KR101146060B1 - A communication method and apparatus using multi-resolution beamforming with feedback in mimo systems - Google Patents

A communication method and apparatus using multi-resolution beamforming with feedback in mimo systems Download PDF

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KR101146060B1
KR101146060B1 KR1020107022998A KR20107022998A KR101146060B1 KR 101146060 B1 KR101146060 B1 KR 101146060B1 KR 1020107022998 A KR1020107022998 A KR 1020107022998A KR 20107022998 A KR20107022998 A KR 20107022998A KR 101146060 B1 KR101146060 B1 KR 101146060B1
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device
set
preferred
transmission
directions
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KR1020107022998A
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KR20100124331A (en
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이스마일 라끼스
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콸콤 인코포레이티드
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Priority to US61/037,139 priority
Priority to US12/404,994 priority patent/US9100068B2/en
Priority to US12/404,994 priority
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Priority to PCT/US2009/037421 priority patent/WO2009117431A2/en
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B7/00Radio transmission systems, i.e. using radiation field
    • H04B7/02Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas
    • H04B7/04Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas using two or more spaced independent antennas
    • H04B7/0413MIMO systems
    • H04B7/0417Feedback systems
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B7/00Radio transmission systems, i.e. using radiation field
    • H04B7/02Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas
    • H04B7/04Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas using two or more spaced independent antennas
    • H04B7/0491Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas using two or more spaced independent antennas using two or more sectors, i.e. sector diversity
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B7/00Radio transmission systems, i.e. using radiation field
    • H04B7/02Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas
    • H04B7/04Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas using two or more spaced independent antennas
    • H04B7/06Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas using two or more spaced independent antennas at the transmitting station
    • H04B7/0613Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas using two or more spaced independent antennas at the transmitting station using simultaneous transmission
    • H04B7/0615Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas using two or more spaced independent antennas at the transmitting station using simultaneous transmission of weighted versions of same signal
    • H04B7/0619Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas using two or more spaced independent antennas at the transmitting station using simultaneous transmission of weighted versions of same signal using feedback from receiving side
    • H04B7/0621Feedback content
    • H04B7/0634Antenna weights or vector/matrix coefficients
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B7/00Radio transmission systems, i.e. using radiation field
    • H04B7/02Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas
    • H04B7/04Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas using two or more spaced independent antennas
    • H04B7/06Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas using two or more spaced independent antennas at the transmitting station
    • H04B7/0613Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas using two or more spaced independent antennas at the transmitting station using simultaneous transmission
    • H04B7/0615Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas using two or more spaced independent antennas at the transmitting station using simultaneous transmission of weighted versions of same signal
    • H04B7/0617Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas using two or more spaced independent antennas at the transmitting station using simultaneous transmission of weighted versions of same signal for beam forming
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B7/00Radio transmission systems, i.e. using radiation field
    • H04B7/02Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas
    • H04B7/04Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas using two or more spaced independent antennas
    • H04B7/06Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas using two or more spaced independent antennas at the transmitting station
    • H04B7/0613Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas using two or more spaced independent antennas at the transmitting station using simultaneous transmission
    • H04B7/0615Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas using two or more spaced independent antennas at the transmitting station using simultaneous transmission of weighted versions of same signal
    • H04B7/0619Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas using two or more spaced independent antennas at the transmitting station using simultaneous transmission of weighted versions of same signal using feedback from receiving side
    • H04B7/0621Feedback content
    • H04B7/0628Diversity capabilities

Abstract

Certain aspects of the present disclosure relate to methods for beamforming that achieve beamforming optimization criteria. Some proposed beamforming techniques are based on antenna directions with multiple resolutions.

Description

A COMMUNICATION METHOD AND APPARATUS USING MULTI-RESOLUTION BEAMFORMING WITH FEEDBACK IN MIMO SYSTEMS

Certain aspects of the present disclosure generally relate to wireless communication, and more particularly to beamforming of a transmission signal.

Claims of priority under 35 U.S.C. § 119

The application of the present invention is US Provisional Application No. 61 / 037,139, Representative Document No. 082841P1, filed March 17, 2008, assigned to the assignee of the present invention and expressly incorporated herein by reference. Claim priority.

Dual-mode ultra-wideband (UWB) physical layer (PHY) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation supporting a single carrier may use a common mode. UWB PHY may be used for millimeter wavelength (eg, using a carrier frequency of 60 GHz) communications. The common mode is a single-carrier mode used by both single-carrier and OFDM devices for beaconing, network-controlled signaling and base-rate data communications. Common mode is generally needed for interoperability between different devices and different networks.

Millimeter-wavelength communications may also use the beamforming of one or more antennas to provide both spatial diversity and array gains. Multiple antenna configurations, such as a single antenna element, sectorized antennas, switching antennas, and one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) antenna arrays may support beamforming. Conventional beamforming, such as Eigen-beamforming, requires channel state information matrices or beamforming matrices to be fed back to the transmission array. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11n standard is the highest subcarrier starting from the column and row sizes of the feedback matrices, the subcarrier group size (e.g., cluster size), the quantization bit size, and the lowest subcarrier index. Specifies feedback information that includes an array of actual quantization data elements into an index. For beamforming using the precoding matrices, the feedback information can be reduced by replacing the contents of the beamforming matrix with the indices of the precoding-matrix codebook.

Two types of beamforming protocols are considered: on-demand beamforming and pro-active beamforming. On-demand beamforming can be used between two devices (DEVs) or between piconet controllers (PNCs) and devices (DEVs), and can occur in channel time allocation (CTA) periods allocated to DEVs for beamforming. . Pro-active beamforming may be used when the PNC is a source of data for one or more DEVs. This protocol may allow multiple DEVs to train their receiver antennas for preferred reception from a PNC with lower overhead.

 Two beamforming optimal criteria are considered: suitable beam switching (steering) and tracking (BST) criteria and pattern estimation and tracking for 1-D linear antenna arrays and 2-D planar antenna arrays for all antenna configurations. PET) option. All DEVs supporting the PET method can support the BST criteria. The PET criterion can only be used if the two DEVs forming the communication link support the PET criterion. BST is based on the selection of a preferred beam from a given set of beams, while PET is based on the discovery of preferred beam former and combiner vectors (ie antenna weights) that do not necessarily belong to a given set of beam directions.

Therefore, there is a need in the art for methods to efficiently achieve beamforming optimal criteria.

Certain aspects provide a method for wireless communications. The method generally comprises receiving training signals transmitted from a device using a first set of transmission directions, deriving a preferred transmission direction from the first set of transmission directions, and as feedback to the device. Providing an indication of the preferred transmission direction to the device, wherein the feedback is provided by sweeping a second set of transmission directions.

Certain aspects provide an apparatus for wireless communications. The apparatus generally includes a receiver for receiving training signals transmitted from a device using a first set of transmission directions, circuitry for deriving a preferred transmission direction from the first set of transmission directions, and feedback to the device. A circuit for providing an indication of the preferred transmission direction to the device, wherein the feedback is provided by sweeping a second set of transmission directions.

Certain aspects provide an apparatus for wireless communications. The apparatus generally includes means for receiving training signals transmitted from a device using a first set of transmission directions, means for deriving a preferred transmission direction from the first set of transmission directions, and feedback to the device. And means for providing the device with an indication of the preferred transmission direction, wherein the feedback is provided by sweeping a second set of transmission directions.

Certain aspects provide a computer program product for wireless communications. The computer program product receives training signals transmitted from the device using a first set of transmission directions, derives a preferred transmission direction from the first set of transmission directions, and provides feedback to the device as feedback to the device. And a computer readable medium encoded with executable instructions to provide an indication of the preferred transmission direction, wherein the feedback is provided by sweeping a second set of transmission directions.

Certain aspects provide an access point. An access point generally uses at least one antenna, a receiver for receiving via the at least one antenna training signals transmitted from the device using a first set of transmission directions, the preferred transmission direction from the first set of transmission directions. Circuitry for inducing, and as feedback to the device, circuitry for providing the device with an indication of the preferred transmission direction, wherein the feedback is provided by sweeping a second set of transmission directions.

Certain aspects provide a method for wireless communications. The method generally comprises transmitting training signals to a device using a first set of transmission directions, receiving from the device an indication of at least one first preferred transmission direction derived from the first set of transmission directions. Transmitting training signals to the device using a second set of transmission directions, the second set of transmission directions being derived from the first preferred transmission direction, the second of the transmission directions from the device. Receiving an indication of at least one second preferred transmission direction derived from a set, and using the at least one second transmission preferred direction to communicate with the device.

Certain aspects provide an apparatus for wireless communications. The apparatus generally receives from the device circuitry for transmitting training signals to a device using a first set of transmission directions, at least one first preferred transmission direction derived from the first set of transmission directions. Circuitry for transmitting training signals to the device using a second set of transmission directions, the second set of transmission directions being derived from the at least one first preferred transmission direction, from the device Circuitry for receiving an indication of at least one second preferred transmission direction derived from the second set of transmission directions, and circuitry for using the at least one second transmission preferred direction to communicate with the device. Include.

Certain aspects provide an apparatus for wireless communications. The apparatus generally receives from the device an indication of at least one first preferred transmission direction derived from the first set of transmission directions, means for transmitting training signals to the device using a first set of transmission directions. Means for transmitting training signals to the device using a second set of transmission directions, the second set of transmission directions derived from the at least one first preferred transmission direction, from the device Means for receiving an indication of at least one second preferred transmission direction derived from the second set of transmission directions, and means for using the at least one second transmission preferred direction to communicate with the device. Include.

Certain aspects provide a computer-program product for wireless communications. The computer-program product transmits training signals to a device using a first set of transmission directions, receives from the device an indication of at least one first preferred transmission direction derived from the first set of transmission directions. Transmit training signals to the device using a second set of transmission directions, wherein the second set of transmission directions are derived from the at least one first preferred transmission direction; Computer readable instructions for receiving an indication of at least one second preferred transmission direction derived from two sets, and encoded with executable instructions for using the at least one second transmission preferred direction to communicate with the device Media.

Certain aspects provide an access point. An access point generally includes at least one antenna, circuitry for transmitting training signals to a device using a first set of transmission directions via the at least one antenna, and a first set of transmission directions via the at least one antenna. Circuitry for receiving from the device an indication of at least one first preferred transmission direction derived from the circuit for transmitting training signals to the device using a second set of transmission directions via the at least one antenna; The second set of transmission directions is derived from the at least one first preferred transmission direction, at least one second preferred derived from the second set of transmission directions from the device via the at least one antenna For receiving an indication of the transmission direction In, and a circuit for utilizing the direction in which the at least one second transmit preferred to communicate with the device.

Certain aspects provide a method for wireless communications. The method generally comprises receiving training signals transmitted from a device using a set of sectors, deriving at least one preferred sector from the set of sectors, as feedback to the device, the at least to the device. Providing an indication of one preferred sector, wherein the feedback is provided by sweeping a set of transmission directions associated with the sectors, receiving training signals transmitted from the device using at least one set of beams; At least one set of beams is derived from the at least one preferred sector,-inducing at least one preferred beam from at least one set of the beams, and feedback to the device, the feedback to the device Of at least one preferred beam Providing an indication, wherein the feedback is provided by using the at least one preferred sector, the sector being an antenna pattern covering an area of space, and the beam being more than the area of space covered by the sector An antenna pattern covering an area of a small space.

Certain aspects provide an apparatus for wireless communications. The apparatus generally includes circuitry for receiving training signals transmitted from the device using a set of sectors, circuitry for deriving at least one preferred sector from the set of sectors, and as feedback to the device, the feedback to the device. Circuitry for providing an indication of the at least one preferred sector, the feedback provided by sweeping a set of transmission directions associated with the sectors, receiving training signals transmitted from the device using at least one set of beams Circuitry for said at least one set of beams derived from said at least one preferred sector, circuitry for deriving at least one preferred beam from at least one set of said beams, and feedback to said device As the device, Circuitry for providing an indication of at least one preferred beam, wherein the feedback is provided by using the at least one preferred sector, the sector being an antenna pattern covering an area of space, and the beam being directed to the sector An antenna pattern that covers an area of space that is smaller than the area of space covered by it.

Certain aspects provide an apparatus for wireless communications. The apparatus generally includes means for receiving training signals transmitted from a device using a set of sectors, means for deriving at least one preferred sector from the set of sectors, and as feedback to the device, the feedback to the device. Means for providing an indication of the at least one preferred sector, wherein the feedback is provided by sweeping a set of transmission directions associated with the sectors, receiving training signals transmitted from the device using at least one set of beams Means for-said at least one set of beams derived from said at least one preferred sector-means for deriving at least one preferred beam from at least one set of said beams, and feedback to said device As the device, Means for providing an indication of at least one preferred beam, wherein the feedback is provided by using the at least one preferred sector, wherein the sector is an antenna pattern covering an area of space, and the beam is in the sector An antenna pattern that covers an area of space that is smaller than the area of space covered by it.

Certain aspects provide a method for wireless communications. The method generally comprises transmitting training signals to a device using a set of sectors, receiving an indication of at least one preferred sector derived from the set of sectors from the device, at least one set of beams. Transmitting training signals to the device using the at least one set of beams derived from the at least one preferred sector; at least one preferred derived from the at least one set of beams from the device. Receiving an indication of a beam, and using the at least one preferred beam to communicate with the device, the sector being an antenna pattern covering an area of space, the beam being space covered by the sector To cover an area of space that is smaller than the area of An antenna pattern.

Certain aspects provide an apparatus for wireless communications. The apparatus generally includes circuitry for transmitting training signals to a device using a set of sectors, circuitry for receiving an indication of at least one preferred sector derived from the set of sectors from the device, at least one of the beams. Circuitry for transmitting training signals to the device using a set, wherein at least one set of the beams is derived from the at least one preferred sector, at least one derived from the at least one set of beams from the device Circuitry for receiving an indication of a preferred beam of a circuit, and circuitry for using the at least one preferred beam to communicate with the device, the sector being an antenna pattern covering an area of space, the beam being the More than the area of space covered by the sector It is an antenna pattern covering a region of space.

Certain aspects provide an apparatus for wireless communications. The apparatus generally includes means for transmitting training signals to a device using a set of sectors, means for receiving an indication of at least one preferred sector derived from the set of sectors from the device, at least one of the beams. Means for transmitting training signals to the device using a set, wherein the at least one set of beams is derived from the at least one preferred sector, at least one derived from the at least one set of beams from the device Means for receiving an indication of a preferred beam of a; and means for using the at least one preferred beam to communicate with the device, the sector being an antenna pattern covering an area of space, the beam being the More than the area of space covered by the sector It is an antenna pattern covering a region of space.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS In order that the above-mentioned features of the present disclosure may be understood in more detail, the above briefly summarized description may be referred to some aspects shown in the accompanying drawings. It should be noted, however, that the appended drawings illustrate only some typical aspects of the present disclosure and are therefore not to be considered limiting of its scope, but are intended to permit other equal ranges.
1 illustrates an example wireless communication system in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
2 illustrates various components that may be used in a wireless device, in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
3 shows a block diagram of an asymmetric antenna system (AAS) in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
4 illustrates a beamforming predicate in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
5 illustrates beams arranged in clusters in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
6 illustrates example operations from a receiver perspective for beamforming, in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
FIG. 6A illustrates example components capable of performing the operations shown in FIG. 6.
7 illustrates example operations for updating beamforming and combining vectors in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
FIG. 7A illustrates example components capable of performing the operations shown in FIG. 7.
8A-8C illustrate respective four, six, and eight beam patterns for a four-element antenna array in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
9A illustrates a beam pattern including six beam patterns generated by a one-dimensional six-element array in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
9B illustrates a pair of sector beam patterns in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
10 illustrates a structure of a beamforming performance information element (IE) in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
11 illustrates example operations for multi-resolution beamforming, in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
FIG. 11A illustrates example components capable of performing the operations shown in FIG. 11.
12 illustrates example operations for sector-level training, in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
FIG. 12A illustrates example components capable of performing the operations shown in FIG. 12.
13 illustrates example operations for determining preferred sectors in an asymmetric antenna system (ASS) in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
FIG. 13A illustrates example components capable of performing the operations shown in FIG. 13.
14A-14D illustrate frame structures used to determine preferred sectors in an AAS in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
15 illustrates example operations for determining preferred sectors in a symmetric antenna system (SAS) in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
FIG. 15A illustrates example components capable of performing the operations shown in FIG. 15.
16A-16B illustrate frame structures used to determine preferred sectors in a SAS in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
17 illustrates an example of a pair of clusters comprising a plurality of beams in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
18 illustrates example operations for splitting preferred sectors into clusters of beams in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
18A shows example components capable of performing the operations shown in FIG. 18.
19 illustrates example operations for beam-level training, in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
FIG. 19A illustrates example components capable of performing the operations shown in FIG. 19.
20 illustrates example operations for determining preferred beams in an AAS in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
FIG. 20A illustrates example components capable of performing the operations shown in FIG. 20.
21A-21D illustrate frame structures used to determine preferred beams in an AAS in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
22 illustrates example operations for determining beams preferred in a SAS in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
FIG. 22A illustrates example components capable of performing the operations shown in FIG. 22.
23A-23B illustrate frame structures used to determine preferred beams in a SAS in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
24 illustrates example operations for beam-tracking in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
FIG. 24A illustrates example components capable of performing the operations shown in FIG. 24.
25 illustrates a structure of a data packet with tracking capability in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
FIG. 26 illustrates example operations from a transmitter perspective for beamforming, in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
FIG. 26A illustrates example components capable of performing the operations shown in FIG. 26.
27 illustrates example operations from the transmitter point of view for determining preferred transmission directions in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
FIG. 27A illustrates example components capable of performing the operations shown in FIG. 27.
28 illustrates example operations from the receiver's perspective for determining preferred transmission directions in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure.
FIG. 28A illustrates example components capable of performing the operations shown in FIG. 28.

Various aspects of the disclosure are more fully described with reference to the accompanying drawings. This disclosure, however, may be embodied in many different forms and should not be construed as limited to the specific structures or functions described throughout this disclosure. Rather, these aspects are provided so that this disclosure will be thorough and complete, and will fully convey the scope of the disclosure to those skilled in the art. Based on the teachings of the present disclosure, one of ordinary skill in the art appreciates that the scope of the present disclosure is intended to cover any aspect of the disclosure described herein, which is implemented in combination or independently of any other aspect of the present disclosure. For example, an apparatus may be implemented or a method may be practiced using any number of aspects described herein. In addition, the scope of the present disclosure is intended to cover such an apparatus or method implemented using other structure, functionality or structure and functionality in addition to or other than the various aspects of the present disclosure described herein. Any aspect of the disclosure disclosed herein may be embodied by one or more elements of a claim.

The term " exemplary " is used herein to mean " serving as an example, example, or illustration. &Quot; Any aspect described herein as "exemplary" is not necessarily to be construed as preferred or advantageous over other aspects.

Thus, while aspects of the disclosure allow for various modifications and alternative forms, certain illustrative aspects are shown by way of example in the drawings and will be described herein in detail. However, there is no intention to limit the disclosure to the particular forms disclosed, and on the contrary, the disclosure is intended to cover all modifications, equivalents, and alternatives falling within the scope of the disclosure. Like reference numerals may refer to like elements throughout the description of the drawings.

It should also be noted that in any alternative implementation the functions / acts described in the blocks may occur regardless of the order described in the flowcharts. For example, two blocks shown in succession may in fact be executed substantially concurrently or the blocks may sometimes be executed in the reverse order, depending on the functionality and procedures involved.

Example Wireless Communication System

The techniques disclosed herein may be used for a variety of broadband wireless communication systems, including communication systems based on single carrier transmission or on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). Aspects disclosed herein may be advantageous for systems using ultra wideband (UWB) signals including millimeter-wavelength signals, and beamforming may be achieved using a common mode, ie using a single carrier. However, the present disclosure is not intended to be limited to such systems, and other coded signals may benefit from similar advantages.

1 illustrates one embodiment of a wireless communication system 100 in which aspects of the present disclosure can be employed. The wireless communication system 100 may be a broadband wireless communication system. The wireless communication system 100 may provide communication for a number of cells 102, each of which is serviced by a base station 104. The base station 104 may be a fixed station that communicates with the user terminals 106. Base station 104 may alternatively be referred to as a piconet controller (PNC), access point, Node B, or any other terminology.

1 illustrates various user terminals 106 distributed throughout the system 100. User terminals 106 may be fixed (ie, stationary) or mobile. User terminals 106 may alternatively be referred to as remote stations, access terminals, terminals, subscriber units, mobile stations, stations, user equipment, and the like. User terminals 106 may be wireless devices, such as cellular phones, PDAs, portable devices, wireless modems, laptop computers, personal computers, and the like.

Various algorithms and methods may be used for transmissions in the wireless communication system 100 between the base stations 104 and the user terminals 106. For example, signals may be transmitted and received between base stations 104 and user terminals 106 in accordance with UWB techniques. In such a case, the wireless communication system 100 may be referred to as a UWB system.

A communication link that facilitates transmission from base station 104 to user terminal 106 may be referred to as downlink (DL) 108 and facilitates transmission from user terminal 106 to base station 104. The communication link may be referred to as uplink (UL) 110. Alternatively, downlink 108 may be referred to as a forward link or forward channel, and uplink 110 may be referred to as a reverse link or reverse channel.

Cell 102 may be divided into a number of sectors 112. Sector 112 is the physical coverage area within the cell 102. Base stations 104 in the wireless communication system 100 may utilize antennas that concentrate the flow of power in a particular sector 112 of the cell 102. Such antennas may be referred to as directional antennas.

2 illustrates various components that may be used in the wireless device 202 that may be used within the wireless communication system 100. The wireless device 202 is an illustration of a device that may be configured to implement the various methods disclosed herein. The wireless device 202 may be a base station 104 or a user terminal 106.

The wireless device 202 may include a processor 204 that controls the operation of the wireless device 202. The processor 204 may also be referred to as a central processing unit (CPU). Memory 206, which may include both read-only memory (ROM) and random access memory (RAM), provides instructions and data to the processor 204. Part of the memory 206 may also include nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM). The processor 204 can typically perform logical and arithmetic operations based on program instructions stored within the memory 206. The instructions in the memory 206 may be executable to implement the methods disclosed herein.

The wireless device 202 can also include a housing 208, which can include a transmitter 210 and a receiver 212 to allow reception and transmission of data between the wireless device 202 and a remote location. The transmitter 210 and receiver 212 may be combined into a transceiver 214. Single or multiple transmit antennas 216 may be attached to the housing 208 and electrically coupled to the transceiver 214. The wireless device 202 may also include multiple transmitters, multiple receivers, and multiple transceivers (not shown).

The wireless device 202 can also include a signal detector 218 that can be used to detect and quantize the level of signals received by the transceiver 214. The signal detector 218 can detect signals such as total energy, energy per subcarrier per symbol, power spectral density, and other signals. The wireless device 202 may also include a digital signal processor (DSP) 220 to utilize the processing signals.

Various components of the wireless device 202 may be coupled together by a bus system 222, which may include a power bus, a control signal bus, and a status signal bus added to the data bus.

Beamforming System Model

While multipath channels for other transceivers are mutually beneficial, a transceiver using the same antenna (s) for both transmission and reception is referred to as a symmetric antenna system (SAS). Transceivers that use one set of antennas for transmission and another set of antennas for reception, or where the multipath channel for other transceivers are not mutually beneficial, are referred to as asymmetric antenna systems (AAS). 3 shows a block diagram of an AAS. The first transceiver 302 uses M T transmit antennas and M R receive antennas. The second transceiver 304 uses N T transmit antennas and N R receive antennas.

The channel model H 1 → 2 may be used to represent the propagation environment when the first transceiver 302 transmits signals to the second transceiver 304. Similarly, the channel model H 2 → 1 may represent a propagation environment when the transceiver 304 transmits signals received by the transceiver 302. Channel models may be used to represent any possible antenna configurations that may be used in the art. In addition, channel models may be used to represent different transport protocols. In one aspect of the disclosure, OFDM signaling using fast Fourier transform (FFT) and cyclic prefix of N subcarriers is a transmission that is a single carrier (SC) using cyclic prefix with burst length N The same channel model can be used. In such cases, it is typical to assume that the cyclic prefix is longer than any multipath delay spread between the transmit-receive pairs of any antenna elements.

The OFDM symbol stream or SC burst x (t) generated at the first transceiver 302 can be expressed as follows:

Figure 112010066436572-pct00001

Where T c is the sample (or chip) duration and S k represents the complex data. The symbol stream may be modulated by a beamforming vector of weights (w = [w 1 , 1 , w 1,2 ,..., W 1T, MT ] T ) before being transmitted to the communication channel.

Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) channels may be represented by frequency domain channel state information (CSI) at any n th frequency bin as follows:

Figure 112010066436572-pct00002

Wherein the term h i , j (n) may include both transmit and receive filtering depending on the channel impulse response between the j th transmit antenna of the first transceiver 302 and the i th receive antenna of the second transceiver 304, , j = 1, 2, ..., M T and i = 1, 2, ..., N R.

The signals received at the second transceiver 304 are combined vectors of weights c 2 = [c 2 , 1 c 2 , 2 ... c 2 to produce a combined baseband signal given by Equation (4) below. , NR ] T.

Figure 112010066436572-pct00003

Where b (t) is an additional white Gaussian noise (AWGN) vector through the receive antennas of the second transceiver 304.

The discrete channel model between the transmitter 306 of the first transceiver and the receiver 310 of the second transceiver may be represented by a single input single output (SISO) channel as follows.

Figure 112010066436572-pct00004

here,

Figure 112010066436572-pct00005
And i represents the sample (or chip) index within the OFDM sample (or single-carrier burst). The SISO channel may be characterized by the frequency response at the frequency bins (n = 0, 1, ..., N-1) given by equation (6).

Figure 112010066436572-pct00006

The discrete-frequency received signal model can be represented by the following equation (7):

Figure 112010066436572-pct00007

Where [S 0 , S 1 , ... S N -1 ] is an OFDM data symbol (or FFT of an SC data burst) and [B 0 , B 1 , ..., B N -1 ] is an AWGN vector .

The channel model representing the channel between the transmitter 312 of the second transceiver 304 and the receiver 308 of the first transceiver 302 is given as follows:

Figure 112010066436572-pct00008

For both OFDM and SC transmissions, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the nth subcarrier (n = 0, 1, ... N-1) in both directions of the AAS is given by:

Figure 112010066436572-pct00009

One purpose of the system design is to prefer the beamforming vectors w 1 and w 2 and the preferred combination vectors c 1 and c 2 to maximize the effective SNR (ESNR), which is limited by the alphabets of weight vectors. It may be to determine.

The ESNR may be defined as mapping from the instantaneous SNRs of the subcarriers given by equation (9) to an equivalent SNR taking into account the forward error correction (FEC) used in the system. Calculation of the average of SNRs across multiple subcarriers, quasi-such as commonly used in third generation partnership project 2 (3GPP2) and 1xEV-DV / DO (Evolution Data and Video / Data Optimization) communication systems Static method, also capacitive effective signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) mapping (CESM) used in 3GPP2 and 1xEV-DV / DO systems, Convex that can be used in 3GPP2 and 1xEV-DV / DO systems There are various methods that can be used for the calculation of ESNR, such as metric based CESM technology and exponentially effective SINR mapping (EESM) used in 3GPP2 systems.

Different ESNR calculation methods may be used for SC and OFDM systems. For example, a minimum mean square error (MMSE) based SC equalizer typically has an ESNR approximated by the average of the SNRs over different bursts. However, OFDM may want to have an ESNR that can be best approximated using the geometric mean of the SNRs over different subcarriers. Various other ESNR calculation methods may be further configured to take into account additional parameters such as FEC, receiver faults and / or bit-error rate (BER).

Beamforming technology

The following nomenclature may be used when describing beamforming between two devices. The two devices in communication may be referred to as DEV1 and DEV2, for example, DEV1 may be a piconet controller (PNC) and DEV2 may be a subscriber station. The device number d may be 1 for DEV1 and 2 for DEV2.

The term quasi-omni pattern generally relates to the lowest resolution pattern covering a very large area of space of interest around the device DEV. The PNC may cover an area of interest with a minimum set of quasi-omni patterns that may overlap. A set size equal to 1 can indicate that the PNC can cover a region of interest with only one quasi-omni pattern indicating that the PNC is omni-capable. The total number of quasi-omni transmit and receive patterns of interest for the DEV of the number d may be represented by I (d, t) and I (d, r) , respectively. Corresponding quasi-omni transmit and receive patterns may be represented by Qn (d, t) (where n = 0,1, ... I (d, t) −1) for the transmit patterns, and receive patterns With respect to Qn (d, r) , where n = 0, 1, ... I (d, r) -1. The preferred pair of quasi-omni transmit and receive patterns for DEV (d) when communicating with another DEV can be identified by index I (d, t) and I (d, r) , respectively. The corresponding quasi-omni transmit and receive patterns are respectively

Figure 112010066436572-pct00010
And
Figure 112010066436572-pct00011
It can be represented as. If both devices are SAS devices, the superscripts t and r may be omitted because the same antenna arrays are used for both transmitting and receiving. 4A shows an example of two quasi-omni patterns Q 0 and Q 1 for a SAS device.

As used herein, the term sector is generally referred to as a second level resolution pattern that covers the relative broadband of multiple beams. Sectors may cover a set of continuous or discontinuous beams, and different sectors may overlap. The total number of transmit and receive sectors of interest for the DEV number (d) may be represented by J (d, t) and J (d, r) , respectively. Corresponding transmit and receive sectors are Sn (d, t) for transmit sectors (where n = 0,1, ..., J (d, t) -1) and Sn (d, r for receive sectors). ) (where n = 0,1, ..., J ( d, r) can be represented by -1). The preferred pair of transmit and receive sectors for DEV (d) when communicating with other DEVs is indexes J (d, t) and Can be identified by J (d, r) . The corresponding transmit and receive sectors respectively

Figure 112010066436572-pct00012
And
Figure 112010066436572-pct00013
It can be represented as. If both devices are SAS devices, the superscripts t and r may be omitted. 4B shows an embodiment of four overlapping sectors S 0 , S 1 , S 2 , S 3 for a SAS device.

The sectors may be divided into beams, such as a higher level resolution pattern. The total number of transmit and receive beams of interest for the DEV number d may be represented by K (d, t) and K (d, r) , respectively. Corresponding transmit and receive beams are Bn (d, t) for transmit beams (where n = 0,1, ..., K (d, t) -1) and Bn (d, r) (for receive beams ) Where n = 0, 1, ..., K (d, r) -1). When communicating with another DEV, the preferred pair of transmit and receive beams for DEV (d) are indices K (d, t) and K (d, r) to Can be identified. The corresponding transmit and receive beams, respectively,

Figure 112010066436572-pct00014
And
Figure 112010066436572-pct00015
It can be represented as. If both devices are SAS devices, the superscripts t and r may be omitted. 4C shows an embodiment of an 8-element linear antenna array with eight bins B 0 , B 1 ,..., B 7 for a SAS device.

The beams may be further divided into high-resolution (HRS) beams, such as the highest level resolution pattern. The total number of transmit and receive HRS beams of interest for the DEV number (d) may be represented by L (d, t) and L (d, r) , respectively. Corresponding transmit and receive HRS beams are Hn (d, t) for transmit HRS beams, where n = 0: L (d, t) −1 and Hn (d, r) for receive HRS beams, where n = 0: L (d, r) -1). The preferred pair of transmit and receive HRS beams for DEV (d) when communicating with other DEVs is the indices l (d, t) and l (d, r) to Can be identified. The corresponding transmit and receive HRS beams, respectively,

Figure 112010066436572-pct00016
And
Figure 112010066436572-pct00017
It can be represented as. If both devices are SAS devices, the superscripts t and r may be omitted. 4D shows an embodiment of an 8-element linear antenna array with 16 HRS beams H 0 , H 1 , ... , H 15 for a SAS device.

In general, the multi-resolution definition of quasi-omni patterns, sectors, beams and HRS beams is a multi-level definition where each level can utilize a set of antenna patterns. Therefore, quasi-omni patterns can represent a first set of antenna patterns, sectors can represent a second set of antenna patterns, and beams are a third set of antenna patterns well derived from a second set of antenna patterns. And the HRS beams may indicate a fourth level of antenna patterns well derived from the third set of antenna patterns.

For a two-dimensional (2-D) antenna array having K x beams on the x axis and K z beams on the z axis, the K x beams along the x axis are indices 0 to K x − in the direction of increasing polar angle. It can be identified by 1 and correspond one-to-one with beam vectors 0 through K x -1 from the selected x-beam codebook. K z beams along the z axis can be identified by indices 0 through K z -1 in the direction of increasing polar angle. This is further shown in FIG. 5 for a 2-D antenna array with eight beams in each direction.

As described herein, a cluster is generally referred to as a group of beams around a center beam. The clustering concept is introduced in order to facilitate tracking of preferred beam directions or in general to facilitate tracking of preferred antenna patterns (directions). The number of clusters per sector (s) can be determined by the implementer. 5 illustrates embodiments of clusters of different sizes. Cluster encoding may be used for DEVs that support the pattern estimation and tracking (PET) option. For DEVs that implement the beam switching and steering option, cluster encoding support may not be required. The cluster may be encoded by an 8-bit field (c7c6c5c4c3c2c1c0). The first three least significant bits (i.e. c2c1c0) may encode beams in the polar angle with reference to FIG. 5, while the second set of three bits, i.e. c5c4c3, may encode the beams in azimuthal direction . The last set of two bits c7c6 may specify three different 2-D puncturing patterns, ie different cluster geometries.

Computing and Tracking Preferred Beamforming and Joining Vectors

Certain aspects of the present disclosure provide for selecting combining vectors c 1 and c 2 of antenna weights and beamforming vectors w 1 and w 2 of antenna weights that maximize at least one signal-quality parameter, such as ESNR. One or more beamforming algorithms may be provided. In a typical AAS case, the first transceiver 302 can send known information to the second transceiver 304, and then derive matrices characterizing the channel state information (CSI). This enables estimates of w 1 and c 2 to be calculated. The second transceiver 304 may transmit known information to the first transceiver 302 to provide CSI that allows estimates of w 2 and c 1 to be calculated. Some aspects of the present disclosure may utilize known data symbols, pilot signals or other training information to be transmitted to obtain CSI. Alternate aspects of the present disclosure may use blind adaptive processing or other techniques that use unknown transmitted data to derive CSI.

In the case of AAS, two directions of the link may need to be used to estimate the vectors w 1 , w 2 , c 1 and c 2 . In the case of SAS, the beamforming vectors w 1 and w 2 and the coupling vectors c 1 and c 2 in a particular direction may be the same. Therefore, w 1 = w 2 and c 1 = c 2, and only one direction of the link can be used to calculate the vectors w 1 , w 2 , c 1 and c 2 .

6 illustrates example operations 600 from a receiver perspective on beamforming between a first transceiver and a second transceiver. For example, one transceiver may be a piconet controller (PNC) and the other transceiver may be a piconet subscriber device. At 610, the second transceiver (or second device) may receive a subset of the beamforming codebook from the first transceiver (or first device). At 620, the second device combines to obtain a first CSI matrix that can be used to estimate the preferred beamforming vector w 1 of the first device and the preferred combination vector c 2 of the second device. A subset of codebooks can be used.

A codebook is a matrix containing one or more columns, where each column represents a beamforming mector or a join vector. Therefore, each column may correspond to a particular beam pattern and / or beam direction. Typically, the set of columns spans the entire space (ie, 360 degrees).

At 630, the preferred beamforming vector w 1 and the preferred combination vector c 2 can be estimated and generated. The terms preferred beamforming vector and preferred combining vector represent estimates of preferred values, and optimization of these estimates assumes loss of information due to quantization, some accuracy and / or accuracy to reduce computational complexity. May be limited in terms of one or more processing restrictions, including but not limited to limited processing time, which may limit the number of repeated and simplified calculations. Other restrictions may also apply. For example, in some aspects of the present disclosure, a beamforming and / or combining vector that results in a signal-quality metric above a predetermined threshold may be considered to be preferred with respect to a subset of available vectors. Thus, the term "preferred beamforming vector" may be the same as the preferred beamforming vector used herein. Similarly, the term "preferred coupling vector" may be the same as the preferred beamforming vector. Estimation step 630 may use any of a variety of optimization criteria, such as EESM or average SNR.

At 640, the preferred beamforming vector w 1 (and optionally, the preferred combination vector c 2 ) may be retransmitted to the first device. For AAS, steps 610 through 640 can be repeated and the designations of “first device” and “second device” can be exchanged. Therefore, the preferred beamforming vector w 2 and the preferred combination vector c 1 can also be estimated. For SAS, w 1 = w 2 and c 2 = c 1 .

FIG. 26 illustrates example operations 2600 from a transmitter perspective on beamforming between a first transceiver and a second transceiver. At 2610, the first transceiver (or first device) may transmit a subset of the beamforming codebook to the second transceiver (or second device). At 2620, if the preferred beamforming vector w 1 is determined at the second device, the first device may receive the preferred beamforming vector w 1 as feedback from the second device. At 2630, the beamforming vector w 1 can be used at the first device to communicate with the second device on the transmission direction (eg, beam direction) from the set of transmission directions.

7 illustrates example operations 700 for updating beamforming and combining vectors. At 710, the subset of beamforming codebook may be received at the second device at a rate lower than the rate used during acquisition operations 610-640. At 720, the preferred beamforming vector w 1 and the preferred combination vector c 2 can be updated. At 730, the updated beamforming vector w 1 (and optionally the updated combination vector c 2 ) can be fed back to the first device. For AAS, steps 710 through 730 may be repeated and the designations of “first device” and “second device” may be exchanged. Therefore, estimates of the preferred beamforming vector w 2 and the preferred combination vector c 1 can also be updated. For SAS, w 1 = w 2 and c 2 = c 1 .

Beamforming Codebooks and Beam Patterns

For an evenly spaced linear antenna array with N elements, the array factor can be defined as follows:

Figure 112010066436572-pct00018

Where d is the space between the array elements, θ represents the angle from the axis of the linear array, λ is the wavelength, and w n is the array element weight of the nth array element. Antenna array directionality can be given by equation 11:

Figure 112010066436572-pct00019

here,

Figure 112010066436572-pct00020

to be.

The maximum possible directivity may be D Max = N.

The array factor of the two-dimensional array can be given by the following equation (13):

Figure 112010066436572-pct00021

Where d x represents the array space along the x axis, d z is the array space along the z axis, N x is the number of elements along the x axis, N y is the number of elements along the z axis, φ Is the angle of rotation from the x-axis. Antenna weights w m , n may be represented by w m , n = w x , m w z , n , where m = 0: Nx-1 and n = 0: Nz-1. Therefore, the antenna weight matrix

Figure 112010066436572-pct00022
It can be expressed as.

In one aspect of the disclosure, two-dimensional antenna arrays can be trained by using codewords along the x and z axes. The array factor of a two-dimensional array separable into one-dimensional (x-axis and z-axis) array components can be expressed as follows:

Figure 112010066436572-pct00023

here,

Figure 112010066436572-pct00024

Figure 112010066436572-pct00025

to be.

In particular, for training, two-dimensional codebooks derived from one-dimensional codebooks (eg, x-axis and z-axis codebooks) may be used. For example, a two-dimensional codebook (

Figure 112010066436572-pct00026
) Is a codebook for one-dimensional antenna arrays along the x-axis (
Figure 112010066436572-pct00027
) And codebook for one-dimensional antenna arrays along the z-axis (
Figure 112010066436572-pct00028
) Can be expressed using For example, two-dimensional antenna weights may be calculated from x-axis and z-axis antenna weights as shown in equation (17) below.

Figure 112010066436572-pct00029

Certain aspects of the present disclosure may support generating and / or using beam codebooks and sector codebooks. The beam codebook used herein represents a codebook in which the number of beams may be greater than the number of antennas. As used herein, a sector codebook represents a quasi-omni codebook that includes the number of beams that may be less than the number of antennas.

For certain aspects of the present disclosure in which beam codebooks are used for training, it may be sufficient to use a pair of one-dimensional beam codebooks instead of a two-dimensional codebook. In one aspect of the disclosure, the beam codebook matrix for N antennas and M beams may be expressed as in equation (18) below:

Figure 112010066436572-pct00030

Where fix () is a function that returns the integer part of its argument. In an alternative aspect, the function fix () may be replaced by a function round (·) that rounds its argument to the nearest integer. Alternative equations and functions may be used to calculate the elements of the beam codebook matrix, and it should be appreciated that the aspects described herein are intended to illustrate, but are not limited to, embodiments of the claimed disclosure.

8A shows four beam patterns 801-804 generated by a four-element linear array corresponding to the following codebook matrix:

Figure 112010066436572-pct00031

8B shows six beam patterns 811-816 generated by a four-element linear array using the following codebook matrix:

Figure 112010066436572-pct00032

The advantage of using the beam patterns shown in FIG. 8B is that if the 4-element array is in receive mode and the strongest received signal direction is 45 degrees, the beam pattern 813 (and therefore array gain) is the direction of the strongest received signal. The maximum value can be achieved at. If the four beam patterns of FIG. 8A are used, the strongest received signal can reach between beam patterns 801 and 802, where the array gain is very low.

The same four-element array can use alternative codebooks that can cause different beam patterns to be generated. For example, FIG. 8C shows eight beam patterns 812-828 generated by a four-element linear array using the following codebook matrix:

Figure 112010066436572-pct00033

Antenna arrays may use various codebooks that provide varying numbers of beam patterns to provide different angular resolutions. In one aspect of the present disclosure, the training may first utilize the low resolution (ie thick) beam followed by the high resolution (ie narrow) beams. In some aspects, the thick beam may comprise a plurality of narrow beams.

When beam codebooks are used for training two-dimensional arrays, beam codebooks for x- and y-axis one-dimensional arrays can be used to calculate the beam codebook for the two-dimensional array. x-axis codebook comprises and, the z-axis codebook K x of the beam when comprise K z of the beam, the two-dimensional array has a K x K · z beam.

For certain aspects of the present disclosure in which sector codebooks are used, sector codebook matrices for N antennas (N is even) and M = N / 2 sectors can be given by equation (22) below:

Figure 112010066436572-pct00034

Here, each sector may include two beams of a beam codebook having N beams. Alternative aspects of the present disclosure may provide variations on the expressions and functions used to generate sector codebook matrices. For example, in equation (22) the fix (·) function can be replaced by the round (·) function. Other variations may be made in accordance with alternative applications and aspects that will be appreciated by those skilled in the art.

9A shows a beam pattern including six beam patterns 901-906 generated by a one-dimensional six-element array. Sector beam patterns can be generated by combining beam pairs. For example, the first sector may include beam patterns 901 and 904, the second sector may include beam patterns 902 and 905, and the third sector may include beam patterns 903 and 906). Therefore, sectors may include adjacent or non-adjacent beam patterns. In addition, the sectors may overlap.

9B shows a pair of sector beam patterns 911 and 912 for a linear six-element antenna array. The corresponding two-sector codebook can be given by equation (23) below:

Figure 112010066436572-pct00035

In alternative aspects of the present disclosure, sector codebooks may also be provided for cases when M ≠ N / 2.

Beamforming Optimization Criteria

Two beamforming optimization criteria are proposed in this disclosure: beam switching (steering) and tracking (BST) criteria and one-dimensional (1-D) linear antenna arrays and two-dimensional (suitable) for all antenna configurations. 2-D) Suitable pattern estimation and tracking (PET) criteria only for planar antenna arrays. All devices that support PET access (DEV) can also support BST. PET can only be used if the two DEVs forming the communication link support this particular criterion.

The BST criterion may be independent of the antenna configuration used, that is, the BST may be applied to antenna arrays, sectorized antennas, switching antennas using multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission / reception. The BST does not require any knowledge about the codebook used by a particular device (DEV), that is, DEV2 does not need to know the codebook used by DEV1, and DEV2 needs to know how many antennas DEV1 uses. It is important to note that none. Therefore, BST represents a beamforming criterion that operates with any amount of available information about any antenna configuration and other DEV. The BST criteria are based on the selection of the preferred set of patterns at each level of beamforming as well as the tracking of the preferred pattern during the tracking phase. On the other hand, the PET reference is based on the discovery of preferred beamformer and combiner vectors (ie antenna weights) that do not need to be within a given set of beam patterns.

Beamforming protocols

Certain aspects of the present disclosure support two beamforming protocols: an on-demand beamforming protocol and a pro-active beamforming protocol. On-demand beamforming may occur within the channel time allocation period (CTAP) assigned to the DEV. DEV1 may reserve CTAP for the particular purpose of beamforming acquisition using another device DEV2. In pro-active beamforming, sector level training may occur in the sector training portion of the beacon portion of the super-frame. The number of sectors in the DEV can be specified, for example, in the beamforming performance information element IE shown in FIG. 10. The DEV may send its beamforming capability IE to the piconet controller (PNC) during or after the association procedure. The PNC may broadcast the beamforming capability IE or connect to any other device that wishes to communicate with the DEV. Message exchange following sector-level training and beam-level training may occur in beamforming CTAP assigned to PNC and DEV.

In the case of on-demand beamforming, DEV1 may request a service period SP to perform beamforming with DEV2. The SP may be assigned a special stream index. SP allocation according to DEV1 and DEV2 beamforming capabilities may be broadcast within the beamforming capability information element (IE). One embodiment of the structure of the beamforming capability IE is shown in FIG.

The beamforming capability IE can specify the number of omni-directions and sectors in both the transmitting and receiving devices. For certain aspects of the present disclosure, if the field “# Tx Q-Omni Directions” field is equal to 1, then the device may be omni-enabled in the transmission. Also, if the field "# Rx Q-Omni directions" is equal to 1, then the device may be omni-enabled at the reception. For certain aspects of the present disclosure, if the "antenna array type" field is equal to 0, then a switching antenna may be used, and if the "antenna array type" is equal to 1 then a sectorized antenna Can be used, and if this field is equal to 2, then a 1-D linear antenna array with antenna space of 1/2 of the wavelength can be used, and if this field is equal to 3, then the wavelength of A 2-D planar antenna array with half the antenna space can be used. The value 4 of the "antenna array type" field may not be specified, while the values 5-7 may be reserved.

The beamforming capability IE may include information regarding the maximum number of beamforming levels each device is capable of. The beamforming capability IE may also specify the number of transmit and receive antennas at both the transmitting and receiving devices. The “PET” field of the beamforming capability IE may indicate that a pattern estimation and tracking procedure based on codebooks needs to be used for beamforming. Tracking support may also be provided as shown in FIG. 10.

Multi-Resolution Beam Formation

For example, a two-dimensional transmitter array with 8x8 = 64 elements can transmit 64 training sequences in 64 different directions, typically specified by 8x8 beamforming codebooks. For example, a two-dimensional receiver array with 6x6 = 36 elements will receive each of 64 transmissions in 36 different coupling directions. Therefore, 64x36 = 2304 training sequences are required to identify the preferred transmit / receive beam pair. This procedure can have a huge processing latency. Certain aspects of the present disclosure support a method for beamforming using multiple resolutions that reduces the computational complexity and processing latency of beamforming.

For certain aspects of the present disclosure, the transmitter may use a plurality of sector patterns along the x and z axes, respectively. Each sector pattern may comprise a plurality of narrower x- and z-axis beam patterns. Once the preferred sector pattern is determined, the preferred narrow beam in the sector can be determined. Therefore, the number of training sequences required to identify the preferred transmit / receive beam pair can be substantially reduced.

11 shows example operations 1100 for multi-resolution beamforming. Prior to the beamforming process, the first device and the second device may include the number of antennas along the z axis, the number of antennas along the x axis, the number of sectors to be used during the coarse acquisition by the first and second devices, the beam- Antenna array information (not shown) may be exchanged, such as codebook identification (or number of beams) to be used during level training and codebook identification (or number of HRS beams) to be used during tracking process. Further, before each beamforming process, ie, prior to every data session, the first device and the second device may exchange information regarding the number of one or more beamforming levels to be used for the particular data session.

In an example case, both the first device (eg, piconet controller) and the second device (eg, subscriber device) use the same sectoring with a 1-D linear array of eight elements. When the second device is associated with the PNC, the two devices can exchange the following information: the number of antennas along the z axis (N z = 8), the number of antennas along the x axis (N x = 1), Number of sectors equal to 2, number of beams equal to 8, number of HRS beams for tracking equal to 32, for example, clustering information such that one cluster includes one beam equal to four HRS beams.

At 1110, according to some signal-quality metrics, at least one preferred sector pattern may be selected for transmit / receive at the first device and the second device. This selection process may be referred to as a coarse-acquisition process. Each sector may include a plurality of beam patterns. For example, one or more sectors used for transmission may be identified as providing the best signal at the receiver side (measured by any combination of signal-quality or performance metrics).

Beam patterns in each selected sector may be grouped into clusters. Therefore, each cluster may include a plurality of adjacent beam patterns, which may reside along both the x and z axes, each sector comprising one or more clusters. Clusters may include beams in a sector that are selected with respect to any combination of signal-quality or performance metrics.

At 1120, at least one preferred beam pattern for transmission and reception may be selected at the first device and the second device. This selection process may be referred to as a precision acquisition process and may also include the selection of one or more preferred clusters regarding any combination of signal-quality or performance metrics. One or more beams may be selected with respect to any combinations of signal-quality or performance metrics (such as ESNR) and used for data communications. For certain aspects of the present disclosure, preferred beams may be intentionally selected within non-adjacent clusters to provide two or more separate paths between communicating devices. This may be particularly advantageous when the preferred beam direction suddenly experiences strong losses, and alternative paths are required to maintain signal quality.

At 1130, at least one preferred beam pattern for transmission and reception can be tracked at the first device and the second device. Tracking can also use HRS beam codebooks for beams that provide higher resolution than normal beams. HRS beams can be used for low-rate tracking and assigned to each selected cluster. Any combination of performance criteria can be used to update the selection of the HRS beam to use, and this re-evaluation process can be performed periodically at a low rate with respect to data transmissions.

27 illustrates example operations from the transmitter perspective for determining preferred transmission directions in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure. At 2710, training signals may be sent to the device using a first set of transmission directions. At 2720, an indication of at least one first preferred transmission direction derived from the first set of transmission directions may be received from the device. At 2730, training signals can be transmitted to the device using a second set of transmission directions, the second set of transmission directions being derived from at least one first preferred transmission direction. At 2740, an indication of at least one second preferred transmission direction derived from the second set of transmission directions may be received from the device. At 2750, at least one second transmission preferred direction may be used to communicate with the device.

28 illustrates example operations from the receiver's perspective for determining preferred transmission directions in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure. At 2810, training signals transmitted from the device using the first set of transmission directions can be received. At 2820, a preferred transmission direction can be derived from the first set of transmission directions. At 2830, an indication of a preferred transmission direction to the device may be provided with feedback to the device, where the feedback is provided by sweeping the second set of transmission directions.

Operations 2700 and 2800 are general embodiments of multi-resolution beamforming. More specific embodiments of multi-resolution beamforming are described in the text below of this disclosure.

12 illustrates example operations 1200 for four-stage sector-level training, in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure. At 1210, training of sectors may be performed to determine at least one preferred sector. At 1220, feedback information may be transmitted to another device regarding at least one preferred sector. Thereafter, at 1230, sector-to-beam mapping to beams of at least one preferred sector can be performed. For example, mapping can be implemented by fragmenting at least one preferred sector into beams. The mapping message sent to the other device may include information regarding the number of transmit and receive beam directions that this particular device can use in beam-level training. As a result, at 1240, acknowledgment information may be fed back from this device to acknowledge receipt of the mapping message.

It is important to note that operations 1200 indicate logical division of sector-level training stages, ie, some of these stages may be coupled together during communication over a physical wireless channel. For example, following sector-level training stage 1210 from DEV1 to DEV2, the feedback and mapping messages are part of the training sequences sent from DEV2 to DEV1 (ie, sector-level training stage 1210 from DEV2 to DEV1). May be combined and transmitted from DEV2 to DEV1).

FIG. 13 shows example operations 1300 for determining preferred sectors in an asymmetric antenna system (AAS), and FIGS. 14A-14D show frame structures that are broadcast during training and feedback phases. Operations 1300 may also correspond to step 1110 of FIG. 11. Steps 1302-1312 can correspond to sector training stage 1210 from FIG. 12, while steps 1314-1320 can correspond to feedback stage 1220. Without losing generality, it can be assumed that devices can use two-dimensional antenna arrays for both transmission and reception. The total number of transmit and receive antenna elements for DEV number d may be equal to M (d, t) and M (d, r) , respectively. Each device can select its sector codebooks. Each device may select its beam codebooks based on the number of antennas and the predetermined number of beams.

At 1302, the first device may transmit a training sequence set using J (1, t) sectors in the J (1, t) cycle , as shown in FIG. 14A. Each training sequence from the training sequence set is known at the second device and may be based on a pair of golay sequences. The transmissions in each cycle may include J (2, r) training sequences transmitted in the same transmission sector of the first device and may correspond to all possible receiving sectors of the second device. At 1304, the second device may receive training sequences using J (2, r) different sectors during each cycle. At 1306, based on the received training sequences, at least one preferred receiving sector direction for the second device may be determined, and at least one preferred transmitting sector direction for the first device may be determined. Preferred sectors can be determined in terms of any combination of signal-quality or performance metrics. For certain aspects of the present disclosure, the J (1, t) training sequences of each cycle may be sent from the first device using J (1, t) different transmission sectors in each cycle. All J (1, t) training sequences in the cycle may be received at the second device using one of the J (2, r) different receiving sectors , at 1304. In every next cycle, a new receive sector can be used at the second device, and after J (2, r) cycles all J (2, r) receive sectors of the second device can be used.

At 1308, the second device may transmit the training sequence set using J (2, t) sectors in J (2, t) cycles , as shown in FIG. 14B. Each training sequence from the training sequence set is known at the first device and may be based on a pair of golay sequences. Each cycle of transmissions may include J (1, r) training sequences transmitted in the same transmission sector of the second device and may correspond to all possible receiving sectors of the first device. At 1310, the first device may receive training sequences using J (1, r) different sectors during each cycle. At 1312, based on the received training sequences, at least one preferred receiving sector direction for the first device may be determined, and at least one preferred transmission sector direction of the second device may be determined. Preferred sectors can be determined in terms of any combination of signal-quality or performance metrics. For certain aspects of the present disclosure, at 1308, J (2, t) training sequences of each cycle may be transmitted from the second device using J (2, t) different transmission sectors in each cycle. All J (2, t) training sequences in the cycle may be received at the first device using one of the J (1, r) receiving sectors at 1310. In every next cycle, a new receive sector can be used at the first device, and after J (1, r) cycles, all J (1, r) receive sectors of the first device can be used.

At 1314, the first device is connected to J (1, t) sectors ( as shown in FIG. 14C ) .

Figure 112010066436572-pct00036
May be used to feed back information on at least one preferred transmission sector direction for the second device by sending a J (1, t) times feedback message. At 1316, the second device is connected to the preferred receiving sector (as shown in FIG. 14C).
Figure 112010066436572-pct00037
) Can be used to receive and decode information regarding at least one preferred transmission sector direction. For certain aspects of the present disclosure when the first device is omni-capable, sweeping all transmission sectors may not be required. At 1318, the second device is assigned a preferred transmission sector (as shown in FIG. 14D).
Figure 112010066436572-pct00038
) May be used to feed back information about at least one preferred transmission sector direction for the first device. At 1320, the first device has its preferred receiving sector (as shown in FIG. 14D).
Figure 112010066436572-pct00039
) Can be used to receive and decode information regarding at least one preferred transmission sector direction.

Upon completion of the feedback stage, both devices may know their preferred transmit and receive sector (s). The mapping stage may follow the feedback stage as shown in FIG. 12 with step 1230. At this stage, one device may map preferred transmit and receive sector (s) to beams and transmit relevant information to another device. Upon successful receipt of this information, the other device may feed back an acknowledgment message as shown in FIG. 12 at step 1240.

15 illustrates exemplary operations for determining preferred sectors in a symmetric antenna system (SAS), and FIGS. 16A-16B illustrate frame structures that are broadcast during training and feedback phases. Operations 1500 may also correspond to step 1110 of FIG. 11. Steps 1510-1530 can correspond to sector training stage 1210 from FIG. 12, while steps 1540-1550 can correspond to feedback stage 1220. It can also be assumed that devices can use two-dimensional antenna arrays for both transmit and receive, while not losing generality, while each device uses the same antenna arrays for both transmit and receive. The first device may comprise a two-dimensional antenna with N x x N z = M (1) elements, and the second device may comprise a two-dimensional antenna array with M x x M z = M (2) elements. Include. For this aspect of the present disclosure, J (1) represents the number of sectors for the first device and J (2) represents the number of sectors for the second device. Each device can select its sector codebooks. Each device may select its beam codebooks based on the number of antennas and the predetermined number of beams.

At 1510, the first device may transmit a training sequence set in J (1) cycles using J (1) sectors as shown in FIG. 16A. Each training sequence from the training sequence set is known at the second device and may be based on a pair of golay sequences. The transmissions in each cycle may include J (2) training sequences transmitted in the same sector of the first device and may correspond to all possible sectors of the second device. At 1520, the second device may receive training sequences using J (2) different sectors during each cycle. At 1530, based on the received training sequences, at least one preferred sector direction for the second device may be determined, and at least one preferred sector direction for the first device may be determined. Preferred sectors can be determined in terms of any combination of signal-quality or performance metrics. For certain aspects of the present disclosure, at 1510, J (1) training sequences of each cycle may be sent from the first device using J (1) different sectors in each cycle. All J (1) training sequences in the cycle may be received at the second device in one of the J (2) sectors at 1520. In every next cycle, a new sector can be used in the second device, and after J (2) cycles, all J (2) sectors of the second device can be used.

At 1540, the second device has its preferred sector (as shown in FIG. 16B).

Figure 112010066436572-pct00040
May be used to feed back information on at least one previously transmitted preferred sector direction for the first device by sending a J (1) times feedback message. At 1550, the first device is divided into J (1) sectors ( as shown in FIG. 16B ) .
Figure 112010066436572-pct00041
) Can be used to receive and decode information regarding at least one preferred sector direction.

Upon completion of the feedback stage, both devices may know their preferred sector (s). The mapping stage may follow the feedback stage shown in FIG. 12 with step 1230. At this stage, one device may map the preferred sector (s) to clusters and beam patterns of beams and also transmit information related to the other device. Upon successful receipt of this information, the other device may feed back an acknowledgment message as shown in FIG. 12 at step 1240.

17 illustrates an example case where a device selects two preferred sectors and divides the sectors into clusters 1710 and 1720. Each cluster may comprise a plurality of beams. As shown in FIG. 17, a cluster as used herein may be referred to as a set of adjacent beams. The device may also use beam codebooks to map the beams to sector (s).

FIG. 18 illustrates example operations 1800 for dividing preferred sectors into clusters of beams as part of the mapping stage 1230 from FIG. 12. At 1810, the device may divide its preferred transmit and receive sector (s) into at least one cluster of beams. At 1820, the device may transmit feedback information to the other device, including the number of clusters, the number of beams in each cluster, the codeword identifiers of the beams in each cluster, and which beams belong to which clusters.

The other device may also divide its preferred transmitting and receiving sector (s) into at least one cluster of beams, at 1830, and at 1840, the number of clusters to use during beam acquisition on the device, the number of beams per cluster and Inform about the codeword identifiers of the beams in each cluster.

19 illustrates example operations 1900 for four-stage beam-level training, in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure. At 1910, training of the beams may be performed to determine at least one preferred beam. At 1920, feedback information may be transmitted to the other device with respect to the at least one preferred beam. Thereafter, at 1930, sector-to-HRS beam mapping to the HRS beams of at least one preferred beam may be performed. For example, the mapping can be performed by fragmenting at least one preferred sector into beams. The mapping message sent to the other device may include information regarding the number of transmit and receive HRS beam directions that this particular device may use during the tracking phase. Finally, at 1940, acknowledgment information may be fed back from this device to acknowledge receipt of the mapping message.

It is important to note that operations 1900 represent a logical division of beam-level training stages, that is, some of these stages may be combined together during communication over a physical wireless channel. For example, following beam-level training stage 1910 from DEV1 to DEV2, the feedback and mapping messages are part of the training sequences sent from DEV2 to DEV1 (ie, beam-level training stage from DEV2 to DEV1). As part of 1910) from DEV2 to DEV1.

20 illustrates example operations 2000 for determining preferred beams within sectors in an AAS, and FIGS. 21A-21D illustrate frame structures that are broadcast during training and feedback phases. Operations 2000 may also correspond to step 1120 of FIG. 11. Steps 2002-2012 may correspond to the beam training stage 1910 from FIG. 19, while steps 2014-2020 may correspond to the feedback stage 1920.

In 2002, the first device may transmit a training sequence set using K (1, t) beams , as shown in FIG. 21A , in K (1, t) cycles. Each training sequence from the training sequence set is known at the second device and may be based on a pair of golay sequences. The transmissions in each cycle may include K (2, r) training sequences transmitted in the same transmission beam of the first device and may correspond to all possible receive beams of the second device. In 2004, the second device may receive training sequences using K (2, r) different beams during each cycle. In 2006, based on the received training sequences, at least one preferred receive beam direction for the second device may be determined, and at least one preferred transmit beam direction for the first device may be determined. Preferred beams can be determined in terms of any combination of signal-quality or performance metrics. For certain aspects of the present disclosure, at 2002, K (1, t) training sequences of each cycle may be transmitted from the first device using K (1, t) different transmit beams of each cycle. All K (1, t) training sequences in the cycle may be received at the second device as one of the K (2, r) receive beams in 2004. In every next cycle, a new receive beam may be used at the second device, and after K (2, r) cycles, all K (2, r) receive beams of the second device may be used.

In 2008, the second device may transmit a training sequence set in K (2, t) cycles using K (2, t) beams as shown in FIG. 21B. Each training sequence from the training sequence set is known at the first device and may be based on a pair of golay sequences. Each cycle of transmissions may include K (1, r) training sequences transmitted in the same transmit beam of the second device and may correspond to all possible receive beams of the first device. At 2010, the first device can receive training sequences using K (1, r) different beams during each cycle. In 2012, based on the received training sequences, at least one preferred receive beam direction for the first device can be determined, and at least one preferred transmit beam direction for the second device can be determined. Preferred beams can be determined in terms of any combination of signal-quality or performance metrics. For certain aspects of the present disclosure, in 2008, K (2, t) training sequences of each cycle may be transmitted from the second device using K (2, t) different transmit beams in each cycle. All K (2, t) training sequences in the cycle may be received at the first device in one of the K (1, r) receive beams. In every subsequent cycle, a new receive beam may be used at the first device, and after K (1, r) cycles, all K (1, r) receive beams of the first device may be used.

In 2014, the first device selects a preferred transmission sector selected in sector-level training (as shown in FIG. 21C).

Figure 112010066436572-pct00042
) May be used to feed back information about at least one preferred transmission beam direction for the second device. In 2016, the second device, as shown in FIG.
Figure 112010066436572-pct00043
) Can be used to receive and decode information regarding at least one preferred transmission beam direction. In 2018, the second device is configured to transmit a preferred transmission beam (as shown in FIG. 21D).
Figure 112010066436572-pct00044
) Or the preferred transmission sector selected in sector-level training (
Figure 112010066436572-pct00045
) May be used to feed back information about at least one preferred transmission beam direction for the first device. At 2020, the first device may select a preferred receive beam (as shown in FIG. 21D).
Figure 112010066436572-pct00046
) Or the preferred receiving sector (selected in sector-level training)
Figure 112010066436572-pct00047
) Can be used to receive and decode information regarding at least one preferred transmission beam direction.

Upon completion of the feedback stage, both devices may know their preferred transmit and receive beam (s). The mapping stage may follow the feedback stage as shown in FIG. 19 with step 1930. At this stage, one device may map the preferred transmit and receive beam (s) to high-resolution beams and transmit relevant information to the other device. Upon successful receipt of this information, the other device may feed back an acknowledgment message, as shown in FIG. 19, in step 1940.

In addition to the beam-acquisition procedure in which preferred beams are determined at both devices, the first device can also adopt the number of beams in one or more clusters and send these changes to the second device. For example, the first device can reduce the number of beams in each cluster. The first device can transmit this information using its preferred transmission beam. The second device can receive this information using its preferred receive beam and can feed back an acknowledgment message.

FIG. 22 illustrates exemplary operations for determining preferred beams for transmit / receive in SAS, and FIGS. 23A-23B illustrate frame structures that are broadcast during training and feedback phases. Operations 2200 may also correspond to step 1120 in FIG. 11. Steps 2210-2230 can correspond to the beam training stage 1910 from FIG. 19, while steps 2240-2250 can correspond to the feedback stage 1920. For this aspect of the present disclosure, K (1) represents the number of beams for the first device and K (2) represents the number of beams of the second device.

At 2210, the first device may transmit a training sequence set using K (1) beams as shown in FIG. 23A in K (1) cycles. Each training sequence from the training sequence set is known at the second device and may be based on a pair of golay sequences. The transmissions in each cycle may include K (2) training sequences transmitted in the same beam of the first device and may correspond to all possible beams of the second device. At 2220, the second device may receive training sequences using K (2) different beams during each cycle. At 2230, based on the received training sequences, at least one preferred beam direction for the second device may be determined, and at least one preferred beam direction for the first device may be determined. Preferred beams can be determined in terms of any combination of signal-quality or performance metrics. For certain aspects of the present disclosure, at 2210, K (1) training sequences of each cycle may be transmitted from the first device using K (1) different beams in each cycle. All K (1) training sequences in the cycle may be received at the second device in one of the K (2) beams. In every subsequent cycle, a new beam may be used at the second device, and after K (2) cycles, all K (2) beams of the second device may be used.

At 2240, the second device selects the preferred sector selected in sector-level training as shown in FIG. 23B.

Figure 112010066436572-pct00048
) May be used to feed back information about at least one previously determined preferred beam direction for the first device. At 2250, the first device selects the preferred sector selected in sector-level training (as shown in FIG. 23B).
Figure 112010066436572-pct00049
) Can be used to receive and decode information regarding at least one preferred beam direction.

Upon completion of the feedback stage, both devices may know their preferred beam (s). The mapping stage may follow the feedback stage as shown in FIG. 19 with step 1930. At this stage, one device may map the preferred beam (s) to high-resolution beams and transmit related information to the other device. Upon successful receipt of this information, the other device may feed back an acknowledgment message, as shown in FIG. 19, in step 1940.

FIG. 24 shows example operations 2400 for beam-tracking, and FIG. 25 shows the structure of packets with tracking capability. Operations 2400 may also correspond to step 1130 of FIG. 11. The first device can be configured to transmit data packets to the second device, both the first device and the second device including antenna arrays. Operations 2400 may be applied for tracking beams in the SAS as well as tracking the preferred transmit beam and the preferred receive beam of each of the first and second devices in the AAS. The terms 'first device' and 'second device' may also be exchanged in this case, and operations 2400 provide for tracking of the preferred transmit beam and the preferred receive beam of each of the second device and the first device. Can be applied for The tracking procedure may also be performed on high-resolution beams that provide the best resolution to update the preferred directions for transmission and reception.

At 2410, the first device may configure tracking packets with beam tracking bits in each tracking packet to indicate that each tracking packet includes a tracking sequence used for tracking. For example, a packet having its beam-tracking bit set to "1" may indicate that it is a tracking bit. One embodiment of a packet structure is shown in FIG. 25. For example, tracking packet 2510 that includes beam tracking bits may include a training time (TS) 2512 followed by guard time (GT) slot 2514 and data packet 2516.

At 2420, the first device can send a plurality of L (2, r) tracking packets, where L (2, r) is the number of beams in the cluster of the second device. All L (2, r) data packets are preferred beam

Figure 112010066436572-pct00050
Can be transmitted from the first device (data packets 2526 and 2526 of tracking packets 2510 and 2520 respectively in FIG. 25), and all L (2, r) training sequences Beams within the cluster (
Figure 112010066436572-pct00051
May be transmitted using the training sequences 2512 and 2522 of FIG. At 2430, the second device may be a preferred beam (
Figure 112010066436572-pct00052
Can be used to receive L (2, r) data packets, and all L (2, r) beams in a cluster to receive L (2, r) training sequences.

This process can be repeated for each beam in the cluster of first devices. After L (1, t) cycles (L (1, t) is the total number of beams of the cluster of the first device), the first device at 2440, the preferred beam (

Figure 112010066436572-pct00053
Can be used to transmit L (2, r) data packets (data packets 2536 and 2546 of tracking packets 2530 and 2540 respectively in FIG. 25), and all L (2, r) training sequences Beams within the cluster (
Figure 112010066436572-pct00054
May be transmitted using the training sequences 2532 and 2542 of FIG. Later on, at 2450, the second device is the preferred beam (
Figure 112010066436572-pct00055
Can be used to receive L (2, r) data packets and can use L (2, r) beams in a cluster to receive L (2, r) training sequences.

At 2460, the second device may determine a preferred pair of beams for the first device and the second device. If this particular pair of beams has better signal quality than the current preferred pair of beams used for data transmission / reception, then at 2470, the second device may reshape the cluster around the new preferred beam and Feedback information about the preferred pair of devices may be sent to the first device. At 2480, the first device can receive information about the preferred pair of beams, switch to a new preferred beam for data transmission, and reshape the clusters around the new preferred beam. At 2490, the first device may inform the second device about the new number of beams of the reshaped cluster of the first device. Steps 2420-2490 can be repeated for multiple sets of tracking packets.

The scope of this disclosure should not be construed as limited to the array processing aspects described herein. Rather, Applicants have found that alternative aspects include antenna arrays having more than eight elements according to a particular disclosure and antenna arrays including antennas having a plurality of polarities, such antenna-array configurations being within the scope of the present disclosure. Expect. In one aspect, two dipole antennas with orthogonal linear polarities can be used together to generate a quasi-omni pattern.

Various operations of the methods described above may be performed by any suitable means capable of performing the corresponding functions. Means may include modules, including but not limited to circuitry, application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) or a processor, and / or various hardware and / or software component (s). In general, the operations shown in the figures exist and these operations may have corresponding numbered corresponding means-functional components. For example, the blocks 610-640, 710-730, 1110-1130, shown in Figures 6, 7, 11, 12, 13, 15, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 26, 27 and 28, 1210-1240, 1302-1320, 1510-1550, 1810-1840, 1910-1940, 2002-2020, 2210-2250, 2410-2490, 2610-2630, 2710-2750 and 2810-2830) are shown in FIGS. 6A, 7A, Circuit Blocks 610a-640a, 710a-730a, 1110a-1130a, 1210a-1240a, 1302a-1320a, 1510a-1550a, 1810a-1840a, 1910a-1940a, 2002a-2020a, 2210a-2250a, 2410a-2490a, 2610a-2630a, 2710a-2750a, and 2810a-2830a.

As used herein, the term “determining” encompasses a wide variety of actions. For example, it may include “determining” calculations, computing, processing, derivation, lookups, lookups (eg, lookups in tables, databases, or other data structures), validation, and the like. In addition, “determining” may include receiving (eg, receiving information), accessing (eg, accessing data in memory), and the like. Also, “determining” may include resolving, selecting, choosing, establishing, and the like.

Various operations of the methods described above may be performed by any suitable means capable of performing operations such as various hardware and / or software component (s), circuits, and / or module (s). In general, any of the operations shown in the figures may be performed by corresponding functional means capable of performing the operations.

The various illustrative logic blocks, modules, and circuits described in connection with the present disclosure can be used in general purpose processors; Digital signal processor, DSP; Application specific integrated circuits, ASICs; Field programmable gate array, FPGA; Or other programmable logic device; Discrete gate or transistor logic; Discrete hardware components; Or through a combination of those designed to implement these functions. A general purpose processor may be a microprocessor; In an alternative embodiment, such a processor may be an existing processor, controller, microcontroller, or state machine. A processor may be implemented as a combination of computing devices, such as, for example, a DSP and a microprocessor, a plurality of microprocessors, one or more microprocessors in conjunction with a DSP core, or a combination of such configurations.

The steps and algorithms of the methods described in conjunction with the present disclosure can be implemented directly in hardware, in a software module executed by a processor, or in a combination thereof. The software modules may reside in any form of storage medium known in the art. Some examples of storage media that can be used include random access memory (RAM); Flash memory; A read only memory (ROM); An electrically programmable ROM (EPROM); Electrically erasable programmable ROM (EEPROM); register; Hard disk; Portable disk; A compact disc ROM (CD-ROM) or the like. A software module can include a single instruction or a plurality of instructions and can be distributed across several different code segments between different programs and across multiple storage media. The storage medium may be coupled to the processor such that the processor can read information from and write information to the storage medium. In the alternative, the storage medium may be integral to the processor.

The presented methods include one or more steps or actions for achieving the described method. Method steps and / or actions may be interchanged with one another without departing from the scope of the claims. In other words, unless a specific order of steps or actions is specified, the order and / or use of specific steps and / or actions may be modified without departing from the scope of the claims.

The functions described may be implemented in hardware, software, firmware or any combination thereof. If implemented in software, the functions may be stored as one or more instructions on a computer-readable medium. A storage medium can be any available medium that can be accessed by a computer. By way of illustration, such computer-readable media may be in the form of RAM, ROM, EEPROM, CD-ROM or other optical disk storage media, magnetic disk storage media or other magnetic storage devices, or instructions or data structures. And may be used to carry or store program code as required, and include, but are not limited to, a general purpose computer, a special computer, a general purpose processor, or any other medium that can be accessed by a special processor. The discs and discs used here include compact discs (CDs), laser discs, optical discs, DVDs, floppy discs, and Blu-ray discs where disc plays the data magnetically, As shown in FIG.

Thus, certain aspects may comprise a computer program product for performing the operations presented herein. For example, such a computer program product may include a computer readable medium comprising instructions stored therein (and / or encoded), which instructions may be executed on one or more processors to perform the operations described herein. It is executable by For certain aspects, the computer program product may include a packaged product.

The software or commands may also be transmitted via a transmission medium. For example, if the software is transmitted from a web site, server, or other remote source over wireless technologies such as coaxial cable, fiber optic cable, twisted pair, digital subscriber line (DSL), or infrared radio, and microwave, Wireless technologies such as cable, fiber optic cable, twisted pair, DSL, or infrared radio, and microwave may be included within the definition of such medium.

In addition, modules and / or other suitable means for performing the methods and techniques described herein may be downloaded and / or otherwise obtained by the user terminal and / or applicable base station. For example, such a device may be coupled to a server to facilitate the transfer of means for performing the methods described herein. Alternatively, the various methods described herein may be provided via storage means (eg, a physical storage medium such as RAM, ROM, CD or floppy disk, etc.) such that the user terminal and / or base station couples the storage means to the device. Or various methods for providing. In addition, any other suitable technique for providing the methods and techniques described herein with a device may be used.

It is to be understood that the claims are not limited to the precise configuration and components illustrated above. Various modifications, changes and variations may be made in the arrangement, operation and details of the method and apparatus described above without departing from the scope of the claims.

The techniques provided herein may be used in a variety of applications. For certain aspects, the techniques presented herein may be coupled to an access point or other type of wireless device with processing logic and elements to provide the techniques provided herein.

Claims (55)

  1. As a method for wireless communications,
    Receiving training signals transmitted from the device using the first set of transmission directions;
    Deriving a preferred transmission direction from the first set of transmission directions; And
    Providing an indication of the preferred transmission direction to the device as feedback to the device.
    Including,
    The feedback is provided by sweeping a second set of transmission directions.
  2. The method of claim 1,
    Exchanging information with the device regarding the number of one or more beamforming levels to be used for the data session before each data session.
  3. The method of claim 1,
    Receiving from the PNC information about beamforming capabilities of the device during or after association with the PNC.
  4. The method of claim 1,
    Receiving training signals transmitted from the device comprises receiving each training signal that was transmitted from one transmission direction using all receiving directions.
  5. The method of claim 1,
    Receiving training signals from the device includes receiving all training signals transmitted from the set of transmission directions using one receiving direction and repeating this procedure for all receiving directions. Way.
  6. The method of claim 1,
    At least a portion of each training signal is based on Golay sequences.
  7. An apparatus for wireless communications,
    A receiver for receiving training signals transmitted from the device using the first set of transmission directions;
    Circuitry for deriving a preferred transmission direction from the first set of transmission directions; And
    Circuitry for providing an indication of said preferred transmission direction to said device as feedback to said device.
    Including,
    The feedback is provided by sweeping a second set of transmission directions.
  8. The method of claim 7, wherein
    And before each data session, circuitry for exchanging information with the device regarding the number of one or more beamforming levels to be used for the data session.
  9. The method of claim 7, wherein
    And a receiver for receiving information from the PNC about beamforming capabilities of the device during or after association with the PNC.
  10. The method of claim 7, wherein
    And a receiver for receiving training signals transmitted from the device includes circuitry for receiving each training signal that has been transmitted from one transmission direction using all reception directions.
  11. The method of claim 7, wherein
    The receiver for receiving training signals from the device includes circuitry for receiving all training signals transmitted from the set of transmission directions using one receiving direction and repeating this procedure for all receiving directions. Device for communications.
  12. The method of claim 7, wherein
    At least a portion of each training signal is based on golay sequences.
  13. An apparatus for wireless communications,
    Means for receiving training signals transmitted from the device using the first set of transmission directions;
    Means for deriving a preferred transmission direction from the first set of transmission directions; And
    Means for providing an indication of said preferred transmission direction to said device as feedback to said device.
    Including,
    The feedback is provided by sweeping a second set of transmission directions.
  14. The method of claim 13,
    Prior to each data session, means for exchanging information with the device regarding the number of one or more beamforming levels to be used for the data session.
  15. The method of claim 13,
    Means for receiving information from the PNC about beamforming capabilities of the device during or after association with the PNC.
  16. The method of claim 13,
    Means for receiving training signals transmitted from the device comprises means for receiving each training signal that was transmitted from one transmission direction using all receiving directions.
  17. The method of claim 13,
    Means for receiving training signals from the device include means for receiving all training signals transmitted from the set of transmission directions using one receiving direction and repeating this procedure for all receiving directions. Device for communications.
  18. The method of claim 13,
    At least a portion of each training signal is based on Golay sequences.
  19. A computer readable medium for wireless communications, comprising:
    Receive training signals transmitted from the device using the first set of transmission directions;
    Derive a preferred transmission direction from the first set of transmission directions; And
    Feedback to the device, the encoded instructions executable to provide an indication of the preferred transmission direction to the device,
    The feedback is provided by sweeping a second set of transmission directions.
  20. At least one antenna;
    A receiver for receiving via the at least one antenna training signals transmitted from the device using a first set of transmission directions;
    Circuitry for deriving a preferred transmission direction from the first set of transmission directions; And
    Circuitry for providing an indication of said preferred transmission direction to said device as feedback to said device.
    Including,
    The feedback is provided by sweeping a second set of transmission directions.
  21. In a method for wireless communications,
    Transmitting training signals to the device using the first set of transmission directions;
    Receiving from the device an indication of at least one first preferred transmission direction derived from the first set of transmission directions;
    Transmitting training signals to the device using a second set of transmission directions, wherein the second set of transmission directions are derived from the at least one first preferred transmission direction;
    Receiving from the device an indication of at least one second preferred transmission direction derived from the second set of transmission directions; And
    Using the at least one second preferred transmission direction to communicate with the device
    And a method for wireless communications.
  22. The method of claim 21,
    Before each data session, exchanging information with the device regarding the number of one or more beamforming levels to be used for the data session.
  23. The method of claim 22,
    And the second set of transmission directions is derived from the at least one first preferred transmission direction if the number of beamforming levels is greater than one.
  24. The method of claim 23,
    Deriving at least a third set of transmission directions from the at least one second preferred transmission direction; And
    Receiving from the device an indication of at least a third preferred transmission direction derived from at least the third set of transmission directions
    Further comprising:
    At least the third set of transmission directions is derived from the at least one second preferred transmission direction if the number of beamforming levels is greater than two.
  25. The method of claim 21,
    Transmitting beamforming performance information to the device;
    Wherein the beamforming performance information includes a maximum number of supported beamforming levels, a number of transmission directions of the first set of transmission directions, and a number of reception directions of the first set of reception directions.
  26. The method of claim 21,
    The at least one first preferred transmission direction is derived from the first set of transmission directions based on a first signal-quality metric,
    And the at least one second preferred transmission direction is derived from the second set of transmission directions based on a second signal-quality metric.
  27. The method of claim 21,
    Forming at least one cluster of transmission directions by grouping transmission directions from the second set of transmission directions, each cluster comprising one preferred transmission direction from the second set of transmission directions; And
    As feedback to the device, the number of clusters, the number of transmission directions belonging to the second set of transmission directions in each cluster, the codeword identifiers of the transmission directions belonging to the second set of transmission directions in each cluster and any transmission Providing information including information about which cluster the direction belongs to
    Further comprising wireless communications.
  28. The method of claim 27,
    Transmitting a plurality of tracking packets using a transmission direction in a cluster of transmission directions; And
    Receiving information about a preferred pair of directions
    Further comprising:
    And the plurality of tracking packets are transmitted at a lower rate than the training signals.
  29. The method of claim 21,
    At least a portion of each training signal is based on golay sequences.
  30. An apparatus for wireless communications,
    Circuitry for transmitting training signals to a device using a first set of transmission directions;
    Circuitry for receiving from the device an indication of at least one first preferred transmission direction derived from the first set of transmission directions;
    Circuitry for transmitting training signals to the device using a second set of transmission directions, the second set of transmission directions being derived from the at least one first preferred transmission direction;
    Circuitry for receiving from the device an indication of at least one second preferred transmission direction derived from the second set of transmission directions; And
    Circuitry for using the at least one second preferred transmission direction to communicate with the device
    And an apparatus for wireless communications.
  31. 31. The method of claim 30,
    And before each data session, circuitry for exchanging information with the device regarding the number of one or more beamforming levels to be used for the data session.
  32. The method of claim 31, wherein
    And the second set of transmission directions is derived from the at least one first preferred transmission direction if the number of beamforming levels is greater than one.
  33. 33. The method of claim 32,
    Circuitry for deriving at least a third set of transmission directions from the at least one second preferred transmission direction; And
    A receiver for receiving from the device an indication of at least a third preferred transmission direction derived from at least the third set of transmission directions
    Further comprising:
    At least the third set of transmission directions is derived from the at least one second preferred transmission direction if the number of beamforming levels is greater than two.
  34. 31. The method of claim 30,
    Circuitry for transmitting beamforming performance information to the device,
    Wherein the beamforming performance information includes a maximum number of supported beamforming levels, a number of transmission directions of the first set of transmission directions, and a number of reception directions of the first set of reception directions.
  35. 31. The method of claim 30,
    The at least one first preferred transmission direction is derived from the first set of transmission directions based on a first signal-quality metric,
    And the at least one second preferred transmission direction is derived from the second set of transmission directions based on a second signal-quality metric.
  36. 31. The method of claim 30,
    Circuitry for forming at least one cluster of transmission directions by grouping transmission directions from the second set of transmission directions, each cluster comprising one preferred transmission direction from the second set of transmission directions; And
    As feedback to the device, the number of clusters, the number of transmission directions belonging to the second set of transmission directions in each cluster, the codeword identifiers of the transmission directions belonging to the second set of transmission directions in each cluster and any transmission Circuitry to provide information including information about which cluster the direction belongs to
    And further comprising wireless communications.
  37. The method of claim 36,
    Circuitry for transmitting a plurality of tracking packets using a transmission direction in a cluster of transmission directions; And
    Circuitry for receiving information about a preferred pair of directions
    Further comprising:
    And the plurality of tracking packets are transmitted at a lower rate than the training signals.
  38. 31. The method of claim 30,
    At least a portion of each training signal is based on golay sequences.
  39. An apparatus for wireless communications,
    Means for transmitting training signals to the device using the first set of transmission directions;
    Means for receiving from the device an indication of at least one first preferred transmission direction derived from the first set of transmission directions;
    Means for transmitting training signals to the device using a second set of transmission directions, wherein the second set of transmission directions are derived from the at least one first preferred transmission direction;
    Means for receiving from the device an indication of at least one second preferred transmission direction derived from the second set of transmission directions; And
    Means for using the at least one second preferred transmission direction to communicate with the device
    And an apparatus for wireless communications.
  40. The method of claim 39,
    And before each data session, means for exchanging information with the device regarding the number of one or more beamforming levels to be used for the data session.
  41. The method of claim 40,
    And the second set of transmission directions is derived from the at least one first preferred transmission direction if the number of beamforming levels is greater than one.
  42. 42. The method of claim 41 wherein
    Means for deriving at least a third set of transmission directions from the at least one second preferred transmission direction; And
    Means for receiving from the device an indication of at least a third preferred transmission direction derived from at least the third set of transmission directions
    More,
    At least the third set of transmission directions is derived from the at least one second preferred transmission direction if the number of beamforming levels is greater than two.
  43. The method of claim 39,
    Means for transmitting beamforming performance information to the device,
    Wherein the beamforming performance information includes a maximum number of supported beamforming levels, a number of transmission directions of the first set of transmission directions, and a number of reception directions of the first set of reception directions.
  44. The method of claim 39,
    The at least one first preferred transmission direction is derived from the first set of transmission directions based on a first signal-quality metric,
    And the at least one second preferred transmission direction is derived from the second set of transmission directions based on a second signal-quality metric.
  45. The method of claim 39,
    Means for forming at least one cluster of transmission directions by grouping transmission directions from the second set of transmission directions, each cluster comprising one preferred transmission direction from the second set of transmission directions; And
    As feedback to the device, the number of clusters, the number of transmission directions belonging to the second set of transmission directions in each cluster, the codeword identifiers of the transmission directions belonging to the second set of transmission directions in each cluster and any transmission Means for providing information including information about which cluster the direction belongs to
    And further comprising wireless communications.
  46. The method of claim 45,
    Means for transmitting a plurality of tracking packets using a transmission direction in a cluster of transmission directions; And
    Means for receiving information about a preferred pair of directions
    More,
    And the plurality of tracking packets are transmitted at a lower rate than the training signals.
  47. The method of claim 39,
    At least a portion of each training signal is based on golay sequences.
  48. A computer readable medium for wireless communications, comprising:
    Send training signals to the device using the first set of transmission directions;
    Receive an indication from the device of at least one first preferred transmission direction derived from the first set of transmission directions;
    Transmit training signals to the device using a second set of transmission directions, wherein the second set of transmission directions are derived from the at least one first preferred transmission direction;
    Receive an indication from the device of at least one second preferred transmission direction derived from the second set of transmission directions; And
    And encoded instructions executable to use the at least one second preferred transmission direction to communicate with the device.
  49. At least one antenna;
    Circuitry for transmitting training signals to the device using the first set of transmission directions via the at least one antenna;
    Circuitry for receiving from the device an indication of at least one first preferred transmission direction derived from the first set of transmission directions via the at least one antenna;
    Circuitry for transmitting training signals to the device using a second set of transmission directions via the at least one antenna, the second set of transmission directions being derived from the at least one first preferred transmission direction;
    Circuitry for receiving from the device an indication of at least one second preferred transmission direction derived from the second set of transmission directions via the at least one antenna; And
    Circuitry for using the at least one second transmission preferred direction to communicate with the device
    Including, the access point.
  50. As a method for wireless communications,
    Receiving training signals transmitted from the device using the set of sectors;
    Deriving at least one preferred sector from the set of sectors;
    Providing feedback to the device, the indication of the at least one preferred sector to the device, wherein the feedback is provided by sweeping a set of transmission directions related to the sectors;
    Receiving training signals transmitted from the device using at least one set of beams, wherein the at least one set of beams is derived from the at least one preferred sector;
    Directing at least one preferred beam into the at least one set of beams; And
    Providing feedback of the at least one preferred beam to the device as feedback to the device
    Including,
    The feedback is provided by using the at least one preferred sector,
    A sector is an antenna pattern that covers an area of space
    The beam is an antenna pattern covering an area of space smaller than the area of space covered by the sector.
  51. An apparatus for wireless communications,
    Circuitry for receiving training signals transmitted from a device using a set of sectors;
    Circuitry for deriving at least one preferred sector from the set of sectors;
    As feedback to the device, circuitry for providing an indication of the at least one preferred sector to the device, the feedback provided by sweeping a set of transmission directions associated with the sectors;
    Circuitry for receiving training signals transmitted from the device using at least one set of beams, wherein the at least one set of beams is derived from the at least one preferred sector;
    Circuitry for deriving at least one preferred beam from at least one set of the beams; And
    Circuitry for providing an indication of the at least one preferred beam to the device as feedback to the device.
    Including,
    The feedback is provided by using the at least one preferred sector,
    A sector is an antenna pattern that covers an area of space
    The beam is an antenna pattern covering an area of space smaller than the area of space covered by the sector.
  52. An apparatus for wireless communications,
    Means for receiving training signals transmitted from the device using the set of sectors;
    Means for deriving at least one preferred sector from the set of sectors;
    Means for providing an indication of the at least one preferred sector to the device, the feedback being provided by sweeping the set of transmission directions associated with the sectors;
    Means for receiving training signals transmitted from the device using at least one set of beams, wherein the at least one set of beams is derived from the at least one preferred sector;
    Means for deriving at least one preferred beam from at least one set of the beams; And
    Means for providing an indication of the at least one preferred beam to the device as feedback to the device.
    Including,
    The feedback is provided by using the at least one preferred sector,
    A sector is an antenna pattern that covers an area of space
    The beam is an antenna pattern covering an area of space smaller than the area of space covered by the sector.
  53. As a method for wireless communications
    Transmitting training signals to the device using the set of sectors;
    Receiving from the device an indication of at least one preferred sector derived from the set of sectors;
    Transmitting training signals to the device using at least one set of beams, wherein the at least one set of beams is derived from the at least one preferred sector;
    Receiving from the device an indication of at least one preferred beam derived from at least one set of the beams; And
    Using the at least one preferred beam to communicate with the device
    Including,
    A sector is an antenna pattern that covers an area of space
    The beam is an antenna pattern covering an area of space smaller than the area of space covered by the sector.
  54. An apparatus for wireless communications,
    Circuitry for transmitting training signals to the device using the set of sectors;
    Circuitry for receiving from the device an indication of at least one preferred sector derived from the set of sectors;
    Circuitry for transmitting training signals to the device using at least one set of beams, wherein the at least one set of beams is derived from the at least one preferred sector;
    Circuitry for receiving from the device an indication of at least one preferred beam derived from at least one set of the beams; And
    Circuitry for using the at least one preferred beam to communicate with the device
    Including,
    A sector is an antenna pattern that covers an area of space
    The beam is an antenna pattern covering an area of space smaller than the area of space covered by the sector.
  55. An apparatus for wireless communications,
    Means for transmitting training signals to the device using the set of sectors;
    Means for receiving from the device an indication of at least one preferred sector derived from the set of sectors;
    Means for transmitting training signals to the device using at least one set of beams, wherein the at least one set of beams is derived from the at least one preferred sector;
    Means for receiving from the device an indication of at least one preferred beam derived from at least one set of the beams; And
    Means for using the at least one preferred beam to communicate with the device
    Including,
    A sector is an antenna pattern that covers an area of space
    The beam is an antenna pattern covering an area of space smaller than the area of space covered by the sector.
KR1020107022998A 2008-03-17 2009-03-17 A communication method and apparatus using multi-resolution beamforming with feedback in mimo systems KR101146060B1 (en)

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