JPWO2011034205A1 - High frequency coupler - Google Patents

High frequency coupler Download PDF

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Publication number
JPWO2011034205A1
JPWO2011034205A1 JP2011531996A JP2011531996A JPWO2011034205A1 JP WO2011034205 A1 JPWO2011034205 A1 JP WO2011034205A1 JP 2011531996 A JP2011531996 A JP 2011531996A JP 2011531996 A JP2011531996 A JP 2011531996A JP WO2011034205 A1 JPWO2011034205 A1 JP WO2011034205A1
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Prior art keywords
antenna
frequency
antennas
input
frequency coupler
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JP2011531996A
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Japanese (ja)
Inventor
恭 白方
恭 白方
正一 越川
正一 越川
俊祥 葛
俊祥 葛
水谷 浩
浩 水谷
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株式会社ヨコオ
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Priority to JP2009214061 priority Critical
Priority to JP2009214061 priority
Priority to JP2010095516 priority
Priority to JP2010095516 priority
Application filed by 株式会社ヨコオ filed Critical 株式会社ヨコオ
Priority to PCT/JP2010/066474 priority patent/WO2011034205A1/en
Publication of JPWO2011034205A1 publication Critical patent/JPWO2011034205A1/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01PWAVEGUIDES; RESONATORS, LINES, OR OTHER DEVICES OF THE WAVEGUIDE TYPE
    • H01P5/00Coupling devices of the waveguide type
    • H01P5/12Coupling devices having more than two ports
    • H01P5/16Conjugate devices, i.e. devices having at least one port decoupled from one other port
    • H01P5/18Conjugate devices, i.e. devices having at least one port decoupled from one other port consisting of two coupled guides, e.g. directional couplers
    • H01P5/184Conjugate devices, i.e. devices having at least one port decoupled from one other port consisting of two coupled guides, e.g. directional couplers the guides being strip lines or microstrips
    • H01P5/187Broadside coupled lines
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01PWAVEGUIDES; RESONATORS, LINES, OR OTHER DEVICES OF THE WAVEGUIDE TYPE
    • H01P5/00Coupling devices of the waveguide type
    • H01P5/02Coupling devices of the waveguide type with invariable factor of coupling
    • H01P5/022Transitions between lines of the same kind and shape, but with different dimensions
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01PWAVEGUIDES; RESONATORS, LINES, OR OTHER DEVICES OF THE WAVEGUIDE TYPE
    • H01P5/00Coupling devices of the waveguide type
    • H01P5/02Coupling devices of the waveguide type with invariable factor of coupling
    • H01P5/022Transitions between lines of the same kind and shape, but with different dimensions
    • H01P5/028Transitions between lines of the same kind and shape, but with different dimensions between strip lines

Abstract

A high-frequency coupler having a high degree of design freedom that transmits high-frequency power and a high-frequency signal in different circuits apart from each other is realized. High-frequency power can be transferred between the input / output line 14a (14b) and the input / output line connected to one of the circuits with respect to the ground conductor 12a (12b) on a pair of opposed planes. A high-frequency coupler was configured by providing a radioactive antenna 10a (10b). Each of the antennas 10a (10b) on each plane has a radiation resistance that is substantially constant over a desired frequency band and is smaller than the characteristic impedance of the input / output line, and when the other antenna approaches a predetermined value or less, The antenna resonates with the other antenna at any frequency of the band, and the coupling strength between the antennas varies depending on the distance between each antenna and the ground conductor.

Description

  The present invention relates to a high-frequency coupler that enables non-contact power transmission between a plurality of circuits that are spaced apart from each other, and an application device thereof.
As a power supply method for electrical appliances, “contactless power transmission technology” that supplies power wirelessly or wirelessly is drawing attention. In non-contact power transmission, there is no contact between the power transmitting device and the power receiving device, so there is less concern about contact durability, poor contact, short circuit or leakage due to moisture, etc. There is an advantage that it is possible to supply power even in difficult environments.
As the non-contact power transmission technology, three methods of “electromagnetic induction type”, “RF reception type”, and “electric field / magnetic field resonance type” are known.
In the “electromagnetic induction type”, energy is transmitted to the secondary side coil using a magnetic field generated when a current is passed through the primary side coil. While there is an advantage that the transmission efficiency is high, there is a problem that since the change of magnetic flux is used, the coils must be brought close to each other until they are almost in close contact with each other.
In the “RF reception type”, electric power is transmitted using microwaves. An electromagnetic wave is radiated by the transmitting antenna and received by the receiving antenna. However, since energy is radiated to the space, there is a problem that transmission efficiency is low.
The “electric field / magnetic field resonance type” is a power transmission method using electromagnetic resonance by a non-radiation type antenna, that is, coupling by a resonator. In this method, since the transmittable distance depends on the frequency (wavelength), high-efficiency power transmission is possible when the distance between antennas is relatively short, and the problems of the above-mentioned “electromagnetic induction type” and “RF reception type” Is resolved.
This type of transmission method is disclosed in Patent Document 1. The transmission method disclosed in Patent Document 1 is excellent in that it has a wide range of applications such as chip-to-chip connection of high-frequency signal lines and digital signal transmission.
JP 2008-67012 A
However, since the transmission method disclosed in Patent Document 1 uses an open ring type resonator or a spiral type resonator, the shape of the resonator is a shape in which a part of a closed curve line is opened and an open end portion. There are certain restrictions on the structure of the resonator, such as making them close to each other.
Further, in the transmission method disclosed in Patent Document 1, since the coupling strength between the resonators is adjusted by the position of the end of the resonator and the connection position of the input / output line, adjustment is troublesome and can be adjusted. There are certain restrictions on the range as well.
As described above, the conventional contactless transmission technique has a problem that the degree of freedom in design must be sacrificed in order to increase the transmission efficiency.
The present invention has been made in view of the above-described problems, and an object of the present invention is to provide a contactless transmission technique that can increase the degree of freedom in design without sacrificing transmission efficiency.
In order to solve the above problems, the present invention provides a high-frequency coupler that enables non-contact power transmission between a plurality of circuits that are spaced apart.
Each of the high-frequency couplers has a predetermined impedance with respect to a ground conductor, and a predetermined pair of non-radiating antennas capable of transferring high-frequency power to / from an input / output line connected to any one of the circuits. Are arranged in parallel with each other, and each antenna alone has its radiation resistance substantially constant over a desired frequency band and smaller than the impedance, and when the other antenna approaches a predetermined value or less, Electromagnetic resonance occurs with the other antenna at any frequency, and the coupling strength between the antennas varies depending on the distance between each antenna and the ground conductor.
Electromagnetic resonance is an aspect of coupling that occurs when a pair of non-radiating antennas, that is, a pair of antennas having directivity, are brought close to each other in a covered area. The coupling strength when this electromagnetic resonance occurs depends not only on the distance between the antennas and the radiation resistance of each antenna, but also on the gap (distance) between each antenna and the ground conductor.
In the present invention, electromagnetic resonance is caused between the antennas by changing the distance between the pair of antennas and the gap between each antenna and the ground conductor, thereby enabling non-contact power transmission. It is possible to realize a high-frequency coupler having a very high degree of design freedom without the need to design the input / output line positions severely.
More specifically, in the high frequency coupler of the present invention, the electrical length of each antenna is an odd multiple of a quarter wavelength of the high frequency power, and the distance between the antennas is in a transmission medium existing between the antennas. It is 1/20 or less of the wavelength, and the resonance frequency peak is separated during electromagnetic resonance. Alternatively, at least one of the antennas, preferably both, are constituted by a circular antenna or a substantially circular antenna.
Each of the antennas and the input / output lines connected to the antennas are arranged on the same plane, and the input / output lines on one plane are connected to the input lines on the other plane. It is arranged in the farthest part. Thereby, the interference of the high frequency energy (the electric power by the high frequency or the signal component represented by the change of the electric power) can be suppressed.
In one embodiment, the antenna and the input / output line on each plane are configured by any one of a coplanar line, a strip line, a microstrip line, a grounded coplanar line, a suspended microstrip line, or a combination thereof. The Thereby, the high frequency power of one circuit can be efficiently transmitted to the other circuit via the pair of input / output lines and the antenna.
In another embodiment, at least one of the antennas has a three-dimensional structure having a thickness. Furthermore, a matching element may be disposed between the input / output line and the antenna, and may be used to adjust the electrical length of the antenna.
In another embodiment, the antenna and the input / output line are each formed on the surface or inside of a flat dielectric.
In another embodiment, the antenna and the input / output line are formed on the surface or inside of the dielectric made of different materials.
In another embodiment, the shape or size of the antenna on one plane is different from the shape or size of the antenna on the other plane.
The present invention also provides a non-contact power transmission device in which the above-described high-frequency coupler of the present invention is interposed between circuits that are separated from each other, and high-frequency power is transmitted between the circuits via the high-frequency coupler. I will provide a. Examples of the non-contact power transmission device include a non-contact power feeding device, a non-contact high-frequency signal transmission device, a high-frequency bandpass filter, and a non-contact switch.
The present invention uses electromagnetic resonance coupling to obtain strong coupling in a high frequency band above the microwave band, and can adjust the coupling strength between antennas by changing the distance between the non-radiating antenna and the ground conductor. Therefore, it is easy to adjust the transmission efficiency and passband of the high-frequency power, and an effect that the degree of freedom in design is remarkably increased as compared with the conventional high-frequency coupler using a resonator can be obtained.
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of the high-frequency coupler in the first embodiment.
FIG. 2 is a top view of the high-frequency coupler in the first embodiment.
FIG. 3 is a side sectional view of the high-frequency coupler in the first embodiment.
FIG. 4 is a transmission characteristic diagram of the high-frequency coupler in the first embodiment.
FIG. 5 is an input impedance characteristic diagram of a single antenna.
FIGS. 6A to 6D are diagrams showing changes in transmission characteristics of the high-frequency coupler when the gap distance between the antenna and the ground conductor is changed.
FIG. 7 is a diagram showing a change in transmission efficiency when the distance between the antennas is changed.
FIG. 8 is an equivalent circuit of the high-frequency coupler in the first embodiment.
FIG. 9 is a top view of the high-frequency coupler in the second embodiment.
FIGS. 10A to 10D are diagrams showing changes in transmission characteristics of the high-frequency coupler when the gap distance between the antenna and the ground conductor is changed in the second embodiment.
FIG. 11 is a top view of the high-frequency coupler in the third embodiment.
12 (a) to 12 (d) are diagrams showing changes in transmission characteristics of the high frequency coupler when the gap distance between the antenna and the ground conductor is changed in the third embodiment.
FIG. 13 is a perspective view of the high-frequency coupler in the fourth embodiment.
FIG. 14 is a transmission characteristic diagram of the high-frequency coupler in the fourth embodiment.
FIG. 15 is a perspective view of the high-frequency coupler in the fifth embodiment.
FIGS. 16 (a) and 16 (b) are front views of an antenna used in the high frequency coupler of the fifth embodiment.
FIG. 17 is a transmission characteristic diagram of the high-frequency coupler in the fifth embodiment.
FIG. 18A shows a state in which one antenna is fixed and the position of the other antenna is moved in the X direction, and FIG. 18B shows the transmission efficiency at that time.
FIG. 19A shows a state in which one antenna is fixed and the position of the other antenna is moved in the Y direction, and FIG. 19B shows the transmission efficiency at that time.
FIG. 20A shows a state in which one antenna is fixed and the position of the other antenna is rotated by θ, and FIG. 20B shows the transmission efficiency at that time.
21 (a) to 21 (c) are side cross-sectional views of the high-frequency coupler in the sixth embodiment.
22 (a) and 22 (b) are side cross-sectional views of the high frequency coupler in the seventh embodiment.
FIGS. 23A to 23B are side sectional views of the high-frequency coupler according to the seventh embodiment.
FIG. 24 is a top view of the high-frequency coupler in the eighth embodiment.
FIG. 25 is a perspective view of the high-frequency coupler in the eighth embodiment.
FIG. 26 is a transmission characteristic diagram of the high-frequency coupler in the eighth embodiment.
FIG. 27 is a perspective view of a high frequency coupler when the circular antenna shown in the fifth embodiment is used for one of the high frequency couplers in FIG.
FIG. 28 is a transmission characteristic diagram of the high-frequency coupler in FIG.
FIG. 29 is a block diagram showing a configuration example of a non-contact power transmission apparatus to which the high frequency coupler of the present embodiment is applied.
Hereinafter, embodiments of the high-frequency coupler of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings.
[First Embodiment]
FIG. 1 is a perspective view showing a structural example of a high-frequency coupler according to the first embodiment. FIG. 2 is a top view of the high-frequency coupler, and FIG. 3 is a side sectional view of the high-frequency coupler.
The high-frequency coupler of this embodiment is configured by forming antennas 10a and 10b, ground conductors 12a and 12b, and input / output lines 14a and 14b on the front and back planes of the substrate 16 facing in parallel.
As the substrate 16, a dielectric plate having a pair of planes facing each other can be used. In the present embodiment, a sapphire plate having a thickness of 0.2 [mm] and a relative dielectric constant εr of “10” is used. The ground conductors 12a and 12b are, for example, conductor films having a structure in which a central portion is cut out from a whole surface into a predetermined shape. The input / output lines 14a and 14b are lines for transferring high-frequency power to and from the antennas 10a and 10b, and have a structure exhibiting a predetermined impedance with respect to the ground conductors 12a and 12b. In the example of FIGS. 1 to 3, for example, a coplanar structure is used so that the characteristic impedance is 50 [Ω].
The antennas 10a and 10b have a meandering shape in which the elements of the ground conductors 12a and 12b are provided with a predetermined gap at the center of the ground conductors 12a and 12b. One end of the antennas 10a and 10b is opened, and the other end is formed integrally with the input / output lines 14a and 14b. As a result, a non-radiating antenna is realized. The electrical length of the antennas 10a and 10b is approximately ¼ of the wavelength (signal wavelength) of the transmission signal.
When designing an antenna that resonates in the vicinity of 13 [GHz], the dimensions defined as shown in FIG. 2 are as follows.
t1 = 0.1 [mm], t2 = 0.15 [mm], t3 = 0.35 [mm], t4 = 0.9 [mm],
t5 = 0.5 [mm], s1 = 0.25 [mm], s2 = 0.25 [mm], s3 = 0.1 [mm].
As shown in FIGS. 1 and 3, the input / output line 14 a and the input / output line 14 b are disposed at the farthest part in the front and back surfaces of the substrate 16. In the example shown in the drawing, the rectangular substrates 16 are disposed at portions that are 180 degrees different from each other in the longitudinal direction. Accordingly, high-frequency energy can be transmitted from one antenna (for example, the front surface antenna 10a) to the other antenna (for example, the rear surface antenna 10b) without interfering with each other.
In the following description, when it is necessary to distinguish between the front and back surfaces of the substrate 16, the front surface portion is the antenna 10a, the ground conductor 12a, and the input / output line 14a, and the back surface portion is the antenna 10b, the ground conductor 12b, and the input portion. The output line 14b is assumed.
Next, transmission characteristics of the high frequency coupler configured as described above will be described.
FIG. 4 is a transmission characteristic diagram of the high-frequency coupler of this embodiment. A three-dimensional electromagnetic simulator (HFSS manufactured by Ansoft) was used for measurement of transmission characteristics. The vertical axis represents the absolute value [dB] of the S parameter, and the horizontal axis represents the frequency [GHz]. The S parameter is a ratio [dB] of input power and output power at each input terminal, S11 represents reflection characteristics, and S21 represents transmission characteristics.
From FIG. 4, the high frequency coupler of this embodiment has two resonance frequency peak values (resonance points) near 11 [GHz] and 16 [GHz]. As a result, 9 to 20 [ It can be seen that high-efficiency and broadband transmission characteristics are shown in the vicinity of [GHz].
The coupling strength of the pair of antennas 10a and 10b is changed by changing the distance between them, that is, the thickness of the substrate 16 (in the above example, 0.2 [mm]) or the overlapping state of the front and back surfaces.
FIG. 5 is an input impedance characteristic diagram of one antenna, for example, the other antenna, that is, the antenna 10 a on the front surface of the substrate 16 when the antenna 10 b is separated so that the antenna 10 b on the back surface of the substrate 16 does not exist. In this figure, the input impedance characteristic of the antenna is divided into a real part (Real) and an imaginary part (Imaginary). The three-dimensional electromagnetic field simulator was used for the measurement.
According to FIG. 5, the single input impedance of the antenna 10a is 12.5 [GHz] and the imaginary part is 0 and resonates, but the real part (radiation resistance) extends over the entire measurement frequency band. The impedance is about 1 [Ω], which is smaller than the impedance (characteristic impedance (50 [Ω])) of the input / output line 14a with respect to the ground conductor 12a. That is, when it is considered that there is no opposing antenna 10b, the antenna 10a hardly transmits high-frequency power. However, when the antenna 10b is brought close to the antenna 10a, electromagnetic resonance coupling occurs between the antennas 10a and 10b. High frequency power can be transmitted to the antenna 10b.
In order to suppress loss due to radiation, it is desirable that the radiation resistance of the antenna is approximately 1/20 or less of the characteristic impedance.
The coupling strength between the antennas 10a and 10b is also changed by changing the gaps s1 to s3 with the ground conductors 12a and 12b on the respective planes. FIGS. 6A to 6D are transmission characteristic diagrams when the gaps s1 to s3 between the ground conductors 12a and 12b are changed. The vertical axis, horizontal axis, and S parameter are the same as those in FIG.
When the gaps s1 to s3 are relatively small, the coupling between each antenna, for example, the antenna 10a on the front surface portion and the ground conductor 12a is strong, and conversely, the coupling with the antenna 10b on the back surface portion is relatively weak. Is low and the bandwidth is narrow (FIG. 6 (a)). When the gaps s1 to s3 are gradually widened, the coupling between the antenna 10a and the ground conductor 12a is gradually weakened, and the coupling between the antennas is relatively strengthened (FIG. 6 (b)). When the gaps s1 to s3 are further widened, the coupling between the antennas is increased. When the coupling strength (coupling strength) exceeds a certain value, electromagnetic resonance occurs, and the resonance frequency peaks are separated to exhibit high-efficiency and broadband transmission characteristics (FIG. 6 (c)). However, if the resonance frequency peaks are separated too much, the transmission efficiency at the center frequency of the two peaks deteriorates (FIG. 6 (d)). Therefore, it is necessary to appropriately adjust the position of the peak of the resonance frequency.
This means that high-efficiency and broadband characteristics can be realized by changing the coupling strength between the antennas and appropriately adjusting the peak position of the resonance frequency.
When changing the distance between the antennas 10a and 10b, it becomes a problem how much the distance is set.
FIG. 7 is a diagram showing a change in transmission efficiency when the distance between the antennas is changed. The horizontal axis represents distance (1 / λ), and the vertical axis represents transmission efficiency [dB]. λ represents a signal wavelength.
Referring to FIG. 7, it can be seen that high transmission efficiency can be realized within 1/20 of the signal wavelength in the medium of the substrate 16.
The above phenomenon will be described in detail with an equivalent circuit and mathematical expressions.
FIG. 8 is an equivalent circuit of the high-frequency coupler of this embodiment. In FIG. 8, L is the self-inductance of each of the antennas 10a and 10b, C is the capacitance between the antenna 10a and the ground conductor 12a, the antenna 10b and the ground conductor 12b, Lm is the mutual inductance between the opposing antennas, and Cm is Mutual capacitance between opposing antennas. From the resonance conditions, when the imaginary part of the equivalent circuit of FIG. 8 is set to 0, it can be seen that the resonance frequency f is expressed by the following equation, and two resonance frequency peaks appear.
Further, the coupling coefficient k at this time can be expressed as the following equation.
That is, Lm and Cm are adjusted by changing the distance between the antennas 10a and 10b, or C is adjusted by changing the gap and distance between the antenna 10a and the ground conductor 12a and between the antenna 10b and the ground conductor 12b. Thus, a desired bond strength can be obtained.
[Second Embodiment]
In the first embodiment, the antennas 10a and 10b are both meandered, but if the shape and size of the antennas 10a and 10b are adjusted so as to resonate at the frequency used for transmission, they are linear. Any shape such as a spiral shape, a circular shape, and a triangular shape may be used.
For example, FIG. 9 shows an example of a linear antenna 20. The antenna 20 is also formed in the central portion of the ground conductor 22 while securing predetermined gaps s1 to s3 from the ground conductor 22. It is the same as in the first embodiment that one end of the antenna 20 is opened and the other end is formed integrally with the input / output line 24.
The line length of the antenna 20 is desirably an odd multiple of approximately 1/4 of the signal wavelength. However, even if the length is other than that, the electrical length is set to the signal wavelength by adding a matching element to the input / output line 24. It can be set to an odd multiple of about 1/4. The input / output line 24 has a coplanar structure.
The transmission characteristics when the antenna 20 having such a shape is arranged on the front and back surfaces of the same substrate as that used in the first embodiment and measured in the same manner as in the first embodiment are shown in FIGS. Shown in (d). The vertical axis, horizontal axis, and S parameter are the same as those in FIG. It can be seen that by appropriately changing the gap between the antenna 20 and the ground conductor 22, the coupling strength between the antennas can be adjusted, and high-efficiency and broadband transmission characteristics can be obtained.
[Third Embodiment]
FIG. 11 shows an example of a diamond-shaped antenna 30. The antenna 30 is also formed in the central portion of the ground conductor 32 while securing predetermined gaps s1 to s3 with the ground conductor 32. As in the first and second embodiments, one end of the antenna 30 is opened, and the other end is connected to the input / output line 34. The input / output line 34 has a coplanar structure.
The transmission characteristics when the antenna 30 having such a shape is arranged on the front and back surfaces of the same substrate as that used in the first embodiment and measured in the same manner as in the first embodiment are shown in FIGS. Shown in (d). The vertical axis, horizontal axis, and S parameter are the same as those in FIG. It can be seen that by appropriately changing the gap between the antenna 30 and the ground conductor 32, the coupling strength between the antennas can be adjusted, and high-efficiency and broadband transmission characteristics can be obtained.
[Fourth Embodiment]
The shape and size of the pair of antennas facing each other may be different. For example, in FIG. 13, one antenna is the meander antenna 10a described in the first embodiment, and the other antenna is the linear antenna 20b described in the second embodiment. The relationship between the substrate, the antennas 10a and 20a, the ground conductors 12a and 22b, and the input / output lines 14a and 24b is the same as the above-described example. The transmission characteristics at this time are as shown in FIG. 14, and it can be seen that high-efficiency and broadband transmission characteristics can be obtained.
[Fifth Embodiment]
In the first to fourth embodiments, an example of a high-frequency coupler in which a pair of antennas facing each other is formed on the front surface portion and the back surface portion of the same substrate is shown. May be arranged. Further, not only the shape and size of the antenna but also the structure of the input / output lines connected to each antenna may be different from each other.
FIG. 15 is a perspective view showing an example of the high-frequency coupler having such a structure. For convenience, the same reference numerals are used for components that are functionally substantially the same as those in the first to fourth embodiments.
The high frequency coupler illustrated in FIG. 15 is spaced apart so that the planar portions of the pair of substrates 16a and 16b having different sizes face each other. A circular antenna 10a, a ground conductor 12a, and an input / output line 14a are arranged on the same plane on the substrate 16a. The circular antenna 10b, the ground conductor 12b, and the input / output line 14b are also arranged on the same plane on the substrate 16b.
The arrangement structure on the plane of the substrate 16a is as shown in FIG. 16 (a), and the arrangement structure on the plane of the substrate 16b is as shown in FIG. 16 (b). The antenna 10a is a circular antenna with a radius of 7 [mm] in this example, and the antenna 10b is a circular antenna with a radius of 14 [mm] in this example, each having a thickness of 1 [mm] and a relative dielectric constant εr of 3.3. The lengths of the respective input / output lines 14a and 14b are adjusted so as to resonate at 915 [MHz]. These antennas 10a and 10b are opposed to each other with their center axes coincided with each other with a distance of 4 mm between the antennas.
FIG. 17 is a transmission characteristic diagram of the high-frequency coupler based on the above specifications. The vertical axis represents the absolute value [dB] of the S parameter, and the horizontal axis represents the frequency [GHz]. As in the previous embodiments, S11 represents reflection characteristics and S21 represents transmission characteristics. From FIG. 17, the high-frequency coupler of this embodiment has a peak value (resonance point) of the resonance frequency in the vicinity of 0.9 [GHz], and can transmit power with high efficiency. Recognize.
Further, in the high frequency coupler of this embodiment, the antennas 10a and 10b are circular antennas and the occupied area is increased. Therefore, even when the antennas are displaced in the horizontal direction or the rotation direction, the antennas overlap. Therefore, it is possible to transmit a high frequency signal without significantly deteriorating transmission efficiency.
For example, a specific change in transmission efficiency at the resonance frequency 915 [MHz] when the substrate 16a (antenna 10a) is moved while keeping the distance between antennas 4 [mm] and the substrate 16b (antenna 10b) as it is. Explained.
FIG. 18 (a) shows a state in which the substrate 16a (antenna 10a) is moved in the X direction from the central axis of the substrate 16b, and the transmission efficiency characteristics at this time are as shown in FIG. 18 (b). . In FIG. 18 (b), the horizontal axis represents the distance X (mm), and the vertical axis represents the transmission efficiency [dB]. FIG. 19 (a) shows a state in which the substrate 16a (antenna 10a) is moved in the Y direction from the central axis of the substrate 16b, and the transmission efficiency characteristics at this time are as shown in FIG. 19 (b). . In FIG. 19B, the horizontal axis is the distance Y (mm), and the vertical axis is the transmission efficiency [dB]. FIG. 20 (a) shows a state in which the substrate 16a (antenna 10a) is rotated by θ (deg) from the common center of the antennas 10a and 10b, and the transmission efficiency characteristic at this time is shown in FIG. As shown in FIG. 20 (b). In FIG. 20 (b), the horizontal axis represents the angle θ (deg) and the vertical axis represents the transmission efficiency [dB].
According to the fifth embodiment, it is possible to adjust the coupling strength between the antennas by appropriately changing the gap between the antennas 10a and 10b and the ground conductors 12a and 12b as in the first embodiment. In addition, as can be seen from FIGS. 18 to 20, even if the substrate 16a moves in the X direction or Y direction from the central axis, the substrate 16a rotates by θ starting from the common center of the antennas 10a and 10b. Even so, a high-frequency signal can be transmitted over a wide range without significantly impairing transmission efficiency. The same effect can be obtained even if the substrate 16b is moved and / or rotated without moving the substrate 16a.
The antennas 10a and 10b only need to be able to maintain a relatively wide overlap between the antennas, so only one of them may be a circular antenna, or one or both may be substantially circular (having an antenna surface that is considered to be circular). It may be an antenna.
[Sixth Embodiment]
In the first embodiment, an example of a high-frequency coupler in which a pair of antennas 10a and 10b facing each other is formed on the front surface portion and the back surface portion of the same substrate 16 has been shown. For example, the side surface of FIG. As shown in the cross-sectional view, the antennas 10a and 10b may be disposed inside the substrate 16, respectively.
Further, as shown in the side sectional view of FIG. 21 (b), the pair of antennas 10a and 10b may be disposed on different substrates 16a and 16b, respectively.
Furthermore, as shown in FIG. 21 (c), the pair of antennas 10a and 10b may be arranged on planes inside different substrates 16a and 16b, respectively. At that time, the spacer plate 18 may be sandwiched between the antennas 10a and 10b.
The substrates 16a and 16b and the spacer plate 18 are made of a dielectric material or a magnetic material, but may be made of the same material or different materials. The dielectric material is made of, for example, ceramic such as alumina, beryllia, forsterite, steatite, titania, glass ceramic, mullite, zircon, or glass epoxy, Teflon, sapphire, or glass. The magnetic material is made of, for example, ferrite or a metal composite magnetic material. Further, instead of the substrate 16, a configuration in which gas is interposed between the antennas may be employed.
The same applies to the high frequency couplers of the second to fifth embodiments.
[Seventh Embodiment]
In the high frequency coupler described in the first embodiment, the antenna 10a, the ground conductor 12a and the input / output line 14a, and the antenna 10b, the ground conductor 12b and the input / output line 14b are formed on the same plane. However, for example, as shown in the side sectional view of FIG. 22 (a), the antennas 10a and 10b and the input / output line 14a are placed on the plane inside the substrate 16 with a predetermined distance h from the ground conductors 12a and 12b. 14b, and a stripline structure in which the input / output lines 14a and 14b are sandwiched between a pair of ground conductors 12a and 12b, respectively.
Alternatively, as shown in the side sectional view of FIG. 22 (b), the pair of antennas 10a and 10b are arranged on different substrates 16a and 16b, respectively, and the ground conductors 12a and 12b are on the back surface of each substrate. A strip structure may be used.
Alternatively, a coplanar structure with a ground (FIG. 23 (a)), a suspended microstrip line structure (FIG. 23 (b)), or a combination thereof may be used. In this case, the above-described spacer plate 18 may be sandwiched between the antennas 10a and 10b.
The substrates 16a and 16b and the spacer plate 18 may be formed of the same material or different materials, respectively, and may be gas instead of the substrate 16, as in the sixth embodiment. is there. Also in this case, the coupling strength between the antennas can be adjusted by appropriately changing the gap or distance h between the antenna 10a and the ground conductor 12a. Therefore, by adjusting the position of the peak of the resonance frequency appropriately, it is possible to obtain a highly efficient and wide band transmission characteristic.
The same applies to the high frequency couplers of the second to fifth embodiments.
[Eighth Embodiment]
In the first to seventh embodiments, the antennas 10a, 10b, 20, 20b, and 30 are examples of high-frequency couplers formed in a plate shape. However, the shape of the antenna is not limited to this, and the three-dimensional shape is used. It may be.
FIG. 24 shows an example of a cylindrical antenna 40 as a three-dimensional antenna. The antenna 40 is formed so as to protrude in the longitudinal direction of the planar portion of the substrate 46. The antenna 40 is connected to the ground conductor 42 via an input / output line 44 and a matching element 47. The ground conductor 42 is disposed on the plane portion of the substrate 46. The input / output line 44 is connected to the ground conductor 42 and is disposed on the plane portion of the substrate 46. The matching element 47 is connected to the input / output line 44 and is disposed on the plane portion of the substrate 46. Similarly to the antenna 40, the ground conductor 42, the input / output line 44, and the matching element 47 may have a three-dimensional structure having a predetermined thickness.
The line length of the antenna 40 is preferably an odd multiple of approximately 1/4 of the signal wavelength, but the line length can be adjusted by the matching element 47 even if the length is other than that. Also in this case, the coupling strength between the antennas can be adjusted by appropriately changing the gap between the antenna 40 and the ground conductor 42 as in the previous embodiments. For example, the gap can be changed by changing the length of the ground conductor 42 or by bending it. As the matching element 47, for example, a chip coil can be used.
FIG. 25 is a perspective view showing an example in which the antennas 40a and 40b of the high-frequency coupler illustrated in FIG. 24 are arranged in parallel with a predetermined interval. When the high frequency coupler is resonated at 915 [MHz], the antennas 40a and 40b are cylindrical conductors having a diameter of 1 [mm] and a length of 20 [mm], for example. The ground conductors 42a and 42b are, for example, plate conductors of 5 [mm] × 23 [mm], and the matching elements 47a and 47b are, for example, chip coils having an inductance of 88 [nH].
FIG. 26 is a transmission characteristic diagram when the antennas 40a and 40b are spaced apart from each other in parallel by a distance of 7 [mm] in FIG. The vertical axis represents the absolute value [dB] of the S parameter, and the horizontal axis represents the frequency [GHz]. As in the previous embodiments, S11 represents reflection characteristics and S21 represents transmission characteristics. From FIG. 26, the high-frequency coupler of this embodiment has a peak value (resonance point) of the resonance frequency in the vicinity of 0.9 [GHz], and can transmit power with high efficiency. I understand.
FIG. 27 is a perspective view when the circular antenna shown in the fifth embodiment is used as one of the antennas in FIG. The shape and size of the circular antenna are the same as those shown in FIG. FIG. 28 is a transmission characteristic diagram when these high-frequency couplers are opposed to each other with a distance of 7 [mm] between the antennas 10b and 40a. It has a peak value of resonance frequency (resonance point) in the vicinity of 0.9 [GHz], and power transmission is possible with high efficiency.
In addition to the circular antenna, the high frequency coupler of the second embodiment, the high frequency coupler of the third embodiment, or the like may be used as one of the high frequency couplers in FIG. Further, the antenna 40 may be disposed inside a dielectric substrate as in the sixth and seventh embodiments.
[Example of non-contact power transmission device]
The high-frequency coupler of the present invention can be applied, for example, as various contactless power transmission devices that transmit power from the power transmission side to the power reception side in a contactless manner.
Examples of various non-contact power transmission devices will be described below.
[Non-contact power feeding device]
FIG. 29 is a block diagram illustrating a configuration example of a non-contact power feeding device as an example of a non-contact power transmission device. In this non-contact power supply device, a power transmission device 50 on the power supply side includes a power source 51 that outputs power, a signal generation device 52 that generates a signal for transmitting the power, and a high frequency output from the signal generation device 52. And an antenna 53 for transmitting power. On the other hand, the power receiving device 60 that is present apart is provided with an antenna 61 that receives the power transmitted from the power transmitting device 50 and a rectifier circuit 62 that rectifies the received power.
By arranging the antenna 53 of the power transmission device and the antenna 61 of the power reception device to face each other with the distance between the antennas being a distance of 1/20 or less of the signal wavelength in the medium between the antennas, Resonance occurs and power can be transmitted with high transmission efficiency.
For example, when the signal frequency is 1 [GHz], even if the medium between the antennas is a gas, if the distance is within 15 [mm], it is possible to transmit power satisfactorily. Therefore, it can be applied to a charging system for various electrical appliances such as notebook computers and mobile phones.
[Non-contact high-frequency signal transmission device]
The non-contact power transmission device can be implemented as a non-contact high-frequency signal transmission device between circuits that are separated from each other.
That is, the high-frequency coupler of the present invention transmits a microwave or millimeter-wave band high-frequency signal from one circuit to the other circuit in a non-contact manner by electromagnetic resonance. By using the high-frequency coupler of the present invention instead of the through-hole, the through-hole generation cost can be greatly reduced.
In addition, if the high-frequency coupler of the present invention is used instead of a bonding wire used for connecting, for example, a semiconductor or an LSI, the man-hour for hitting the wire can be reduced, and further, characteristic deterioration due to reflection in the wire portion can be reduced. Can be prevented.
[High-frequency bandpass filter]
The non-contact power transmission device can also be implemented as an ultra-wideband bandpass filter for a high-frequency circuit operating in the microwave or millimeter wave band. As described above, the non-contact power transmission device has wideband transmission characteristics because the coupling strength between the opposing antennas can be changed and the peak position of the resonance frequency can be adjusted appropriately.
Therefore, for example, by inserting a non-contact power transmission device between a modulator of a UWB (Ultra Wide Band) communication device and a high-frequency amplifier, it can be used as an ultra-wideband bandpass filter.
[Non-contact switch]
The non-contact power transmission device can be implemented as a non-contact switch.
As described above, when the antennas facing each other are less than a certain distance, high-frequency energy is transmitted well by electromagnetic resonance, so this characteristic is used to physically move the distance between the antennas closer to or away from each other. Thus, for example, it can be used as a non-contact switch for switching ON / OFF of the power supply of the electric appliance.
Since this non-contact switch has no physical contact, it is possible to prevent characteristic deterioration due to wear or metal fatigue, which is a disadvantage of the conventional contact switch.

Claims (11)

  1. A high-frequency coupler that enables non-contact power transmission between a plurality of circuits that are spaced apart from each other,
    A pair of non-radiating antennas each having a predetermined impedance with respect to the ground conductor and capable of transferring high-frequency power to / from an input / output line connected to any one of the circuits are arranged in parallel at predetermined intervals. And
    Each antenna alone has its radiation resistance substantially constant over a desired frequency band and smaller than the impedance, and when the other antenna approaches a predetermined value or less, the other antenna at any frequency in the frequency band. Electromagnetic resonance with the antennas, and the coupling strength between the antennas varies depending on the distance between each antenna and the ground conductor.
    High frequency coupler.
  2. The electrical length of each antenna is an odd multiple of a quarter wavelength of the high-frequency power, the distance between the antennas is 1/20 or less of the wavelength in the transmission medium existing between the antennas, and the resonance frequency during electromagnetic resonance The peaks are separated,
    The high frequency coupler according to claim 1.
  3. At least one of the antennas is composed of a circular antenna or a substantially circular antenna.
    The high frequency coupler according to claim 1.
  4. Each antenna and the input / output line connected to the antenna are arranged on the same plane, and the input / output line on one plane is farthest from the input line on the other plane. Arranged in the site,
    The high frequency coupler according to claim 2 or claim 3.
  5. The antenna and the input / output line on each plane are configured by any of a coplanar line, a strip line, a microstrip line, a grounded coplanar line, a suspended microstrip line, or a combination thereof.
    The high frequency coupler according to claim 4.
  6. At least one of the antennas has a three-dimensional structure having a thickness,
    The high-frequency coupler according to claim 2 or 3.
  7. A matching element for adjusting the electrical length of the antenna is disposed between the input / output line and the antenna.
    The high frequency coupler according to claim 6.
  8. The antenna and the input / output line are respectively formed on the surface of the dielectric or the internal plane.
    The high frequency coupler according to claim 5 or 6.
  9. The antenna and the input / output line are formed on the surface of the dielectric or the plane inside the different materials,
    The high frequency coupler according to claim 8.
  10. The shape or size of the antenna on one plane is different from the shape or size of the antenna on the other plane,
    The high frequency coupler according to claim 8 or 9.
  11. The high-frequency coupler according to any one of claims 1 to 10 is interposed between circuits that are spaced apart, and high-frequency power is transmitted between the circuits via the high-frequency coupler.
    Non-contact power transmission device.
JP2011531996A 2009-09-16 2010-09-15 High frequency coupler Pending JPWO2011034205A1 (en)

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WO2012153531A1 (en) 2011-05-11 2012-11-15 パナソニック株式会社 Electromagnetic resonance coupler
US20150008767A1 (en) * 2012-03-30 2015-01-08 Hiroshi Shinoda Insulated transmission medium and insulated transmission apparatus
DE102013110698A1 (en) 2012-09-28 2014-04-03 Denso Corporation Wireless power supply device, filter unit and power supply device for a computer using the filter unit
DE102012110787B4 (en) * 2012-11-09 2015-05-13 Sma Solar Technology Ag Coupling structure for galvanically isolated signal transmission, communication structure and inverter
JP6126883B2 (en) * 2013-03-26 2017-05-10 株式会社Soken Filter device and power supply device for robot using the same
JP2016154315A (en) * 2015-02-20 2016-08-25 宇部興産株式会社 Radio transmission device
FR3082046A1 (en) * 2018-05-30 2019-12-06 Commissariat A L'energie Atomique Et Aux Energies Alternatives INTEGRATED CIRCUIT COMPRISING AN INDUCTANCE

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JPH05211402A (en) * 1992-01-31 1993-08-20 Furukawa Electric Co Ltd:The Distributed constant type circuit
JPH10135708A (en) * 1996-10-24 1998-05-22 Kyocera Corp Filter for branching device
JP2008067012A (en) * 2006-09-06 2008-03-21 Univ Of Tokushima High frequency signal transmission device

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JP2003218610A (en) * 2002-01-17 2003-07-31 Mitsubishi Electric Corp High frequency line
JP2003309425A (en) * 2003-02-17 2003-10-31 Tdk Corp Patch antenna

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JPH05211402A (en) * 1992-01-31 1993-08-20 Furukawa Electric Co Ltd:The Distributed constant type circuit
JPH10135708A (en) * 1996-10-24 1998-05-22 Kyocera Corp Filter for branching device
JP2008067012A (en) * 2006-09-06 2008-03-21 Univ Of Tokushima High frequency signal transmission device

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