KR100429091B1 - Autostereoscopic display apparatus - Google Patents

Autostereoscopic display apparatus Download PDF

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KR100429091B1
KR100429091B1 KR10-1997-0006580A KR19970006580A KR100429091B1 KR 100429091 B1 KR100429091 B1 KR 100429091B1 KR 19970006580 A KR19970006580 A KR 19970006580A KR 100429091 B1 KR100429091 B1 KR 100429091B1
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display
pixels
elements
lenticular
color
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KR10-1997-0006580A
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Korean (ko)
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KR970062750A (en
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베르켈 코넬리스 반
죤 알프레드 클라케
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코닌클리케 필립스 일렉트로닉스 엔.브이.
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Priority to GBGB9622157.7A priority patent/GB9622157D0/en
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Application filed by 코닌클리케 필립스 일렉트로닉스 엔.브이. filed Critical 코닌클리케 필립스 일렉트로닉스 엔.브이.
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Abstract

(E.g., an LC matrix display panel with an array of display elements) having display pixels 12 arranged in rows and columns and an array of display pixels 12 on the top of the display An auto-stereoscopic display device including an array 15 of arranged parallel lenticular elements 16 has been proposed. The horizontal resolution and the vertical resolution share the degradation of the display resolution occurring in such a device, particularly in the case of a multi-picture display. An embodiment of a full color display device employing a good color display pixel layout scheme has been described.

Description

[0001] Autostereoscopic display apparatus [0002]

The present invention relates to an array of display pixels arranged in rows and columns and an array of elongate lenticular elements overlapping the display pixels and extending parallel to each other through which the display pixels are visible To an autostereoscopic display apparatus having display generating means including an array.

Examples of such stereoscopic display devices are described in C. van Berkel et al., Entitled " Multi-view 3D-LCD ", pp. 32-39 of SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 2653, -2196166. In such an apparatus, a matrix display device composed of an LC (liquid crystal) display panel having rows of display elements and a column array and functioning as a spatial light modulator forms a display. The lenticular elements are provided by lenticular sheets whose lenticules comprise elongated (semi-cylindrical) lens elements and which are arranged in the column direction of the display panel And the display fp is parallel to the column of devices and each lenticular covers each group of adjacent rows of two or more display elements. Typically, in such an apparatus, the LC matrix display panel used is a liquid crystal display, including uniformly arranged rows and columns of display elements, as well as other types of display devices, for example, This is a conventional form. In EP-A-0625861, other stereoscopic display devices use LC matrix panels of a non-standard display element layout in which adjacent display elements are arranged in groups such that display elements of each group are almost in contact with each other in the row direction. Embodiments of a projection apparatus using a panel in which an image of a display element array is magnified and projected on a screen and the lenticular sheet is coupled to the screen is also described herein.

In a direct-view type device, a display pixel for display formation is constituted by a display device of a display panel. For example, in an arrangement in which each lenticular is combined with two rows of display elements, each row of display elements provides a vertical slice of each 2D (sub) image. The lenticular sheet directs the two vertical slices and the slice corresponding thereto among the display element rows coupled to the remaining lenticules to the left eye and the right eye in front of the seat, Let the image be recognized. In a multiple image-type configuration in which each lenticular is associated with a group of at least four adjacent display elements in the row direction and the rows of corresponding display elements in each group are suitably arranged to provide a vertical slice of the 2D (sub) image, When the head position moves, a series of continuous and different stereoscopic images are recognized to form, for example, an impression of looking around. In a projection type device, a similar stereoscopic effect can be obtained, except that the display pixels forming the display on the screen are composed of the projected images of the display elements.

A 3D display can be obtained simply and effectively when the lenticular is used together with a matrix display panel and a lenticular screen arranged parallel to the row of display elements. However, in a standard display panel providing a plurality of images with a 3D display in a state where the number of display element rows is fixed, the horizontal display resolution is lowered. For example, a display composed of 800 columns and 600 rows of display elements (each display element in the case of a full color display consists of a color triplet) and four images providing three pairs of stereopsis at a fixed viewing distance In the system, the horizontal degree for each image is 200 in the horizontal (row) direction and 600 in the vertical (column) direction. Therefore, the resolution of each of the three-dimensional images in the horizontal direction is relatively low as compared with the vertical direction. It is not preferable that the resolutions in the vertical direction and the horizontal direction are different from each other.

It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved autostereoscopic display device.

According to the present invention, there is provided a stereoscopic image apparatus as described in the opening paragraph, characterized in that the lenticular element is inclined at a certain angle to the display pixel column. With such a configuration, it is prevented that only the horizontal resolution decreases as the number of images increases. By slanting the lenticular elements, a horizontal resolution and a vertical resolution are used together to transfer a part of the horizontal resolution lowering to the vertical resolution and to increase the number of images to be displayed so that the burden is shared not only with the horizontal resolution but also with the horizontal resolution. . Therefore, as compared with the conventional display panel device in which the number of images to be displayed is limited in order to properly maintain the horizontal resolution by the standard matrix display element layout in which the lenticular elements are arranged parallel to the heat, The degree of decrease in the horizontal resolution is reduced.

The device may be a direct view type of display device or may be an image projection type of a display device in which a magnified image is projected onto a display screen through a transmissive lens. In a preferred embodiment, the display forming means comprises a matrix display panel and preferably comprises a liquid crystal matrix display panel having a matrix array of display elements, each constituting a display pixel. Thus, in a direct viewing type device, the display pixels forming the display image are composed of the display elements of the panel, in which case the array of lenticular elements is arranged on the output side of the display panel. In a projection type apparatus, a display pixel forming a display image is composed of a projection image of a display element in a matrix display panel, in which case an array of lenticular elements is arranged on a viewing side of the display screen. On the other hand, in a projection type apparatus, display pixels may be formed from a projection image generated in a display apparatus of a different kind such as a CRT.

An important advantage of the present invention is the ability to use conventional LC matrix display panels in which rows and columns of display elements are evenly spaced. In particular, there is no need to change the display element layout. Although the apparatus described in EP-A-0625861 is configured to decrease the vertical resolution by increasing the number of 2D images for a 3D frame, in this apparatus, adjacent display elements in the group are arranged in a vertical direction, But differs from the present invention in that a staggered display panel is used. That is, since the layout of the display device is unique, it is impossible to use a standard type display panel used in another device. Furthermore, the layout method of the display element is made to use the panel area inefficiently, and the light transmission amount is reduced.

Another advantage of the present invention is that the degree of undesired display artefacts caused by the black matrix material created in the gaps between the display elements of the matrix display panel is reduced. This black matrix material constituting the boundary of the display element is used in the LC display panel to increase the contrast and shield the switch element such as TFT in the case of the active matrix type. Since this material extends between adjacent rows of display elements, in a conventional configuration, a lenticular screen is recognized as a black band between adjacent 2D images to form a predetermined image. In the configuration of the present invention, since the lenticular element is configured not to extend parallel to the rows of the display elements and thus not to be parallel to the vertical strip of the black matrix material between the rows, I can not see well.

The matrix display panel is preferably composed of an LC display panel, but other types of display panels such as electroluminescent (EL) or gas plasma display panels may also be used.

Preferably, the lenticular elements are configured to be tilted with respect to the columns of the display pixels such that the display pixel groups are repeatedly formed by the display pixels present in the adjacent r (r > 1) rows forming a group. In a more preferred embodiment r is 2, where the overlap between images is minimized. The inclination angle of the lenticular elements is almost tan -1 (Hp / (V p and r)), where H p and V p are respectively the row direction pitch and the column-direction pitch of the display pixels.

The pitch of the lenticular elements need not be the same as the number of display pixels in the row direction. The pitch of the lenticular elements is preferably in the range of the display pixel pitch in the row direction

Figure pat00014
It is more than double. In a more preferred embodiment, the pitch of the lenticular elements is smaller than that of the display pixel pitch in the row direction
Figure pat00015
Ship or
Figure pat00016
In this case, 5-image system and 7-image system are provided. In this case, a suitable number of images can be obtained and a better balance between horizontal resolution and vertical resolution can be achieved.

The cross section of the lenticular element may include a part of the circle. This type of lenticular element is easy to produce. Other types of lenticular elements may also be used, for example, lenticular elements may be formed using contiguous straight line portions.

The autostereoscopic display device may be a color display device in which the display pixels are different from each other. For example, in the case of an LC matrix display panel, a color display is typically implemented by configuring red, green, and blue filters together at the top of the display element array. Typically, the color filter is arranged as strips extending parallel to the display element rows such that three adjacent display element arrays are respectively coupled to the red, green and blue filters, and is repeated throughout the array of such pattern elements Every third column displays the same color, for example red. However, the use of such a color pixel layout may result in improper display, such as a horizontal or diagonal color strip being visible. Thus, in order to avoid such a strip being visible, the color pixels are preferably arranged to form a color pixel triplet in a delta configuration that includes red, green, and blue display pixels. In a preferred embodiment of a color display device employing a color matrix display panel, all display pixels of a row display the same color and three adjacent rows of display pixels are red, green and blue Respectively. ≪ / RTI > Thus, successive rows of pixels are displayed, for example, red, green, blue, red, green, blue, and so on. As a result, the problem of visible color strips as described above is reduced. In an LC color display panel, this method is accomplished by arranging the color filters into strips extending in the row direction (rather than in the column direction).

In another preferred embodiment of a color display device using a color matrix display panel, the display pixels under each lenticular element are all of the same color and in the three adjacent lenticular elements the display pixels below each element are either red, green, and blue And is configured to display one color. Thus, the configuration of each display pixel row is such that, for example, groups of red, green and blue display pixels are continuous and display pixels of each group are arranged below each lenticular element. Because the lenticular elements are tilted with respect to the column of pixels, a particular row, for example a group of color display pixels in every third row, is offset in the row direction relative to a group of adjacent rows. This kind of color display layout has two other advantages in addition to the advantages listed above. First, the color triplets of adjacent pictures are interlocked, allowing the viewer to see both pictures simultaneously by corsstalk, resulting in a substantially reduced color triplet pitch. Secondly, a color filter arrangement is implemented so that the same color display elements are grouped together in the LC matrix display panel to alleviate the need for accuracy of the arrangement between the black mask and the color filter array, The manufacturing yield can be improved without reducing the yield.

1 is a schematic perspective view of a preferred embodiment of an automatic stereoscopic display apparatus according to the present invention using a matrix display panel.

Fig. 2 is a schematic plan view of a typical display element array in a display panel, showing an example of the arrangement of display elements and lenticular elements for providing six image outputs. Fig.

Fig. 3 is a view similar to Fig. 2 showing the arrangement of display elements and lenticular elements for providing a seven screen output. Fig.

4A is a plan view schematically showing a relationship between a display element and a lenticular element for a part of a display element array in an embodiment for outputting a full color seven-image display.

4B is a view showing color pixels viewed by one eye of a viewer from a position corresponding to a specific image in the embodiment of Fig. 4A; Fig.

FIG. 4C is a vector diagram illustrating the various color pixel pitches that are perceived in the eye in the configurations of FIGS. 4A and 4B. FIG.

5A is a diagram showing a relationship between a display element and a lenticular element in a method similar to that in Fig. 4A in another embodiment of a full-color display device. Fig.

Figures 5B and 5C correspond to Figures 4A and 4B for the embodiment of Figure 5A;

6A is a diagram showing a relationship between a display element and a lenticular element in another embodiment of a full-color display device;

FIG. 6B is a diagram illustrating an example of color pixels visible to the viewer in the embodiment of FIG. 6A, for comparison with FIG. 4B and FIG. 5B;

7 is a schematic plan view of another embodiment of the present invention for providing a projection display;

[Description of Reference Numerals]

10: LC Matrix Display Panel

12: display element 14: light source

15: Lenticular sheet 16: Lenticular

18: Black mask material

Referring to Figure 1, a direct view type display device includes a conventional LC matrix display panel 10 used as a spatial light modulator, the panel 10 having individually addressable and similar sized display elements 12, Are arranged in rows and columns. Although these display elements are shown schematically in a relatively small number of rows and columns in Figure 1, there are actually about 800 rows (2400 rows when color R, G, and B triplets are used for full color display) and about 600 rows A display device is present. Since such a panel is well known in the art, detailed description thereof will be omitted herein. However, to put it briefly, two raised transparent plates, for example glass plates, are placed on the LC panel and filled with twisted nematic or other LC material therebetween. A transparent electrode pattern made of ITO or the like for determining the layout and the shape of the display device is transferred on both surfaces of the transparent plate, and the display device is provided with opposing electrodes on a transparent plate filled with an LC material do. Generally, a polarizing layer is provided on the outer surface of the transparent plate. The display device 12 has a substantially rectangular shape and is uniformly spaced from each other and adjacent display device columns are divided by a gap extending in a column (vertical) direction, and adjacent two display device rows And are separated by a gap extending in the row (horizontal) direction. Preferably, the panel 10 is an active matrix type in which each display element is combined with a switching element composed of, for example, a TFT or a thin film diode (TFD). In order to accommodate these elements, the display element may not be square. Generally, the gap between the display elements is covered with a black mask composed of a matrix of light absorbing material, which may be formed on either side of the transparent plate, or on both sides have.

The display panel 10 is illuminated by a light source 14, which in this embodiment is configured as a planar back-light across the display element array region. Other types of light sources can be used instead. Light from the light source 14 is illuminated through the panel and each display element is driven by an appropriate drive voltage to modulate the light in a conventional manner to form a display output. Accordingly, the display pixel array constituting the display corresponds to the display element array.

On the output side of the panel 10, a lenticular sheet 15 extending substantially parallel to the display panel is disposed. The sheet 15 includes a long parallel lenticular element, that is, a lenticular. The lenticular serves as optical director means for providing an individual image to form a stereoscopic display at a viewer's time located in front of the seat 15. [ The lenticular of the sheet 15 is composed of a lenticular, for example, convex cylindrical lenses or graded refractive index cylindrical lenses converging optically cylindrically. Since an autostereoscopic display apparatus using a lenticular sheet together with a matrix display panel is known, the operation method thereof is not described in detail in this specification. Such a device for forming an autostereoscopic image and its operation are described in the aforementioned C. van Berkel et al., GB-A-2196166, and EP-A-0625 861. The lenticular array is preferably formed directly on the outer surface of the panel 10 on the output side. Unlike the known configuration where the lenticular extends parallel to the display pixel column (corresponding to the display element column), the lenticular in the device shown in Fig. 1 is arranged to be inclined to the display pixel column. That is, the main longitudinal axis of the lenticular has a certain angle with respect to the column direction of the display element array.

The pitch of the lenticular is selected in consideration of the horizontal direction pitch of the display element and the number of necessary images. In addition to the lenticular arranged on the side of the display element array, Respectively. Figure 2 illustrates one embodiment of lenticular 16 as a portion typically used in a display panel. The longitudinal axis L of the lenticular 16 is inclined at an angle? In this embodiment, the widths of the lenticular longitudinal axes parallel to each other are selected in consideration of the row direction pitch of the display element, and have a certain angle inclination with respect to the column direction of the display element to provide a six-picture system. The display element 12, which is shown in square in Fig. 2, represents the effective aperture of the display element, i.e. the display pixel, and the grid pattern area between the display elements is covered by the black mask material 18. [ The gap size between adjacent display elements of Fig. 1 is shown in Fig. 2 considerably enlarged. The display element 12 is numbered 1 to 6 according to the image number to which it belongs. In the lenticular sheet 15, the width of each lenticular 16 is three adjacent rows of display elements, And the gap between the device and them. Thus, the display elements of the six images are located three per row over two adjacent rows.

The individually operable display element is driven by applying display information in an appropriate manner, wherein the display elements located below a lenticular are configured to display a thin slice of the 2D image. The display formed by the panel includes six interleaved 2D sub-images consisting of the output of each display element. Each lenticular 16 provides six beams, each having an image number of 1 to 6, output from the underlying display element, the optical axes of which are different from each other in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the lenticular, As shown in Fig. A 3D image can be obtained by applying appropriate 2D image information to the display element and placing the viewer's eye at an appropriate distance to receive different beams among the output beams. As the position of the viewer's head moves in the row direction, five consecutive stereoscopic images are recognized. Thus, the two eyes of the viewer will each see an image consisting, for example, of both the display element " 1 " and the display element " 2 " As the position of the viewer's head moves, both eyes will see an image consisting of both the display element " 2 " and all of the display element " 3 ", and then the image will continue to change in this manner. For example, when viewing at a distance closer to the panel, images of "1" and "2" are viewed at the same time, and images of "3" and "4" are viewed simultaneously by the other eye.

The plane of the display element 12 is designed so as to coincide with the focal plane of the lenticular 16 so that the position within the display element surface corresponds to a viewing angle. Therefore, all the points on the dashed line A in FIG. 2 are simultaneously viewed by the viewer under the specific horizontal (row direction) view angle, and similarly all the points on the broken line B in FIG. Line A represents a monocular viewing position in which only a display element of picture " 2 " is visible. The line C represents a position where only the display element of the image " 3 " can be seen. Therefore, when the viewer moves the head from the position corresponding to the line A to the position corresponding to the line B and then to the position corresponding to the line C with the viewer's eyes closed, the image is changed from "2" to "3" You may feel that you are gradually changing. Therefore, when the position of the viewer's eyes moves, the recognized image is not changed suddenly, but a smooth image is converted due to the merging effect of the two images. If the stereoscopic display has enough images, this effect will improve the recognition status, such as displaying an object, rather than merely collecting individual images. For viewers, gradual changes in successive pictures have the same effect as improved continuous parallax. The conversion from one image to another depends on the actual display element layout and the aperture ratio between the display element area and the black mask area. Even if some display elements such as the display elements constituting the image " 6 " in this embodiment are located at the interface between the two lenticules because the lenticular 16 is arranged from the display element surface, All the display elements will be visible through the lenticular.

Thus, it can be seen from the oblique lenticular configuration that various different images can be obtained without lowering only the horizontal resolution as in the conventional apparatus in which the lenticular extends parallel to the display element row. Instead, the inevitable resolution degrades to a similar degree of horizontal and vertical resolution. For example, in the six-picture arrangement of FIG. 2, which forms a monochrome display output, the horizontal resolution is reduced to 1/3 and the vertical resolution is reduced to 1/2. In the conventional configuration, in the case of the six-image device, only the horizontal resolution is reduced to 1/6 without decreasing the vertical resolution. This effect can be achieved without taking an unusual display device configuration, and the display panel 10 can be a standard type panel used in other common display devices such as a display screen of a notebook PC.

Another advantage of this arrangement is that such strips are not visible to viewers because the lenticules do not extend parallel to the continuous vertical strip of black mask material 18 between adjacent rows of display elements, Such a strip appears as a black band between successive images as the head position of the strip is shifted, but this does not occur in this configuration.

Such an inclined lenticular configuration can be applied to both a monochrome display and a color display. For example, applying the six-picture configuration shown in FIG. 2 to an LC display panel in which a color microfilter array is coupled to a display element array and successive rows of display elements are arranged to display red, green, and blue, respectively , The image " 1 " display element in the second row is green when the display element is red. Similar to other images. Thus, each image is colored in a row, which means that the vertical resolution of the color display is 1/3 of that of the monochrome display.

As one embodiment of the present apparatus, a color LC display panel having a horizontal resolution of 2400 display elements (800 x 3 color triplets) and a vertical resolution of 600 display elements is used. The horizontal triplet pitch is 288 mu m (96 mu m per display element), and the vertical pitch of the display element is 288 mu m. The width and the tilt angle of the lenticular 16 are determined from the size and pitch of the display element and the number of desired images. In the six-picture structure shown in Fig. 2, the lenticular inclination angle alpha, which is an angle between the vertical axis and the vertical axis of the lenticular, is given by alpha = tan -1 (96 / (2x288)) = 9.46 deg. In general, the enlargement ratio of the lenticular lens is determined by the necessity of the display element corresponding to the adjacent image to be projected on the viewer's left and right eyes. Assuming that the interocular distance is 65mm, the required expansion ratio is 1354. However, the distance between the lenticular and the display element should be at least the minimum distance L, which is determined by the thickness t of the glass plate (including the polarization layer) of the panel. Assuming that the minimum interval is about 1.5 mm and the refractive index n of the glass plate is 1.52, the working distance D given by m · t / n as the distance between the lenticular sheet and the viewer's eye is about 1.34 m, I can not. For this reason, it is necessary to enlarge only the next adjacent image to the inside distance, and in this case, the enlargement ratio decreases from 1354 to 677. By doing so, the working distance D is reduced to 67 cm. The lenticular pitch μ p perpendicular to the longitudinal axis, ie the pitch at which the mold is to be split, operates at μ p = 283.66 μm. At this time, the focal length f given by D / (m + 1) is 0.99 mm, and the radius of curvature R given by f (n-1) is 0.48 mm assuming that the refractive index is 1.483.

In this six-picture structure using an 800 (triplet) x 600 display element array, the horizontal resolution of each picture is 800 and the vertical resolution is 100. This is similar to that of a conventional structure using the same display panel as the lenticule extending parallel to the display element row and obtaining 133 horizontal resolution and 600 vertical resolution equivalent to each other.

In another embodiment that provides an eight-image system using the same display panel as above, the lenticule has the same tilt angle (i.e., 9.46 [deg.]) As before, but the pitch is 33 ⅓% larger and each row covers the four display elements. That is, the eight picture display elements are arranged in units of four including two adjacent rows, one for each row. In this case, each lenticular 16 provides eight output beams from the underlying display elements, with the optical axes of the beams being arranged such that the directions are different from each other and surround the longitudinal axis of the lenticular at a constant angle. In the conventional structure, the horizontal resolution is 100 and the vertical resolution is 600. In this eight-image structure, the horizontal resolution of each image is 400 and the vertical resolution is 150. [

In the previous six-picture or eight-picture structure, the horizontal resolution increased while the vertical resolution decreased slightly. However, this problem can be dramatically improved by the following method. Lenticular does not need to be placed on all adjacent display elements in one row or optical co-operation is required. In addition, in the preferred embodiment, the same display panel as described above is used to cover three or four display elements of each row as described above

Figure pat00017
or
Figure pat00018
That is, the pitch of the lenticular elements is equal to the pitch of the row direction of the display element
Figure pat00019
or
Figure pat00020
It is possible to design the lenticule so as to provide 5 images or 7 image systems, respectively, corresponding to the times. In this configuration, the five or seven output beams provided by each lenticular are arranged so that the directions of the optical axes are different from each other and surround the longitudinal axis of the lenticular at a certain angle. Fig. 3 shows the configuration of such a seven-picture system. As in the previous embodiment, the display elements are numbered according to the image number to which they belong, and the dashed lines A, B, and C represent points that are seen simultaneously at each different horizontal viewing angle. As shown, the image numbers shown below each lenticular 16 are not repeated (in the case of the configuration of FIG. 2) along the display row, and are offset by one row for adjacent lenticules. This type of arrangement improves the balance between horizontal resolution and vertical resolution. For example,
Figure pat00021
or
Figure pat00022
It is also applied to display devices and the like.
Figure pat00023
Can be extended to the case of a display device.

When the above-described five-picture or seven-picture structure is constructed using the 800 x 600 display panel in which the display elements are arranged in rows and columns, the resolution obtained in each picture is 480 x 200 and 342 x 200, respectively. Comparing the above results with the results of 160 x 600 and 114 x 600 in the conventional structure, it can be seen that the horizontal resolution is remarkably improved while maintaining the vertical resolution sufficiently high.

In the above embodiment, the inclination angle alpha of the lenticular is 9.46 deg., The same as in the previous embodiment, and the number r of display element rows used in each display element group is 2. However, the inclination angle can be changed. This angle is defined as α = arctan (H p / (V p r)) when V p and H p are the vertical pitch and horizontal pitch of the display element in the display panel, respectively. In the case of V p and H p , the inclination angle? Is 6.34 ° and 4.76 °, respectively, as r becomes 3 or 4. However, as the tilt angle decreases, the overlap between images increases.

Color LC display panels for data graphic display applications typically use a color pixel layout in which each color pixel comprises three (red, green, blue B) adjacent (sub) pixels in a row, The pixel group forms a horizontal RGB triplet. This color pixel layout is formed as a vertical color filter strip so that the display elements of the panel repeatedly arrange R, G, and B columns, respectively. In the case where the oblique lenticular structure is used for the color display in which pixels are arranged in the above manner in the color triplet, the layout of the color pixel triplet recognized by each eye of the viewer's eyes can be changed in any one direction Direction) is much larger than the pixel pitch in the direction perpendicular thereto (in this case, the vertical direction), so that the visible color strip can be arranged in the display in the case of a five- or seven- In the case of the six-image system, the phenomenon of moving in the horizontal direction may occur in the diagonal direction.

Figure 4A shows a seven-picture system, similar to Figure 3, in which a regular color LC display panel is used in which display (sub) elements 12, and thus display pixels, are arranged in columns of each color. As before, the inclined line represents the boundary between the adjacent lenticules 16. Pixels marked with a rectangle are arranged on a square grid in a horizontal triplet, and these square triplets are divided into three adjacent red (r), green (g), blue (b) Pixel. Numbers (1 to 7) and characters (r, g, b) represent image numbers and pixel colors. The lenticular array is located approximately 1.5 mm above the LC cell surface. For example, assuming that an SVGA 11.4 inch LC color display panel is used, the horizontal pixel pitch is about 96 μm and the vertical pitch is about 288 μm.

FIG. 4B shows a form in which one eye of the viewer perceives a typical portion of the display at a position corresponding to, for example, picture " 4 ". In this position, the pixels indicated by " 4 " in Fig. 4A are each exposed to fill the corresponding lenticular 16, and the lenticular portion corresponding to the pixel group for the even (0, 2, 4, 6) Black or dark. As shown in FIG. 4B, the subpixels of the image " 4 " are arranged in full color pixels, each full color pixel comprising a triplet of three adjacent subpixels of different colors. The subpixels are arranged diagonally on the screen, and in FIG. 4B two of these triplets are indicated by dashed lines. FIG. 4C is a vector diagram showing the various pitches that are visible in this case. A color filter color pixel (triplet) pitch perpendicular to the strip (as shown in Figure 4C P ⊥) is 1440㎛, and parallel to the color strip color pixel pitch (in Fig. 4C

Figure pat00024
) Is 403 탆. The horizontal and vertical color pixel pitches P h and P v are 672 μm and 864 μm, respectively, and provide an appropriate number of pixels of 343 × 200 for each image. However, if the display has a relatively large pitch P or, conversely, a relatively small pitch
Figure pat00025
. The magnitude of the product of P v and P h is P
Figure pat00026
. From this difference in pitch, a characteristic as a color strip arranged in a diagonal direction appears. In the 5-image system, the above-mentioned effect is exhibited. On the other hand, in the 6-screen system, the vertical pitch is relatively large, and the color strips are arranged in the horizontal direction.

This problem can be solved by rearranging the color filter, that is, the color subpixel layout. An embodiment of an apparatus in which color filters are appropriately rearranged for the seven-image system described above will be described. This principle can similarly be applied to the number of images for different systems.

A simple way to solve this problem is to rearrange the color filter strips so that they extend in the row direction rather than in the column direction. The shape and number of subpixels do not need to be changed. By rearranging the color filter strips as above, all the display elements of one row in the LC display panel array display the same color, and three adjacent display element rows display R, G, and B, respectively. This color sequence is then repeated in successive groups of display element rows. A display panel in which the color pixels are rearranged as above in the seven-image system as shown in Fig. 4A is shown in Fig. 5A. Fig. 5B corresponding to Fig. 4B shows a form in which one eye recognizes the position for viewing the image " 4 ". As shown, a row-centered configuration of the color filter provides a full-color pixel triplet with a vertical form in the image, a delta-like configuration. On the other hand in Fig. 5B, three such color pixel triplets are shown by dashed lines. The horizontal and vertical pitches P h and P v shown in FIG. 5C are now 672 μm and 864 μm, respectively, providing a resolution of 343 × 200 for each image. In the present embodiment, since the triplet has a delta structure rather than an elongated shape, the color elements of the R, G, and B triplets are located closer to each other, and thus form a finer group. Thus, each pixel is not well distinguished, and inadequate visual display artifacts in the form of diagonal color strips are reduced.

5B, the pixels of the image " 5 " are denoted by prime display characters r ', g' and b '. A color pixel triplet is constructed by the r, g, and b subpixels beneath it in the column direction at the position where two images are simultaneously seen by the optical crosstalk (this triplet is indicated by the dashed line on the lower half of Fig. 5B) , At which time the horizontal pitch decreases from 672 탆 to 336 탆.

Similar to other images.

For example, using such a color pixel layout in the six-picture system shown in Fig. 2, an effect similar to the above can be generally obtained in removing an inappropriate color strip.

6 shows another method of relocating the color filter in order to solve the problem as described above with respect to the color strip. In this embodiment, all of the display elements located under the lenticular 16 or most of them are arranged in the same color, and three adjacent lenticules are arranged in different colors (R, G, B) This pattern is combined with the device so that it is repeated for different groups across the entire array. Thus, each row of display elements is composed of a series of adjacent display element groups having the same color, and in the present embodiment, which is a seven-picture system, the number of elements in each group is 3 and 4, (7). FIG. 6B shows the color pixels viewed from the viewer's eye in a view of the image " 4 ". The delta-type color triplet is formed in the same manner as in Fig. 5B, but in the present embodiment, the delta triplet in which " 4 " is shown is formed in a horizontal direction in a rotated form as compared with Fig. 5B, Are inverted with respect to each other. In Fig. 6B, these triplets are indicated by dashed lines. As shown in Fig. 5B, the pixels of the image " 5 " are shown as r ', g' and b 'on the lower side of Fig. 6B.

In this embodiment, the horizontal and vertical pitches of the color triplets are 1008 탆 and 576 탆, respectively, and the image resolution is 228 x 300. At a point between the crosstalk points, for example, between picture " 4 " and picture " 5 ", the vertical pitch decreases to 288 mu m.

As in the previous embodiment, since the triplet is in a delta structure and the color elements form a denser group, the individual pixels are not well distinguished and the color strip is not visible in the display.

As the pitch of the color triplet is halved at the point where two images are simultaneously viewed by the crosstalk as in the embodiments of Figs. 5A and 5B and Figs. 6A and 6B, the color triplet of the adjacent image at the position is interlocked The visibility of the R, G and B color elements is further reduced so that the problem of color strips arranged in the diagonal or horizontal direction of the display is further eliminated.

Another advantage of configuring the color filter in the manner shown in Figures 5A and 6A is that red, green and blue sub-elements in the LC display panel can be rearranged to be grouped together. If we widen the spacing between adjacent groups more widespreadly, this grouping will result in a better alignment accuracy between the black mask used in the LC display panel and the color filter to provide better manufacturing yields without reducing the aperture of the individual display (sub) It will be able to alleviate the demand.

In the above-described embodiments, the matrix display panel includes an LC display panel, but other kinds of electro-optical spatial light modulators and flat panel display devices such as EL or plasma display panels can be used.

In addition, although the lenticular elements are combined in the form of a display element and a lenticular sheet in the above-described embodiment, they may be provided in different forms. For example, it is also possible that the device is formed of a glass plate of the display panel itself.

The above-described embodiment provides a direct view display. However, instead, the autostereoscopic display apparatus may include a projection display apparatus. Figure 7 illustrates an embodiment including a rear projection type device. In this apparatus, the formed image is projected by the projection lens 30 to the rear of the diffuser projection screen 32. A lenticular sheet 35 including an array of long parallel lenticular elements is disposed on the front side of the screen 32, that is, on the side viewed by the viewer. An image projected on the screen is generated by the matrix LC display panel 10 in this embodiment, which is illuminated by light from a light source 33 through a condenser lens. The projection lens projects the display element image of the display panel 10 onto the screen 32 so that a row of display pixels and an enlarged image of the column display element array are formed on the screen. The projected image of the display element forms a display pixel, and such a display image composed of the display pixels is viewed through the lenticular sheet 35. The lenticular elements of the lenticular sheet 35 are arranged to be inclined with respect to the rows of display element images on the screen as described above (e.g., Figs. 2 and 3), in consideration of the display pixels on the screen, .

A display device such as a CRT may be used instead of the LC display panel to provide a projected display image having row and column display pixels on the screen.

In summary, there is provided a liquid crystal display device comprising display forming means (e.g., an LC matrix display panel with an array of display elements) having display pixels arranged in rows and columns, and a parallel lenticular An autostereoscopic display device including an array of elements has been proposed. The horizontal resolution and the vertical resolution share the degradation of the display resolution occurring in such a device, particularly in the case of a multi-picture display.

Those skilled in the art may make changes to the apparatus described herein. Such changes may include other features already known in the art relating to an autostereoscopic display device or its component parts. Further, such modifications may be made to add or replace various features already described herein.

According to the present invention, it is possible to reduce unwanted display phenomenon caused by black matrix material generated in a gap between display elements of a matrix display panel.

According to the present invention, the color triplets of adjacent images are interlocked so that the viewer can see both images simultaneously by the crosstalk, and the effect of reducing the color triplet pitch substantially in half can be obtained.

According to the present invention, a color filter arrangement is implemented such that the same color display elements are grouped together in an LC matrix display panel to alleviate the need for accuracy of arrangement between the black mask and the color filter array, thereby reducing the aperture of the display element The production yield can be improved.

Claims (19)

  1. Display formation means comprising an array of display pixels arranged in rows and columns, elongate lenticular elements < RTI ID = 0.0 > ≪ RTI ID = 0.0 > 1, < / RTI > an autostereoscopic display apparatus comprising:
    Wherein the lenticular elements are inclined at an angle to the columns of the display pixel.
  2. 2. An apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the display forming means comprises a matrix display panel arranged in rows and columns, each matrix display panel having an array of display elements each forming the display pixels.
  3. 3. An autostereoscopic display apparatus according to claim 2, characterized in that an array of lenticular elements is arranged on the output side of the display panel.
  4. 3. The display device of claim 2, wherein the device comprises a projection lens for projecting an image of the display elements on a display screen to produce the display pixels, the array of lenticular elements having a viewing side is placed on a viewing side of the display device.
  5. The automatic stereoscopic display apparatus according to any one of claims 2 to 4, characterized in that the display elements of the display panel include liquid crystal display elements.
  6. 5. A method according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the lenticular elements are tilted with respect to the columns of display pixels to produce groups of repeating display pixels, each of the groups comprising r (r > 1) And adjacent display pixels of adjacent rows.
  7. The method of claim 6, wherein the tilt angle of the lenticular elements is substantially tan -1 (H p / (V p and r)), where, H p and V p is the pitch of each of the display pixels in the row and column direction, Wherein the display device is a display device.
  8. The automatic stereoscopic display apparatus according to claim 7, wherein r is 2.
  9. The display device according to claim 1 or 7, wherein the pitch of the lenticular elements is at least the pitch of display pixels in the row direction
    Figure pat00027
    Wherein the display device is a display device.
  10. The display apparatus according to claim 9, wherein the pitch of the lenticular elements is a pitch of display pixels in the row direction
    Figure pat00028
    Wherein the display device is a display device.
  11. The display apparatus according to claim 9, wherein the pitch of the lenticular elements is a pitch of display pixels in the row direction
    Figure pat00029
    Wherein the display device is a display device.
  12. 8. An automatic stereoscopic display apparatus according to claim 1 or 7, wherein the lenticular elements have a cross section that is a part of a circle.
  13. The device according to any one of claims 1 to 4, 7, 10 or 11, characterized in that the device is a color display device in which the different display pixels are composed of different colors. Display device.
  14. 14. The method of claim 13, wherein the color display pixels of the array are arranged to form color pixel triplets with a delta configuration, each pixel including red, green, and blue display pixels Wherein the display device is a display device.
  15. 14. The method of claim 13 wherein the display pixels of one row are of the same color and the three adjacent rows of display pixels each display a different one of the three primary colors. Automatic stereoscopic display device.
  16. 16. The apparatus of claim 15, wherein a sequence of colors of adjacent three rows of pixels is repeated in all rows of pixels of the array.
  17. 14. The display device of claim 13, wherein the display pixels disposed below each lenticular element to at least a substantial extent are the same color, and the display pixels associated with each of the three adjacent lenticular elements are each different one of the three primary colors Of the display device.
  18. 18. The apparatus of claim 17, wherein a sequence of colors associated with the three adjacent lenticular elements is repeated for all lenticular elements across the display pixel array.
  19. 14. The apparatus of claim 13, wherein the display forming means comprises a color LC matrix display panel having an array of display elements and an array of color filter elements associated with the display array.
KR10-1997-0006580A 1996-02-23 1997-02-24 Autostereoscopic display apparatus KR100429091B1 (en)

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GB9603890.6 1996-02-23
GBGB9603890.6A GB9603890D0 (en) 1996-02-23 1996-02-23 Autostereoscopic display apparatus
GBGB9622157.7A GB9622157D0 (en) 1996-02-23 1996-10-24 Autostereoscopic display apparatus
GB9622157.7 1996-10-24

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KR100796992B1 (en) 2006-06-02 2008-01-22 (주)비노시스 Preventing from generating stain pattern in three dimensional display
KR101378342B1 (en) 2007-12-07 2014-04-14 엘지디스플레이 주식회사 3D image display device

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JP5332978B2 (en) * 2009-07-07 2013-11-06 ソニー株式会社 3D display device
KR20110024970A (en) * 2009-09-03 2011-03-09 삼성전자주식회사 Stereo-scopic image display device
EP2490451A1 (en) * 2011-02-18 2012-08-22 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Autostereoscopic display device

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US4804253A (en) * 1986-05-15 1989-02-14 General Electric Company Lenticular filter for display devices
JPH0244995A (en) * 1988-08-05 1990-02-14 Nippon Telegr & Teleph Corp <Ntt> Optical direction control method for three-dimensional image display device
GB2278223A (en) * 1993-05-21 1994-11-23 Sharp Kk Spatial light modulator and directional display
JPH07219057A (en) * 1994-02-03 1995-08-18 Sanyo Electric Co Ltd Screen for stereoscopic display
GB9513658D0 (en) * 1995-07-05 1995-09-06 Philips Electronics Uk Ltd Autostereoscopic display apparatus

Cited By (2)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
KR100796992B1 (en) 2006-06-02 2008-01-22 (주)비노시스 Preventing from generating stain pattern in three dimensional display
KR101378342B1 (en) 2007-12-07 2014-04-14 엘지디스플레이 주식회사 3D image display device

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GB9603890D0 (en) 1996-04-24
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JP5367046B2 (en) 2013-12-11

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