioisotope decay energy recovery devices. And an energy storage device.
  98. 93. The apparatus of claim 92, wherein the sensor is wirelessly configured by at least one member selected from the group consisting of hybrid band-spreading, direct sequence band-spreading, frequency hopping, time hopping, time division multiplexing, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, and infrared. And coupled to the radio frequency tag.
  99. 99. The apparatus of claim 98, wherein identification data and position data from the radio frequency tag are transmitted within a first frequency band, and the sensor is wirelessly within the second frequency band that does not overlap the first frequency band. Coupled to the tag.
  100. 75. The method of claim 74, further comprising receiving identification data and location data from the radio frequency tag at a reader and retransmitting identification data and location data from the reader to a site server providing data accumulation and analysis. How to feature.
  101. 101. The method of claim 100, further comprising representing a location of the radio frequency tag using a geographic information system.
  102. 101. The method of claim 100, wherein the transmission of identification data and location data from the radio frequency tag occurs within a first frequency band, and retransmission of identification data and location data from the reader to the site server is performed with the first frequency band. And occur within a second, non-overlapping frequency band.
  103. 101. The method of claim 100, wherein retransmission of identification data and location data from the reader to the site server comprises hybrid band-spreading, direct sequence band-spreading, frequency hopping, time hopping, time division multiple, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, and infrared. And wireless transmission by at least two alternatives selected from the group consisting of: a.
  104. 101. The method of claim 100, wherein retransmission of identification data and location data from the reader to the site server includes transmission over a reader power line.
  105. 107. The method of claim 104, wherein retransmission of identification data and location data from the reader to the site server comprises hybrid band-spreading, direct sequence band-spreading, frequency hopping, time hopping, time division multiple, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, and infrared. Transmitting by at least one member selected from the group of the group.
  106. 107. The method of claim 104, wherein retransmission of identification data and location data from the reader to the site server removes noise at a frequency selected from the group consisting of approximately 50 Hz, approximately 60 Hz, and substantially all harmonics. And diversifying.
  107. 101. The method of claim 100, wherein retransmission of identification data, location data, and environmental state sensor data from the reader to the site server comprises hybrid band-spreading, direct sequence band-spreading, frequency hopping, time hopping, time division multiplexing, orthogonal frequency division. And wireless transmission by at least one member selected from the group consisting of multiple and infrared.
  108. 107. The method of claim 107, wherein wireless transmission with hybrid band-spread modulation includes removing and diversifying noise at a frequency selected from the group consisting of approximately 50 Hz, approximately 60 Hz, and substantially all harmonics. Characterized in that.
  109. 101. The apparatus of claim 100, wherein the site server receives identification data and location data from the reader and retransmits identification data and location data to at least one server in a common database that provides analysis, comparison, and tracking from the site server. The method further comprises the step of.
  110. 109. The method of claim 109, further comprising representing a location of the radio frequency tag using a geographic information system.
  111. 109. The method of claim 109, wherein the common database defines a global database.
  112. 109. The method of claim 109, wherein the retransmission of identification data and location data from the site server to the common database is at least two alternatives selected from the group consisting of satellite, cell phone, acoustic, power line, telephone line, coaxial line, fiber optic and optical cable. Which may include transmissions by means of a network.
  113. 109. The method of claim 109, wherein retransmission of identification data, location data, and environmental state sensor data from the site server to the common database includes transmission over the Internet.
  114. And a radio frequency tag transmitting both identification data and position data using hybrid band-spread modulation.
  115. 117. The system of claim 114, wherein the radio frequency tag is charged by at least one current source selected from the group consisting of photovoltaic cells, vibrating transducers, electrostatic rechargeable batteries, radio frequency power rectifiers, thermo-electric generators, and radioisotope decay energy recovery devices. And a power source comprising an energy storage device.
  116. 117. The apparatus of claim 114, wherein the radio frequency tag transmits environmental state data using hybrid band-spreading modulation.
  117. 118. The apparatus of claim 116, wherein the radio frequency tag comprises a sensor.
  118. 118. The method of claim 117, wherein the sensor is ionizing radiation, chemomer, biological species. And at least one member selected from the group consisting of sound export, mechanical vibration and actinic radiation.
  119. 118. The apparatus of claim 117, wherein the sensor is at least one member selected from the group consisting of electromagnetic radiation, humidity, temperature, vibration, acceleration, and mechanical linkage.
  120. 118. The apparatus of claim 116, further comprising a sensor coupled to the radio frequency tag.
  121. 123. The apparatus of claim 120, wherein the sensor is at least one member selected from the group consisting of ionizing radiation, chemomers, species, acoustic exports, mechanical vibrations, and actinic radiation.
  122. 123. The apparatus of claim 120, wherein the sensor is at least one member selected from the group consisting of electromagnetic radiation, humidity, temperature, vibration, acceleration, and mechanical linkage.
  123. 123. The apparatus of claim 120, wherein the sensor comprises a power source that the tag is not required to transmit identification data and location data.
  124. 127. The system of claim 123, wherein the power source is charged by at least one current source selected from the group consisting of photovoltaic cells, vibration converters, electrostatic rechargeable batteries, radio frequency power rectifiers, thermo-electric generators, and radioisotope decay energy recovery devices. An energy storage device.
  125. 126. The apparatus of claim 120, wherein the sensor is wirelessly configured by at least one member selected from the group consisting of hybrid band-spreading, direct sequence band-spreading, frequency hopping, time hopping, time division multiplexing, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, and infrared. And coupled to the radio frequency tag.
  126. 126. The apparatus of claim 125, wherein identification data and position data from the radio frequency tag are transmitted within a first frequency, and the sensor is wirelessly within the second frequency band that does not overlap the first frequency band. And coupled to the device.
  127. 117. The apparatus of claim 114, wherein the radio frequency tag is coupled to a shipping container.
  128. 127. The apparatus of claim 127, wherein the radio frequency tag transmits environmental state data using hybrid band-spreading modulation.
  129. 129. The apparatus of claim 128, wherein environmental condition sensor data includes an environmental condition within the shipping container.
  130. 126. The apparatus of claim 127, further comprising an antenna coupled to the shipping container.
  131. 126. The apparatus of claim 127, wherein the shipping container comprises a shipping container power source, and wherein the radio frequency tag can be connected to the shipping container power source.
  132. 134. The apparatus of claim 131, wherein the shipping container comprises one member selected from the group consisting of a dry box and a freezer.
  133. 118. The site of claim 114, further comprising a reader wirelessly coupled to the radio frequency tag, wherein the reader receives identification data and position data from the radio frequency tag and provides data accumulation and analysis from the reader. And resend identification data and location data to the server.
  134. 134. The method of claim 133, wherein the transmission of identification data and location data from the radio frequency tag occurs within a first frequency band, and retransmission of identification data and location data from the reader to the site server is performed with the first frequency band. And occur within a second non-overlapping frequency band.
  135. 134. The method of claim 134, wherein retransmission of identification data and location data from the reader to the site server comprises hybrid band-spreading, direct sequence band-spreading, frequency hopping, time hopping, time division multiple, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, and infrared. And wireless transmission by at least two alternatives selected from the group consisting of: a.
  136. 134. The apparatus of claim 133, wherein the reader is electrically coupled to the site server via a reader power line, and retransmission of identification data, location data, and environmental state sensor data from the reader to the site server is via the reader power line. And a transmission.
  137. 138. The method of claim 136, wherein retransmission of identification data and location data from the reader to the site server comprises hybrid band-spreading, direct sequence band-spreading, frequency hopping, time hopping, time division multiple, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, and infrared. And transmitting by at least one member selected from the group of the group.
  138. 138. The method of claim 136, wherein retransmission of identification data and location data from the reader to the site server removes noise at a frequency selected from the group consisting of approximately 50 Hz, approximately 60 Hz, and substantially all harmonics. Apparatus comprising diversifying.
  139. 134. The method of claim 133, wherein retransmission of identification data, location data, and environmental state sensor data from the reader to the site server comprises hybrid band-spreading, direct sequence band-spreading, frequency hopping, time hopping, time division multiplexing, orthogonal frequency division. And wireless transmission by at least one member selected from the group consisting of multiple and infrared.
  140. 141. The wireless transmission of claim 140, wherein the wireless transmission by hybrid band-spreading modulation comprises removing and diversifying noise at a frequency selected from the group consisting of approximately 50 Hz, approximately 60 Hz, and substantially all harmonics. Device characterized in that.
  141. 134. The apparatus of claim 133, further comprising a site server wirelessly coupled to the reader, the site server receiving identification data and location data from the reader and providing analysis, comparison, and tracking from the site server. And resend identification data, location data and environmental state sensor data to at least one server in the database.
  142. 143. The apparatus of claim 141, wherein the common database defines a global database.
  143. 145. The method of claim 141, wherein the retransmission of identification data and location data from the site server to the common database is at least two alternatives selected from the group consisting of satellite, cell phone, acoustic, power line, telephone line, coaxial line, optical fiber and optical cable. Device, which may include transmission by means of a computer.
  144. 145. The apparatus of claim 141, wherein retransmission of identification data, location data, and environmental state sensor data from the site server to the common database comprises transmission over the Internet.
  145. 116. A vehicle comprising the apparatus of claim 114.
  146. 118. A port area network comprising the device of claim 114.
  147. 116. A regional area network comprising the apparatus of claim 114.
  148. 118. A national area network comprising the apparatus of claim 114.
  149. 119. A global area network comprising the apparatus of claim 114.
KR1020087026431A 2004-05-06 2005-05-06 Marine asset security and tracking (mast) system KR20080107475A (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10/840,092 US7394381B2 (en) 2004-05-06 2004-05-06 Marine asset security and tracking (MAST) system
US10/840,092 2004-05-06
US10/840,553 2004-05-06
US10/840,553 US7525431B2 (en) 2004-05-06 2004-05-06 Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
KR20080107475A true KR20080107475A (en) 2008-12-10

Family

ID=36586072

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
KR1020087026431A KR20080107475A (en) 2004-05-06 2005-05-06 Marine asset security and tracking (mast) system
KR1020067025729A KR20070033989A (en) 2004-05-06 2005-05-06 Maritime security and asset tracking (mast) system

Family Applications After (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
KR1020067025729A KR20070033989A (en) 2004-05-06 2005-05-06 Maritime security and asset tracking (mast) system

Country Status (8)

Country Link
EP (1) EP1743191A2 (en)
JP (1) JP2008504185A (en)
KR (2) KR20080107475A (en)
AU (1) AU2005326807B2 (en)
BR (1) BRPI0509590A (en)
CA (1) CA2565817A1 (en)
MX (1) MXPA06012818A (en)
WO (2) WO2006083265A2 (en)

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2012068480A3 (en) * 2010-11-19 2012-08-30 Garry Lyons Financial card method, device and system utilizing bar codes to identify transaction details
US9384499B2 (en) 2010-11-19 2016-07-05 Mastercard International Incorporated Method and system for indirect control of a website
US9836737B2 (en) 2010-11-19 2017-12-05 Mastercard International Incorporated Method and system for distribution of advertisements to mobile devices prompted by aural sound stimulus
US9836780B2 (en) 2010-11-19 2017-12-05 Mastercard International Incorporated Method and system for consumer transactions using voice or human based gesture actions
US10043209B2 (en) 2010-11-19 2018-08-07 Mastercard International Incorporated Method and system for consumer transactions using voice or human based gesture actions

Families Citing this family (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CA2472806A1 (en) 2004-05-18 2005-11-18 Petro-Canada Compositions and methods for treating turf insect pests and diseases such as fungal infestations
GB0701074D0 (en) * 2007-01-19 2007-02-28 Syngenta Ltd System for distributing perishable goods
JP4493668B2 (en) * 2007-02-02 2010-06-30 東芝テック株式会社 Wireless communication system and wireless carrier transmission system
WO2008123262A1 (en) * 2007-03-26 2008-10-16 Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd. Individual management system
JP5309765B2 (en) 2008-07-29 2013-10-09 富士通株式会社 Information access system, information storage device, and read / write device
US8217785B2 (en) * 2008-10-28 2012-07-10 Research In Motion Limited Mobile tag tracking system
KR101687425B1 (en) 2008-11-17 2016-12-28 에머슨 클리메이트 테크놀로지스 - 트랜스포테이션 솔루션스 에이피에스 Container communication module
US8456302B2 (en) 2009-07-14 2013-06-04 Savi Technology, Inc. Wireless tracking and monitoring electronic seal
KR20120099631A (en) 2009-08-17 2012-09-11 딜 매직 인크. Contextually aware monitoring of assets
WO2011025987A1 (en) * 2009-08-28 2011-03-03 Savi Networks Llc Asset monitoring and tracking system
WO2011042935A1 (en) * 2009-10-08 2011-04-14 富士通株式会社 Radio tag device, radio tag device control program, and radio tag device control method
KR100980290B1 (en) * 2009-10-14 2010-09-07 (주)스피드테크 A air-conditioner using power-linecommunication
JPWO2011102160A1 (en) * 2010-02-19 2013-06-17 日本電気株式会社 Event information management system, event management method and program
JP2011176416A (en) * 2010-02-23 2011-09-08 Yanmar Co Ltd Remote monitored terminal and mobile object
WO2011112672A2 (en) * 2010-03-10 2011-09-15 Apl Limited Real time monitoring of ship cargo
FR2973116A1 (en) * 2011-03-22 2012-09-28 Gregory Jean Nuclear radiation detection device for use in key chain for detection of gamma and beta particles during disaster at nuclear power plant, has detection system including semiconductor diodes, charge amplifier and discriminator
CN102610079A (en) * 2012-03-09 2012-07-25 江苏欧特电子科技有限公司 Online radioactive source monitoring and managing system and storage device

Family Cites Families (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4976266A (en) * 1986-08-29 1990-12-11 United States Department Of Energy Methods of in vivo radiation measurement
GB8721739D0 (en) * 1987-09-16 1987-10-21 Atomic Energy Authority Uk Monitoring of personnel hazardous environments
US5835012A (en) * 1997-06-18 1998-11-10 Wilk Patent Development Corporation Protective device for storage and transport containers
US6591084B1 (en) * 1998-04-27 2003-07-08 General Dynamics Decision Systems, Inc. Satellite based data transfer and delivery system
US6339372B1 (en) * 1999-01-29 2002-01-15 Southern California Edison Protective system for work in radioactive environments
US6624752B2 (en) * 1999-11-15 2003-09-23 Bluetags A/S Object detection system
WO2002009775A2 (en) * 2000-08-02 2002-02-07 Sicel Technologies, Inc. Evaluation of irradiated foods or other items with telemetric dosimeters and associated methods
US6847892B2 (en) * 2001-10-29 2005-01-25 Digital Angel Corporation System for localizing and sensing objects and providing alerts
US6970100B2 (en) * 2001-07-05 2005-11-29 Long Range Systems, Inc. Temperature tag and system for monitoring, recording, and reporting temperature readings
US20030193032A1 (en) * 2002-04-08 2003-10-16 Eastman Kodak Company Radiation exposure indicator device
US7603296B2 (en) * 2002-10-22 2009-10-13 PPI Technology Services, LP Method for monitoring well equipment during transport and storage
WO2005006110A2 (en) * 2003-04-09 2005-01-20 Savi Technology, Inc. Continuous security state tracking for intermodal containers transported through a global supply chain

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2012068480A3 (en) * 2010-11-19 2012-08-30 Garry Lyons Financial card method, device and system utilizing bar codes to identify transaction details
US9384499B2 (en) 2010-11-19 2016-07-05 Mastercard International Incorporated Method and system for indirect control of a website
US9836737B2 (en) 2010-11-19 2017-12-05 Mastercard International Incorporated Method and system for distribution of advertisements to mobile devices prompted by aural sound stimulus
US9836780B2 (en) 2010-11-19 2017-12-05 Mastercard International Incorporated Method and system for consumer transactions using voice or human based gesture actions
US10043209B2 (en) 2010-11-19 2018-08-07 Mastercard International Incorporated Method and system for consumer transactions using voice or human based gesture actions

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
BRPI0509590A (en) 2007-09-25
MXPA06012818A (en) 2007-08-17
JP2008504185A (en) 2008-02-14
WO2006083265A3 (en) 2006-11-23
AU2005326807A1 (en) 2006-08-10
WO2006078285A3 (en) 2007-03-01
WO2006083265A2 (en) 2006-08-10
AU2005326807B2 (en) 2009-02-26
EP1743191A2 (en) 2007-01-17
WO2006078285A2 (en) 2006-07-27
KR20070033989A (en) 2007-03-27
CA2565817A1 (en) 2006-08-10

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US7148791B2 (en) Wireless danger proximity warning system and method
CN102017437B (en) Anti-tamper cargo container locator system
CA2258925C (en) Sensing with active electronic tags
CA2258278C (en) Measuring distance
CN100387030C (en) Wireless transceiver network employing node-to-node data messaging
US7015793B2 (en) Apparatus and method for managing luggage handling
EP0279834B1 (en) Vehicle locating system
JP4663650B2 (en) Method and system for monitoring containers and maintaining container safety
KR100778623B1 (en) Shipping container and method of using same
CA2259000C (en) Communicating with electronic tags
US7916026B2 (en) Real-time location system using tag interrogator and embedded or fixed tag transmitters
JP4028004B2 (en) How to track cargo sensors and collect data
US8031069B2 (en) Electronic security seal and system
US8633819B2 (en) System and method for asset tracking and monitoring
US20060097171A1 (en) Radiation detection and tracking with GPS-enabled wireless communication system
US7551137B2 (en) Apparatus and method for tracing a path travelled by an entity or object, and tag for use therewith
US8279067B2 (en) Securing, monitoring and tracking shipping containers
US6512455B2 (en) System and method for monitoring assets, objects, people and animals utilizing impulse radio
JP3877167B2 (en) State monitoring system and state monitoring method for object and space near object, and cargo container monitoring system
US6989751B2 (en) System and method for monitoring assets, objects, people and animals utilizing impulse radio
US20030001775A1 (en) System and method for locating an object using global positioning system receiver
EP1692672B1 (en) Mobile radiation surveillance network
US7656286B2 (en) Trusted monitoring system and method
US20040113783A1 (en) Container integrity management system
US20060187017A1 (en) Method and system for monitoring environmental conditions

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
A107 Divisional application of patent
WITN Withdrawal due to no request for examination