KR20020066020A - Unmanned Electric Bicycle using a Gyro - Google Patents

Unmanned Electric Bicycle using a Gyro Download PDF

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Publication number
KR20020066020A
KR20020066020A KR1020010006189A KR20010006189A KR20020066020A KR 20020066020 A KR20020066020 A KR 20020066020A KR 1020010006189 A KR1020010006189 A KR 1020010006189A KR 20010006189 A KR20010006189 A KR 20010006189A KR 20020066020 A KR20020066020 A KR 20020066020A
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South Korea
Prior art keywords
pedal
gyro
driver
bicycle
handle
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KR1020010006189A
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Korean (ko)
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KR100407581B1 (en
Inventor
함운철
박인규
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함운철
박인규
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Priority to KR10-2001-0006189A priority Critical patent/KR100407581B1/en
Publication of KR20020066020A publication Critical patent/KR20020066020A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of KR100407581B1 publication Critical patent/KR100407581B1/en

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62KCYCLES; CYCLE FRAMES; CYCLE STEERING DEVICES; RIDER-OPERATED TERMINAL CONTROLS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR CYCLES; CYCLE AXLE SUSPENSIONS; CYCLE SIDE-CARS, FORECARS, OR THE LIKE
    • B62K3/00Bicycles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62JCYCLE SADDLES OR SEATS; AUXILIARY DEVICES OR ACCESSORIES SPECIALLY ADAPTED TO CYCLES AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR, e.g. ARTICLE CARRIERS OR CYCLE PROTECTORS
    • B62J45/00Electrical equipment arrangements specially adapted for use as accessories on cycles, not otherwise provided for
    • B62J45/40Sensor arrangements; Mounting thereof
    • B62J45/41Sensor arrangements; Mounting thereof characterised by the type of sensor
    • B62J45/413Rotation sensors
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L15/00Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles
    • B60L15/20Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles for control of the vehicle or its driving motor to achieve a desired performance, e.g. speed, torque, programmed variation of speed
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62JCYCLE SADDLES OR SEATS; AUXILIARY DEVICES OR ACCESSORIES SPECIALLY ADAPTED TO CYCLES AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR, e.g. ARTICLE CARRIERS OR CYCLE PROTECTORS
    • B62J45/00Electrical equipment arrangements specially adapted for use as accessories on cycles, not otherwise provided for
    • B62J45/40Sensor arrangements; Mounting thereof
    • B62J45/41Sensor arrangements; Mounting thereof characterised by the type of sensor
    • B62J45/415Inclination sensors
    • B62J45/4151Inclination sensors for sensing lateral inclination of the cycle
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62KCYCLES; CYCLE FRAMES; CYCLE STEERING DEVICES; RIDER-OPERATED TERMINAL CONTROLS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR CYCLES; CYCLE AXLE SUSPENSIONS; CYCLE SIDE-CARS, FORECARS, OR THE LIKE
    • B62K21/00Steering devices
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62MRIDER PROPULSION OF WHEELED VEHICLES OR SLEDGES; POWERED PROPULSION OF SLEDGES OR SINGLE-TRACK CYCLES; TRANSMISSIONS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR SUCH VEHICLES
    • B62M6/00Rider propulsion of wheeled vehicles with additional source of power, e.g. combustion engine or electric motor
    • B62M6/40Rider propelled cycles with auxiliary electric motor
    • B62M6/45Control or actuating devices therefor
    • B62M6/50Control or actuating devices therefor characterised by detectors or sensors, or arrangement thereof
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05DSYSTEMS FOR CONTROLLING OR REGULATING NON-ELECTRIC VARIABLES
    • G05D1/00Control of position, course or altitude of land, water, air, or space vehicles, e.g. automatic pilot
    • G05D1/02Control of position or course in two dimensions
    • G05D1/021Control of position or course in two dimensions specially adapted to land vehicles
    • G05D1/0268Control of position or course in two dimensions specially adapted to land vehicles using internal positioning means
    • G05D1/027Control of position or course in two dimensions specially adapted to land vehicles using internal positioning means comprising intertial navigation means, e.g. azimuth detector
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05DSYSTEMS FOR CONTROLLING OR REGULATING NON-ELECTRIC VARIABLES
    • G05D1/00Control of position, course or altitude of land, water, air, or space vehicles, e.g. automatic pilot
    • G05D1/08Control of attitude, i.e. control of roll, pitch, or yaw
    • G05D1/0891Control of attitude, i.e. control of roll, pitch, or yaw specially adapted for land vehicles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2200/00Type of vehicles
    • B60L2200/12Bikes
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2240/00Control parameters of input or output; Target parameters
    • B60L2240/10Vehicle control parameters
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2260/00Operating Modes
    • B60L2260/40Control modes
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60YINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO ASPECTS CROSS-CUTTING VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY
    • B60Y2200/00Type of vehicle
    • B60Y2200/10Road Vehicles
    • B60Y2200/13Bicycles; Tricycles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62KCYCLES; CYCLE FRAMES; CYCLE STEERING DEVICES; RIDER-OPERATED TERMINAL CONTROLS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR CYCLES; CYCLE AXLE SUSPENSIONS; CYCLE SIDE-CARS, FORECARS, OR THE LIKE
    • B62K2204/00Adaptations for driving cycles by electric motor

Abstract

PURPOSE: An unmanned motor bicycle by using a gyro is provided to improve convenience in traveling by driving a pedal automatically with electricity and by steering a handle automatically. CONSTITUTION: An unmanned motor bicycle is composed of a front wheel supporting bar(11); a rear wheel supporting bar(12); a pedal supporting bar(13); upper and lower connecting bars(14,15); a handle driving unit(21) connected to the front wheel supporting bar to convert power of a battery(26) into rotational force of a motor; a pedal driving unit(23) connected to a pedal shaft of the pedal supporting bar to convert power of the battery into rotational force of the motor; a gyro(24) installed in the upper connecting bar to output a signal according to position of the frame; a footboard(25) installed in the lower connecting bar; and a controller(28) performing algorithm for automatic travel by driving the handle driving unit and the pedal driving unit according to the signal from the gyro. Traveling is performed conveniently with automatically driving the pedal and steering the handle by using electricity.

Description

자이로를 이용한 전동식 무인 자전거{Unmanned Electric Bicycle using a Gyro}Unmanned Electric Bicycle using a Gyro
본 발명은 전동식 무인 자전거에 관한 것으로서, 보다 상세하게는 전기력에의한 페달의 자동구동과 핸들의 자동조향을 수행하여 주행의 편리성을 향상하는 자이로를 이용한 전동식 무인 자전거에 관한 것이다.The present invention relates to an electric unmanned bicycle, and more particularly, to an electric unmanned bicycle using a gyro to perform the automatic driving of the pedal by the electric force and the automatic steering of the handle to improve the driving convenience.
일반적으로, 자전거는 사람이 페달을 밟아서 구동을 하고 양손으로 방향을 조정하여 원하는 방향으로 이동하게 되는데, 가격이 저렴하여 많은 사람들이 용이하게 이용할 수 있는 반면 오르막길을 주행하거나 짐이 무거울 때 상당한 체력을 요하고 속도가 떨어진다는 단점이 있다.In general, a bicycle is driven by a person pedaling and steering with both hands to move in a desired direction. The bicycle is inexpensive and can be easily used by many people, while it is a considerable stamina when driving uphill or when the load is heavy. It has the disadvantage of slow speed.
이러한 단점을 극복하기 위한 방법으로 페달을 밟는 수동구동 방식 대신 연료를 사용하여 구동하는 오토바이가 이용되기도 한다. 그러나 이는 사람이 힘을 들이지 않고도 오르막길을 쉽게 오르고 빠른 속도를 낼 수 있는 반면 별도로 면허를 소지해야 할 뿐 아니라 자동차와 같이 고속이기 때문에 심각한 사고가 다발되는 단점이 있다.As a way of overcoming these shortcomings, motorcycles that use fuel instead of pedaling are sometimes used. However, this is not only a person can easily climb uphill and speed up without the effort, but also requires a separate license and has a disadvantage in that serious accidents occur because of the high speed of a car.
또한, 오토바이는 자전거에 비하여 가격이 월등히 고가이면도 자전거와 같은 운동에 의한 건강증진의 효과를 기대할 수 없다.In addition, even if the price of motorcycles is much higher than bicycles, the effects of health promotion by exercise such as bicycles cannot be expected.
그러므로 자전거와 오토바이의 장점을 취하면서 남녀노소가 별다른 기술의 습득없이 쉽게 이용할 수 있는 운송 및 운동장치를 개발하는 것이 실용상의 가장 중요한 관건으로 된다.Therefore, to take advantage of bicycles and motorcycles, and to develop transportation and exercise equipment that can be easily used by men and women of all ages without any special skills become the most important point in practical use.
그러므로 본 발명의 목적은 상기한 점에 착안하는 것으로서, 전기력에 의한 페달의 자동구동과 핸들의 자동조향을 수행하여 운동 기능에 부가적으로 주행의 편리성도 향상하는 자이로를 이용한 전동식 무인 자전거를 제공한다.It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide an electric driverless bicycle using a gyro, which improves the convenience of driving in addition to the exercise function by performing automatic driving of the pedal and automatic steering of the steering wheel by electric force. .
도 1은 본 발명에 따른 자전거를 기능 블록과 함께 나타내는 구성도,1 is a block diagram showing a bicycle according to the present invention with a functional block,
도 2는 본 발명에 따른 자전거의 주요 회로 연결상태를 나타내는 블록도,Figure 2 is a block diagram showing the main circuit connection state of the bicycle according to the invention,
도 3은 본 발명에 따른 주요 회로의 실제 구성예를 나타내는 회로도,3 is a circuit diagram showing an actual configuration example of a main circuit according to the present invention;
도 4는 자전거의 운동 방정식을 유도하기 위한 도식도,4 is a schematic diagram for deriving an equation of motion of a bicycle;
도 5는 본 발명에 따른 마이콤 제어를 나타내는 플로우차트.5 is a flowchart showing a microcomputer control according to the present invention;
* 도면의 주요 부분에 대한 부호 설명 *Explanation of symbols on the main parts of the drawings
14, 15 : 상하부연결대16 : 체인기구14, 15: upper and lower connecting rod 16: chain mechanism
21 : 핸들구동기22 : 전동기구21: handle driver 22: electric mechanism
23 : 페달구동기24 : 자이로23: pedal driver 24: gyro
25 : 발판26 : 배터리25: footrest 26: battery
28 : 제어기28: controller
이러한 목적을 달성하기 위해 본 발명은 전륜지지대(11), 후륜지지대(12), 페달지지대(13), 상하부연결대(14)(15) 등의 프레임을 구비하는 자전거에 있어서: 상기 전륜지지대(11)에 기어 등의 전동기구(22)를 개재하여 연결되고, 배터리(26)의 전기력을 모터의 회전력으로 변환하는 핸들구동기(21); 상기 페달지지대(13) 하단의 페달축에 연결되고, 배터리(26)의 전기력을 모터의 회전력으로 변환하는 페달구동기(23); 상기 프레임의 자세 변화에 따른 신호를 발생하도록 상기 상부연결대(14) 상에 설치되는 자이로(24); 사용자의 발을 지지하도록 상기 하부연결대(15)에 장착되는 발판(25); 및 상기 자이로(24)의 신호에 따라 상기 핸들구동기(21) 및 페달구동기(23)를 구동하여 자동으로 주행하기 위한 알고리즘을 수행하는 제어기(28)를 포함하여 이루어지는 것을 특징으로 한다.In order to achieve this object, the present invention provides a bicycle having a frame such as a front wheel support 11, a rear wheel support 12, a pedal support 13, an upper and lower connecting rods 14, 15, etc .: the front wheel support 11 A steering wheel driver 21 connected to an electric motor 22, such as a gear, to convert the electric force of the battery 26 into the rotational force of the motor; A pedal driver (23) connected to the pedal shaft at the bottom of the pedal support (13) and converting the electric force of the battery (26) into the rotational force of the motor; A gyro (24) installed on the upper connecting rod (14) to generate a signal according to a change in posture of the frame; A footrest 25 mounted to the lower connector 15 to support a foot of a user; And a controller 28 for performing an algorithm for automatically driving by driving the handle driver 21 and the pedal driver 23 according to the signal of the gyro 24.
본 발명의 다른 특징으로서, 상기 제어기(28)는 자동모드로 선택되는 동안 주기적으로 자이로(24)의 출력을 수신하여 그 값이 제로이면 상기 페달구동기(23)로만 소정의 출력을 발생하고, 제로가 아니면 상기 핸들구동기(21)에도 동시에 소정의 출력을 발생한다.As another feature of the present invention, the controller 28 periodically receives the output of the gyro 24 while the automatic mode is selected, and generates a predetermined output only to the pedal driver 23 when the value is zero. Otherwise, the handle driver 21 simultaneously generates a predetermined output.
이하, 첨부된 도면을 참조하여 본 발명의 바람직한 실시예를 상세하게 설명한다.Hereinafter, with reference to the accompanying drawings will be described in detail a preferred embodiment of the present invention.
도 1은 본 발명에 따른 자전거를 기능 블록과 함께 나타내는 구성도이다.1 is a block diagram showing a bicycle according to the present invention with a functional block.
본 발명은 전륜지지대(11), 후륜지지대(12), 페달지지대(13), 상하부연결대(14)(15) 등의 프레임을 구비하는 자전거에 관련되는 바, 종래의 자전거처럼 직접 타고 수동으로 조작하는 것에 반해 자이로 및 제어이론을 응용한 자세를 제어함으로서 자동주행을 가능하게 한다.The present invention relates to a bicycle having a frame such as a front wheel support 11, a rear wheel support 12, a pedal support 13, an upper and lower connecting rods 14, 15, and the like. On the other hand, it enables automatic driving by controlling posture by applying gyro and control theory.
본 발명에 따르면 배터리(26)의 전기력을 모터의 회전력으로 변환하는 핸들구동기(21)가 상기 전륜지지대(11)에 기어 등의 전동기구(22)를 개재하여 연결된다. 전륜지지대(11)는 전륜의 조향을 위해 상부연결대(14) 및 하부연결대(15)의 전방단에 회전 가능하게 연결된다. 핸들구동기(21)는 모터를 내장하며 고정부재인 상부연결대(14) 또는 하부연결대(15)에 장착된다. 한 쌍의 기어로 전동기구(22)를 구성하는 경우 일측 기어는 핸들구동기(21)에 내장된 모터에 고정되고 타측의 기어는 전륜지지대(11)와 동심축 상에 고정된다. 이에 따라 모터에 전원이 인가되면 전륜지지대(11)가 자동으로 조향되며, 전원이 인가되지 않으면 수동으로 조향하는 것도 가능하다.According to the present invention, the handle driver 21 for converting the electric force of the battery 26 into the rotational force of the motor is connected to the front wheel support 11 via an electric mechanism 22 such as a gear. The front wheel support 11 is rotatably connected to the front ends of the upper connecting rod 14 and the lower connecting rod 15 for steering of the front wheel. The handle driver 21 has a built-in motor and is mounted on the upper connector 14 or the lower connector 15 which is a fixed member. When the electric mechanism 22 is configured by a pair of gears, one gear is fixed to a motor built into the handle driver 21 and the other gear is fixed on the front wheel support 11 and the concentric shaft. Accordingly, when power is applied to the motor, the front wheel support 11 is automatically steered, and when power is not applied, it is also possible to steer manually.
또, 본 발명에 따르면 배터리(26)의 전기력을 모터의 회전력으로 변환하는 페달구동기(23)가 상기 페달지지대(13) 하단의 페달축에 연결된다. 페달구동기(23)의 구성은 전술한 핸들구동기(21)와 동일하다. 연결에 있어서 전술한 핸들구동기(21)의 전동기구(22)와 동일한 방식을 사용할 수도 있고, 페달축에 모터 코일을 구성하여 직동하는 방식을 택할 수도 있다. 후자의 경우 모터의 축을 양측으로 연장하고 그 양단에 페달을 결합한 다음 그 결합체를 다시 페달지지대(13)의 하단에 설치하는 것을 의미한다.In addition, according to the present invention, the pedal driver 23 for converting the electric force of the battery 26 into the rotational force of the motor is connected to the pedal shaft of the lower end of the pedal support (13). The configuration of the pedal driver 23 is the same as the steering wheel driver 21 described above. In the connection, the same method as that of the transmission mechanism 22 of the handle driver 21 described above may be used, or a motor coil may be configured on the pedal shaft to directly operate. In the latter case, it means extending the shaft of both sides of the motor and engaging the pedals at both ends thereof, and then installing the combination again at the lower end of the pedal support 13.
이와 같이 본 발명에서 핸들과 페달을 제어하기 위한 2개의 모터는 서보모터이며 이는 각각 핸들구동기(21) 및 페달구동기(23)에 의해 제어된다. 배터리(26)는 일반적인 소자의 전원 5V와 모터의 구동전원 9V가 필요로 된다. 자동주행 모드에서의 토크와 속도는 배터리(26)의 용량에 의해 좌우된다.As such, the two motors for controlling the handle and the pedal in the present invention are servomotors, which are controlled by the handle driver 21 and the pedal driver 23, respectively. The battery 26 requires a power supply 5V of a general element and a drive power supply 9V of a motor. The torque and speed in the autonomous driving mode depend on the capacity of the battery 26.
또, 본 발명에 따르면 상기 프레임의 자세 변화에 따른 신호를 발생하도록 상기 상부연결대(14) 상에 자이로(24)가 설치된다. 자전거는 2개의 바퀴로 무게 중심을 잃기 쉽기 때문에 주행에 의한 관성력이 없으면 넘어질 수밖에 없다. 자이로(24)는 물체의 기울기를 감지하며, 후술하는 제어기(28)는 이 기울기에 대해서 보상을 하게 된다. 일예로, 자이로(24)는 주로 RC 모형 헬리콥터의 자세제어에 쓰이는 자이로 센서를 사용할 수 있다.In addition, according to the present invention, a gyro 24 is installed on the upper connecting rod 14 to generate a signal according to a change in posture of the frame. Since the bicycle is easy to lose its center of gravity with two wheels, it can only fall if there is no inertia caused by driving. The gyro 24 detects the inclination of the object, and the controller 28 described later compensates for the inclination. As an example, the gyro 24 may use a gyro sensor mainly used for attitude control of an RC model helicopter.
또, 본 발명에 따르면 사용자의 발을 지지하도록 하부연결대(15)에 발판(25)이 장착된다. 발판(25)은 자동주행 모드에서 페달에 두 발을 두지 않기 위한 기능으로서 중량을 줄이도록 플라스틱 소재를 사용한다.In addition, according to the present invention, the footrest 25 is mounted on the lower connecting rod 15 to support the foot of the user. The footrest 25 uses a plastic material to reduce weight as a function of not placing two feet on the pedal in the autonomous driving mode.
도 2는 본 발명에 따른 자전거의 주요 회로 연결상태를 나타내는 블록도이고, 도 3은 본 발명에 따른 주요 회로의 실제 구성예를 나타내는 회로도이다.Figure 2 is a block diagram showing the main circuit connection state of the bicycle according to the invention, Figure 3 is a circuit diagram showing an actual configuration example of the main circuit according to the present invention.
도 2에서, 본 발명에 따른 제어기(28)는 자이로(24)의 신호에 따라 상기 핸들구동기(21) 및 페달구동기(23)를 구동하여 자동으로 주행하기 위한 알고리즘을 수행하기 위해 마이크로프로세서를 필수적으로 구비한다. 일예로, 도 3에는 마이크로프로세서로 32bit 컨트롤러인 TMS320C240F를 이용하여 시스템을 제어하는 것이 도시된다. 부호 21a의 핸들 모터 및 부호 23a의 페달 모터는 엔코더가 함께 장착되며, 이 엔코더를 통하여 모터의 회전속도를 정밀하게 제어한다. 핸들구동기(21) 및 페달구동기(23)는 모터 구동 모듈(Motor Drive Module)이라고 할 수 있으며, 서보모터를 제어기(28)의 마이크로프로세서 및 전원부와 상호 연결하는 인터페이스 회로로 구성된다. 제어기(28)에 의한 핸들구동기(21) 및 페달구동기(23)의 구동은 PWM 방식을 택한다.In FIG. 2, the controller 28 according to the present invention requires a microprocessor to perform an algorithm for automatically driving by driving the handle driver 21 and the pedal driver 23 according to the signal of the gyro 24. It is equipped with. As an example, FIG. 3 illustrates controlling a system using a 32-bit controller TMS320C240F as a microprocessor. The handle motor 21a and the pedal motor 23a are equipped with an encoder, and the encoder controls the rotational speed of the motor precisely. The handle driver 21 and the pedal driver 23 may be referred to as a motor drive module, and are composed of an interface circuit which interconnects a servo motor with a microprocessor and a power supply of the controller 28. The drive of the handle driver 21 and the pedal driver 23 by the controller 28 takes the PWM method.
이와 같이 자이로(24) 센서는 이동체의 위치, 자세등에 관한 정보를 제공하며, 이렇게 제공된 핸들의 위치와 자세정보는 제어기(28)의 입력으로 전달된다. 자이로(24)의 정보는 아날로그 신호로 출력되므로 이 정보를 마이크로프로세서에서 사용하기 위해서는 디지털 신호로 변환시켜야 하며 이를 위해 TMS320C240F에 내장되어 있는 A/D 변환기에 연결하여 디지털 신호를 얻는다. 자이로(24)에서 나오는 아날로그 신호는 미세하기 때문에 증폭회로를 이용하여 전압을 증폭하며 증폭된 신호는 TMS320C240F의 A/D 변환기 포트로 입력된다. 참고로 도 3처럼 자이로(24)의 신호를 인터페이스하는 부분에서 증폭기는 AMP-02 모델을 사용하고, VR1=1KΩ, R1=2KΩ, R2=270Ω, C1=104, C2=0.005μF을 적용할 수 있다.As such, the gyro 24 sensor provides information on the position, posture, and the like of the moving object, and the position and posture information of the handle thus provided is transmitted to the input of the controller 28. Since the information of the gyro 24 is output as an analog signal, the information needs to be converted into a digital signal for use in a microprocessor. For this purpose, a digital signal is obtained by connecting to an A / D converter built in the TMS320C240F. Since the analog signal from the gyro 24 is fine, the voltage is amplified using an amplifying circuit, and the amplified signal is input to the A / D converter port of the TMS320C240F. For reference, as shown in FIG. 3, the amplifier uses the AMP-02 model and VR1 = 1KΩ, R1 = 2KΩ, R2 = 270Ω, C1 = 104, and C2 = 0.005μF. have.
한편, 도시에는 생략되었으나, 제어기(28)에는 전원을 투입하는 메인 스위치, 수동 및 자동 주행을 선택하는 스위치 등이 구비된다.Meanwhile, although not shown, the controller 28 includes a main switch for supplying power, a switch for selecting manual and automatic driving, and the like.
이와 같은 구성으로 본 발명의 목적을 실현하기 위해 핸들과 페달의 운동방정식과 동력방정식을 유도하고, 이렇게 유도된 동력방정식을 풀고, 안정도를 해석하고, 제어법칙을 이용하여, 무인운전을 할 수 있도록 해야한다.In order to realize the object of the present invention with such a configuration, the motion and power equations of the steering wheel and the pedal are derived, the power equations thus solved are solved, the stability is analyzed, and the control law is used so that unmanned operation can be performed. Should be.
도 4는 자전거의 운동 방정식을 유도하기 위한 도식도가 도시된다.4 is a schematic for deriving the equation of motion of a bicycle.
직각 좌표계(x, y, z)를 이용한 3차원 그림에서 부호 RW은 자전거의 뒷바퀴를, FW은 자전거의 앞바퀴를 나타낸다. 여기에서, 조향은 자전거의 앞바퀴를 이용하므로는 시간에 따라서 변하는 조향각, r 은 자전거의 반지름,는 자전거가 서있는 z축 방향에서 지면으로 넘어지는 경사각도,는 자전거가 회전하는 각속도, d 는 자전거 앞바퀴 중심과 뒷바퀴 중심 사이의 거리,는 자전거가 x축과 이루는 각도, h 는 자전거의 높이를 의미한다. 경사각도=0°이면 자전거는 똑바로 서 있는 것이고,=90°는 완전히 땅으로 누워있는 상태라고 볼 수 있다.In the three-dimensional diagram using the Cartesian coordinate system (x, y, z), the symbol RW represents the rear wheel of the bicycle, and FW represents the front wheel of the bicycle. Here, steering is using the front wheel of the bicycle Is the steering angle that changes over time, r is the radius of the bike, Is the angle of inclination of the bicycle to the ground in the z-axis direction, Is the angular velocity at which the bike is turning, d is the distance between the center of the front wheel and the rear wheel, Is the angle the bike makes with the x-axis, and h is the height of the bike. Angle of inclination If = 0 °, the bike is standing upright, = 90 ° can be said to be completely lying on the ground.
이에 의해 운동방정식을 유도하면 수학식1과 같이 된다.In this way, when the equation of motion is derived, Equation 1 is obtained.
수학식1의 운동방정식으로부터 수학식2와 같은 동력방정식이 나온다.From the equation of motion of Equation 1, a power equation is obtained.
수학식2의 동력방정식은 수학식3과 같은 상태 방정식으로 표현될 수 있다.The power equation of Equation 2 may be expressed as a state equation such as Equation 3.
수학식3과 같은 상태방정식에 수학식4의 입력을 제공한다.An input of Equation 4 is provided to a state equation such as Equation 3.
수학식4를 수학식3에 대입하면 수학식5와 같은 상태방정식이 도출된다.Substituting Equation 4 into Equation 3 yields a state equation as in Equation 5.
시스템이 안정한지를 판단하기 위해서 리아푸노프(Lyapunov) 후보함수를 수학식6과 같이 정하고 나서 풀게되면 시스템이 가장자리 안정(marginally stable)함을 알 수 있으며 시간 미분은 0이 된다.In order to determine whether the system is stable, if the Lyapunov candidate function is set as Equation 6 and solved, it can be seen that the system is marginally stable and the time derivative is zero.
이에 따라 수학식7과 같은 학습적인(heuristic) 제어 전략을 제안하며, 자전거가 가장 짧은 경로에서 넘어지지 않고 세우기 위한 제어법칙은 수학식8과 같이 된다.Accordingly, a heuristic control strategy such as Equation 7 is proposed, and the control law for establishing a bicycle without falling down on the shortest path is as shown in Equation 8.
if if
= 0 if = 0 if
if if
= 0 if = 0 if
사람이 운전하지 않는 상태에서 넘어지지 않도록 스스로 중심을 잡는 제어 알고리즘은 운동방정식과 동력방정식으로부터 유도하고, 슬라이딩 모드 제어의 스턱현상과 슬라이딩 패치라는 최근의 이론을 적용하고, Lyapunov 함수후보로 안정도를 판별하며, 최적제어 알고리즘을 적용하여 최소한의 거리이동으로 자전거를 세울 수 있는 이론을 구현한다.The control algorithm, which centers itself so that it does not fall without driving, derives from the equations of motion and power, applies the recent theory of the stuck phenomenon and the sliding patch of sliding mode control, and determines the stability by the Lyapunov function candidate. By applying the optimal control algorithm, we implement the theory that the bicycle can be parked with the minimum distance movement.
도 5는 본 발명에 따른 마이콤 제어를 나타내는 플로우차트가 도시된다.5 is a flowchart illustrating a microcomputer control in accordance with the present invention.
메인 스위치를 온하면 제어기(28)에 전원이 투입되어 초기화가 수행되고 선택 스위치의 입력을 기다린다. 선택 스위치를 자동모드에 두면 자이로(24) 센서의 입력이 증폭 및 A/D 변환되고 마이크로프로세서가 그 값에 따라 핸들구동기(21) 및 페달구동기(23)로 소정의 제어 출력을 보내는 과정이 반복적으로 수행된다. 제어 출력은 전술한 수학식들로 표현되는 프로그램에 의해 정해지는 값이다.When the main switch is turned on, power is supplied to the controller 28 to perform initialization and wait for input of the selection switch. When the selection switch is placed in the automatic mode, the input of the gyro 24 sensor is amplified and A / D converted, and the process of sending a predetermined control output to the handle driver 21 and the pedal driver 23 according to the value is repeated. Is performed. The control output is a value determined by a program represented by the above equations.
이때 본 발명에 따른 제어기(28)는 자동모드로 선택되는 동안 주기적으로 자이로(24)의 출력을 수신하여 그 값이 제로이면 상기 페달구동기(23)로만 소정의 출력을 발생하고, 제로가 아니면 상기 핸들구동기(21)에도 동시에 소정의 출력을 발생한다. 자이로(24)의 출력이 제로로 되는 동안은 자전거가 기울어지지 않은 상태이므로 핸들구동기(21)의 출력은 정지된다. 반면 페달구동기(23)의 출력은 자동모드인 동안 계속적으로 유지되며 별도의 속도조절 스위치에 의해서만 그 크기가 증감되지만, 경우에 따라서 돌발적인 도로상황이 발생하면 핸들구동기(21)와 연동하여 순간적으로 증속시켜 자전거를 신속히 바로 세울 수 있다.In this case, the controller 28 according to the present invention periodically receives the output of the gyro 24 while the automatic mode is selected, and generates a predetermined output only to the pedal driver 23 when the value is zero. The steering wheel driver 21 also generates a predetermined output at the same time. Since the bicycle is not inclined while the output of the gyro 24 becomes zero, the output of the handle driver 21 is stopped. On the other hand, the output of the pedal driver 23 is continuously maintained while in the automatic mode, and its size is increased or decreased only by a separate speed control switch. You can speed up the bike quickly.
이러한 제어 플로우는 선택 스위치를 수동으로 두거나 메인 스위치를 오프하면 중지된다.This control flow is stopped by leaving the selector switch manually or by turning off the main switch.
이상의 구성 및 작용에 따르면 본 발명은 전기력에 의한 페달의 자동구동과 핸들의 자동조향을 수행하여 운동 기능에 부가적으로 주행의 편리성도 향상하는 효과가 있다.According to the above configuration and operation, the present invention has an effect of improving the convenience of running in addition to the exercise function by performing the automatic driving of the pedal and the automatic steering of the handle by the electric force.
본 발명은 기재된 실시예에 한정되는 것은 아니고, 본 발명의 사상 및 범위를 벗어나지 않고 다양하게 수정 및 변형할 수 있음은 이 기술의 분야에서 통상의 지식을 가진 자에게 자명하다. 따라서 그러한 변형예 또는 수정예들은 본 발명의 특허청구범위에 속한다 해야 할 것이다.It is apparent to those skilled in the art that the present invention is not limited to the described embodiments, and that various modifications and variations can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention. Therefore, such modifications or variations will have to belong to the claims of the present invention.

Claims (2)

  1. 전륜지지대(11), 후륜지지대(12), 페달지지대(13), 상하부연결대(14)(15) 등의 프레임을 구비하는 자전거에 있어서:In a bicycle having a frame such as a front wheel support 11, a rear wheel support 12, a pedal support 13, an upper and lower coupling 14, 15, etc .:
    상기 전륜지지대(11)에 기어 등의 전동기구(22)를 개재하여 연결되고, 배터리(26)의 전기력을 모터의 회전력으로 변환하는 핸들구동기(21);A handle driver 21 connected to the front wheel support 11 via a transmission mechanism 22 such as a gear and converting an electric force of the battery 26 into a rotational force of a motor;
    상기 페달지지대(13) 하단의 페달축에 연결되고, 배터리(26)의 전기력을 모터의 회전력으로 변환하는 페달구동기(23);A pedal driver (23) connected to the pedal shaft at the bottom of the pedal support (13) and converting the electric force of the battery (26) into the rotational force of the motor;
    상기 프레임의 자세 변화에 따른 신호를 발생하도록 상기 상부연결대(14) 상에 설치되는 자이로(24);A gyro (24) installed on the upper connecting rod (14) to generate a signal according to a change in posture of the frame;
    사용자의 발을 지지하도록 상기 하부연결대(15)에 장착되는 발판(25); 및A footrest 25 mounted to the lower connector 15 to support a foot of a user; And
    상기 자이로(24)의 신호에 따라 상기 핸들구동기(21) 및 페달구동기(23)를 구동하여 자동으로 주행하기 위한 알고리즘을 수행하는 제어기(28)를 포함하여 이루어지는 것을 특징으로 하는 자이로를 이용한 전동식 무인 자전거.Motorized unmanned using a gyro comprising a controller 28 for performing an algorithm for automatically driving by driving the handle driver 21 and the pedal driver 23 according to the signal of the gyro 24 bicycle.
  2. 제 1 항에 있어서,The method of claim 1,
    상기 제어기(28)는 자동모드로 선택되는 동안 주기적으로 자이로(24)의 출력을 수신하여 그 값이 제로이면 상기 페달구동기(23)로만 소정의 출력을 발생하고, 제로가 아니면 상기 핸들구동기(21)에도 동시에 소정의 출력을 발생하는 것을 특징으로 하는 자이로를 이용한 전동식 무인 자전거.The controller 28 periodically receives the output of the gyro 24 while the automatic mode is selected and generates a predetermined output only to the pedal driver 23 when the value is zero. Otherwise, the controller 28 Electric unmanned bicycle using a gyro, characterized in that also generates a predetermined output at the same time.
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