KR101223462B1 - Apparatus for measuring relative permeability of core having measuring unit of saturation fraction in core and method for measuring relative permeability of core using the same - Google Patents

Apparatus for measuring relative permeability of core having measuring unit of saturation fraction in core and method for measuring relative permeability of core using the same Download PDF

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KR101223462B1
KR101223462B1 KR1020110105991A KR20110105991A KR101223462B1 KR 101223462 B1 KR101223462 B1 KR 101223462B1 KR 1020110105991 A KR1020110105991 A KR 1020110105991A KR 20110105991 A KR20110105991 A KR 20110105991A KR 101223462 B1 KR101223462 B1 KR 101223462B1
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South Korea
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fluid
core
measuring
relative
core holder
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KR1020110105991A
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Korean (ko)
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이재형
허대기
정구선
박용찬
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한국지질자원연구원
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N15/00Investigating characteristics of particles; Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface-area of porous materials
    • G01N15/08Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface area of porous materials
    • G01N15/082Investigating permeability by forcing a fluid through a sample
    • G01N15/0826Investigating permeability by forcing a fluid through a sample and measuring fluid flow rate, i.e. permeation rate or pressure change

Abstract

The present invention relates to a relative fluid transmittance measuring device having a saturation rate measuring unit in a core and a method for measuring relative fluid transmittance using the same.
The relative fluid permeability measuring device according to the present invention includes a core holder for sealingly accommodating a core sample to be measured for fluid permeability, a first reservoir connected to the core holder to supply a first fluid to the core holder, and a first accommodating second storage tank. A second supply pipe connecting the core holder and the second reservoir to supply the fluid to the core holder, a pressure gauge for measuring the pressure difference of the fluid between the front end and the rear end of the core sample in the flow direction of the fluid, and the first in the core holder. It is to measure the saturation rate of the fluid, and is connected to the core holder so that the first fluid and the second fluid discharged from the core holder are introduced, and the first fluid and the second fluid are accommodated separately from each other so The first fluid is discharged to the first reservoir to circulate the first fluid, and the second fluid includes a saturation rate measuring unit for discharging the first fluid to a different path from the first fluid. There is a characteristic.

Description

Apparatus for measuring relative permeability of core having measuring unit of saturation fraction in core and Method for measuring relative permeability of core using the same}
The present invention relates to petroleum engineering in a broad sense, such as petroleum, natural gas production, or underground storage of carbon dioxide. It relates to a measuring device and a method for the same.
Relative fluid permeability measurements for petroleum-free reservoirs are essential for evaluating oilfields, including final injection calculations, productivity forecasts, and economic assessments. In addition, the relative fluid permeability of the storage layer in which carbon dioxide is stored is also a technically important factor in carbon capture & storage technology, which is recently attracting attention as an environmental technology.
The permeability of fluid in rock (reservoir rock) is divided into absolute permeability, effective permeability and relative fluid permeability. Absolute transmittance refers to the ease of flow when a single phase fluid flows through a rock. Effective transmittance refers to the flow rate of a plurality of fluids such as water, oil, water, and gas together. It relates to the ease of flow of each component, and the relative fluid permeability is expressed as the ratio of the effective permeability of each component to the absolute permeability.
If only one phase of fluid is present in the reservoir, the flow of this fluid can be represented by absolute transmittance only, but most of the reservoir has two or more phases of fluid, and they represent flows of multiple fluids because they affect each other's flow. The concept of relative fluid transmittance is essential to betting.
The measurement methods for measuring the relative fluid permeability include the normal flow method and the abnormal flow method. The steady flow method is a measurement method that allows accuracy compared to the abnormal flow method. After a plurality of fluids are injected at a certain pressure at the same time, the flow of the fluid waits for a steady state, and then the saturation of the rock core and the pressure difference between the cores are calculated. Obtain the equation by substituting for.
However, one of the most difficult problems in measuring relative fluid permeability by the normal flow method is determining the saturation rate of the core (water content if one of the fluids is water).
Methods of determining the saturation rate include a weighing method, a material balance method, etc., all of which have a problem in that the error probability due to evaporation of water is very high. Accordingly, in recent years, the saturation rate measuring method using X-ray or CT scan is used to increase the accuracy, but these methods have a disadvantage of being uneconomical because they require expensive equipment.
The present invention is to solve the above problems, in the measurement of the relative fluid permeability can accurately measure the moisture content of the sample (rock core) and the saturation rate measurement unit in the core structure is improved to shorten the measurement time It is an object of the present invention to provide a relative fluid transmittance measuring apparatus and a method for measuring relative fluid transmittance using the same.
Relative fluid transmittance measuring apparatus according to the present invention for achieving the above object, the core holder for sealingly receiving the core sample to be the fluid transmittance measurement target; A first reservoir connected to the core holder to supply a first fluid to the core holder; A second supply pipe connecting the core holder and the second reservoir to supply a second fluid contained in a second reservoir to the core holder; A pressure gauge for measuring a pressure difference of the fluid between the front end and the rear end of the core sample in the flow direction of the fluid; And a saturation rate of the first fluid in the core holder, the first fluid and the second fluid discharged from the core holder are connected to the core holder, and the first fluid and the second fluid are connected to each other. It is accommodated separately from each other to measure the amount of the first fluid, the first fluid is discharged to the first reservoir to circulate the first fluid, the second fluid is in a different path than the first fluid It comprises a; saturation rate measuring unit for discharging.
According to the present invention, there is provided an injection pipe connected to the core holder, the first supply pipe connected to the first reservoir, and the second supply pipe is connected to the injection pipe so that the first fluid and the second fluid are mixed with each other. And may be injected into the core holder through the injection tube. However, the first fluid and the second fluid may be separately injected into the core holder through each supply pipe.
The saturation rate measuring unit used in the present invention, the first receiving tank is arranged vertically, has a narrower cross-sectional area than the first receiving tank is arranged vertically, the lower portion is in communication with the lower portion of the first receiving tank And a scale installed in each of the first and second receiving tanks to measure the volume of the first fluid accommodated together in the first and second receiving tanks.
The first fluid has a specific gravity higher than that of the second fluid, and the first fluid is located below the first and second receiving tanks, and the second fluid is located above the first and second receiving tanks. The first fluid and the second fluid are separated from each other in the first tank and the second tank, and a circulation pipe for connecting the first fluid to the first reservoir is connected to a lower portion of the saturation rate measuring unit. Preferably, the discharge pipe for discharging the second fluid is connected to the upper portion of the saturation rate measuring unit.
And an oven for accommodating and heating the core holder therein, and a vacuum pump connected to the core holder to form a vacuum in the core holder and in the internal void of the core sample.
In one embodiment of the present invention, the first fluid is water, the second fluid is carbon dioxide, and the first reservoir and the second reservoir are selectively connectable, so that the water is saturated with carbon dioxide. Can be supplied to the core holder.
On the other hand, the relative fluid transmittance measuring method according to the present invention for achieving the above object, after preparing a core sample to be the target of the relative fluid transmittance measurement, and after installing the relative fluid transmittance measuring device of the above configuration, the core sample Mounting the core holder to the relative fluid transmittance measuring device; An initializing step of forming a vacuum in the core holder to vacuum the voids in the core sample; A saturation step of completely saturating the voids in the core sample with the first fluid after the initialization step; After the saturation step, the first fluid is circulated while maintaining the relative fluid permeability measuring device in a steady state, and after measuring the pressure difference between the core fluid and the amount of the first fluid in the saturation rate measuring unit, A first measuring step of calculating an absolute transmittance of the core sample; And the first fluid and the second fluid circulate together while maintaining the relative fluid permeability measuring device in a steady state, and after measuring the pressure difference between the core fluid and the amount of the first fluid in the saturation rate measuring unit, Computing the relative permeability of the first fluid and the second fluid by calculating the effective transmittance of the first fluid and the second fluid, while changing the content ratio of the first fluid and the second fluid, according to the content ratio And a second measuring step of calculating the relative fluid transmittance of the first fluid and the second fluid.
According to the invention, it is preferable to control the temperature by heating the core holder in the initialization step.
The first fluid is water, the second fluid is carbon dioxide, and the first fluid, water, is saturated with carbon dioxide so that no more carbon dioxide can be dissolved, and the carbon dioxide is coalesced in the core sample. Alternatively, the second fluid is preferably not dissolved in the first fluid.
In the present invention, there is an advantage that the saturation rate in the core sample can be accurately measured in measuring the relative transmittance by the content ratio of the fluid using the saturation rate measuring unit.
In addition, the saturation rate in the core sample can be measured immediately without removing the core sample from the core holder in repeatedly measuring the relative fluid permeability according to the content ratio of the two-phase fluid, thereby simplifying the experiment and shortening the experiment time. There is an advantage.
1 is a schematic diagram for explaining a relative fluid transmittance measuring device having a saturation rate measuring unit in the core according to an embodiment of the present invention.
2 is a schematic flowchart of a method for measuring a relative fluid transmittance according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention.
Figure 3 is a table showing the content ratio of water and carbon dioxide injected when performing the method of measuring the relative fluid transmittance.
FIG. 4 is a graph showing the carbon dioxide saturation rate and the relative transmittance of water and carbon dioxide when the fluids are injected into the core sample under the conditions of FIG. 3.
Hereinafter, with reference to the accompanying drawings, a relative fluid transmittance measuring apparatus and a measuring method according to an embodiment of the present invention will be described in more detail.
First, the present invention will be described a relative fluid transmittance measuring device having an in-core saturation rate measuring unit according to an embodiment.
1 is a schematic diagram for explaining a relative fluid transmittance measuring device having a saturation rate measuring unit in the core according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Referring to Figure 1, the relative fluid transmittance measuring device (100, hereinafter referred to as "measurement device") having a saturation rate measuring unit in the core according to an embodiment of the present invention is a core holder 10, a pressure gauge ( 13, 14, the oven 20, and the saturation rate measuring unit 50 in the core.
The core holder 10 provides a space in which a core sample (not shown) to be measured for fluid permeability is mounted. When the cylindrical core sample is mounted in the hollow core holder 10, only the first fluid and the second fluid, which will be described later, may flow in and out, and are completely sealed to prevent other fluids such as air from entering.
Since the space inside the core holder 10 is formed in a size almost identical to that of the core sample, there is only a little space between the core holder 10 and the core sample only at the front and rear ends of the core sample, and the outer peripheral surface and the core of the core sample. The inner surface of the holder 10 is completely in contact.
In order to measure the fluid permeability, it is necessary to know the pressure difference immediately before the fluid enters the core sample and immediately after passing out of the core sample, that is, the pressure difference across the core sample. Accordingly, pressure gauges 13 and 14 for measuring the pressure of the fluid are installed at both sides of the core holder 10, respectively. More specifically, measuring tubes 11 and 12 are connected to both ends of the core holder 10, respectively, and fluids at both ends of the core sample are introduced into the measuring tubes 11 and 12, respectively. Pressure gauges 13 and 14 are connected to the ends of the pressure gauges to measure the pressure of the fluid at both ends of the core sample. Each measuring tube 11 and 12 is provided with the valve 15 and 16 which can open and close this measuring tube.
In addition, in order to perform the fluid permeability measurement method according to the present invention, it is first necessary to initialize such that no fluid is present in the voids inside the core sample. Thus, the core pump 10 is connected to the vacuum pump 62 through the connection pipe (61). The vacuum pump 62 completely removes a fluid such as air in the void inside the core holder 10 as well as the space inside the core holder 10 to make a vacuum. In addition, the core holder 10 is disposed in the oven 20, the temperature is adjustable by heating by the oven 20.
In the present embodiment, the first fluid and the second fluid are injected into the core holder 10. In this embodiment, the first fluid is brine and the second fluid is carbon dioxide gas. However, the type of fluid is not determined, and various fluids may be used depending on the purpose of the experiment. For example, fluids commonly used in relative permeability experiments in the field of petroleum engineering include water and oil, oil and carbon dioxide.
The first reservoir 30 in which the first fluid is accommodated is located in the oven 20, and the second reservoir 40 in which the second fluid is accommodated (carbon dioxide gas tank) is disposed outside the oven 20. The first supply pipe 31 and the second supply pipe 41 for supplying the first fluid and the second fluid to the core holder 10 from the first reservoir 30 and the second reservoir 40 are respectively a first It is connected to the reservoir 30 and the second reservoir (40). And the first supply pipe 31 and the second supply pipe 41 is provided with valves (32, 44) that can selectively open and close the pipeline. In addition, the second supply pipe 41 may be provided with a pump 42 for pressurizing the second fluid and a flow control device 43 (MFC) for controlling the supply flow rate of the second fluid.
Although the first supply pipe 31 and the second supply pipe 41 may be directly connected to the core holder 10 to supply the first fluid and the second fluid to the core sample, in the present embodiment, the first fluid and the second fluid are provided. Are mixed and injected into the core holder 10 through the injection tube 33. To this end, the first supply pipe 31 and the second supply pipe 41 are integrated into the injection pipe 33, the injection pipe 33 is connected to the core holder (10).
On the other hand, in order to improve the accuracy of the relative fluid permeability measurement, the first fluid of water should be supplied saturated with carbon dioxide, the second fluid, so that carbon dioxide in the core sample does not dissolve in water. Although described in detail later, artichokes of carbon dioxide remaining in the minimum (residual CO 2 saturation, residual CO 2 saturation) is a very important measurement element in the core sample in the measurement of the relative permeability of water and carbon dioxide, the first fluid is water, carbon dioxide If it is not saturated, carbon dioxide gas (minimum remaining carbon dioxide) adhering to the core sample is dissolved in water and affects the remaining CO 2 saturation.
As described above, in the present embodiment, water and carbon dioxide are mixed with each other in the inlet tube 33, and the water is continuously circulated, so that the water may be saturated with carbon dioxide, but in order to further improve the accuracy of the experiment, Before doing so, it is good to inject carbon dioxide into the water so that the water can be saturated with carbon dioxide. In this embodiment, the second reservoir 40 and the first reservoir 30 can be interconnected through the selective opening and closing of the plurality of valves 36, 32, 44, and the carbon dioxide gas is sufficiently filled with water before the experiment. Can be dissolved.
Meanwhile, the first fluid and the second fluid discharged from the core holder 10 are introduced into the saturation rate measuring unit 50 (hereinafter, referred to as a saturation rate measuring unit) in the core. The outlet pipe 34 is connected between the rear end of the core holder 10 and the saturation rate measuring unit 50, and the outlet pipe 34 is provided with a valve 35 that can selectively open and close the pipeline.
Saturation rate measuring unit 50 is for measuring the saturation of the fluid in the core sample. Saturation rate measuring unit 50 is formed to be sealed in a substantially 'u' shape, temporarily receiving the first fluid and the second fluid discharged from the core holder 10 through the outlet pipe 34, the first The fluid is discharged back to the first reservoir 30, and the second fluid is discharged to the outside.
More specifically, the saturation rate measuring unit 50 includes a first accommodating tank 51, a second accommodating tank 52, and a scale 53. Both the first and second accommodating tanks 51 and 52 are disposed vertically, and lower portions of the first and second accommodating tanks 51 and 52 can communicate with each other.
An outlet pipe 34 is connected to the upper end of the first accommodating tank 51 and connected to the core holder 10, and a first fluid is discharged to the first storage tank 30 at the lower end of the first accommodating tank 51. The circulation pipe 54 is connected so that it may be. The circulation pipe 54 connects the first accommodating tank 51 and the first reservoir 30. In addition, the upper end of the first accommodating tank 51 and the second accommodating tank 52 is connected by a connecting pipe, the discharge pipe 55 for discharging the second fluid to the outside at the upper end of the second accommodating tank 52 Prepared. Pumps 57 and 58 are respectively installed in the circulation pipe 54 and the discharge pipe 55 to provide driving force for transferring the first fluid and the second fluid, and valves for opening and closing the pipe are also provided. .
The first fluid and the second fluid discharged from the core holder 10 are introduced into the saturation rate measuring unit 50 through the outlet pipe 34. In the saturation rate measuring unit 50, the first fluid and the second fluid Are separated from each other. In this embodiment, the first fluid and the second fluid are separated into upper and lower parts according to the difference in specific gravity. That is, in the present embodiment, since the first fluid is water and the second fluid is carbon dioxide gas, the relatively heavy first fluid is the lower part of the saturation rate measuring unit 50 and the relatively light carbon dioxide gas is the saturation rate measuring unit 50. Moving to the top of the two fluids are separated from each other. In addition, since the upper and lower ends of the first accommodating tank 51 and the second accommodating tank 52 communicate with each other in the saturation rate measuring unit 50, the fluids are freely provided with the first accommodating tank 51 and the second accommodating tank. It can move between the jaws 52.
Accordingly, the first fluid located in the lower portion of the first accommodating tank 51 and the second accommodating tank 52 is discharged into the first storage tank 30 through the circulation pipe 54 and the first receiving tank 51. ) And the second fluid located at the upper end of the second accommodation tank 52 is discharged to the outside through the discharge pipe (55). However, according to the embodiment, the second fluid may also be configured to circulate like the first fluid.
In the case of the first fluid, since the first reservoir 30, the core holder 10, and the saturation rate measuring unit 50 are continuously circulated, when the first fluid flows in a steady state so that the flow rate does not change with time, the saturation occurs. The amount of the first fluid located below the rate measuring unit 50 is kept constant. Since the first container 51 and the second container 52 of the saturation rate measuring unit 50 are attached with a scale 53 for measuring the volume (volume) of the first fluid, the scale 53 The scale of the first fluid in the saturation rate measuring unit 50 can be accurately known. Since the first fluid flows in a steady state, if the amount of the first fluid in the saturation rate measuring unit 50 is known, the amount of the first fluid present in the core sample can be known upside down. Able to know. This will be described again in the method of measuring relative fluid transmittance, which will be described later.
By the way, if the first fluid and the second fluid can be separated from each other up and down by specific gravity, the saturation rate measuring unit is not in the 'u' shape as shown in the present embodiment, even if it is inscribed on the graduation and sealed with a regular flask You can use the same form. However, in this embodiment, the 'u' shaped saturation rate measuring unit 50 having the first accommodating tank 51 and the second accommodating tank 52 is used to improve the accuracy of the measurement. The cross sectional area of the first accommodating tank 51 is wider than that of the second accommodating tank 52. In this embodiment, the diameter is larger than that of the first accommodating tank 51 and the second accommodating tank 52. Since the first tank 51 and the second tank 52 are in communication with each other, the same water level is always maintained. The second tank 52 has a small cross-sectional area, so that the first fluid has a large cross-sectional area. The scale for the water level can be read more accurately. This is because when the cross-sectional area is wide, it is difficult to read the exact level because the level surface is curved due to tension or the like.
That is, in consideration of the flow rate of the fluid, the saturation rate measuring unit 50 should have a cross-sectional area of a predetermined size or more, and when the area is wide, there is a problem that it is difficult to accurately measure the water level. 50) was divided into a first accommodating tank 51 having a large area and a second accommodating tank 52 having a small area, so as to ensure flow rate while improving accuracy of scale measurement.
Hereinafter, a method of measuring relative fluid transmittance using the relative fluid transmittance measuring apparatus 100 having the above-described configuration will be described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
2 is a schematic flowchart of a method for measuring a relative fluid transmittance according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention.
2, the relative fluid transmittance measuring method according to an embodiment of the present invention includes a mounting step, an initialization step, a first measurement step, a second measurement step.
In the mounting step, a relative fluid transmittance measuring device having the above-described configuration is installed, and the core sample is mounted in the core holder 10. Of course, the cross-sectional area and the like of the core sample required for calculating the relative fluid transmittance are measured before mounting on the core holder 10.
When the installation is complete, the initialization step is performed. In the initialization step, the inside of the core holder 10 is vacuumed using the vacuum pump 62, and the oven 20 is operated to heat the core holder 10 to adjust the temperature to be similar to the underground environment. This initialization results in the absence of any fluid in the core sample.
In the saturation step, the core sample is completely saturated with the first fluid. That is, by injecting the first fluid in a sufficient amount into the core holder 10 for a sufficient time, the voids in the core sample in a vacuum state is saturated with the first fluid.
When the core sample is completely saturated by the first fluid, the first measurement step of measuring the absolute transmittance of the fluid with respect to the core sample is performed. The absolute transmittance can be expressed as the ease with which single phase liquid can flow inside the core sample.
First, the level of the first fluid in the saturation rate measuring unit 50 is first measured while the saturation step is completed, and the first fluid is circulated at a constant pressure (flow rate). Here, the constant pressure means that the pressure of the first fluid just before flowing into the core sample is kept constant. After passing through the core sample, the pressure of the first fluid drops. The pressure difference across the core sample is continuously measured using the pressure gauges 13 and 14.
When the first fluid is circulated at a constant pressure and flow rate as described above, the first fluid flows in a steady state after a certain time elapses. And the water level of the first fluid in the saturation rate measuring unit 50 is kept constant in the saturation state. This is because the core sample in the first measurement step is kept saturated by the first fluid as in the saturation step. However, if the valve 34 of the outlet pipe at the rear end of the core holder 10 is closed without circulating the first fluid in the saturation step, the saturation rate measuring unit 50 is first provided at the beginning of the first measurement step. 1 fluid would not be filled, and the level of the saturation rate measuring unit 50 will gradually increase while performing the first measuring step, and if a steady state flow is established as a result of a predetermined time, the saturation rate measuring unit 50 ), The level of the first fluid will remain unchanged.
As described above, in a state in which the core sample is saturated by the first fluid, the first fluid is circulated while injecting the first fluid at a constant pressure into the core sample to form a steady state flow, and a pressure difference between both ends of the core sample. By measuring the absolute transmittance can be calculated.
The transmittance of the fluid is calculated according to Darcy's law below.
Figure 112011080989314-pat00001
Where Q is the flow rate according to the time of the first fluid, k is the permeability of the fluid, and since it is a single-phase fluid, absolute fluid permeability (unit: Darcy), A is the cross-sectional area of the core sample, μ is the viscosity of the first fluid, and dp / dl is the pressure difference of the fluid across the core sample.
In Darcy's law, all variables other than the absolute fluid permeability k value can be found through measurement, so the absolute fluid permeability k of the core sample can be obtained.
As described above, after obtaining the absolute fluid permeability for the core sample, the effective fluid permeability and the relative fluid permeability can be obtained through the second measurement step.
First, while the steady state is maintained in the first measuring step, the level of the first fluid in the saturation rate measuring unit 50 is measured. The first fluid and the second fluid are supplied to the core holder 10. Of course, in this embodiment, the first fluid and the second fluid are mixed and injected through the injection pipe 33. The content ratio of the first fluid and the second fluid maintains a preset amount. For example, it is injected while maintaining the volume ratio of the first fluid 0.9, the second fluid 0.1. However, the pressure supplied to the first fluid and the second fluid is the same.
 The fluid mixed with the first fluid and the second fluid in a constant ratio is continuously injected into the core sample without changing the flow rate, and then enters a steady state after a certain time. In the test process, the pressure gauges 13 and 14 continuously measure the pressures at the front and rear ends of the core sample, and the water level of the first fluid is continuously measured at the saturation rate measuring unit 50.
If the steady state is maintained, the level of the first fluid in the saturation rate measuring unit 50 is fixed to a constant value without changing, but the level in the first measurement step and the level in the second measurement step are different. In the first measurement step, the inside of the core sample was saturated only with the first fluid. In the second measurement step, the second fluid is filled inside the core sample together with the first fluid. The level of the rate measuring unit 50 is increased. As a result, it is possible to know the change in the amount of the first fluid in the core sample, that is, the change in the saturation rate, through the change in the level of the first fluid in the saturation rate measuring unit 50.
Conventionally, since there was no saturation rate measuring unit as in the present invention, the weight was measured by subtracting the core sample from the core holder after obtaining the absolute contribution rate in the first measuring step, and again after the second measuring step. The saturation rate of the first fluid was measured using the difference in weight. As will be described later, the second measurement step is not finished at one time, but the measurement must be continued while changing the content ratio of the fluid, so that the weight of the core sample must be measured at each time, thereby making the experiment very complicated. Above all, measuring the change in saturation of the first fluid through the weight change of the core sample has a problem that the accuracy is not guaranteed. In the present invention, the saturation rate measuring unit solves this problem, and the accuracy of measuring the saturation of the first fluid, as well as being able to perform the experiment continuously without separating the core sample from the core holder.
On the other hand, since the pressure difference across the core sample was measured in the second measurement step, the effective transmittances of the first fluid and the second fluid can be obtained by Darcy's law. Since the first and second fluids have different flow rates and viscosities, the effective permeability of each fluid can be obtained by substituting these values. The effective transmittance may be expressed as the ease with which each fluid flows through the core sample when the two phase fluids are supplied together.
Since the relative fluid permeability is obtained by dividing the effective permeability by the absolute fluid permeability, the relative fluid permeability can also be calculated by obtaining the effective permeability of each fluid.
When the measurement is completed by mixing the first fluid and the second fluid in a predetermined content ratio, the second measurement step is repeated by changing the content ratio of the first fluid and the second fluid. For example, the ratio of the first fluid 0.8 and the second fluid 0.2 is measured, and then changed again to the first fluid 0.7 and the second fluid 0.3, and finally only the second fluid is injected at a content of 100%. In each process, as described above, the saturation rate of the first fluid in the core sample and the relative fluid permeability of the first fluid and the second fluid are obtained.
As described above, while varying the content ratio of the fluids, the saturation rate of the first fluid, the relative fluid permeability of the first fluid, and the relative fluid permeability of the second fluid are obtained by finally varying the content ratio of the fluids. 1 Graph the relative fluid permeability of each fluid against the saturation rate of the fluid.
The most important points in the relative fluid permeability graph relate to the degree of minimum saturation of the first and second fluids in the core sample and the relative fluid permeability at that point. In this embodiment, since the first fluid is water, the irreducible water saturation value, and the second fluid is carbon dioxide, are residual CO 2 saturation values.
The above values will be briefly described with reference to the tables of FIGS. 3 and 4.
Figure 3 is a table showing the ratio of the water and carbon dioxide content injected when performing the relative fluid permeability measurement method, Figure 4 is the carbon dioxide saturation rate, water and carbon dioxide when the fluids are injected into the core sample under the conditions of FIG. This graph shows the relative transmittance of.
Referring to FIG. 3, the point 1 point was injected with 0.8cc of water as the first measurement step and did not inject carbon dioxide, and gradually increased the amount of carbon dioxide from point 2 to point 4, and injected only carbon dioxide without injecting water at point 5. It was. In addition, the relative fluid permeability of each fluid at each point was obtained, and the saturation rate of carbon dioxide was measured. The relative fluid permeability graph of FIG. Until now, only the measurement of the saturation rate of water, which is the first fluid, has been described. However, since the pores of the core sample are saturated by the first fluid and the second fluid, if the saturation rate of carbon dioxide in the core sample is 0.2, the water saturation rate is reversed. Since is 0.8, the X-axis coordinates may be assumed to be either the first fluid or the second fluid. However, the wettability of the two fluids is generally based on a relatively high saturation rate of the fluid.
Referring to FIG. 4, the relative transmittance of water is 1 when only the water is injected without injecting carbon dioxide at all while the core sample is completely vacuumed. However, as the amount of carbon dioxide is increased, the relative transmittance of carbon dioxide gradually increases, and the relative transmittance of water gradually decreases.
 At the point 5, only carbon dioxide gas is injected without any water. At this point, the relative permeability of carbon dioxide should be 1, the relative permeability of water 0, and the carbon dioxide saturation of the core sample should be 1 as opposed to the point 1, As shown in Fig. 4, the saturation rate of carbon dioxide in the core sample remains at about 0.7, not 1.
That is, even in the case of continuously injecting only carbon dioxide without injecting water at all, it can be seen that there is a minimum amount of water remaining in the pores in the core sample due to coalescence of water and no more discharge.
The same is true for point1. In other words, in this experiment, the saturation of water became 1 because the pores in the core sample were artificially completely vacuumed through the initializing step, but the process of increasing the water content and reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in reverse at the point 5 point. Finally, if only 100% of water is injected, the saturation of water in the core sample is less than 1 without returning to the original point1 point. In other words, even when only 100% of water is injected, the minimum amount of carbon dioxide that adheres to the core sample and is not discharged remains.
That is, the minimum residual amount of water and the minimum residual amount of carbon dioxide exist, which are called irreducible water saturation and residual CO 2 saturation.
For example, when carbon dioxide is to be stored in a carbon dioxide underground storage system (CCS), it is necessary to know the irreducible water saturation value of the reservoir to calculate the amount of carbon dioxide to be injected. In addition, even in the production of petroleum, it is possible to calculate the oil production possible based on the information on the minimum remaining amount in the reservoir.
In order to accurately measure these values, carbon dioxide should not be dissolved in water, so in this embodiment, it is preferable to saturate water, which is the first fluid, with carbon dioxide in advance.
As described above, in the present invention, the saturation rate in the core sample can be accurately measured by measuring the relative permeability by fluid content ratio using the saturation rate measurement unit, and the fluid permeability is repeatedly measured by the fluid content ratio. In this case, since the core sample can be continuously measured without removing the core sample from the core holder, the experiment can be easily performed.
100 ... Relative fluid permeability measuring device with saturation rate measuring unit in core
10 ... core holder 13,14 ... pressure gauge
20 ... oven 30 ... first reservoir
40 ... Second reservoir 50 ... Saturation rate measuring unit in the core
51 ... 1st tank 52 ... 2nd tank
53 ... scale 62 ... vacuum pump

Claims (10)

  1. A core holder for sealingly accommodating a core sample to be measured for fluid permeability;
    A first reservoir connected to the core holder to supply a first fluid to the core holder;
    A second supply pipe connecting the core holder and the second reservoir to supply a second fluid contained in a second reservoir to the core holder;
    A pressure gauge for measuring a pressure difference of the fluid between the front end and the rear end of the core sample in the flow direction of the fluid; And
    Is for measuring the saturation rate of the first fluid in the core holder, the first and second fluid discharged from the core holder is connected to the core holder, the first fluid and the second fluid is mutually It is separately received and can measure the amount of the first fluid, and discharge the first fluid to the first reservoir to circulate the first fluid, the second fluid is discharged in a different path than the first fluid Relative fluid transmittance measuring device having a saturation rate measuring unit in the core comprising a;
  2. The method of claim 1,
    An injection tube connected to the core holder,
    A first supply pipe connected to the first reservoir and the second supply pipe are connected to the injection pipe so that the first fluid and the second fluid are mixed with each other and injected into the core holder through the injection pipe. A relative fluid transmittance measuring device having a saturation rate measuring unit.
  3. The method of claim 1,
    The saturation rate measuring unit,
    A first tank disposed vertically,
    It has a narrower cross-sectional area than the first tank and is disposed vertically, and a lower portion thereof has a second tank that communicates with the bottom of the first tank, and a volume of the first fluid accommodated together in the first tank and the second tank. Relative fluid transmittance measuring apparatus having a saturation rate measurement unit in the core, characterized in that made in each of the scales installed in the first and second receiving tank to measure.
  4. The method of claim 3,
    The first fluid has a specific gravity higher than that of the second fluid so that the first fluid is biased at the lower portion of the first tank and the second tank, and the second fluid is biased at the top of the first tank and the second tank. The first fluid and the second fluid are separated from each other in the first and second tanks,
    A circulation pipe for connecting the first fluid to the first reservoir is connected to a lower portion of the saturation rate measuring unit, and a discharge pipe for discharging the second fluid is connected to an upper portion of the saturation rate measuring unit. A relative fluid permeability measuring device having an in-core saturation rate measuring unit.
  5. The method of claim 1,
    Relative fluid transmittance measuring apparatus further comprises an oven for accommodating and heating the core holder therein.
  6. The method of claim 1,
    And a vacuum pump connected to the core holder to form a vacuum inside the core holder and the internal void of the core sample.
  7. The method of claim 1,
    The first fluid is water, the second fluid is carbon dioxide,
    And the first reservoir and the second reservoir are selectively connectable to supply the core holder with the water saturated with carbon dioxide.
  8. After preparing the core sample to be measured for the relative fluid permeability, and installing the relative fluid permeability measuring device according to any one of claims 1 to 7, the core sample is attached to the core holder of the relative fluid permeability measuring device. Mounting step;
    An initializing step of forming a vacuum in the core holder to vacuum the voids in the core sample;
    A saturation step of completely saturating the voids in the core sample with the first fluid after the initialization step;
    After the saturation step, the first fluid is circulated while maintaining the relative fluid permeability measuring device in a steady state, and after measuring the pressure difference between the core fluid and the amount of the first fluid in the saturation rate measuring unit, A first measuring step of calculating an absolute transmittance of the core sample; And
    The first fluid and the second fluid together to circulate the relative fluid permeability measuring device while maintaining a steady state, and after measuring the pressure difference between the amount of the first fluid and the core sample in the saturation rate measuring unit Computing the relative transmittance of the first fluid and the second fluid by calculating each effective transmittance of the first fluid and the second fluid, while changing the content ratio of the first fluid and the second fluid, the first according to the content ratio And a second measuring step of calculating a relative fluid transmittance of the first fluid and the second fluid.
  9. 9. The method of claim 8,
    The relative fluid transmittance measuring method, characterized in that for controlling the temperature by heating the core holder in the initialization step.
  10. 9. The method of claim 8,
    The first fluid is water, the second fluid is carbon dioxide,
    The first fluid of water is saturated with carbon dioxide so that no more carbon dioxide can be dissolved, so that carbon dioxide or the second fluid adhered in the core sample is not dissolved in the first fluid. Relative fluid transmittance measurement method.
KR1020110105991A 2011-10-17 2011-10-17 Apparatus for measuring relative permeability of core having measuring unit of saturation fraction in core and method for measuring relative permeability of core using the same KR101223462B1 (en)

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