JPWO2006106767A1 - Transmission line pair and transmission line group - Google Patents

Transmission line pair and transmission line group Download PDF

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JPWO2006106767A1
JPWO2006106767A1 JP2006524146A JP2006524146A JPWO2006106767A1 JP WO2006106767 A1 JPWO2006106767 A1 JP WO2006106767A1 JP 2006524146 A JP2006524146 A JP 2006524146A JP 2006524146 A JP2006524146 A JP 2006524146A JP WO2006106767 A1 JPWO2006106767 A1 JP WO2006106767A1
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transmission line
transmission
signal
direction
signal conductor
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JP3984638B2 (en
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菅野 浩
浩 菅野
崎山 一幸
一幸 崎山
寒川 潮
潮 寒川
藤島 丈泰
丈泰 藤島
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松下電器産業株式会社
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01PWAVEGUIDES; RESONATORS, LINES, OR OTHER DEVICES OF THE WAVEGUIDE TYPE
    • H01P3/00Waveguides; Transmission lines of the waveguide type
    • H01P3/02Waveguides; Transmission lines of the waveguide type with two longitudinal conductors
    • H01P3/08Microstrips; Strip lines
    • H01P3/081Microstriplines

Abstract

A first signal conductor disposed on one surface of a substrate formed of a dielectric or a semiconductor and curved in a first rotation direction within the surface; and a direction opposite to the first rotation direction A second signal conductor formed on the surface so as to be curved in the second rotation direction and disposed in series with the first signal conductor on the surface, and at least the first signal conductor Two comprising a transmission direction reversing unit that includes a part of the signal conductor and a part of the second signal conductor and that transmits a signal in a direction reversed with respect to the transmission direction of the signal in the entire transmission line. By maintaining a transmission line pair in which the transmission lines are arranged adjacent to each other in parallel to the signal transmission direction in the entire transmission line, good isolation characteristics can be maintained.

Description

  The present invention relates to a transmission line pair or transmission line group in which transmission lines for transmitting analog high-frequency signals such as microwave bands and millimeter wave bands or digital signals can be coupled to each other in pairs, and such transmission line pairs. Relates to a high frequency circuit including

  FIG. 26A shows a schematic cross-sectional configuration of a microstrip line used as a transmission line in such a conventional high-frequency circuit. As shown in FIG. 26A, a signal conductor 103 is formed on the surface of a substrate 101 made of a dielectric or semiconductor, and a ground conductor layer 105 is formed on the back surface of the substrate 101. When high frequency power is input to the microstrip line, an electric field is generated from the signal conductor 103 toward the ground conductor layer 105, and a magnetic field is generated in a direction surrounding the signal conductor 103 perpendicular to the electric field lines. The high frequency power is propagated in the length direction in which the field is orthogonal to the width direction of the signal conductor 103. In the microstrip line, the signal conductor 103 and the ground conductor layer 105 are not necessarily formed on the front surface and the back surface of the substrate 101. If the substrate 101 is realized as a multilayer circuit board, the signal conductor 103 and the ground conductor layer 105 are formed. Can be formed in the inner layer conductor surface of the circuit board.

  What has been described above relates to a transmission line in the case of transmitting a single-ended signal. As shown in the cross-sectional view of FIG. 26B, two microstrip line structures are arranged in parallel and each has an opposite phase signal. Can be used as a differential signal transmission line. In this case, since a signal having an opposite phase flows through the pair of signal conductors 103a and 103b, the ground conductor layer 105 can be omitted.

  27A shows a cross-sectional structure thereof, and FIG. 27B shows a top view thereof. In a conventional analog circuit or high-speed digital circuit, two or more transmission lines 102a and 102b are adjacent to each other and arranged in parallel. Are often arranged at a high density, and a crosstalk phenomenon occurs between adjacent transmission lines, often resulting in a problem of isolation degradation. As shown in Non-Patent Document 1, the origin of the crosstalk phenomenon can be found in both the mutual inductance and the mutual capacitance.

  Here, using the dielectric substrate 101 as a circuit board, FIG. 28 (a perspective view corresponding to the configuration of FIGS. 27A and 27B), which is a perspective view of a pair of transmission lines arranged close to each other in parallel, The principle of crosstalk signal generation will be described. The two linear transmission lines 102a and 102b are arranged close to and in parallel with each other on the surface 281 of the dielectric substrate 101 with the ground conductor 105 formed on the back surface of the dielectric substrate 101 as the ground conductor portion. The two signal conductors are configured as signal conductor portions. When both ends of these transmission lines 102a and 102b are terminated by resistors (not shown), the two transmission lines 102a and 102b should be replaced with closed current loops 293a and 293b through which current flows, respectively. This makes it possible to understand the high-frequency circuit characteristics of the two transmission lines 102a and 102b.

  As shown in FIG. 28, the current loops 293a and 293b include a signal conductor that conducts current on the front surface 281 of the dielectric substrate 101, a ground conductor 105 on the back surface of the substrate through which return current flows, and a perpendicular to the dielectric substrate 101. It is comprised by the resistance element (not shown) which connects both conductors to a direction. Here, the resistance element introduced in such a circuit (that is, in the current loop) is not a physical element but may be a virtual one in which a resistance component is distributed along the signal conductor, and the characteristic impedance of the transmission line. Can be thought of as having the same value as.

  Next, the crosstalk phenomenon that occurs when a high-frequency signal flows in each current loop 293a will be specifically described with reference to FIG. First, when the high frequency current 853 flows in the direction of the arrow in the figure in the current loop 293a as the high frequency signal is transmitted, the high frequency magnetic field 855 is generated by linking the current loop 293a. Since the two transmission lines 102a and 102b are arranged close to each other, the high-frequency magnetic field 855 also links the current loop 293b of the transmission line 102b, and an induced current 857 flows in the current loop 293b. This is the principle of the crosstalk signal expression caused by the mutual inductance.

  Based on the above principle, the direction of the induced current 857 generated in the current loop 293b is the terminal opposite to the high-frequency current 853 in the current loop 293a (that is, the terminal on the front side in the figure). It flows toward. Since the strength of the high-frequency magnetic field 855 depends on the loop area of the current loop 293a, and the strength of the induced current 857 depends on the strength of the high-frequency magnetic field 855 interlinking the current loop 293b, it is constituted by two transmission lines 102a and 102b. The crosstalk signal strength increases as the coupled line length Lcp of the transmission line pair increases.

  In addition to the crosstalk phenomenon caused by the mutual inductance described above, another crosstalk signal is also induced in the transmission line 102b due to the mutual capacitance generated between the two signal conductors. The crosstalk signal generated by the mutual capacitance has no directionality and is generated with the same intensity on both the far end side and the near end side. Here, the current element generated in the transmission line pair accompanying the crosstalk phenomenon during high-speed signal transmission is shown in the schematic explanatory diagram of FIG. As shown in FIG. 29, when the voltage Vo is applied to the terminal 106a on the left side of the transmission line 102a, a high-frequency current element Io flows through the transmission line 102a along with the high-frequency component included in the pulse rising portion. The difference between the current Ic caused by the mutual capacitance caused by the high-frequency current element Io and the current Ii caused by the mutual inductance is used as a crosstalk current, and the crosstalk terminal 106d on the far end side of the adjacently disposed transmission line 102b. Flow into. On the other hand, a crosstalk current corresponding to the sum of the currents Ic and Ii flows into the crosstalk terminal 106c on the near end side. In such a condition where the transmission line pairs are arranged close to each other at a high density, the current Ii is generally stronger than the current Ic, so that it is opposite to the sign of the voltage Vo applied to the terminal 106a. A negative-sign crosstalk voltage Vf having a sign is observed at the far-end side crosstalk terminal 106d. Therefore, in order to suppress the effect of crosstalk, it is necessary to reduce the mutual inductance.

Here, an example of typical crosstalk characteristics in a conventional transmission line will be described. For example, as shown in FIGS. 27A and 27B, on the surface of a dielectric substrate 101 made of a resin material having a dielectric constant of 3.8, a thickness H = 250 μm and the entire back surface being a ground conductor layer 105, a wiring width W = A high-frequency circuit having a structure in which two signal conductors of 100 μm, that is, transmission lines 102a and 102b are arranged in parallel with the distance G between wirings set to 650 μm, and a coupled line length Lcp of 5 mm is manufactured as Conventional Example 1, Lcp Is a conventional example 2. A wiring interval D which is an arrangement interval between the two transmission lines 102a and 102b is G + (W / 2) × 2 = 750 μm. Each signal conductor was a copper wiring having a conductivity of 3 × 10 8 S / m and a thickness of 20 μm.

  With respect to the high-frequency circuit structures of the conventional examples 1 and 2, the forward direction characteristics (terminal 106a to terminal 106b) in the four-terminal measurement and the far-end direction isolation characteristics (terminal 106a to terminal 106d). This will be described below with reference to a graph in the form of a graph showing the frequency dependence of the isolation characteristics of the high-frequency circuits of Conventional Examples 1 and 2 shown in FIG. In the graph of FIG. 30, the horizontal axis indicates the frequency (GHz), and the vertical axis indicates the isolation characteristic S41 (dB).

  As shown in the isolation characteristic S41 of FIG. 30, the crosstalk intensity increases as the frequency increases. Specifically, in the conventional example 1 (Lcp = 5 mm) indicated by a thin line in the figure, the isolation characteristic is 30 dB in a frequency band of 5 GHz or more, 25 dB in a frequency band of 10 GHz or more, and 20 dB in a frequency band of 20 GHz or more. It turns out that it is not satisfactory. In addition, in the conventional example 2 (Lcp = 50 mm) indicated by the solid line in the figure, it is not possible to secure an isolation of 12 dB in the frequency band of 5 GHz or higher, 7 dB in the frequency band of 10 GHz or higher, and even 3 dB in the frequency band of 20 GHz or higher. I understand. The crosstalk intensity tends to increase monotonously as the signal handled in this way becomes higher in frequency and further as the coupled line length Lcp becomes longer. Even when the arrangement interval D is reduced, the crosstalk intensity increases monotonously.

Introduction to Signal Integrity (CQ Publisher 2002) pp. 79

  However, the conventional microstrip line has the following fundamental problems.

  The forward crosstalk phenomenon that occurs when a plurality of conventional microstrip lines are arranged in parallel can cause malfunction of the circuit from the following two viewpoints. First, since an unexpected decrease in signal strength occurs at an output terminal to which a terminal to which a transmission signal is input is connected, a circuit malfunction occurs. Secondly, among the wideband frequency components included in the transmission signal, the leakage strength is particularly high with higher frequency components, so the crosstalk signal has a very sharp peak on the time axis, and adjacent transmissions. A malfunction occurs in the circuit to which the line is connected. In particular, such a crosstalk phenomenon becomes prominent when the coupled line length Lcp is set over 0.5 times or more the effective wavelength λg of the electromagnetic wave of the high frequency component included in the transmitted signal.

  In the high-frequency circuit of Conventional Example 2 described above, when a pulse having a rise time, a fall time of 50 picoseconds, and a pulse voltage of 1 V is input to the terminal 106a, the crosstalk waveform observed at the terminal 106d on the far end side is shown in FIG. Show. FIG. 31 shows voltage (V) on the vertical axis and time (nsec) on the horizontal axis. As shown in FIG. 31, the absolute value of the observed crosstalk voltage Vf reached 175 mV. Note that the sign of the crosstalk signal corresponding to the rising of the positive sign pulse voltage is reversed, as described above, because the crosstalk current Ii induced by the mutual inductance is the effect of the mutual capacitance. This is due to the fact that the intensity was stronger than the crosstalk current Ic generated by the above.

  However, on the other hand, in order to meet the strict demands for circuit miniaturization from the market, high-frequency circuits are arranged in a dense arrangement in which the distance between adjacent circuits, that is, the distance between transmission lines, is shortened as much as possible by using fine circuit formation technology. Needs to be realized. Also, in general, with the diversification of applications that handle not only audio data but also image data and moving image data, the size of semiconductor chips and boards is becoming larger and larger, so wiring is routed adjacently between circuits. As a result, the coupled line length of the parallel coupled line continues to increase. Furthermore, with the increase in transmission signal speed, even the parallel coupled line length allowed in the conventional high-frequency circuit effectively increases the line length, and the crosstalk phenomenon is becoming prominent. That is, in the conventional transmission line technology, there is a problem that it is difficult to satisfy the demand while it is required to form a high-frequency circuit that maintains high isolation in a high-frequency band with a small area.

  Accordingly, an object of the present invention is to solve the above problems, and maintain good isolation characteristics in a transmission line pair for transmitting analog high frequency signals such as microwave bands and millimeter wave bands, or digital signals. Another object of the present invention is to provide a transmission line pair and a transmission line group that can be used.

  In order to achieve the above object, the present invention is configured as follows.

According to the first aspect of the present invention, the first signal conductor is disposed on one surface of the substrate formed of a dielectric or semiconductor and is formed to bend in the first rotation direction within the surface. ,
A second signal conductor formed so as to bend in a second rotation direction opposite to the first rotation direction, and disposed in series with the first signal conductor on the surface. And
A transmission direction reversing unit that includes at least a part of the first signal conductor and a part of the second signal conductor and transmits a signal in a direction reversed with respect to the transmission direction of the signal in the entire transmission line; Provided is a transmission line pair in which two configured transmission lines are arranged adjacent to and parallel to the signal transmission direction in the entire transmission line.

  That is, in the two transmission lines, the linear first signal conductor is formed to bend in the first rotation direction, and the end of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor are formed. The rotation direction reversal structure is configured by electrically connecting the first signal conductor and bending the linear second signal conductor in the second rotation direction.

  Here, the “rotation direction reversal structure” is an electrically continuous line formed by a linear signal conductor, and the direction (direction) of a signal transmitted through the line is defined by the first direction. The track has a structure that is reversed from the rotation direction to the second rotation direction.

  Further, each transmission line includes at least a part of the first signal conductor and a part of the second signal conductor, or another signal conductor, and is inverted with respect to the signal transmission direction in the transmission line. A “transmission direction reversing unit” is formed to transmit a signal in the directed direction.

  By adopting the transmission line pair of the first aspect, it is possible to reduce the mutual inductance between adjacent transmission lines, and the crosstalk strength can be reduced. Moreover, in the rotation direction reversal structure in the transmission line, since the signal conductor is formed to be bent at least twice in different directions, locally with respect to the transmission direction of the signal as a whole transmission line. The structure is such that high-frequency current is guided in different directions. In the conventional transmission line, the cause of increasing the mutual inductance that is the cause of crosstalk is that a high-frequency current always flows in a direction parallel to the adjacent transmission line, so the high-frequency magnetic field generated in one transmission line is always There is an arrangement relationship between the two transmission lines that the adjacent transmission lines are also linked. However, as the local direction in which the current proceeds in the adjacent transmission line is shifted from the parallel relationship, the condition where the high-frequency magnetic field generated in one transmission line and the adjacent transmission line are linked is eased. Further, by tilting the local traveling direction of the transmission line more than 90 degrees, the current loop formed by the transmission line is locally divided and the area is limited, so that the mutual inductance can be effectively reduced. It becomes possible. Therefore, in the configuration of the transmission line of the first aspect, the mutual inductance with the adjacent transmission line can be reduced and the amount of crosstalk can be reduced.

  In addition, by providing a transmission direction reversing unit that reverses the transmission direction of the signal, the transmission direction reversing unit generates an induced current in the opposite direction, and the amount of induced current generated in the entire transmission line. Can be reduced, and the amount of crosstalk can be further reduced.

  According to the 2nd aspect of this invention, each said transmission line provides the transmission line pair as described in a 1st aspect which has the same line length.

  According to a third aspect of the present invention, in the first aspect, the distance between the centers of the wiring areas of the respective transmission lines is set to 1.1 to 2 times the width of the wiring area of the transmission lines. A transmission line pair is provided.

  According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, there is provided the transmission line pair according to the first aspect, wherein the respective transmission lines are arranged mirror-symmetric with each other.

  According to the fifth aspect of the present invention, the respective transmission lines have the same line shape, and the respective transmission lines translate one transmission line in a direction perpendicular to the transmission direction of the signal. The transmission line pair according to the first aspect having the arrangement relationship is provided.

  According to the sixth aspect of the present invention, each of the transmission lines has the same line shape, and each of the transmission lines has a transmission direction of the signal and a direction perpendicular to the transmission direction of the signal. The transmission line pair according to the first aspect having an arrangement relationship in which one of the transmission lines is translated is provided.

  According to a seventh aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, the transmission line according to the first aspect, wherein each of the curved shapes of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor is an arc shape. Offer a pair.

  According to the eighth aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor with respect to the center of the connection portion between the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor. A transmission line pair according to the first aspect is provided in which the signal conductors are arranged point-symmetrically.

  According to a ninth aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, each of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor has the curved shape having a rotation angle of 180 degrees or more. The transmission line pair described in 1. is provided.

  According to the tenth aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, the transmission direction reversing unit has a direction having an angle of more than 90 degrees with respect to the transmission direction of the signal in the entire transmission line. A transmission line pair according to the first aspect as a direction is provided.

  According to an eleventh aspect of the present invention, in the tenth aspect, the transmission direction inverting unit sets a direction having an angle of 180 degrees with respect to the transmission direction of the signal in the entire transmission line. A transmission line pair is provided.

  According to the twelfth aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, the third signal conductor (signal conductor for interconductor connection) that electrically connects the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor. The transmission line pair according to the first aspect is provided that includes the third signal conductor and includes the transmission direction inversion unit.

  According to the thirteenth aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor are connected via a dielectric, and the dielectric and the first signal conductor are connected. And a transmission line pair according to a first aspect in which a capacitor structure is formed by the second signal conductor.

  According to the fourteenth aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor are each set to a non-resonant line length at the frequency of the transmission signal. A transmission line pair according to an aspect is provided.

  According to a fifteenth aspect of the present invention, there is provided the transmission line pair according to the twelfth aspect, wherein the third signal conductor is set to a non-resonant line length at the frequency of the transmission signal.

  According to the sixteenth aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, the rotation direction inversion structure configured by electrically connecting the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor is the transmission line. A transmission line pair according to the first aspect, which is connected in series with respect to the entire signal transmission direction, is provided.

  According to a seventeenth aspect of the present invention, there is provided the transmission line pair according to the sixteenth aspect, wherein the adjacent rotating direction inversion structures are connected by a fourth signal conductor.

  According to an eighteenth aspect of the present invention, there is provided the transmission line pair according to the seventeenth aspect, wherein the fourth signal conductor is arranged in a direction different from a signal transmission direction in the entire transmission line.

  According to the nineteenth aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, the plurality of rotational direction inversion structures are arranged over an effective line length of 0.5 times or more of an effective wavelength at the frequency of the transmission signal. A transmission line pair according to 16th aspect is provided.

  According to the twentieth aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, the sixteenth aspect in which the plurality of rotation direction inversion structures are arranged over an effective line length that is one or more times the effective wavelength at the frequency of the transmission signal. The transmission line pair described in 1. is provided.

  According to a twenty-first aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, the sixteenth aspect in which the plurality of rotational direction inversion structures are arranged over an effective line length that is at least twice the effective wavelength at the frequency of the transmission signal. The transmission line pair described in 1. is provided.

  According to the twenty-second aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, the sixteenth aspect in which the plurality of rotation direction inversion structures are arranged over an effective line length that is five times or more the effective wavelength at the frequency of the transmission signal. The transmission line pair described in 1. is provided.

  According to a twenty-third aspect of the present invention, there is provided a transmission line group that provides a differential signal to at least one pair of the transmission line pairs described in the first aspect and functions as a differential transmission line.

  If the plurality of rotational direction inversion structures are connected in series as in the sixteenth aspect to form a transmission line, the advantageous effects of the present invention can be continuously provided to the transmission signal. The plurality of rotating direction reversal structures may be directly connected, or may be connected by a fourth signal conductor as in the seventeenth aspect. .

  As in the nineteenth aspect and the twentieth aspect, if the rotation direction inversion structure is continuously arranged over the effective line length of 0.5 times or more, more preferably 1 time or more of the effective wavelength at the frequency of the transmission signal, In the transmission line pair of the present invention, the crosstalk suppressing effect can be enhanced. Further, as in the twenty-first and twenty-second aspects, if the rotational direction inversion structure is continuously arranged over an effective line length of 2 times or more, more preferably 5 times or more of the effective wavelength at the frequency of the transmission signal, In the transmission line pair of the present invention, the effect of suppressing crosstalk with the adjacent transmission line structure can be further enhanced.

  In the transmission line pair of the present invention, the first and second signal conductors, the third signal conductor, and the fourth signal conductor each have a short line length with respect to the wavelength of the electromagnetic wave to be transmitted. It is preferable to set it in order to avoid resonance of the transmission signal. Specifically, the effective line length of each structure is preferably set to less than ¼ of the effective wavelength of the electromagnetic wave at the frequency of the transmission signal.

  Further, in the rotation direction reversal structure of the transmission line pair of the present invention, the connection portion of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor, or the connection of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor. The first signal conductor and the second signal conductor are preferably arranged in a rotationally symmetrical relationship with the center of the third signal conductor as the rotation axis. Even if it is difficult to maintain rotational symmetry for some reason, the advantageous effects of the present invention can be obtained by equalizing the number of rotations Nr of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor.

  Further, by setting the third signal conductor and the fourth signal conductor in a direction that is not completely parallel to the transmission direction of the signal as the entire transmission line, adjacent transmission lines at both signal conductor locations. Therefore, the advantageous effects of the present invention can be further enhanced.

  In addition, by arranging two transmission lines of the present invention adjacent to each other, the crosstalk strength can always be reduced as compared with the case where the same number of transmission lines are arranged adjacently at the same wiring density. The relationship between the two transmission lines may be a parallel relationship translated in a direction perpendicular to the signal transmission direction or a mirror symmetry relationship. Further, the crosstalk intensity can be further reduced by further translating one of the two lines in parallel relation or mirror symmetry relation in the signal transmission direction. The optimum additional translational distance is half of the set period of a plurality of rotational direction reversal structures.

  Further, if two transmission lines of the present invention are arranged adjacent to each other and signals having opposite phases are given to both transmission lines, the differential signal transmission line can have the advantageous effects of the present invention. In this case, by disposing the two transmission lines in a mirror-symmetrical relationship, unnecessary mode conversion from the differential transmission mode to the common mode can be avoided. Further, when two or more differential signal line pairs using two transmission lines of the present invention are arranged, for the same reason, each differential signal line pair is arranged in a mirror symmetry relationship. It is practically preferable.

According to the transmission line pair of the present invention, generation of unnecessary crosstalk signals to adjacent transmission lines can be avoided, so that it is possible to provide a high frequency circuit with extremely high wiring density, small area, and few malfunctions even at high speed operation. It becomes.

These and other objects and features of the invention will become apparent from the following description taken in conjunction with the preferred embodiments with reference to the accompanying drawings. In this drawing, FIG. 1 is a schematic perspective view of a transmission line pair according to an embodiment of the present invention. 2A is a schematic plan view of one transmission line of the transmission line pair of FIG. 2B is a schematic cross-sectional view taken along line A1-A2 in the transmission line of FIG. 2A. FIG. 3 is a schematic plan view showing one transmission line in a transmission line pair according to a modification of the embodiment, and is a diagram showing a configuration in which a plurality of rotation direction inversion structures are connected in series. FIG. 4 is a schematic plan view showing one transmission line in the transmission line pair according to the modification of the embodiment, and is a diagram showing a configuration in which the number of rotations of the rotation direction inversion configuration is set to 0.75. Yes, FIG. 5 is a schematic plan view showing one transmission line in the transmission line pair according to the modification of the embodiment, and is a diagram showing a configuration in which the number of rotations of the rotation direction inversion configuration is set to 1.5. Yes, FIG. 6 is a schematic plan view showing one transmission line in a transmission line pair according to a modification of the embodiment, and is a diagram showing a configuration including a third signal conductor and a fourth signal conductor, FIG. 7 is a schematic plan view showing one transmission line in a transmission line pair according to a modification of the embodiment, and is a diagram showing a configuration having a capacitor structure; FIG. 8 is a schematic explanatory diagram for explaining the conditions satisfied by the current loop in the transmission line pair of the above embodiment, FIG. 9 is a schematic explanatory view showing the direction of the high-frequency current that travels locally in the transmission line pair of the embodiment, FIG. 10 is a schematic plan view showing one transmission line in a transmission line pair according to a modification of the above embodiment, and shows a configuration in which the rotation direction in the adjacent rotation direction inversion configuration is set in the reverse direction. And FIG. 11 is a schematic plan view showing a configuration in which the rotation direction in the adjacent rotation direction inversion configuration is set in the same direction in the configuration of the transmission line in FIG. FIG. 12 is a schematic diagram in a graph format showing a comparison of the wiring density dependence of the crosstalk strength of an example transmission line pair of the present invention, a transmission line pair of a comparative example, and a conventional transmission line pair, FIG. 13A is a schematic plan view showing one transmission line in a transmission line pair according to a modification of the embodiment, and is a diagram showing a configuration in which a dielectric substrate is set thick; FIG. 13B is a schematic plan view showing a configuration in which the dielectric substrate is set thinner than the transmission line of FIG. 13A. FIG. 14A is a schematic plan view showing a configuration of a transmission line pair according to a modification of the embodiment, in which both transmission lines are in a translational arrangement relationship; FIG. 14B is a schematic plan view showing a configuration of a transmission line pair according to a modified example of the embodiment, in which both transmission lines have a mirror-symmetric arrangement relationship; FIG. 15 is a schematic plan view showing a configuration of a transmission line pair according to a modification of the above-described embodiment, in which one transmission line is further translated in the signal transmission direction from the configuration of FIG. 14A. , FIG. 16 is a schematic plan view showing a configuration used as a differential transmission line in a transmission line pair according to a modification of the embodiment, FIG. 17 is a diagram illustrating the frequency dependence of the isolation characteristics of the transmission line pair of Comparative Example 1 and the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 1 for Examples 1 and 2 of the above embodiment, and Comparative Example 1 for these examples. FIG. 18 is a diagram illustrating the frequency dependence of the pass group delay characteristics of the transmission line pairs of Examples 1 and 2 and Comparative Example 1 and the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 1, FIG. 19 is a diagram illustrating the frequency dependence of the isolation characteristics of the transmission line pairs of Examples 2 and 2-2 and the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 2A. FIG. 20 is a diagram illustrating the frequency dependence of the pass group delay characteristics of the transmission line pairs of Examples 2 and 2-2 and the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 2A. FIG. 21A is a diagram showing the wiring interval D dependency (frequency 10 GHz) of the crosstalk strength of the transmission line pair of Comparative Example 1 and the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 1; FIG. 21B is a diagram showing the wiring interval D dependency (frequency 20 GHz) of the crosstalk strength of the transmission line pair of Comparative Example 1 and the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 1, FIG. 22A is a diagram showing the wiring interval D dependency (frequency 10 GHz) of the crosstalk strength of the transmission line pair of Example 2 and the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 1; FIG. 22B is a diagram showing the wiring interval D dependency (frequency 20 GHz) of the crosstalk strength of the transmission line pair of Example 2 and the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 1; FIG. 23A is a diagram showing the wiring interval D dependency (frequency 10 GHz) of the crosstalk strength of the transmission line pair of Example 2-3 and the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 1; FIG. 23B is a diagram illustrating the wiring interval D dependency (frequency 20 GHz) of the crosstalk strength of the transmission line pair of Example 2-3 and the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 1, FIG. 24 is a diagram illustrating the frequency dependence of the crosstalk strength of the transmission line pair of Example 2-4 and the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 2, FIG. 25 is a diagram showing a crosstalk voltage waveform observed at the far-end crosstalk terminal when a pulse is applied to the transmission line pair of Example 2-4 and the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 2. FIG. 26A is a diagram showing a transmission line cross-sectional structure of a conventional transmission line, in the case of single-ended transmission, FIG. 26B is a diagram showing a transmission line cross-sectional structure of a conventional transmission line pair, in the case of differential signal transmission, FIG. 27A is a schematic cross-sectional view of a conventional transmission line pair, 27B is a schematic plan view of the conventional transmission line pair of FIG. 27A. FIG. 28 is a schematic explanatory diagram for explaining the principle of crosstalk signal generation due to mutual inductance in a conventional transmission line pair, FIG. 29 is a schematic explanatory diagram showing the relationship of current elements related to the crosstalk phenomenon in a conventional transmission line pair, FIG. 30 is a diagram illustrating the frequency dependence of the crosstalk intensity of the transmission line pairs of Conventional Example 1 and Conventional Example 2, FIG. 31 is a diagram showing a crosstalk voltage waveform observed at the far-end crosstalk terminal when a pulse is applied to the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 2. FIG. 32A is a schematic cross-sectional view of the transmission line pair of the above embodiment, and shows a configuration in which two signal conductors are arranged on the same plane, FIG. 32B is a schematic cross-sectional view of a transmission line pair according to a modification of the embodiment, and is a diagram illustrating a configuration in which two signal conductors are arranged on different planes; FIG. 33 is a schematic plan view for explaining a transmission direction and a transmission direction inversion unit in the transmission line of the embodiment of the present invention, FIG. 34 is a schematic cross-sectional view showing a configuration in which another dielectric layer is disposed on the surface of the dielectric substrate in the transmission line of the embodiment, FIG. 35 is a schematic cross-sectional view showing a configuration in which the dielectric substrate is a laminated body in the transmission line of the embodiment, FIG. 36 is a schematic cross-sectional view showing a configuration in which the configurations of the transmission line of FIG. 34 and the transmission line of FIG. 35 are combined in the transmission line of the above embodiment.

  Before continuing the description of the present invention, the same parts are denoted by the same reference numerals in the accompanying drawings.

  In the following, an embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings with regard to the principle of suppressing unwanted radiation and the principle of improving the isolation between peripheral transmission lines.

(Embodiment)
FIG. 1 shows a schematic plan view of a transmission line pair 10 constructed by arranging two transmission lines according to an embodiment of the present invention adjacent to each other in parallel and connectable. As shown in FIG. 1, the transmission line pair 10 includes two signal conductors 3 a and 3 b formed on the surface of the dielectric substrate 1 and a ground conductor layer 5 formed on the back surface of the dielectric substrate 1. As a result, two transmission lines 2a and 2b having the same signal transmission line length and the same line length are formed. Further, each of the signal conductors 3a and 3b includes a signal conductor portion having a substantially spiral rotation structure called a rotation direction reversal structure 7 described later. First, the detailed structure of the rotation direction reversing structure 7 included in the transmission lines 2a and 2b, the principle of suppressing unwanted radiation and the principle of improving isolation obtained by the structure will be specifically described.

  Further, in the description, a schematic plan view schematically showing one transmission line 2a extracted from the transmission line pair 10 shown in FIG. 1 is shown in FIG. 2A, and A1-A2 in the transmission line 2a in FIG. 2A. A line cross-sectional view is shown in FIG. 2B.

  As shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B, a signal conductor 3a is formed on the front surface of the dielectric substrate 1, and a ground conductor layer 5 is formed on the back surface, thereby forming a transmission line 2a. If a signal is transmitted from the left side to the right side in FIG. 2A in FIG. 2A, the signal conductor 3a of the transmission line 2a of the present embodiment has a first rotation direction (in the figure) in the surface of the substrate 1 in at least a partial region. A first signal conductor 7a that rotates the high-frequency current in a spiral shape (that is, rotates 360 degrees) in R1 in the clockwise direction (R1), and a second rotation direction that is opposite to the first rotation direction R1 (illustrated) A second signal conductor 7 b that rotates (ie, reverses) the high-frequency current in a spiral shape in R 2 in the counterclockwise direction R 2 is connected at the connection portion 9. In the present embodiment, such a structure is the rotation direction reversal structure 7. In the signal conductor 3a shown in FIG. 2A, in order to clearly indicate the range of the first signal conductor 7a and the second signal conductor 7b, the signal conductors 7a and 7b are provided with different hatching patterns. is doing.

  As shown in FIG. 2A, the rotation direction reversal structure 7 is formed of a signal conductor having a predetermined line width w, and has a spiral shape formed by a smooth arc formed by being curved toward the first rotation direction R1. A first signal conductor 7a having a spiral shape with a smooth arc formed by being curved toward the second rotation direction R2, and one of the first signal conductors 7a. A connection portion 9 is provided for electrically connecting the end portion and one end portion of the second signal conductor 7b. Further, as shown in FIG. 2A, the first signal conductor 7a and the second signal conductor 7b have a rotationally symmetric (or point-symmetric) arrangement relationship with the center of the connection portion 9 as a base point. An axis (not shown) that vertically penetrates the dielectric substrate 1 at the center corresponds to the rotationally symmetric rotational axis.

  Further, as shown in FIG. 2A, in the rotation direction reversal structure 7, the first signal conductor 7a has a semicircular arc signal conductor with a relatively small curvature and a semicircular arc shape with a relatively large curvature. By connecting to the signal conductor, a spiral signal conductor having a 360-degree rotation structure is formed, and the same applies to the second signal conductor. The two semicircular arc-shaped signal conductors having a large curvature curvature are electrically connected to each other at the connection portion 9, thereby forming the rotation direction reversal structure 7. As shown in FIG. 2A, each end of the rotating direction reversal structure 7, that is, the outer end of the first signal conductor 7a and the second end of the second signal conductor 7b are substantially linear external parts. The signal conductor 4 is connected.

  Further, in the rotation direction inversion structure 7, if the direction from the left side to the right side in the figure is the signal transmission direction in the entire transmission line 2, the transmission direction inversion unit 8 transmits the signal in the direction in which the transmission direction is inverted. (Part surrounded by a dotted line in the figure) is configured. The transmission direction inversion unit 8 includes a part of the first signal conductor 7a and a part of the second signal conductor 7b.

  Here, the signal transmission direction in the transmission line will be described below with reference to the schematic plan view of the transmission line shown in FIG. 33 (that is, one transmission line constituting the transmission line pair). In this specification, when the shape of the signal conductor has a curved shape, the transmission direction is its tangential direction, and when the shape of the signal conductor has a linear shape, The transmission direction is the longitudinal direction. Specifically, as illustrated in FIG. 33, when a transmission line 502 including a signal conductor portion 503 having a signal conductor portion having a linear shape and a signal conductor portion having an arc shape is taken as an example, a signal having a linear shape is obtained. At local positions P1 and P2 in the conductor portion, the transmission direction T is the rightward direction in the figure, which is the longitudinal direction of the signal conductor. On the other hand, at the local positions P2 to P5 in the signal conductor portion having an arc shape, the tangential direction at the local positions P2 to P5 is the respective transmission direction T.

  Further, in the transmission line 502 of FIG. 33, when the signal transmission direction 65 in the entire transmission line 502 is rightward in the figure, this direction is the X-axis direction, and the direction orthogonal to the X-axis direction on the same plane is the Y-axis direction. The transmission directions T at the positions P1 to P6 can be decomposed into Tx that is a component in the X-axis direction and Ty that is a component in the Y-axis direction. At positions P1, P2, P5, and P6, Tx has a component in the + (plus) X direction, while at positions P3 and P4, Tx has a component in the-(minus) X direction. In the present specification, the portion having the transmission direction component in the −X direction as described above is a “transmission direction inversion portion”. Specifically, the positions P3 and P4 are positions in the transmission direction inversion unit 508, and the hatched portion of the signal conductor in FIG. 33 is the transmission direction inversion unit 508. The transmission line of the present embodiment is always configured to include such a transmission direction inversion unit. In addition, the description about the effect etc. which are acquired by arrange | positioning such a transmission direction inversion part is mentioned later.

  Further, as shown in the schematic plan view of the transmission line 12a according to the modification of the present embodiment in FIG. 3, it is possible to configure the transmission line 12a by connecting the rotation direction inversion structure 7 in series several times. It is preferable for obtaining an advantageous effect. In FIG. 3, the rotation direction inversion structures 7 adjacent to each other are directly connected without interposing other signal conductors. In FIG. 3, only one transmission line 12 a of the transmission line pair according to the modification of the present embodiment is illustrated, and the other transmission line (not illustrated) is the transmission line illustrated in FIG. 3. It has the same shape and line length as 12a.

  Further, as shown in the schematic plan view of the transmission line 22a according to the modification of the present embodiment in FIG. 4, the number of rotations Nr of the first signal conductor 27a and the second signal conductor 27b in the rotation direction inversion structure 27 Unlike the case of Nr = 1 in the rotational direction reversal structure 7 in FIG. 2A, the setting may be set to Nr = 0.75. Further, as shown in the schematic plan view of the transmission line 32a in FIG. 5, the number of rotations Nr of the first signal conductor 37a and the second signal conductor 37b in the rotation direction inversion structure 37 is set to 1.5 times. It may be a case. In any of the transmission lines 22a and 32a, a configuration including the rotation direction inversion structures 27 and 37 and the transmission direction inversion units 28 and 38 is employed. In the transmission line 22a of FIG. 4 and the transmission line 32a of FIG. 5, the portions surrounded by the dotted lines in the figure are the transmission direction inversion units 28 and 38, and in each rotation direction inversion structure 37 of the transmission line 32a of FIG. The transmission direction inverting unit 38 is divided into two parts. Further, although not shown in the figure, a case where the number of rotations Nr other than this is set may be used. 4 and 5 also illustrate only one transmission line of the transmission line pair having the same shape and line length as in FIG.

  About the distance which provides a rotation direction inversion structure in the transmission line of this invention, arrangement | positioning space | interval D (for example, arrangement | positioning space | interval D of the transmission line pair 10 of FIG. 1) between adjacent transmission lines is the wiring width (line width) of each transmission line. Considering the crosstalk characteristics between adjacent transmission lines under the setting conditions in a normal circuit board set within a range of about 1 to 10 times w (for example, the wiring width w of the signal conductor 3a in FIG. 2A). The following conditions are preferably satisfied.

  That is, under the above normal conditions, when the coupling between adjacent transmission lines is weak, the crosstalk strength between adjacent transmission lines is maximum when the line coupling length Lcp reaches about 5 times the effective wavelength of the transmission frequency. When the coupling is strong, when the line coupling length Lcp reaches about twice the effective wavelength of the transmission frequency, the crosstalk strength between adjacent transmission lines takes the maximum value. There is. For example, the coupled line length Lcp of 50 mm in the high frequency circuit of Conventional Example 2 corresponds to five times the effective wavelength for a frequency of 20 GHz where the crosstalk intensity is a value that cannot be ignored. Such a crosstalk phenomenon becomes prominent when the coupled line length Lcp is set over at least 0.5 times the effective wavelength λg at the frequency of the transmitted signal. Therefore, when the purpose is to suppress crosstalk with adjacent transmission line structures, the region where a plurality of rotation direction inversion structures are connected is 0.5 times or more the effective wavelength λg at the frequency of the transmitted signal, preferably 2 It is preferable to set over a length of more than twice, more preferably more than 5 times.

  The transmission line 2a of the present embodiment is not limited to the case where the signal conductor 3 is formed on the outermost surface of the dielectric substrate 1, but an inner layer conductor surface (for example, an inner layer surface in a multilayer structure substrate). It may be the case where it is formed. Similarly, the ground conductor layer 5 is not limited to the case where it is formed on the outermost back surface of the dielectric substrate 101, and may be a case where it is formed on the inner layer conductor surface. That is, in this specification, the one surface (or surface) of the substrate is the outermost surface or the rearmost surface or the inner layer surface of the substrate having a single layer structure or the substrate having a laminated structure.

  Specifically, a schematic cross-sectional view of the transmission line 2A of FIG. 34 (that is, a schematic cross-sectional view showing only one transmission line of the two transmission lines constituting the transmission line pair (hereinafter, FIG. 35 and FIG. 36), the signal conductor 3 is disposed on one surface (upper surface in the drawing) S of the dielectric substrate 1, and the ground conductor layer 5 is disposed on the other surface (lower surface in the drawing). Alternatively, another dielectric layer L1 may be disposed on one surface S of the dielectric substrate 1, and another dielectric layer L2 may be disposed on the lower surface of the ground conductor layer 5. Furthermore, like the transmission line 2B shown in the schematic cross-sectional view of FIG. 35, the dielectric substrate 1 itself is configured as a multilayer body L3 composed of a plurality of dielectric layers 1a, 1b, 1c, and 1d. The signal conductor 3 may be disposed on one surface (upper surface in the drawing) S, and the ground conductor layer 5 may be disposed on the other surface (lower surface in the drawing). Further, another dielectric layer L1 is arranged on one surface S of the multilayer body L3 as in the transmission line 2C shown in FIG. 36 having a configuration in which the configuration shown in FIG. 34 and the configuration shown in FIG. 35 are combined. In this case, another dielectric layer L2 may be disposed on the lower surface of the ground conductor layer 5. In any of the transmission lines 2A, 2B, and 2C having the configurations shown in FIGS. 34 to 36, the surface indicated by the symbol S is the “surface of the substrate (one surface)”.

  Further, in the transmission line 2a shown in FIG. 2A, the first signal conductor 7a and the second signal conductor 7b are directly connected at the connection portion 9, but the transmission line according to the present embodiment is as described above. It is not limited to only cases. Instead of such a case, for example, the first signal conductor 47a and the second signal conductor 47b in the rotation direction inversion structure 47 are straight (or not) like the transmission line 42a shown in the schematic plane of FIG. It may be connected via a third signal conductor 47c, which is an example of a signal conductor for connecting conductors of a rotating structure). In this case, the midpoint of the third signal conductor 47c can be set as a rotation axis that is 180-degree rotational symmetry. In addition, in the transmission line 42a shown in FIG. 6, the transmission direction reversing part 48, which is a part surrounded by the dotted line in the figure, includes a part of the first signal conductor 47a, a part of the second signal conductor 47b, The third signal conductor 47c is composed of the whole.

  Further, the connection portion 9 of the rotating direction reversing structure 7 is not limited to the case where a signal conductor is disposed. Instead of such a case, for example, as shown in FIG. 7, in the rotation direction inversion structure 57 of the transmission line 52a, a connection portion 59 that is electrically connected to the first signal conductor 57a and the second signal conductor 57b. Alternatively, the dielectric 57c may be disposed at a high frequency, and a capacitor having a capacitance value sufficient to pass a high-frequency signal passing therethrough may be connected at a high frequency. In such a case, the rotation direction inversion structure 57 has a capacitor structure. In the transmission line 52a of FIG. 7, the transmission direction inversion portion 58, which is a portion surrounded by the dotted line in the figure, includes a part of the first signal conductor 57a, a part of the second signal conductor 57b, and a dielectric. It is comprised by the body 57c.

  Further, in the transmission line 12a shown in FIG. 3, the adjacent rotation direction reversal structures 7 are directly connected without any other conductor, but in such a case where direct connection is performed in this way. Is not limited to only about. Instead of such a case, for example, via a fourth signal conductor 47d, which is an example of a linear (or non-rotating structure) inter-structure connection signal conductor, such as a transmission line 42a shown in FIG. It may be a case where adjacent rotation direction reversal structures 47 are connected to each other. Although not shown, the electrical connection between the structures may be performed so as to form a capacitor with a capacitor.

  Further, the first signal conductor 7a and the second signal conductor 7b formed by bending the conductor wiring in a predetermined rotation direction do not necessarily have a spiral arc shape, but are obtained by adding polygonal and rectangular wiring. Although it may be configured, in order to avoid unnecessary reflection of the signal, it is preferable to be realized by drawing a gentle curve. When the signal transmission path is bent, a shunt capacitance is generated in terms of circuit. To reduce this effect, the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor are connected to the third signal conductor and the fourth signal conductor. It may be a case where a part thereof is realized with a line width w narrower than the line width.

  Further, in one rotation direction reversal structure, the number of rotations Nr of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor is not limited only when the setting is not necessarily the same, but the number of rotations Nr is set equal. It is preferred that Further, instead of the case where the number of rotations Nr is considered in one rotation direction inversion structure, a combination of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor in one rotation direction inversion structure, and the one rotation In consideration of the combination of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor in the rotational direction reversal structure arranged adjacent to the direction reversal structure, the sum of the total number of rotations Nr is set to a value close to 0 (zero). Even in such a case, the advantageous effects of the present invention can be obtained.

  In addition, transmission of the same line length including at least one rotation direction reversing structure 7 including the transmission direction reversing portion 8, which is configured by the first signal conductor 7 a, the second signal conductor 7 b, and the connection portion 9. Although the effect of the present invention can be obtained with a transmission line pair constituted by lines, it is more preferable to use a transmission line in which a plurality of such rotation direction inversion structures are arranged.

  Next, the principle of enabling the transmission line of the present embodiment to suppress crosstalk between adjacent transmission lines and the principle of suppressing unnecessary radiation will be described below.

  In the transmission line 2a constituting the transmission line pair of the present embodiment, first, the arrangement relationship is devised so that each part of the signal conductor 3a does not always maintain a parallel positional relationship with the adjacent transmission line 2b. As a result, it is possible to reduce the mutual inductance generated between adjacent transmission lines as compared with the conventional transmission line pairs arranged in a straight line, and to obtain a crosstalk intensity suppressing effect. For example, in the rotational direction inversion structure 7 provided in the transmission line 2a, the devised arrangement relationship has a structure in which the first signal conductor 7a and the second signal conductor 7b are each curved in a predetermined rotational direction. It is realized from that.

  As already described in the background art, the main factor of crosstalk between adjacent transmission lines when the conventional transmission line structure is adopted is an induced current caused by mutual inductance. In a conventional transmission line pair, the mutual inductance between the transmission lines becomes strong because the current loop formed virtually by the transmission line and the current loop formed by the other transmission line are It is in the point that it always keeps being closely arranged in parallel over the section length (namely, coupled line length) arrange | positioned adjacently. Under this condition, when a high-frequency magnetic flux that links one current loop is generated, the other current loop is surely linked, and the mutual inductance becomes a large value.

  In order to reduce the mutual inductance generated between the two current loops, the two current loops are not parallel but are arranged at a relative angle, and the loop area of each current loop is reduced. The method is effective. Therefore, in the transmission line 2a constituting the transmission line pair of the present embodiment, the rotational direction inversion structure 7 is introduced into the signal conductor 3a, thereby realizing effective reduction of mutual inductance. That is, the introduction of the rotating direction reversal structure 7 forces the local signal conductor to be directed in a direction not parallel to the signal transmission direction in the entire transmission line 2a, so that the loop of the current loop formed by the transmission lines 2a and 2b. Proactively create locations where the placement relationship between them is not parallel, and even in local locations where the loops are placed in parallel, the loop area is significantly greater than when using conventional transmission lines. It is reduced.

  Furthermore, in the transmission lines 2a and 2b constituting the transmission line pair of the present embodiment, the structure is optimized to employ a method of further reducing the mutual inductance generated between the two current loops. That is, the transmission direction inversion unit 8 that locally causes current to flow in the direction opposite to the signal transmission direction is intentionally set, and an induced current is generated in the direction opposite to that of a normal transmission line, so that a comprehensive mutual This structure suppresses inductance.

  About the principle that the transmission line of this embodiment reduces crosstalk between adjacent transmission lines by making the arrangement of the current loop locally formed by the high-frequency current traveling in the transmission line different from the conventional microstrip line, This will be described more specifically with reference to the schematic explanatory diagram shown in FIG.

  As already described in the background art using the schematic perspective view of FIG. 28, in the transmission line 102a of the conventional transmission line pair, when the traveling high-frequency current 853 flows through the current loop 293a, the high-frequency that intersects the current loop 293a at right angles. A magnetic field 855 is induced. Since the induced high-frequency magnetic field 855 links the current loop 293b formed by the adjacent transmission line 102b, an induced current 857 that causes crosstalk is generated based on the mutual inductance. Here, the strength of mutual inductance is proportional to the cosine of the angle formed by the product of the loop areas of the current loops of both transmission lines and the direction thereof.

  On the other hand, the schematic explanatory diagram of FIG. 8 has the same configuration as the transmission line 2b (the transmission line 2a in the transmission line pair 10) constituting the transmission line pair of the present embodiment in which a high-frequency current proceeds in the direction of the arrow 65. The structure in the case where the number of rotations Nr in the rotation direction reversal structure 7 is 0.5 is schematically shown. The rotation direction inversion structure 7 provided in the transmission line 2a in the transmission line pair of the present embodiment shown in FIGS. 1 and 2A has a structure in which the number of rotations Nr is 1, but the transmission line 2b in FIG. In the description using, for the purpose of facilitating understanding of the description, the following description will be given using a structure in which the number of rotations Nr is set to 0.5.

  Further, in FIG. 8, the direction of the high-frequency current in a local portion in the transmission line 2b is indicated by an arrow, and the high-frequency current elements are locally formed together with the return current of the grounding conductor 5 that forms a pair. A part of the current loops 73 and 74 are shown. In order to facilitate understanding of the description, the illustration of the adjacent transmission line 2a that is arranged in parallel with the transmission line 2b of the present embodiment and that receives crosstalk is omitted.

  As shown in FIG. 8, in the current loop 73 generated at a location where the local direction of the signal conductor 3a and the signal transmission direction 65 (the signal transmission direction as a whole of the transmission lines 2a and 2b) are parallel, The high-frequency magnetic flux 855 that can be interlinked with the current loop formed by is generated, so that the induced current due to the mutual inductance is generated in the adjacent transmission line as in the conventional case. However, in the transmission line 2a in the transmission line pair of the present embodiment, since the first signal conductor 7a and the second signal conductor 7b are formed in a curved shape, the signal transmission direction is locally in the signal conductor portion. There is a place to change the direction. In principle, for example, the current loop 74 at a location where the signal conductor is locally bent in a direction orthogonal to the signal transmission direction 65 generates a high-frequency magnetic field 855 directed toward the adjacent transmission line. This is impossible and does not contribute to an increase in mutual inductance. Moreover, the local curve part in a signal conductor has begun to express the effect which divides | segments the current loop which continued over the line length in the conventional transmission line in the length direction. As a result, it can be seen that if at least the number of rotations Nr is set to a value exceeding 0.5, the loop area of the current loop 73 can be reduced and the strength of the mutual inductance can be suppressed. Therefore, the transmission line 2b of this embodiment, that is, the transmission line pair 10 constituted by the transmission lines 2a and 2b, is more crosstalk than the conventional transmission line if the number of rotations Nr is set to a value exceeding 0.5. The strength can be reduced.

  Next, in the transmission line pair 10 of this embodiment shown in FIG. 1, a schematic explanatory diagram in which the direction of the high-frequency current transmitted to each transmission line 2a, 2b is simplified is shown in FIG. In the description using FIG. 8, it is considered that the location where the signal conductor is locally arranged in the direction perpendicular to the signal transmission direction 65 can ignore the contribution to the mutual inductance between the two transmission lines. It is omitted from the schematic explanatory diagram of FIG. Furthermore, most of the parts where signals are transmitted in an oblique direction that is neither perpendicular nor parallel to the signal transmission direction 65 can be decomposed into vectors in two directions that are parallel to the direction perpendicular to the transmission direction. Therefore, each rotation direction inversion structure 7 in each transmission line 2a, 2b in the transmission line pair 10 having the structure shown in FIG. 1 is typically a local portion 61a, 61b which is six parallel coupling lines. , 63a, 63b, 65a and 65b.

  As shown in FIG. 9, in the transmission line 2b of the present embodiment, the locations where the signal conductors locally change direction are not only generated at both ends of the local portions 61b and 65b, but also some local portions. In 63b, a local structure in which the signal conductor flows current in a direction opposite to the signal transmission direction 65, that is, a configuration including a transmission direction inversion unit that reverses the signal transmission direction is realized. As shown by the arrows in FIG. 9, the induced current generated by the high-frequency current 853 transmitted through the adjacent transmission line 2a is generated in the opposite directions in the local parts 61b and 65b and the local part 63b in the transmission line 2b. . Therefore, the amount of induced current generated in the entire transmission line 2b can be reduced by the amount of induced current (that is, induced current generated in the opposite direction) in the local portion 63b, and crosstalk can be suppressed. . In this specification, “invert the signal transmission direction” means, for example, as shown in FIG. 9, the signal transmission direction 65 is the X-axis direction, and the direction orthogonal to the X-axis direction is the Y-axis direction. In some cases, at least a -x component is generated in the vector representing the direction of the transmitted signal on the signal conductor. This condition includes a condition in which the number of rotations Nr is set to a value exceeding 0.5 as shown in the description of FIG.

  Note that, in the local portion 65b in the transmission line 2b farthest from the high-frequency current 853 transmitted in the transmission line 2a, the intensity of the induced current generated is small, and the amount of induced current generated in the entire transmission line 2b. Can be ignored. Further, in the present embodiment, when the wiring interval between adjacent transmission lines is constant, the local portion 61b is close to the transmission line 2a as compared with the case where the conventional linear transmission line is adopted, but the wiring is Since the mutual inductance between the lines in the close state tends to saturate with the proximity of the further line spacing, the amount of induced current generated in the local part 61b is extreme compared to the induced current generated in the local part 63b. Don't get too expensive. As a result, it is possible to effectively reduce the mutual inductance between the transmission lines by the generation of the induced current in the direction opposite to the conventional case by introducing the local portion 63b.

  In the schematic explanatory diagram of FIG. 9, the current direction in the local part 63b which is a problem in the transmission line 2b is illustrated as a direction completely reversed from the signal transmission direction 65. If 63b has a direction with an angle exceeding 90 degrees with the signal transmission direction 65 (that is, if it has a direction with -x component), as shown in the schematic explanatory diagram, signal transmission It can be considered that an induced current component in a direction opposite to the direction 65 is partially generated. Therefore, in the transmission line 2b constituting the transmission line pair of the present embodiment, the transmission direction inversion unit which is a signal conductor that locally transmits a signal in a different direction exceeding 90 degrees from the signal transmission direction 65 is reversed in the rotation direction. It is necessary to include in the structure 7, and it is preferable to include a transmission direction inversion unit that transmits a signal in a direction inverted by 180 degrees from the signal transmission direction 65.

  Based on the principle described above using the transmission line pair 10 of the present embodiment, particularly preferable conditions for the transmission line of the present invention to suppress crosstalk between adjacent transmission lines are shown below.

  First, in the rotation direction inversion structure of the transmission line of the present invention, if the number of rotations Nr of the rotation structure is set to a value exceeding 0.5, signal transmission as a whole transmission line is performed in the rotation direction inversion structure. Since a portion for guiding current locally in a direction different from the direction exceeding 90 degrees, that is, a transmission direction inversion portion can be generated without fail, a crosstalk suppressing effect can be effectively obtained.

  Further, even if the number of rotations Nr is a value smaller than 0.5, the third signal conductor that connects the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor is employed in the rotation direction reversal structure. Or when a fourth signal conductor connecting a plurality of rotation direction reversal structures is employed, the direction of at least a part of the signal conductor is different from the signal transmission direction by more than 90 degrees. If the current is set to be guided locally, a crosstalk suppression effect can be effectively obtained.

  In addition, when connecting the rotation direction inversion structure in series in a plurality of times in each transmission line constituting the transmission line pair of the present invention, for example, as shown in FIG. Adoption of an arrangement in which the rotation directions of the signal conductor 37b of the first signal conductor 37a of the other rotation direction inversion structure 37 adjacent to the one rotation direction inversion structure 37 are opposite to each other. However, this is a preferable condition for obtaining a crosstalk suppressing effect.

  Further, as in the transmission line 62a shown in the schematic plan view of FIG. 10, the adjacent rotation direction inversion structures 67 and 67 are connected by using a fourth signal conductor 67d parallel to the signal transmission direction 65. The second signal conductor 67b included in the rotation direction reversal structure 67 (arranged at the left end in the figure) and the first signal conductor 67a included in the adjacent rotation direction reversal structure 67 (arranged in the center in the figure) are the same. It is also possible to set the rotation direction (that is, the second rotation direction R2). However, in the structure of the transmission line 62a shown in FIG. 10, since the fourth signal conductor 67d is arranged in parallel with the signal transmission direction 65, the transmission line of the present invention has been performed to reduce mutual inductance. It cannot be said that the best ideas have been adopted. That is, since the fourth signal conductor 67d has a long section length (line length) arranged in parallel with the adjacent transmission line, there is a possibility that the effect of reducing the mutual inductance of the transmission line of the present invention may be reduced. is there. In addition, if the fourth signal conductor 67d is arranged at the position closest to the adjacent transmission line in the transmission line, the mutual capacitance between the adjacent transmission lines may increase unnecessarily. .

  Therefore, in order to effectively obtain the advantageous effects of the present invention by adopting the rotation direction inversion structure having the same number of rotations Nr, the transmission line 72a having the structure of FIG. 11 is adopted rather than the transmission line 62a having the structure of FIG. It is preferable to do. That is, as in the transmission line 72a of FIG. 11, the fourth signal conductor 77d is preferably arranged in an inclined direction without being arranged in parallel to the signal transmission direction 65. As shown in the transmission line 72a of FIG. 11, the fourth signal conductor 77d that connects the adjacent rotation direction inversion structures 77 is formed in a substantially linear shape, and is inclined with respect to the signal transmission direction 65. In such a structure, each of the rotational direction reversal structures 77 has the same arrangement shape.

  Further, since it is not preferable that the phase of the transmission signal rotates extremely during transmission of the fourth signal conductor, the line length of the fourth signal conductor is a quarter of the effective wavelength at the frequency of the transmitted signal. It is preferable to set the line length to less than. 10 and 11 also show only one transmission line of the two transmission lines constituting the transmission line pair, as in FIG. 3 and the like.

  Up to here, the principle that the adoption of the transmission line of the present invention reduces the mutual inductance and the crosstalk phenomenon is suppressed. Next, the transmission line of the present invention has the conventional transmission line. There are no characteristics that are advantageous for industrial use.

  In the description, first, a typical example of the dependency of the crosstalk characteristics between two adjacent transmission lines on the wiring interval D is schematically shown in a graph form in FIG. In FIG. 12, as the characteristics when the transmission line pair of the present invention is adopted, the characteristics of the transmission line pair having a rotation number Nr of one rotation of the rotation direction inversion structure (that is, the configuration including the transmission direction inversion unit), As a comparative example, the characteristics of a transmission line pair (that is, a configuration that does not include a transmission direction reversal unit) of the rotation direction reversal structure with a rotation number Nr of 0.5 rotation are shown by solid lines, and a conventional linear transmission line pair is The characteristics when adopted are shown by dotted lines. The characteristic shown in the figure is a crosstalk characteristic at a specific frequency, for example, 10 GHz. As shown in FIG. 1, the wiring interval D is defined as the interval between the centers of the total wiring formation regions, and the wiring interval D is set to be the same in the three examples compared. That is, in the three examples compared in the figure, the transmission line density per unit width is the same. The local signal conductor width w in the transmission line pair of the present invention is the same as the signal conductor width w in the transmission line pair in the comparative example and the signal conductor width w in the conventional transmission line example. The effective characteristic impedances of the lines are compared with the same setting.

  As shown in FIG. 12, in the conventional transmission line pair, the amount of crosstalk increases monotonously when the wiring interval D is reduced. For this reason, if the conventional transmission line pair is employed, there is no method other than increasing the wiring interval D and reducing the wiring density of the transmission line in order to obtain a crosstalk suppressing effect of a predetermined value or more. However, the transmission line pair of the present invention (the number of rotations Nr = 1 rotation) starts to exhibit completely different crosstalk characteristics from the conventional transmission line pair when the value of the wiring interval D is gradually reduced. That is, when the value of the wiring interval D becomes a value equal to or smaller than the predetermined wiring interval D3, the crosstalk amount starts to decrease extremely and is improved to a much better value than the conventional transmission line pair. Specifically, in the transmission line pair of the present invention in which the number of rotations Nr of the rotation direction reversal structure is one rotation, the crosstalk intensity takes a minimum value at the wiring interval D = D2 (D2 <D3), and the conventional transmission The characteristic improvement amount ΔS with the line pair reaches the maximum. With the wiring spacing D <D2, the crosstalk intensity starts to increase, but still much better characteristics than the conventional transmission line pair configuration can be achieved. The crosstalk suppression effect of the present invention is maintained until the transmission line reaches a wiring interval D = Dc where the transmission lines are very close to each other and the wiring region interval d approaches zero. Under the condition of the wiring interval D = Dc obtained analytically, the wiring region interval d is a low value that is difficult to achieve with a realistic process rule. Therefore, the transmission line pair of the present invention has the same wiring number density condition. Assuming a realistic process rule below, it has an industrially advantageous effect that it is possible to always obtain better isolation characteristics than the conventional transmission line pair.

  Furthermore, a preferable feature of the transmission line pair of the present invention is that D2, which is a wiring interval D value that realizes the minimum crosstalk strength, does not have frequency dependency. In other words, the crosstalk intensity between adjacent transmission lines is the minimum value when the wiring interval D = D2 at any frequency. Therefore, the transmission speed of signals to be handled in the device will be improved in the future, and even if the frequency of the high frequency component included in the signal changes, there is no need to newly set a wiring rule, and the advantageous effects of the present invention are maintained. Can be obtained.

  Further, qualitatively explaining the relationship between the wiring interval D2, the characteristic improvement amount ΔS, and the structure of the transmission line pair of the present invention, the number of rotations Nr of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor is as large as about one rotation. If it is a value, the condition of the wiring interval D = D2 corresponds to a structure having a low wiring number density, but very good isolation characteristics can be obtained. On the contrary, if a structure with a small number of rotations Nr, for example, a structure with a number of rotations Nr = 0.5 rotation like the transmission line pair of the comparative example is adopted, the condition of the wiring interval D = D2 is better than the conventional transmission line pair. Although a good isolation characteristic can be obtained, the amount of crosstalk intensity suppression is not as great as the transmission line pair of the present invention (configuration with the number of rotations Nr = 1 rotation). However, the amount of crosstalk can be minimized under extremely high wiring density, and both can provide an industrially significant effect.

  The phenomenon that the above-described crosstalk takes a minimum value is caused by an increase in mutual capacitance in the transmission line pair of the present invention due to a decrease in the wiring region interval d as compared with the conventional transmission line pair. As described in the background art, the crosstalk current corresponds to a difference between Ic caused by mutual capacitance and induced current Ii caused by mutual inductance, and Ii> Ic in a normal transmission line pair. In the transmission line pair of the present invention, the structure that reduces the induced current Ii is adopted as described above. However, since the total wiring area width W is wider than that of the conventional transmission line pair, Since the distance d between the wiring areas decreases, Ic is effectively increased. As a result, Ii and Ic having equal strengths with opposite signs under the condition of the wiring interval D = D2 are canceled at the far-end crosstalk terminal, and the crosstalk signal strength can be minimized. . As the above description is supported, since Ii <Ic when the wiring interval D <D2, the crosstalk voltage at the far-end crosstalk terminal has the opposite sign to that when the wiring interval D> D2.

  Further, in the transmission line pair of the present invention, since the total wiring area width W is increased as compared with the conventional transmission line pair, an extremely small wiring interval D value cannot be physically set. For example, if the total wiring area width W is set to 5 times the wiring width w, the wiring interval D cannot be set to 5 times or less of w, but the value of the wiring interval Dc obtained analytically is the value of the signal conductor. Even if conditions such as the number of rotations Nr of the rotating structure change, it is possible to obtain a result that concentrates on a value about 5.2 times the wiring width w. When the total wiring area width W is set to 3 times the wiring width w, the wiring interval Dc obtained by analysis is about 3.2 times the wiring width w. That is, it is considered that the transmission line pair of the present invention can maintain better isolation than the conventional transmission line pair if the gap d between the total wiring regions is maintained at 1/5 or more of the wiring width w. .

  In general, the wiring interval D3 is about twice the total wiring area width W. Even when D> D3, the superior effect of the present invention compared to the case where the conventional transmission line pair is adopted is reduced in its degree, but the characteristic is not deteriorated as compared with the conventional transmission line pair. That is, the transmission line pair of the present invention provides an advantageous effect that crosstalk is suppressed more than the conventional transmission line pair in all wiring density conditions except when the wiring region interval d is extremely reduced. It is possible.

  For the purpose of reducing mutual inductance and suppressing unwanted radiation, the setting of the number of rotations Nr in the rotating direction reversal structure is more advantageous as the value increases, but the electrical length of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor. When the line length that cannot be ignored with respect to the effective wavelength of the transmitted electromagnetic wave is reached, the effect of the present invention is lost. Further, the increase in the number of rotations Nr also causes an increase in the total wiring area width W, which is not preferable for circuit area saving. In addition, an increase in the total wiring length is considered to cause a signal delay. Also, since the effective wavelength of the electromagnetic wave is shortened at the upper limit of the transmission frequency band, if the rotation speed is set high, the wiring lengths of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor approach the electromagnetic wave wavelength and approach the resonance condition. Therefore, reflection tends to occur, and the use band of the transmission line pair of the present invention is limited, which is not practically preferable. Such unnecessary reflection of the signal not only leads to a decrease in the intensity of the transmitted signal and unnecessary radiation, but also causes a deterioration in the group delay characteristic, which leads to a decrease in transmission error rate as a system. Therefore, the practical setting upper limit of the number of rotations Nr in the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor is preferably 2 rotations or less in normal applications.

  In addition, when the transmission line pair of the present invention is used, there may be two types of problems regarding the group delay characteristics. The first problem is an increase in the total delay amount, and the second problem is a delay dispersion problem in which the delay amount increases as the frequency becomes higher. The increase in the total delay amount, which is the first problem, is fundamentally inevitable when using the transmission line pair of the present invention. However, the degree of increase in the delay amount due to the extension of the wiring in the transmission line pair of the present invention is in a range where the delay amount is increased by several percent to several tens of percent as compared with the conventional transmission line pair. This increase is not considered to be a big problem in practice.

  Further, the delay amount increases as it goes to the high frequency side of the transmission band mentioned as the second problem, and the delay dispersion that causes the collapse of the transmission pulse shape can be easily avoided. This is a problem caused by each part in the structure of the present invention reaching an electrical length that cannot be ignored with respect to the effective wavelength of the electromagnetic wave. In general, the transmission line structure of a planar high-frequency circuit can realize a transmission line having the same equivalent impedance by maintaining the ratio between the line width and the substrate thickness. Therefore, the total line width is reduced as the substrate thickness is set thinner. Therefore, the electrical length of each part can be ignored with respect to the effective wavelength, and the delay dispersion problem mentioned as the second problem can be solved without reducing the advantageous effects of the present invention.

  Here, as an example, FIG. 13A shows a schematic plan view of the transmission line 82a in the case where the structure of the transmission line pair of the present invention is formed on a dielectric substrate having a large substrate thickness H1, whereas the transmission of the present invention is shown in FIG. FIG. 13B shows a schematic plan view of the transmission line 92a when the line pair is formed on a dielectric substrate having a small substrate thickness H2, and the configurations of the two are compared. In FIGS. 13A and 13B, only one transmission line of one transmission line constituting the transmission line pair is shown. In the transmission line 82a shown in FIG. 13A, since the total line width W1 is set to be large, each part including the rotation direction inversion structure 87 is large, but in the transmission line 92a shown in FIG. 13B, Since the total line width W2 (that is, W2 <W1) is set to be small as the circuit board thickness is reduced, the electrical length of each part constituting the circuit including the rotation direction inversion structure 97 can be reduced. Recognize. This means that the upper limit frequency of the transmission band that can be accommodated by the transmission line pair structure of the present invention can be improved as the trend toward higher-density wiring that makes the circuit structure thinner and the wiring width as fine as possible progresses. It is shown that.

  Next, an application example using the configuration of the transmission line pair 10 according to the present embodiment will be described below with reference to schematic plan views of the transmission line pair shown in FIGS. 14A and 14B.

  First, the transmission line pair 110 shown in FIG. 14A has a configuration in which two transmission lines 32a shown in FIG. In such a transmission line pair 110, each transmission line 112a and 112b functions as a transmission path for a single-ended signal, and a transmission line pair (or transmission line group) in which the isolation between lines is maintained at a good value. ).

  In this case, as shown in FIG. 14A, another transmission line 112b arranged close to the transmission line 112a has translated the transmission line 112a in a direction 68 perpendicular to the signal transmission direction 65. Arranged in relationship. Further, as shown in the transmission line pair 120 of FIG. 14B, the arrangement relationship between the two equivalent transmission lines 122a and 122b may be mirror-symmetrical.

  Further, as in the transmission line pair 130 shown in the schematic plan view of FIG. 15, the other transmission line 132 b disposed in the vicinity of the transmission line 132 a is arranged in the direction 68 perpendicular to the signal transmission direction 65. More preferably, after the first parallel movement, the second parallel movement is further performed in parallel with the signal transmission direction 65. Although not shown, a relationship in which only one of the transmission lines having a mirror-symmetrical relationship is further translated in the signal transmission direction 65 is also preferable. The optimum movement distance of the second parallel movement is half of the period of the plurality of rotation direction inversion structures in both transmission lines.

  As is clear from the comparison between the transmission line pair 110 in FIG. 14A and the transmission line pair 130 in FIG. 15, the wiring region interval d between the transmission line 112a and the transmission line 112b is a very small value only by the first parallel movement. At the same time, the local shortest wiring distance g between the two transmission lines also becomes a small value, so that it is considered that the mutual capacitance between the two transmission lines increases and the effect of reducing the crosstalk intensity decreases. On the other hand, as shown in the transmission line pair 130 of FIG. 15, if the second parallel movement parallel to the signal transmission direction is performed in addition to the first parallel movement, the wiring region between the transmission line 132a and the transmission line 132b. Even if the distance d does not change, the local shortest wiring distance g between wirings can be increased, so that the mutual capacitance between both transmission lines is reduced. Therefore, in order to obtain the mutual capacitance having the strength necessary for canceling out the mutual inductance, it is necessary to further reduce the wiring interval D between the two transmission lines. As a result, the second parallel movement is not isolated. This is preferable because it has an advantageous effect of maintaining and improving the wiring line number density.

  In either case, if the transmission line 112a, 122a, 132a and the transmission line 112b, 122b, 132b have the wiring width w, the total wiring area width W, and the distance d between the wiring areas, d is one fifth or more of w and The condition is preferably not more than 1 times W, and more preferably, d is set in the range of at least one half of w and not more than 0.6 times W. Within the said range, the isolation between each transmission line in the transmission line pair (transmission line group) of this invention takes the best value.

  When the transmission line pair of the present invention is used as a differential signal transmission path, as shown in the schematic plan view of FIG. 16, the transmission line 142a is paired with the transmission line 142a to form the differential transmission line pair 140. The line 142b is preferably arranged in a mirror-symmetrical relationship with respect to a plane parallel to the signal transmission direction 65. Since the differential signal is supported and transmitted by the odd mode of the differential transmission line, the mirror-symmetric arrangement of the circuit is effective in order not to cause unnecessary mode conversion from the odd mode to the even mode. By using the transmission line pair structure of the present invention, which has the advantageous characteristic of non-radiation at the time of single-ended signal transmission as compared with a conventional transmission line pair, a common mode signal is superimposed on the differential transmission line. In this case, an advantageous effect of improving the radiation characteristics can be obtained. Moreover, an advantageous effect of maintaining isolation from the peripheral differential transmission line can be obtained.

  In the above description, the two signal conductors 3a and 3b in the transmission line pair 10 of the present embodiment are, for example, as shown in the schematic cross-sectional view of FIG. Although the case where it is formed in the plane has been described, the transmission line pair of the present embodiment is not limited only to such a case. Instead of such a case, for example, as shown in the schematic cross-sectional view of FIG. 32B, a dielectric substrate 1 is a multilayer structure substrate configured such that a first substrate 1a and a second substrate 1b are laminated. In some cases, two signal conductors 3a are formed on the upper surface of the first substrate 1a, and another signal conductor 3b is formed on the upper surface of the second substrate 1b. There may be a case where the conductors are not arranged on the same plane but arranged on different planes.

  Next, some examples of the transmission line (or transmission line pair) of the present embodiment will be described below.

  First, as an example of this embodiment and a comparative example for this example, a signal conductor having a thickness of 20 μm and a width of 100 μm is formed by copper wiring on the surface of a dielectric substrate having a dielectric constant of 3.8 and a total thickness of 250 μm. Similarly, a ground conductor layer having a thickness of 20 μm was also formed on the entire back surface by copper wiring to constitute a microstrip line structure. The crosstalk intensity was measured by comparing the line length Lcp to 5 mm. The input terminal was connected to a coaxial connector, and the terminal on the output side was terminated to ground with a resistance of 100 Ω, which is almost the same as the characteristic impedance, and the adverse effect of signal reflection at the terminal was reduced from the measurement results. The total wiring area width W was 500 μm, and the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor were bent in the rotational direction reversal structure with the number of rotations Nr. The characteristics of the transmission line pair according to the example and the comparative example were compared with the characteristics of the conventional example 1 which is a linear conventional transmission line pair. When comparing the characteristics of two or more types of transmission lines, the substrate conditions, the wiring length Lcp, the wiring width w, and the wiring interval D were always unified.

  Specifically, the structure of the transmission line pair of Comparative Example 1 is a transmission line pair having a rotation frequency Nr equivalent to 0.5, that is, transmission having a structure having a rotation direction inversion structure but no transmission direction inversion unit. It is a pair of lines, and has a structure in which semicircular signal conductors having an outer diameter of 250 μm and an inner diameter of 150 μm are bent in different rotational directions and connected continuously for nine periods. The wiring interval D = 750 μm corresponds to 1.5 times the total wiring area width W and 7.5 times the wiring width w. The transmission line pair of Comparative Example 1 is configured by replacing two lines (that is, transmission line pairs) in the structure of the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 1 with a transmission line having the above structure from a linear transmission line. It is a fruit. The two transmission lines have the same shape and size, and have a relationship in which one transmission line is moved by 750 μm in a direction perpendicular to the signal transmission direction. Moreover, the transmission line pair of the comparative example 2 which made the arrangement | positioning relationship of one transmission line and the other transmission line mirror-symmetrical without changing the wiring space | interval D was also produced.

  FIG. 17 shows a comparison of crosstalk characteristics between the transmission line pair of Comparative Example 1 and the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 1. In FIG. 17, the vertical axis indicates the crosstalk characteristic S41 (dB), and the horizontal axis indicates the frequency (GHz). As is clear from FIG. 17, the transmission line pair of Comparative Example 1 has better separation characteristics than the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 1 over the entire frequency band (up to 30 GHz) measured. For example, in the first conventional example, the crosstalk intensity cannot be maintained below 25 dB in the frequency band of 10 GHz or higher, and in the first comparative example, the crosstalk intensity can be suppressed to 20 dB or lower in the frequency band below 25 GHz.

  Further, in the transmission line pair of Comparative Example 2, it was possible to realize a crosstalk strength characteristic of 20 dB or less in a frequency band of 23 GHz or less, which is substantially the same value as Comparative Example 1. Further, in Comparative Example 1-2 in which only one of the two transmission lines that were in parallel relation is shifted by 250 μm in the signal transmission direction in Comparative Example 1, a low cross of 20 dB or less in a frequency band of 32 GHz or less. Talk characteristics were maintained. The moving distance of 250 μm corresponds to half the period of the rotating direction reversal structure. Further, although the effect is reduced in the transmission line pair in which the number of repetitions of the rotating direction reversal structure repeatedly arranged in series in the comparative example 1 is reduced to 5 or 1, it is also better than the conventional example 1 in the entire frequency band. Separation characteristics were obtained.

  FIG. 18 shows a comparison of group delay characteristics between the conventional example 1 and the comparative example 1. In FIG. 18, the vertical axis represents the group delay amount (picosecond), and the horizontal axis represents the frequency (GHz). The delay amount of about 48 picoseconds in the conventional example 1 was increased by about 20% in the comparative example 1, but it can be said that such an increase in the delay amount is not a problem in practical use.

  Next, as the transmission line pairs of Examples 1 and 2, which are examples of the present embodiment, in the transmission lines of Comparative Examples 1 and 2, the signal conductor whose rotation number Nr of the rotation direction inversion structure was 0.5 was 0.5 The number of rotations Nr of the transmission line is increased by 0.75 rotations and 1 rotation, and two transmission lines are arranged in parallel, and the forward crosstalk strength from one transmission line to the other transmission line and the passing strength characteristics are It was measured. That is, in contrast to Comparative Examples 1 and 2 having a structure that has a rotation direction reversal structure but no transmission direction reversal part, Examples 1 and 2 have both a rotation direction reversal structure and a transmission direction reversal part. The signal conductor was configured not to exceed the total wiring width of 500 μm. Specifically, the value of w was reduced from 100 μm in Comparative Example 1 to 75 μm to configure a rotating direction reversal structure. The effective characteristic impedances of the transmission lines constituting Examples 1 (Nr = 0.75) and 2 (Nr = 1) also correspond to 102Ω and 105Ω, respectively, and the terminal termination impedance at the time of measurement was 100Ω. . In Example 1, the rotation direction reversal structure was continuously arranged for 8 periods, and in Example 2, 7 periods were continuously arranged. In FIG. 17, in addition to the characteristics of Comparative Example 1 and Conventional Example 1, the frequency dependence of the crosstalk characteristics in Examples 1 and 2 is added. As is clear from FIG. 17, in Examples 1 and 2 in which the number of rotations was increased compared to Comparative Example 1, the effect of suppressing the crosstalk intensity was further improved.

  Further, in FIG. 18, in addition to the pass group delay characteristics of Comparative Example 1 and Conventional Example 1, the frequency dependence of the pass group delay characteristics in Examples 1 and 2 is added. As is clear from FIG. 18, the delay amount increased as the number of rotations increased. For example, the delay amount increase in Example 1 (Nr = 0.75) increased by 45% compared to Conventional Example 1. It remained at a level that was not a problem in practice. From each of the above examples, it was proved that the transmission line pair according to the present invention brings comprehensively good characteristics to the high-frequency circuit even when the number of rotations is changed.

  Next, the transmission line pair structure obtained by reducing the circuit structure in the transmission line pair of Example 2 to 1/2 was used as the transmission line of Example 2-2, and the characteristics of the transmission line pair structure were measured. That is, the substrate thickness (125 μm), the total wiring width (250 μm), the wiring width w (37.5 μm), the inter-wiring distance D (375 μm), and the parameters in Example 2 were reduced by half. However, the thickness of the copper wiring was kept at 20 μm and the wiring length was kept at 5 mm. The number of repetitions of the rotating direction reversal structure reached 14 times, which is twice that of Example 2. FIG. 19 shows a crosstalk characteristic comparison between Example 2 and Example 2-2, and FIG. 20 shows a group delay characteristic comparison. FIGS. 19 and 20 show the characteristics of the conventional example 2A composed of two microstrip lines each having a substrate thickness of 125 μm, a total wiring width of 250 μm, and a spacing between wirings of 375 μm.

  As shown in FIG. 19, although the crosstalk suppression effect was slightly reduced by the structure reduction, characteristics much better than the conventional example 2A which is a conventional transmission line pair characteristic at the same scale were obtained in the entire band. Further, as shown in FIG. 20, the problem that the group delay characteristics deteriorated as the frequency increased in Example 2 was that the substrate thickness was reduced and the effective line lengths of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor were shortened. In Example 2-2.

  Further, for Comparative Example 1 and Example 2, a comparative example and an example in which the wiring interval D between adjacent transmission lines was increased or decreased, and a conventional example in which the wiring interval D was increased or decreased as compared with Conventional Example 1 were also produced. First, the comparison between Comparative Example 1 and Conventional Example 1 will be described. Comparative Example 1 always showed a better crosstalk suppressing effect than Conventional Example 1 in which the wiring interval D was set to the same condition. 21A and 21B show the wiring interval D dependency of the crosstalk intensity in Conventional Example 1 and Comparative Example 1 at frequencies of 10 GHz and 20 GHz. 21A and 21B, the horizontal axis uses a value obtained by standardizing the wiring interval D by the total wiring area width W. Moreover, in the transmission line of the prior art example 1, although w = W, the value of D / W was calculated using 500 micrometers which is the value of the transmission line of this invention on calculation.

  As is clear from FIGS. 21A and 21B, the crosstalk minimum value was obtained at the same D value even at different frequencies. Further, even when the wiring interval was reduced to 1.1 times W (the wiring region interval d was equivalent to half of w), the crosstalk characteristics of Comparative Example 1 exceeded the characteristics of the conventional transmission line pair. In the analysis results, even when d was reduced to 1/5 of w in Comparative Example 1, the crosstalk intensity was lower than that of the conventional transmission line pair under the same conditions.

  Next, a comparison between Example 2 and Conventional Example 1 will be described. In the description, FIGS. 22A and 22B show the dependency of the crosstalk intensity on the wiring interval D in the conventional example 1 and the example 2 at the frequencies of 10 GHz and 20 GHz. As is clear from FIGS. 22A and 22B, in Example 2, as in Comparative Example 1, only a minimum value of crosstalk is obtained at D = 1.8 × W, which is a D value independent of frequency. In addition, a crosstalk suppression effect exceeding that of Comparative Example 1 was obtained. Further, even when the wiring interval was reduced to 1.1 times W (the wiring region interval d was equivalent to half of w), the crosstalk characteristics of Example 2 exceeded the characteristics of the conventional transmission line pair. Furthermore, in the analysis results, even when d was reduced to 1/5 of w in Example 2, the crosstalk intensity was lower than that of the conventional transmission line pair under the same conditions. In any case, even if the wiring interval D is set to a value that is three times or more the total wiring area width W, characteristics exceeding the crosstalk characteristics of the conventional example 1 can be obtained.

  Further, FIG. 23A and FIG. 23B show the dependency of the crosstalk characteristic of Example 2-3 on one side between adjacent transmission lines arranged in parallel in Example 2 by 250 μm in the signal transmission direction on the wiring interval D. Shown in In Example 2-3, not only was the minimum value of crosstalk obtained under the condition of D = 1.6 × W, which is a higher-density wiring condition than in Example 2, but crosstalk exceeding that in Example 2 was achieved. The suppression effect was obtained.

  In addition, Example 2-4 was manufactured in which the wiring interval D was set to 750 μm and the coupled line length Lcp was extended to 50 mm with the configuration of Example 2-3. FIG. 24 shows a comparison of crosstalk intensity between Example 2-4 and Conventional Example 2 (Lcp = 50 mm). As is clear from FIG. 24, a good crosstalk suppression effect was obtained over the entire measurement frequency band. Further, a pulse having a voltage of 1 V, a rise time and a fall time of 50 picoseconds was applied to Example 2-4, and the crosstalk waveform at the far end crosstalk terminal was measured. This condition is the same as the condition for measuring the crosstalk waveform in the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 2 shown in FIG. FIG. 25 shows the measurement results in the time domain of the crosstalk waveforms of Example 2-4 and Conventional Example 2 (both Lcp = 50 mm). As is clear from FIG. 25, a crosstalk voltage of 175 mV was generated in the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 2, but in Example 2-4, the crosstalk intensity is suppressed to 45 mV, which is a quarter of the intensity. I was able to. Note that, as shown in FIG. 23A and FIG. 23B, the D dependence of the crosstalk intensity in Example 2-3 is shown. The setting of D in Example 2-4 is more than the D2 value (1.6 × W = 800 μm). Since the voltage is low, the voltage of the crosstalk signal is opposite to that of the conventional one.

  It is to be noted that, by appropriately combining arbitrary embodiments of the various embodiments described above, the respective effects can be achieved.

  Although the present invention has been fully described in connection with preferred embodiments with reference to the accompanying drawings, various variations and modifications will be apparent to those skilled in the art. Such changes and modifications are to be understood as being included therein, so long as they do not depart from the scope of the present invention according to the appended claims.

  Japanese Patent Application No. 1 filed on March 30, 2005. The disclosures of the specification, drawings, and claims of 2005-97370 are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

  The transmission line, the transmission line pair, or the transmission line group according to the present invention can suppress unnecessary radiation to the surrounding space and transmit the signal with low loss without leaking the signal to the peripheral circuit or the adjacent transmission line. As a result, it is possible to achieve both reduction in circuit area due to dense wiring and high-speed operation of the circuit, which has been difficult due to signal leakage in the past. Further, it can be widely applied to applications in the communication field such as filters, antennas, phase shifters, switches, and oscillators, and can also be used in various fields that use wireless technologies such as power transmission and ID tags.

  The present invention relates to a transmission line pair or transmission line group in which transmission lines for transmitting analog high-frequency signals such as microwave bands and millimeter wave bands or digital signals can be coupled to each other in pairs, and such transmission line pairs. Relates to a high frequency circuit including

  FIG. 26A shows a schematic cross-sectional configuration of a microstrip line used as a transmission line in such a conventional high-frequency circuit. As shown in FIG. 26A, a signal conductor 103 is formed on the surface of a substrate 101 made of a dielectric or semiconductor, and a ground conductor layer 105 is formed on the back surface of the substrate 101. When high frequency power is input to the microstrip line, an electric field is generated from the signal conductor 103 toward the ground conductor layer 105, and a magnetic field is generated in a direction surrounding the signal conductor 103 perpendicular to the electric field lines. The high frequency power is propagated in the length direction in which the field is orthogonal to the width direction of the signal conductor 103. In the microstrip line, the signal conductor 103 and the ground conductor layer 105 are not necessarily formed on the front surface and the back surface of the substrate 101. If the substrate 101 is realized as a multilayer circuit board, the signal conductor 103 and the ground conductor layer 105 are formed. Can be formed in the inner layer conductor surface of the circuit board.

  What has been described above relates to a transmission line in the case of transmitting a single-ended signal. As shown in the cross-sectional view of FIG. 26B, two microstrip line structures are arranged in parallel and each has an opposite phase signal. Can be used as a differential signal transmission line. In this case, since a signal having an opposite phase flows through the pair of signal conductors 103a and 103b, the ground conductor layer 105 can be omitted.

  27A shows a cross-sectional structure thereof, and FIG. 27B shows a top view thereof. In a conventional analog circuit or high-speed digital circuit, two or more transmission lines 102a and 102b are adjacent to each other and arranged in parallel. Are often arranged at a high density, and a crosstalk phenomenon occurs between adjacent transmission lines, often resulting in a problem of isolation degradation. As shown in Non-Patent Document 1, the origin of the crosstalk phenomenon can be found in both the mutual inductance and the mutual capacitance.

  Here, using the dielectric substrate 101 as a circuit board, FIG. 28 (a perspective view corresponding to the configuration of FIGS. 27A and 27B), which is a perspective view of a pair of transmission lines arranged close to each other in parallel, The principle of crosstalk signal generation will be described. The two linear transmission lines 102a and 102b are arranged close to and in parallel with each other on the surface 281 of the dielectric substrate 101 with the ground conductor 105 formed on the back surface of the dielectric substrate 101 as the ground conductor portion. The two signal conductors are configured as signal conductor portions. When both ends of these transmission lines 102a and 102b are terminated by resistors (not shown), the two transmission lines 102a and 102b should be replaced with closed current loops 293a and 293b through which current flows, respectively. This makes it possible to understand the high-frequency circuit characteristics of the two transmission lines 102a and 102b.

  As shown in FIG. 28, the current loops 293a and 293b include a signal conductor that conducts current on the front surface 281 of the dielectric substrate 101, a ground conductor 105 on the back surface of the substrate through which return current flows, and a perpendicular to the dielectric substrate 101. It is comprised by the resistance element (not shown) which connects both conductors to a direction. Here, the resistance element introduced in such a circuit (that is, in the current loop) is not a physical element but may be a virtual one in which a resistance component is distributed along the signal conductor, and the characteristic impedance of the transmission line. Can be thought of as having the same value as.

  Next, the crosstalk phenomenon that occurs when a high-frequency signal flows in each current loop 293a will be specifically described with reference to FIG. First, when the high frequency current 853 flows in the direction of the arrow in the figure in the current loop 293a as the high frequency signal is transmitted, the high frequency magnetic field 855 is generated by linking the current loop 293a. Since the two transmission lines 102a and 102b are arranged close to each other, the high-frequency magnetic field 855 also links the current loop 293b of the transmission line 102b, and an induced current 857 flows in the current loop 293b. This is the principle of the crosstalk signal expression caused by the mutual inductance.

  Based on the above principle, the direction of the induced current 857 generated in the current loop 293b is the terminal opposite to the high-frequency current 853 in the current loop 293a (that is, the terminal on the front side in the figure). It flows toward. Since the strength of the high-frequency magnetic field 855 depends on the loop area of the current loop 293a, and the strength of the induced current 857 depends on the strength of the high-frequency magnetic field 855 interlinking the current loop 293b, it is constituted by two transmission lines 102a and 102b. The crosstalk signal strength increases as the coupled line length Lcp of the transmission line pair increases.

  In addition to the crosstalk phenomenon caused by the mutual inductance described above, another crosstalk signal is also induced in the transmission line 102b due to the mutual capacitance generated between the two signal conductors. The crosstalk signal generated by the mutual capacitance has no directionality and is generated with the same intensity on both the far end side and the near end side. Here, the current element generated in the transmission line pair accompanying the crosstalk phenomenon during high-speed signal transmission is shown in the schematic explanatory diagram of FIG. As shown in FIG. 29, when the voltage Vo is applied to the terminal 106a on the left side of the transmission line 102a, a high-frequency current element Io flows through the transmission line 102a along with the high-frequency component included in the pulse rising portion. The difference between the current Ic caused by the mutual capacitance caused by the high-frequency current element Io and the current Ii caused by the mutual inductance is used as a crosstalk current, and the crosstalk terminal 106d on the far end side of the adjacently disposed transmission line 102b. Flow into. On the other hand, a crosstalk current corresponding to the sum of the currents Ic and Ii flows into the crosstalk terminal 106c on the near end side. In such a condition where the transmission line pairs are arranged close to each other at a high density, the current Ii is generally stronger than the current Ic, so that it is opposite to the sign of the voltage Vo applied to the terminal 106a. A negative-sign crosstalk voltage Vf having a sign is observed at the far-end side crosstalk terminal 106d. Therefore, in order to suppress the effect of crosstalk, it is necessary to reduce the mutual inductance.

Here, an example of typical crosstalk characteristics in a conventional transmission line will be described. For example, as shown in FIGS. 27A and 27B, on the surface of a dielectric substrate 101 made of a resin material having a dielectric constant of 3.8, a thickness H = 250 μm and the entire back surface being a ground conductor layer 105, a wiring width W = A high-frequency circuit having a structure in which two signal conductors of 100 μm, that is, transmission lines 102a and 102b are arranged in parallel with the distance G between wirings set to 650 μm, and a coupled line length Lcp of 5 mm is manufactured as Conventional Example 1, Lcp Is a conventional example 2. A wiring interval D which is an arrangement interval between the two transmission lines 102a and 102b is G + (W / 2) × 2 = 750 μm. Each signal conductor was a copper wiring having a conductivity of 3 × 10 8 S / m and a thickness of 20 μm.

  With respect to the high-frequency circuit structures of the conventional examples 1 and 2, the forward direction characteristics (terminal 106a to terminal 106b) in the four-terminal measurement and the far-end direction isolation characteristics (terminal 106a to terminal 106d). This will be described below with reference to a graph in the form of a graph showing the frequency dependence of the isolation characteristics of the high-frequency circuits of Conventional Examples 1 and 2 shown in FIG. In the graph of FIG. 30, the horizontal axis indicates the frequency (GHz), and the vertical axis indicates the isolation characteristic S41 (dB).

  As shown in the isolation characteristic S41 of FIG. 30, the crosstalk intensity increases as the frequency increases. Specifically, in the conventional example 1 (Lcp = 5 mm) indicated by a thin line in the figure, the isolation characteristic is 30 dB in a frequency band of 5 GHz or more, 25 dB in a frequency band of 10 GHz or more, and 20 dB in a frequency band of 20 GHz or more. It turns out that it is not satisfactory. In addition, in the conventional example 2 (Lcp = 50 mm) indicated by the solid line in the figure, it is not possible to secure an isolation of 12 dB in the frequency band of 5 GHz or higher, 7 dB in the frequency band of 10 GHz or higher, and even 3 dB in the frequency band of 20 GHz or higher. I understand. The crosstalk intensity tends to increase monotonously as the signal handled in this way becomes higher in frequency and further as the coupled line length Lcp becomes longer. Even when the arrangement interval D is reduced, the crosstalk intensity increases monotonously.

Introduction to Signal Integrity (CQ Publisher 2002) pp. 79

  However, the conventional microstrip line has the following fundamental problems.

  The forward crosstalk phenomenon that occurs when a plurality of conventional microstrip lines are arranged in parallel can cause malfunction of the circuit from the following two viewpoints. First, since an unexpected decrease in signal strength occurs at an output terminal to which a terminal to which a transmission signal is input is connected, a circuit malfunction occurs. Secondly, among the wideband frequency components included in the transmission signal, the leakage strength is particularly high with higher frequency components, so the crosstalk signal has a very sharp peak on the time axis, and adjacent transmissions. A malfunction occurs in the circuit to which the line is connected. In particular, such a crosstalk phenomenon becomes prominent when the coupled line length Lcp is set over 0.5 times or more the effective wavelength λg of the electromagnetic wave of the high frequency component included in the transmitted signal.

  In the high-frequency circuit of Conventional Example 2 described above, when a pulse having a rise time, a fall time of 50 picoseconds, and a pulse voltage of 1 V is input to the terminal 106a, the crosstalk waveform observed at the terminal 106d on the far end side is shown in FIG. Show. FIG. 31 shows voltage (V) on the vertical axis and time (nsec) on the horizontal axis. As shown in FIG. 31, the absolute value of the observed crosstalk voltage Vf reached 175 mV. Note that the sign of the crosstalk signal corresponding to the rising of the positive sign pulse voltage is reversed, as described above, because the crosstalk current Ii induced by the mutual inductance is the effect of the mutual capacitance. This is due to the fact that the intensity was stronger than the crosstalk current Ic generated by the above.

  However, on the other hand, in order to meet the strict demands for circuit miniaturization from the market, high-frequency circuits are arranged in a dense arrangement in which the distance between adjacent circuits, that is, the distance between transmission lines, is shortened as much as possible by using fine circuit formation technology. Needs to be realized. Also, in general, with the diversification of applications that handle not only audio data but also image data and moving image data, the size of semiconductor chips and boards is becoming larger and larger, so wiring is routed adjacently between circuits. As a result, the coupled line length of the parallel coupled line continues to increase. Furthermore, with the increase in transmission signal speed, even the parallel coupled line length allowed in the conventional high-frequency circuit effectively increases the line length, and the crosstalk phenomenon is becoming prominent. That is, in the conventional transmission line technology, there is a problem that it is difficult to satisfy the demand while it is required to form a high-frequency circuit that maintains high isolation in a high-frequency band with a small area.

  Accordingly, an object of the present invention is to solve the above problems, and maintain good isolation characteristics in a transmission line pair for transmitting analog high frequency signals such as microwave bands and millimeter wave bands, or digital signals. Another object of the present invention is to provide a transmission line pair and a transmission line group that can be used.

  In order to achieve the above object, the present invention is configured as follows.

According to the first aspect of the present invention, the first signal conductor is disposed on one surface of the substrate formed of a dielectric or semiconductor and is formed to bend in the first rotation direction within the surface. ,
A second signal conductor formed so as to bend in a second rotation direction opposite to the first rotation direction, and disposed in series with the first signal conductor on the surface. And
A transmission direction reversing unit that includes at least a part of the first signal conductor and a part of the second signal conductor and transmits a signal in a direction reversed with respect to the transmission direction of the signal in the entire transmission line; Provided is a transmission line pair in which two configured transmission lines are arranged adjacent to and parallel to the signal transmission direction in the entire transmission line.

  That is, in the two transmission lines, the linear first signal conductor is formed to bend in the first rotation direction, and the end of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor are formed. The rotation direction reversal structure is configured by electrically connecting the first signal conductor and bending the linear second signal conductor in the second rotation direction.

  Here, the “rotation direction reversal structure” is an electrically continuous line formed by a linear signal conductor, and the direction (direction) of a signal transmitted through the line is defined by the first direction. The track has a structure that is reversed from the rotation direction to the second rotation direction.

  Further, each transmission line includes at least a part of the first signal conductor and a part of the second signal conductor, or another signal conductor, and is inverted with respect to the signal transmission direction in the transmission line. A “transmission direction reversing unit” is formed to transmit a signal in the directed direction.

  By adopting the transmission line pair of the first aspect, it is possible to reduce the mutual inductance between adjacent transmission lines, and the crosstalk strength can be reduced. Moreover, in the rotation direction reversal structure in the transmission line, since the signal conductor is formed to be bent at least twice in different directions, locally with respect to the transmission direction of the signal as a whole transmission line. The structure is such that high-frequency current is guided in different directions. In the conventional transmission line, the cause of increasing the mutual inductance that is the cause of crosstalk is that a high-frequency current always flows in a direction parallel to the adjacent transmission line, so the high-frequency magnetic field generated in one transmission line is always There is an arrangement relationship between the two transmission lines that the adjacent transmission lines are also linked. However, as the local direction in which the current proceeds in the adjacent transmission line is shifted from the parallel relationship, the condition where the high-frequency magnetic field generated in one transmission line and the adjacent transmission line are linked is eased. Further, by tilting the local traveling direction of the transmission line more than 90 degrees, the current loop formed by the transmission line is locally divided and the area is limited, so that the mutual inductance can be effectively reduced. It becomes possible. Therefore, in the configuration of the transmission line of the first aspect, the mutual inductance with the adjacent transmission line can be reduced and the amount of crosstalk can be reduced.

  In addition, by providing a transmission direction reversing unit that reverses the transmission direction of the signal, the transmission direction reversing unit generates an induced current in the opposite direction, and the amount of induced current generated in the entire transmission line. Can be reduced, and the amount of crosstalk can be further reduced.

  According to the 2nd aspect of this invention, each said transmission line provides the transmission line pair as described in a 1st aspect which has the same line length.

  According to a third aspect of the present invention, in the first aspect, the distance between the centers of the wiring areas of the respective transmission lines is set to 1.1 to 2 times the width of the wiring area of the transmission lines. A transmission line pair is provided.

  According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, there is provided the transmission line pair according to the first aspect, wherein the respective transmission lines are arranged mirror-symmetric with each other.

  According to the fifth aspect of the present invention, the respective transmission lines have the same line shape, and the respective transmission lines translate one transmission line in a direction perpendicular to the transmission direction of the signal. The transmission line pair according to the first aspect having the arrangement relationship is provided.

  According to the sixth aspect of the present invention, each of the transmission lines has the same line shape, and each of the transmission lines has a transmission direction of the signal and a direction perpendicular to the transmission direction of the signal. The transmission line pair according to the first aspect having an arrangement relationship in which one of the transmission lines is translated is provided.

  According to a seventh aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, the transmission line according to the first aspect, wherein each of the curved shapes of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor is an arc shape. Offer a pair.

  According to the eighth aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor with respect to the center of the connection portion between the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor. A transmission line pair according to the first aspect is provided in which the signal conductors are arranged point-symmetrically.

  According to a ninth aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, each of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor has the curved shape having a rotation angle of 180 degrees or more. The transmission line pair described in 1. is provided.

  According to the tenth aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, the transmission direction reversing unit has a direction having an angle of more than 90 degrees with respect to the transmission direction of the signal in the entire transmission line. A transmission line pair according to the first aspect as a direction is provided.

  According to an eleventh aspect of the present invention, in the tenth aspect, the transmission direction inverting unit sets a direction having an angle of 180 degrees with respect to the transmission direction of the signal in the entire transmission line. A transmission line pair is provided.

  According to the twelfth aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, the third signal conductor (signal conductor for interconductor connection) that electrically connects the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor. The transmission line pair according to the first aspect is provided that includes the third signal conductor and includes the transmission direction inversion unit.

  According to the thirteenth aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor are connected via a dielectric, and the dielectric and the first signal conductor are connected. And a transmission line pair according to a first aspect in which a capacitor structure is formed by the second signal conductor.

  According to the fourteenth aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor are each set to a non-resonant line length at the frequency of the transmission signal. A transmission line pair according to an aspect is provided.

  According to a fifteenth aspect of the present invention, there is provided the transmission line pair according to the twelfth aspect, wherein the third signal conductor is set to a non-resonant line length at the frequency of the transmission signal.

  According to the sixteenth aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, the rotation direction inversion structure configured by electrically connecting the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor is the transmission line. A transmission line pair according to the first aspect, which is connected in series with respect to the entire signal transmission direction, is provided.

  According to a seventeenth aspect of the present invention, there is provided the transmission line pair according to the sixteenth aspect, wherein the adjacent rotating direction inversion structures are connected by a fourth signal conductor.

  According to an eighteenth aspect of the present invention, there is provided the transmission line pair according to the seventeenth aspect, wherein the fourth signal conductor is arranged in a direction different from a signal transmission direction in the entire transmission line.

  According to the nineteenth aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, the plurality of rotational direction inversion structures are arranged over an effective line length of 0.5 times or more of an effective wavelength at the frequency of the transmission signal. A transmission line pair according to 16th aspect is provided.

  According to the twentieth aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, the sixteenth aspect in which the plurality of rotation direction inversion structures are arranged over an effective line length that is one or more times the effective wavelength at the frequency of the transmission signal. The transmission line pair described in 1. is provided.

  According to a twenty-first aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, the sixteenth aspect in which the plurality of rotational direction inversion structures are arranged over an effective line length that is at least twice the effective wavelength at the frequency of the transmission signal. The transmission line pair described in 1. is provided.

  According to the twenty-second aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, the sixteenth aspect in which the plurality of rotation direction inversion structures are arranged over an effective line length that is five times or more the effective wavelength at the frequency of the transmission signal. The transmission line pair described in 1. is provided.

  According to a twenty-third aspect of the present invention, there is provided a transmission line group that provides a differential signal to at least one pair of the transmission line pairs described in the first aspect and functions as a differential transmission line.

  If the plurality of rotational direction inversion structures are connected in series as in the sixteenth aspect to form a transmission line, the advantageous effects of the present invention can be continuously provided to the transmission signal. The plurality of rotating direction reversal structures may be directly connected, or may be connected by a fourth signal conductor as in the seventeenth aspect. .

  As in the nineteenth aspect and the twentieth aspect, if the rotation direction inversion structure is continuously arranged over the effective line length of 0.5 times or more, more preferably 1 time or more of the effective wavelength at the frequency of the transmission signal, In the transmission line pair of the present invention, the crosstalk suppressing effect can be enhanced. Further, as in the twenty-first and twenty-second aspects, if the rotational direction inversion structure is continuously arranged over an effective line length of 2 times or more, more preferably 5 times or more of the effective wavelength at the frequency of the transmission signal, In the transmission line pair of the present invention, the effect of suppressing crosstalk with the adjacent transmission line structure can be further enhanced.

  In the transmission line pair of the present invention, the first and second signal conductors, the third signal conductor, and the fourth signal conductor each have a short line length with respect to the wavelength of the electromagnetic wave to be transmitted. It is preferable to set it in order to avoid resonance of the transmission signal. Specifically, the effective line length of each structure is preferably set to less than ¼ of the effective wavelength of the electromagnetic wave at the frequency of the transmission signal.

  Further, in the rotation direction reversal structure of the transmission line pair of the present invention, the connection portion of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor, or the connection of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor. The first signal conductor and the second signal conductor are preferably arranged in a rotationally symmetrical relationship with the center of the third signal conductor as the rotation axis. Even if it is difficult to maintain rotational symmetry for some reason, the advantageous effects of the present invention can be obtained by equalizing the number of rotations Nr of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor.

  Further, by setting the third signal conductor and the fourth signal conductor in a direction that is not completely parallel to the transmission direction of the signal as the entire transmission line, adjacent transmission lines at both signal conductor locations. Therefore, the advantageous effects of the present invention can be further enhanced.

  In addition, by arranging two transmission lines of the present invention adjacent to each other, the crosstalk strength can always be reduced as compared with the case where the same number of transmission lines are arranged adjacently at the same wiring density. The relationship between the two transmission lines may be a parallel relationship translated in a direction perpendicular to the signal transmission direction or a mirror symmetry relationship. Further, the crosstalk intensity can be further reduced by further translating one of the two lines in parallel relation or mirror symmetry relation in the signal transmission direction. The optimum additional translational distance is half of the set period of a plurality of rotational direction reversal structures.

  Further, if two transmission lines of the present invention are arranged adjacent to each other and signals having opposite phases are given to both transmission lines, the differential signal transmission line can have the advantageous effects of the present invention. In this case, by disposing the two transmission lines in a mirror-symmetrical relationship, unnecessary mode conversion from the differential transmission mode to the common mode can be avoided. Further, when two or more differential signal line pairs using two transmission lines of the present invention are arranged, for the same reason, each differential signal line pair is arranged in a mirror symmetry relationship. It is practically preferable.

According to the transmission line pair of the present invention, generation of unnecessary crosstalk signals to adjacent transmission lines can be avoided, so that it is possible to provide a high frequency circuit with extremely high wiring density, small area, and few malfunctions even at high speed operation. It becomes.

  Before continuing the description of the present invention, the same parts are denoted by the same reference numerals in the accompanying drawings.

  In the following, an embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings with regard to the principle of suppressing unwanted radiation and the principle of improving the isolation between peripheral transmission lines.

(Embodiment)
FIG. 1 shows a schematic plan view of a transmission line pair 10 constructed by arranging two transmission lines according to an embodiment of the present invention adjacent to each other in parallel and connectable. As shown in FIG. 1, the transmission line pair 10 includes two signal conductors 3 a and 3 b formed on the surface of the dielectric substrate 1 and a ground conductor layer 5 formed on the back surface of the dielectric substrate 1. As a result, two transmission lines 2a and 2b having the same signal transmission line length and the same line length are formed. Further, each of the signal conductors 3a and 3b includes a signal conductor portion having a substantially spiral rotation structure called a rotation direction reversal structure 7 described later. First, the detailed structure of the rotation direction reversing structure 7 included in the transmission lines 2a and 2b, the principle of suppressing unwanted radiation and the principle of improving isolation obtained by the structure will be specifically described.

  Further, in the description, a schematic plan view schematically showing one transmission line 2a extracted from the transmission line pair 10 shown in FIG. 1 is shown in FIG. 2A, and A1-A2 in the transmission line 2a in FIG. 2A. A line cross-sectional view is shown in FIG. 2B.

  As shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B, a signal conductor 3a is formed on the front surface of the dielectric substrate 1, and a ground conductor layer 5 is formed on the back surface, thereby forming a transmission line 2a. If a signal is transmitted from the left side to the right side in FIG. 2A in FIG. 2A, the signal conductor 3a of the transmission line 2a of the present embodiment has a first rotation direction (in the figure) in the surface of the substrate 1 in at least a partial region. A first signal conductor 7a that rotates the high-frequency current in a spiral shape (that is, rotates 360 degrees) in R1 in the clockwise direction (R1), and a second rotation direction that is opposite to the first rotation direction R1 (illustrated) A second signal conductor 7 b that rotates (ie, reverses) the high-frequency current in a spiral shape in R 2 in the counterclockwise direction R 2 is connected at the connection portion 9. In the present embodiment, such a structure is the rotation direction reversal structure 7. In the signal conductor 3a shown in FIG. 2A, in order to clearly indicate the range of the first signal conductor 7a and the second signal conductor 7b, the signal conductors 7a and 7b are provided with different hatching patterns. is doing.

  As shown in FIG. 2A, the rotation direction reversal structure 7 is formed of a signal conductor having a predetermined line width w, and has a spiral shape formed by a smooth arc formed by being curved toward the first rotation direction R1. A first signal conductor 7a having a spiral shape with a smooth arc formed by being curved toward the second rotation direction R2, and one of the first signal conductors 7a. A connection portion 9 is provided for electrically connecting the end portion and one end portion of the second signal conductor 7b. Further, as shown in FIG. 2A, the first signal conductor 7a and the second signal conductor 7b have a rotationally symmetric (or point-symmetric) arrangement relationship with the center of the connection portion 9 as a base point. An axis (not shown) that vertically penetrates the dielectric substrate 1 at the center corresponds to the rotationally symmetric rotational axis.

  Further, as shown in FIG. 2A, in the rotation direction reversal structure 7, the first signal conductor 7a has a semicircular arc signal conductor with a relatively small curvature and a semicircular arc shape with a relatively large curvature. By connecting to the signal conductor, a spiral signal conductor having a 360-degree rotation structure is formed, and the same applies to the second signal conductor. The two semicircular arc-shaped signal conductors having a large curvature curvature are electrically connected to each other at the connection portion 9, thereby forming the rotation direction reversal structure 7. As shown in FIG. 2A, each end of the rotating direction reversal structure 7, that is, the outer end of the first signal conductor 7a and the second end of the second signal conductor 7b are substantially linear external parts. The signal conductor 4 is connected.

  Further, in the rotation direction inversion structure 7, if the direction from the left side to the right side in the figure is the signal transmission direction in the entire transmission line 2, the transmission direction inversion unit 8 transmits the signal in the direction in which the transmission direction is inverted. (Part surrounded by a dotted line in the figure) is configured. The transmission direction inversion unit 8 includes a part of the first signal conductor 7a and a part of the second signal conductor 7b.

  Here, the signal transmission direction in the transmission line will be described below with reference to the schematic plan view of the transmission line shown in FIG. 33 (that is, one transmission line constituting the transmission line pair). In this specification, when the shape of the signal conductor has a curved shape, the transmission direction is its tangential direction, and when the shape of the signal conductor has a linear shape, The transmission direction is the longitudinal direction. Specifically, as illustrated in FIG. 33, when a transmission line 502 including a signal conductor portion 503 having a signal conductor portion having a linear shape and a signal conductor portion having an arc shape is taken as an example, a signal having a linear shape is obtained. At local positions P1 and P2 in the conductor portion, the transmission direction T is the rightward direction in the figure, which is the longitudinal direction of the signal conductor. On the other hand, at the local positions P2 to P5 in the signal conductor portion having an arc shape, the tangential direction at the local positions P2 to P5 is the respective transmission direction T.

  Further, in the transmission line 502 of FIG. 33, when the signal transmission direction 65 in the entire transmission line 502 is rightward in the figure, this direction is the X-axis direction, and the direction orthogonal to the X-axis direction on the same plane is the Y-axis direction. The transmission directions T at the positions P1 to P6 can be decomposed into Tx that is a component in the X-axis direction and Ty that is a component in the Y-axis direction. At positions P1, P2, P5, and P6, Tx has a component in the + (plus) X direction, while at positions P3 and P4, Tx has a component in the-(minus) X direction. In the present specification, the portion having the transmission direction component in the −X direction as described above is a “transmission direction inversion portion”. Specifically, the positions P3 and P4 are positions in the transmission direction inversion unit 508, and the hatched portion of the signal conductor in FIG. 33 is the transmission direction inversion unit 508. The transmission line of the present embodiment is always configured to include such a transmission direction inversion unit. In addition, the description about the effect etc. which are acquired by arrange | positioning such a transmission direction inversion part is mentioned later.

  Further, as shown in the schematic plan view of the transmission line 12a according to the modification of the present embodiment in FIG. 3, it is possible to configure the transmission line 12a by connecting the rotation direction inversion structure 7 in series several times. It is preferable for obtaining an advantageous effect. In FIG. 3, the rotation direction inversion structures 7 adjacent to each other are directly connected without interposing other signal conductors. In FIG. 3, only one transmission line 12 a of the transmission line pair according to the modification of the present embodiment is illustrated, and the other transmission line (not illustrated) is the transmission line illustrated in FIG. 3. It has the same shape and line length as 12a.

  Further, as shown in the schematic plan view of the transmission line 22a according to the modification of the present embodiment in FIG. 4, the number of rotations Nr of the first signal conductor 27a and the second signal conductor 27b in the rotation direction inversion structure 27 Unlike the case of Nr = 1 in the rotational direction reversal structure 7 in FIG. 2A, the setting may be set to Nr = 0.75. Further, as shown in the schematic plan view of the transmission line 32a in FIG. 5, the number of rotations Nr of the first signal conductor 37a and the second signal conductor 37b in the rotation direction inversion structure 37 is set to 1.5 times. It may be a case. In any of the transmission lines 22a and 32a, a configuration including the rotation direction inversion structures 27 and 37 and the transmission direction inversion units 28 and 38 is employed. In the transmission line 22a of FIG. 4 and the transmission line 32a of FIG. 5, the portions surrounded by the dotted lines in the figure are the transmission direction inversion units 28 and 38, and in each rotation direction inversion structure 37 of the transmission line 32a of FIG. The transmission direction inverting unit 38 is divided into two parts. Further, although not shown in the figure, a case where the number of rotations Nr other than this is set may be used. 4 and 5 also illustrate only one transmission line of the transmission line pair having the same shape and line length as in FIG.

  About the distance which provides a rotation direction inversion structure in the transmission line of this invention, arrangement | positioning space | interval D (for example, arrangement | positioning space | interval D of the transmission line pair 10 of FIG. 1) between adjacent transmission lines is the wiring width (line width) of each transmission line. Considering the crosstalk characteristics between adjacent transmission lines under the setting conditions in a normal circuit board set within a range of about 1 to 10 times w (for example, the wiring width w of the signal conductor 3a in FIG. 2A). The following conditions are preferably satisfied.

  That is, under the above normal conditions, when the coupling between adjacent transmission lines is weak, the crosstalk strength between adjacent transmission lines is maximum when the line coupling length Lcp reaches about 5 times the effective wavelength of the transmission frequency. When the coupling is strong, when the line coupling length Lcp reaches about twice the effective wavelength of the transmission frequency, the crosstalk strength between adjacent transmission lines takes the maximum value. There is. For example, the coupled line length Lcp of 50 mm in the high frequency circuit of Conventional Example 2 corresponds to five times the effective wavelength for a frequency of 20 GHz where the crosstalk intensity is a value that cannot be ignored. Such a crosstalk phenomenon becomes prominent when the coupled line length Lcp is set over at least 0.5 times the effective wavelength λg at the frequency of the transmitted signal. Therefore, when the purpose is to suppress crosstalk with adjacent transmission line structures, the region where a plurality of rotation direction inversion structures are connected is 0.5 times or more the effective wavelength λg at the frequency of the transmitted signal, preferably 2 It is preferable to set over a length of more than twice, more preferably more than 5 times.

  The transmission line 2a of the present embodiment is not limited to the case where the signal conductor 3 is formed on the outermost surface of the dielectric substrate 1, but an inner layer conductor surface (for example, an inner layer surface in a multilayer structure substrate). It may be the case where it is formed. Similarly, the ground conductor layer 5 is not limited to the case where it is formed on the outermost back surface of the dielectric substrate 101, and may be a case where it is formed on the inner layer conductor surface. That is, in this specification, the one surface (or surface) of the substrate is the outermost surface or the rearmost surface or the inner layer surface of the substrate having a single layer structure or the substrate having a laminated structure.

  Specifically, a schematic cross-sectional view of the transmission line 2A of FIG. 34 (that is, a schematic cross-sectional view showing only one transmission line of the two transmission lines constituting the transmission line pair (hereinafter, FIG. 35 and FIG. 36), the signal conductor 3 is disposed on one surface (upper surface in the drawing) S of the dielectric substrate 1, and the ground conductor layer 5 is disposed on the other surface (lower surface in the drawing). Alternatively, another dielectric layer L1 may be disposed on one surface S of the dielectric substrate 1, and another dielectric layer L2 may be disposed on the lower surface of the ground conductor layer 5. Furthermore, like the transmission line 2B shown in the schematic cross-sectional view of FIG. 35, the dielectric substrate 1 itself is configured as a multilayer body L3 composed of a plurality of dielectric layers 1a, 1b, 1c, and 1d. The signal conductor 3 may be disposed on one surface (upper surface in the drawing) S, and the ground conductor layer 5 may be disposed on the other surface (lower surface in the drawing). Further, another dielectric layer L1 is arranged on one surface S of the multilayer body L3 as in the transmission line 2C shown in FIG. 36 having a configuration in which the configuration shown in FIG. 34 and the configuration shown in FIG. 35 are combined. In this case, another dielectric layer L2 may be disposed on the lower surface of the ground conductor layer 5. In any of the transmission lines 2A, 2B, and 2C having the configurations shown in FIGS. 34 to 36, the surface indicated by the symbol S is the “surface of the substrate (one surface)”.

  Further, in the transmission line 2a shown in FIG. 2A, the first signal conductor 7a and the second signal conductor 7b are directly connected at the connection portion 9, but the transmission line according to the present embodiment is as described above. It is not limited to only cases. Instead of such a case, for example, the first signal conductor 47a and the second signal conductor 47b in the rotation direction inversion structure 47 are straight (or not) like the transmission line 42a shown in the schematic plane of FIG. It may be connected via a third signal conductor 47c, which is an example of a signal conductor for connecting conductors of a rotating structure). In this case, the midpoint of the third signal conductor 47c can be set as a rotation axis that is 180-degree rotational symmetry. In addition, in the transmission line 42a shown in FIG. 6, the transmission direction reversing part 48, which is a part surrounded by the dotted line in the figure, includes a part of the first signal conductor 47a, a part of the second signal conductor 47b, The third signal conductor 47c is composed of the whole.

  Further, the connection portion 9 of the rotating direction reversing structure 7 is not limited to the case where a signal conductor is disposed. Instead of such a case, for example, as shown in FIG. 7, in the rotation direction inversion structure 57 of the transmission line 52a, a connection portion 59 that is electrically connected to the first signal conductor 57a and the second signal conductor 57b. Alternatively, the dielectric 57c may be disposed at a high frequency, and a capacitor having a capacitance value sufficient to pass a high-frequency signal passing therethrough may be connected at a high frequency. In such a case, the rotation direction inversion structure 57 has a capacitor structure. In the transmission line 52a of FIG. 7, the transmission direction inversion portion 58, which is a portion surrounded by the dotted line in the figure, includes a part of the first signal conductor 57a, a part of the second signal conductor 57b, and a dielectric. It is comprised by the body 57c.

  Further, in the transmission line 12a shown in FIG. 3, the adjacent rotation direction reversal structures 7 are directly connected without any other conductor, but in such a case where direct connection is performed in this way. Is not limited to only about. Instead of such a case, for example, via a fourth signal conductor 47d, which is an example of a linear (or non-rotating structure) inter-structure connection signal conductor, such as a transmission line 42a shown in FIG. It may be a case where adjacent rotation direction reversal structures 47 are connected to each other. Although not shown, the electrical connection between the structures may be performed so as to form a capacitor with a capacitor.

  Further, the first signal conductor 7a and the second signal conductor 7b formed by bending the conductor wiring in a predetermined rotation direction do not necessarily have a spiral arc shape, but are obtained by adding polygonal and rectangular wiring. Although it may be configured, in order to avoid unnecessary reflection of the signal, it is preferable to be realized by drawing a gentle curve. When the signal transmission path is bent, a shunt capacitance is generated in terms of circuit. To reduce this effect, the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor are connected to the third signal conductor and the fourth signal conductor. It may be a case where a part thereof is realized with a line width w narrower than the line width.

  Further, in one rotation direction reversal structure, the number of rotations Nr of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor is not limited only when the setting is not necessarily the same, but the number of rotations Nr is set equal. It is preferred that Further, instead of the case where the number of rotations Nr is considered in one rotation direction inversion structure, a combination of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor in one rotation direction inversion structure, and the one rotation In consideration of the combination of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor in the rotational direction reversal structure arranged adjacent to the direction reversal structure, the sum of the total number of rotations Nr is set to a value close to 0 (zero). Even in such a case, the advantageous effects of the present invention can be obtained.

  In addition, transmission of the same line length including at least one rotation direction reversing structure 7 including the transmission direction reversing portion 8, which is configured by the first signal conductor 7 a, the second signal conductor 7 b, and the connection portion 9. Although the effect of the present invention can be obtained with a transmission line pair constituted by lines, it is more preferable to use a transmission line in which a plurality of such rotation direction inversion structures are arranged.

  Next, the principle of enabling the transmission line of the present embodiment to suppress crosstalk between adjacent transmission lines and the principle of suppressing unnecessary radiation will be described below.

  In the transmission line 2a constituting the transmission line pair of the present embodiment, first, the arrangement relationship is devised so that each part of the signal conductor 3a does not always maintain a parallel positional relationship with the adjacent transmission line 2b. As a result, it is possible to reduce the mutual inductance generated between adjacent transmission lines as compared with the conventional transmission line pairs arranged in a straight line, and to obtain a crosstalk intensity suppressing effect. For example, in the rotational direction inversion structure 7 provided in the transmission line 2a, the devised arrangement relationship has a structure in which the first signal conductor 7a and the second signal conductor 7b are each curved in a predetermined rotational direction. It is realized from that.

  As already described in the background art, the main factor of crosstalk between adjacent transmission lines when the conventional transmission line structure is adopted is an induced current caused by mutual inductance. In a conventional transmission line pair, the mutual inductance between the transmission lines becomes strong because the current loop formed virtually by the transmission line and the current loop formed by the other transmission line are It is in the point that it always keeps being closely arranged in parallel over the section length (namely, coupled line length) arrange | positioned adjacently. Under this condition, when a high-frequency magnetic flux that links one current loop is generated, the other current loop is surely linked, and the mutual inductance becomes a large value.

  In order to reduce the mutual inductance generated between the two current loops, the two current loops are not parallel but are arranged at a relative angle, and the loop area of each current loop is reduced. The method is effective. Therefore, in the transmission line 2a constituting the transmission line pair of the present embodiment, the rotational direction inversion structure 7 is introduced into the signal conductor 3a, thereby realizing effective reduction of mutual inductance. That is, the introduction of the rotating direction reversal structure 7 forces the local signal conductor to be directed in a direction not parallel to the signal transmission direction in the entire transmission line 2a, so that the loop of the current loop formed by the transmission lines 2a and 2b. Proactively create locations where the placement relationship between them is not parallel, and even in local locations where the loops are placed in parallel, the loop area is significantly greater than when using conventional transmission lines. It is reduced.

  Furthermore, in the transmission lines 2a and 2b constituting the transmission line pair of the present embodiment, the structure is optimized to employ a method of further reducing the mutual inductance generated between the two current loops. That is, the transmission direction inversion unit 8 that locally causes current to flow in the direction opposite to the signal transmission direction is intentionally set, and an induced current is generated in the direction opposite to that of a normal transmission line, so that a comprehensive mutual This structure suppresses inductance.

  About the principle that the transmission line of this embodiment reduces crosstalk between adjacent transmission lines by making the arrangement of the current loop locally formed by the high-frequency current traveling in the transmission line different from the conventional microstrip line, This will be described more specifically with reference to the schematic explanatory diagram shown in FIG.

  As already described in the background art using the schematic perspective view of FIG. 28, in the transmission line 102a of the conventional transmission line pair, when the traveling high-frequency current 853 flows through the current loop 293a, the high-frequency that intersects the current loop 293a at right angles. A magnetic field 855 is induced. Since the induced high-frequency magnetic field 855 links the current loop 293b formed by the adjacent transmission line 102b, an induced current 857 that causes crosstalk is generated based on the mutual inductance. Here, the strength of mutual inductance is proportional to the cosine of the angle formed by the product of the loop areas of the current loops of both transmission lines and the direction thereof.

  On the other hand, the schematic explanatory diagram of FIG. 8 has the same configuration as the transmission line 2b (the transmission line 2a in the transmission line pair 10) constituting the transmission line pair of the present embodiment in which a high-frequency current proceeds in the direction of the arrow 65. The structure in the case where the number of rotations Nr in the rotation direction reversal structure 7 is 0.5 is schematically shown. The rotation direction inversion structure 7 provided in the transmission line 2a in the transmission line pair of the present embodiment shown in FIGS. 1 and 2A has a structure in which the number of rotations Nr is 1, but the transmission line 2b in FIG. In the description using, for the purpose of facilitating understanding of the description, the following description will be given using a structure in which the number of rotations Nr is set to 0.5.

  Further, in FIG. 8, the direction of the high-frequency current in a local portion in the transmission line 2b is indicated by an arrow, and the high-frequency current elements are locally formed together with the return current of the grounding conductor 5 that forms a pair. A part of the current loops 73 and 74 are shown. In order to facilitate understanding of the description, the illustration of the adjacent transmission line 2a that is arranged in parallel with the transmission line 2b of the present embodiment and that receives crosstalk is omitted.

  As shown in FIG. 8, in the current loop 73 generated at a location where the local direction of the signal conductor 3a and the signal transmission direction 65 (the signal transmission direction as a whole of the transmission lines 2a and 2b) are parallel, The high-frequency magnetic flux 855 that can be interlinked with the current loop formed by is generated, so that the induced current due to the mutual inductance is generated in the adjacent transmission line as in the conventional case. However, in the transmission line 2a in the transmission line pair of the present embodiment, since the first signal conductor 7a and the second signal conductor 7b are formed in a curved shape, the signal transmission direction is locally in the signal conductor portion. There is a place to change the direction. In principle, for example, the current loop 74 at a location where the signal conductor is locally bent in a direction orthogonal to the signal transmission direction 65 generates a high-frequency magnetic field 855 directed toward the adjacent transmission line. This is impossible and does not contribute to an increase in mutual inductance. Moreover, the local curve part in a signal conductor has begun to express the effect which divides | segments the current loop which continued over the line length in the conventional transmission line in the length direction. As a result, it can be seen that if at least the number of rotations Nr is set to a value exceeding 0.5, the loop area of the current loop 73 can be reduced and the strength of the mutual inductance can be suppressed. Therefore, the transmission line 2b of this embodiment, that is, the transmission line pair 10 constituted by the transmission lines 2a and 2b, is more crosstalk than the conventional transmission line if the number of rotations Nr is set to a value exceeding 0.5. The strength can be reduced.

  Next, in the transmission line pair 10 of this embodiment shown in FIG. 1, a schematic explanatory diagram in which the direction of the high-frequency current transmitted to each transmission line 2a, 2b is simplified is shown in FIG. In the description using FIG. 8, it is considered that the location where the signal conductor is locally arranged in the direction perpendicular to the signal transmission direction 65 can ignore the contribution to the mutual inductance between the two transmission lines. It is omitted from the schematic explanatory diagram of FIG. Furthermore, most of the parts where signals are transmitted in an oblique direction that is neither perpendicular nor parallel to the signal transmission direction 65 can be decomposed into vectors in two directions that are parallel to the direction perpendicular to the transmission direction. Therefore, each rotation direction inversion structure 7 in each transmission line 2a, 2b in the transmission line pair 10 having the structure shown in FIG. 1 is typically a local portion 61a, 61b which is six parallel coupling lines. , 63a, 63b, 65a and 65b.

  As shown in FIG. 9, in the transmission line 2b of the present embodiment, the locations where the signal conductors locally change direction are not only generated at both ends of the local portions 61b and 65b, but also some local portions. In 63b, a local structure in which the signal conductor flows current in a direction opposite to the signal transmission direction 65, that is, a configuration including a transmission direction inversion unit that reverses the signal transmission direction is realized. As shown by the arrows in FIG. 9, the induced current generated by the high-frequency current 853 transmitted through the adjacent transmission line 2a is generated in the opposite directions in the local parts 61b and 65b and the local part 63b in the transmission line 2b. . Therefore, the amount of induced current generated in the entire transmission line 2b can be reduced by the amount of induced current (that is, induced current generated in the opposite direction) in the local portion 63b, and crosstalk can be suppressed. . In this specification, “invert the signal transmission direction” means, for example, as shown in FIG. 9, the signal transmission direction 65 is the X-axis direction, and the direction orthogonal to the X-axis direction is the Y-axis direction. In some cases, at least a -x component is generated in the vector representing the direction of the transmitted signal on the signal conductor. This condition includes a condition in which the number of rotations Nr is set to a value exceeding 0.5 as shown in the description of FIG.

  Note that, in the local portion 65b in the transmission line 2b farthest from the high-frequency current 853 transmitted in the transmission line 2a, the intensity of the induced current generated is small, and the amount of induced current generated in the entire transmission line 2b. Can be ignored. Further, in the present embodiment, when the wiring interval between adjacent transmission lines is constant, the local portion 61b is close to the transmission line 2a as compared with the case where the conventional linear transmission line is adopted, but the wiring is Since the mutual inductance between the lines in the close state tends to saturate with the proximity of the further line spacing, the amount of induced current generated in the local part 61b is extreme compared to the induced current generated in the local part 63b. Don't get too expensive. As a result, it is possible to effectively reduce the mutual inductance between the transmission lines by the generation of the induced current in the direction opposite to the conventional case by introducing the local portion 63b.

  In the schematic explanatory diagram of FIG. 9, the current direction in the local part 63b which is a problem in the transmission line 2b is illustrated as a direction completely reversed from the signal transmission direction 65. If 63b has a direction with an angle exceeding 90 degrees with the signal transmission direction 65 (that is, if it has a direction with -x component), as shown in the schematic explanatory diagram, signal transmission It can be considered that an induced current component in a direction opposite to the direction 65 is partially generated. Therefore, in the transmission line 2b constituting the transmission line pair of the present embodiment, the transmission direction inversion unit which is a signal conductor that locally transmits a signal in a different direction exceeding 90 degrees from the signal transmission direction 65 is reversed in the rotation direction. It is necessary to include in the structure 7, and it is preferable to include a transmission direction inversion unit that transmits a signal in a direction inverted by 180 degrees from the signal transmission direction 65.

  Based on the principle described above using the transmission line pair 10 of the present embodiment, particularly preferable conditions for the transmission line of the present invention to suppress crosstalk between adjacent transmission lines are shown below.

  First, in the rotation direction inversion structure of the transmission line of the present invention, if the number of rotations Nr of the rotation structure is set to a value exceeding 0.5, signal transmission as a whole transmission line is performed in the rotation direction inversion structure. Since a portion for guiding current locally in a direction different from the direction exceeding 90 degrees, that is, a transmission direction inversion portion can be generated without fail, a crosstalk suppressing effect can be effectively obtained.

  Further, even if the number of rotations Nr is a value smaller than 0.5, the third signal conductor that connects the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor is employed in the rotation direction reversal structure. Or when a fourth signal conductor connecting a plurality of rotation direction reversal structures is employed, the direction of at least a part of the signal conductor is different from the signal transmission direction by more than 90 degrees. If the current is set to be guided locally, a crosstalk suppression effect can be effectively obtained.

  In addition, when connecting the rotation direction inversion structure in series in a plurality of times in each transmission line constituting the transmission line pair of the present invention, for example, as shown in FIG. Adoption of an arrangement in which the rotation directions of the signal conductor 37b of the first signal conductor 37a of the other rotation direction inversion structure 37 adjacent to the one rotation direction inversion structure 37 are opposite to each other. However, this is a preferable condition for obtaining a crosstalk suppressing effect.

  Further, as in the transmission line 62a shown in the schematic plan view of FIG. 10, the adjacent rotation direction inversion structures 67 and 67 are connected by using a fourth signal conductor 67d parallel to the signal transmission direction 65. The second signal conductor 67b included in the rotation direction reversal structure 67 (arranged at the left end in the figure) and the first signal conductor 67a included in the adjacent rotation direction reversal structure 67 (arranged in the center in the figure) are the same. It is also possible to set the rotation direction (that is, the second rotation direction R2). However, in the structure of the transmission line 62a shown in FIG. 10, since the fourth signal conductor 67d is arranged in parallel with the signal transmission direction 65, the transmission line of the present invention has been performed to reduce mutual inductance. It cannot be said that the best ideas have been adopted. That is, since the fourth signal conductor 67d has a long section length (line length) arranged in parallel with the adjacent transmission line, there is a possibility that the effect of reducing the mutual inductance of the transmission line of the present invention may be reduced. is there. In addition, if the fourth signal conductor 67d is arranged at the position closest to the adjacent transmission line in the transmission line, the mutual capacitance between the adjacent transmission lines may increase unnecessarily. .

  Therefore, in order to effectively obtain the advantageous effects of the present invention by adopting the rotation direction inversion structure having the same number of rotations Nr, the transmission line 72a having the structure of FIG. 11 is adopted rather than the transmission line 62a having the structure of FIG. It is preferable to do. That is, as in the transmission line 72a of FIG. 11, the fourth signal conductor 77d is preferably arranged in an inclined direction without being arranged in parallel to the signal transmission direction 65. As shown in the transmission line 72a of FIG. 11, the fourth signal conductor 77d that connects the adjacent rotation direction inversion structures 77 is formed in a substantially linear shape, and is inclined with respect to the signal transmission direction 65. In such a structure, each of the rotational direction reversal structures 77 has the same arrangement shape.

  Further, since it is not preferable that the phase of the transmission signal rotates extremely during transmission of the fourth signal conductor, the line length of the fourth signal conductor is a quarter of the effective wavelength at the frequency of the transmitted signal. It is preferable to set the line length to less than. 10 and 11 also show only one transmission line of the two transmission lines constituting the transmission line pair, as in FIG. 3 and the like.

  Up to here, the principle that the adoption of the transmission line of the present invention reduces the mutual inductance and the crosstalk phenomenon is suppressed. Next, the transmission line of the present invention has the conventional transmission line. There are no characteristics that are advantageous for industrial use.

  In the description, first, a typical example of the dependency of the crosstalk characteristics between two adjacent transmission lines on the wiring interval D is schematically shown in a graph form in FIG. In FIG. 12, as the characteristics when the transmission line pair of the present invention is adopted, the characteristics of the transmission line pair having a rotation number Nr of one rotation of the rotation direction inversion structure (that is, the configuration including the transmission direction inversion unit), As a comparative example, the characteristics of a transmission line pair (that is, a configuration that does not include a transmission direction reversal unit) of the rotation direction reversal structure with a rotation number Nr of 0.5 rotation are shown by solid lines, and a conventional linear transmission line pair is The characteristics when adopted are shown by dotted lines. The characteristic shown in the figure is a crosstalk characteristic at a specific frequency, for example, 10 GHz. As shown in FIG. 1, the wiring interval D is defined as the interval between the centers of the total wiring formation regions, and the wiring interval D is set to be the same in the three examples compared. That is, in the three examples compared in the figure, the transmission line density per unit width is the same. The local signal conductor width w in the transmission line pair of the present invention is the same as the signal conductor width w in the transmission line pair in the comparative example and the signal conductor width w in the conventional transmission line example. The effective characteristic impedances of the lines are compared with the same setting.

  As shown in FIG. 12, in the conventional transmission line pair, the amount of crosstalk increases monotonously when the wiring interval D is reduced. For this reason, if the conventional transmission line pair is employed, there is no method other than increasing the wiring interval D and reducing the wiring density of the transmission line in order to obtain a crosstalk suppressing effect of a predetermined value or more. However, the transmission line pair of the present invention (the number of rotations Nr = 1 rotation) starts to exhibit completely different crosstalk characteristics from the conventional transmission line pair when the value of the wiring interval D is gradually reduced. That is, when the value of the wiring interval D becomes a value equal to or smaller than the predetermined wiring interval D3, the crosstalk amount starts to decrease extremely and is improved to a much better value than the conventional transmission line pair. Specifically, in the transmission line pair of the present invention in which the number of rotations Nr of the rotation direction reversal structure is one rotation, the crosstalk intensity takes a minimum value at the wiring interval D = D2 (D2 <D3), and the conventional transmission The characteristic improvement amount ΔS with the line pair reaches the maximum. With the wiring spacing D <D2, the crosstalk intensity starts to increase, but still much better characteristics than the conventional transmission line pair configuration can be achieved. The crosstalk suppression effect of the present invention is maintained until the transmission line reaches a wiring interval D = Dc where the transmission lines are very close to each other and the wiring region interval d approaches zero. Under the condition of the wiring interval D = Dc obtained analytically, the wiring region interval d is a low value that is difficult to achieve with a realistic process rule. Therefore, the transmission line pair of the present invention has the same wiring number density condition. Assuming a realistic process rule below, it has an industrially advantageous effect that it is possible to always obtain better isolation characteristics than the conventional transmission line pair.

  Furthermore, a preferable feature of the transmission line pair of the present invention is that D2, which is a wiring interval D value that realizes the minimum crosstalk strength, does not have frequency dependency. In other words, the crosstalk intensity between adjacent transmission lines is the minimum value when the wiring interval D = D2 at any frequency. Therefore, the transmission speed of signals to be handled in the device will be improved in the future, and even if the frequency of the high frequency component included in the signal changes, there is no need to newly set a wiring rule, and the advantageous effects of the present invention are maintained. Can be obtained.

  Further, qualitatively explaining the relationship between the wiring interval D2, the characteristic improvement amount ΔS, and the structure of the transmission line pair of the present invention, the number of rotations Nr of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor is as large as about one rotation. If it is a value, the condition of the wiring interval D = D2 corresponds to a structure having a low wiring number density, but very good isolation characteristics can be obtained. On the contrary, if a structure with a small number of rotations Nr, for example, a structure with a number of rotations Nr = 0.5 rotation like the transmission line pair of the comparative example is adopted, the condition of the wiring interval D = D2 is better than the conventional transmission line pair. Although a good isolation characteristic can be obtained, the amount of crosstalk intensity suppression is not as great as the transmission line pair of the present invention (configuration with the number of rotations Nr = 1 rotation). However, the amount of crosstalk can be minimized under extremely high wiring density, and both can provide an industrially significant effect.

  The phenomenon that the above-described crosstalk takes a minimum value is caused by an increase in mutual capacitance in the transmission line pair of the present invention due to a decrease in the wiring region interval d as compared with the conventional transmission line pair. As described in the background art, the crosstalk current corresponds to a difference between Ic caused by mutual capacitance and induced current Ii caused by mutual inductance, and Ii> Ic in a normal transmission line pair. In the transmission line pair of the present invention, the structure that reduces the induced current Ii is adopted as described above. However, since the total wiring area width W is wider than that of the conventional transmission line pair, Since the distance d between the wiring areas decreases, Ic is effectively increased. As a result, Ii and Ic having equal strengths with opposite signs under the condition of the wiring interval D = D2 are canceled at the far-end crosstalk terminal, and the crosstalk signal strength can be minimized. . As the above description is supported, since Ii <Ic when the wiring interval D <D2, the crosstalk voltage at the far-end crosstalk terminal has the opposite sign to that when the wiring interval D> D2.

  Further, in the transmission line pair of the present invention, since the total wiring area width W is increased as compared with the conventional transmission line pair, an extremely small wiring interval D value cannot be physically set. For example, if the total wiring area width W is set to 5 times the wiring width w, the wiring interval D cannot be set to 5 times or less of w, but the value of the wiring interval Dc obtained analytically is the value of the signal conductor. Even if conditions such as the number of rotations Nr of the rotating structure change, it is possible to obtain a result that concentrates on a value about 5.2 times the wiring width w. When the total wiring area width W is set to 3 times the wiring width w, the wiring interval Dc obtained by analysis is about 3.2 times the wiring width w. That is, it is considered that the transmission line pair of the present invention can maintain better isolation than the conventional transmission line pair if the gap d between the total wiring regions is maintained at 1/5 or more of the wiring width w. .

  In general, the wiring interval D3 is about twice the total wiring area width W. Even when D> D3, the superior effect of the present invention compared to the case where the conventional transmission line pair is adopted is reduced in its degree, but the characteristic is not deteriorated as compared with the conventional transmission line pair. That is, the transmission line pair of the present invention provides an advantageous effect that crosstalk is suppressed more than the conventional transmission line pair in all wiring density conditions except when the wiring region interval d is extremely reduced. It is possible.

  For the purpose of reducing mutual inductance and suppressing unwanted radiation, the setting of the number of rotations Nr in the rotating direction reversal structure is more advantageous as the value increases, but the electrical length of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor. When the line length that cannot be ignored with respect to the effective wavelength of the transmitted electromagnetic wave is reached, the effect of the present invention is lost. Further, the increase in the number of rotations Nr also causes an increase in the total wiring area width W, which is not preferable for circuit area saving. In addition, an increase in the total wiring length is considered to cause a signal delay. Also, since the effective wavelength of the electromagnetic wave is shortened at the upper limit of the transmission frequency band, if the rotation speed is set high, the wiring lengths of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor approach the electromagnetic wave wavelength and approach the resonance condition. Therefore, reflection tends to occur, and the use band of the transmission line pair of the present invention is limited, which is not practically preferable. Such unnecessary reflection of the signal not only leads to a decrease in the intensity of the transmitted signal and unnecessary radiation, but also causes a deterioration in the group delay characteristic, which leads to a decrease in transmission error rate as a system. Therefore, the practical setting upper limit of the number of rotations Nr in the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor is preferably 2 rotations or less in normal applications.

  In addition, when the transmission line pair of the present invention is used, there may be two types of problems regarding the group delay characteristics. The first problem is an increase in the total delay amount, and the second problem is a delay dispersion problem in which the delay amount increases as the frequency becomes higher. The increase in the total delay amount, which is the first problem, is fundamentally inevitable when using the transmission line pair of the present invention. However, the degree of increase in the delay amount due to the extension of the wiring in the transmission line pair of the present invention is in a range where the delay amount is increased by several percent to several tens of percent as compared with the conventional transmission line pair. This increase is not considered to be a big problem in practice.

  Further, the delay amount increases as it goes to the high frequency side of the transmission band mentioned as the second problem, and the delay dispersion that causes the collapse of the transmission pulse shape can be easily avoided. This is a problem caused by each part in the structure of the present invention reaching an electrical length that cannot be ignored with respect to the effective wavelength of the electromagnetic wave. In general, the transmission line structure of a planar high-frequency circuit can realize a transmission line having the same equivalent impedance by maintaining the ratio between the line width and the substrate thickness. Therefore, the total line width is reduced as the substrate thickness is set thinner. Therefore, the electrical length of each part can be ignored with respect to the effective wavelength, and the delay dispersion problem mentioned as the second problem can be solved without reducing the advantageous effects of the present invention.

  Here, as an example, FIG. 13A shows a schematic plan view of the transmission line 82a in the case where the structure of the transmission line pair of the present invention is formed on a dielectric substrate having a large substrate thickness H1, whereas the transmission of the present invention is shown in FIG. FIG. 13B shows a schematic plan view of the transmission line 92a when the line pair is formed on a dielectric substrate having a small substrate thickness H2, and the configurations of the two are compared. In FIGS. 13A and 13B, only one transmission line of one transmission line constituting the transmission line pair is shown. In the transmission line 82a shown in FIG. 13A, since the total line width W1 is set to be large, each part including the rotation direction inversion structure 87 is large, but in the transmission line 92a shown in FIG. 13B, Since the total line width W2 (that is, W2 <W1) is set to be small as the circuit board thickness is reduced, the electrical length of each part constituting the circuit including the rotation direction inversion structure 97 can be reduced. Recognize. This means that the upper limit frequency of the transmission band that can be accommodated by the transmission line pair structure of the present invention can be improved as the trend toward higher-density wiring that makes the circuit structure thinner and the wiring width as fine as possible progresses. It is shown that.

  Next, an application example using the configuration of the transmission line pair 10 according to the present embodiment will be described below with reference to schematic plan views of the transmission line pair shown in FIGS. 14A and 14B.

  First, the transmission line pair 110 shown in FIG. 14A has a configuration in which two transmission lines 32a shown in FIG. In such a transmission line pair 110, each transmission line 112a and 112b functions as a transmission path for a single-ended signal, and a transmission line pair (or transmission line group) in which the isolation between lines is maintained at a good value. ).

  In this case, as shown in FIG. 14A, another transmission line 112b arranged close to the transmission line 112a has translated the transmission line 112a in a direction 68 perpendicular to the signal transmission direction 65. Arranged in relationship. Further, as shown in the transmission line pair 120 of FIG. 14B, the arrangement relationship between the two equivalent transmission lines 122a and 122b may be mirror-symmetrical.

  Further, as in the transmission line pair 130 shown in the schematic plan view of FIG. 15, the other transmission line 132 b disposed in the vicinity of the transmission line 132 a is arranged in the direction 68 perpendicular to the signal transmission direction 65. More preferably, after the first parallel movement, the second parallel movement is further performed in parallel with the signal transmission direction 65. Although not shown, a relationship in which only one of the transmission lines having a mirror-symmetrical relationship is further translated in the signal transmission direction 65 is also preferable. The optimum movement distance of the second parallel movement is half of the period of the plurality of rotation direction inversion structures in both transmission lines.

  As is clear from the comparison between the transmission line pair 110 in FIG. 14A and the transmission line pair 130 in FIG. 15, the wiring region interval d between the transmission line 112a and the transmission line 112b is a very small value only by the first parallel movement. At the same time, the local shortest wiring distance g between the two transmission lines also becomes a small value, so that it is considered that the mutual capacitance between the two transmission lines increases and the effect of reducing the crosstalk intensity decreases. On the other hand, as shown in the transmission line pair 130 of FIG. 15, if the second parallel movement parallel to the signal transmission direction is performed in addition to the first parallel movement, the wiring region between the transmission line 132a and the transmission line 132b. Even if the distance d does not change, the local shortest wiring distance g between wirings can be increased, so that the mutual capacitance between both transmission lines is reduced. Therefore, in order to obtain the mutual capacitance having the strength necessary for canceling out the mutual inductance, it is necessary to further reduce the wiring interval D between the two transmission lines. As a result, the second parallel movement is not isolated. This is preferable because it has an advantageous effect of maintaining and improving the wiring line number density.

  In either case, if the transmission line 112a, 122a, 132a and the transmission line 112b, 122b, 132b have the wiring width w, the total wiring area width W, and the distance d between the wiring areas, d is one fifth or more of w and The condition is preferably not more than 1 times W, and more preferably, d is set in the range of at least one half of w and not more than 0.6 times W. Within the said range, the isolation between each transmission line in the transmission line pair (transmission line group) of this invention takes the best value.

  When the transmission line pair of the present invention is used as a differential signal transmission path, as shown in the schematic plan view of FIG. 16, the transmission line 142a is paired with the transmission line 142a to form the differential transmission line pair 140. The line 142b is preferably arranged in a mirror-symmetrical relationship with respect to a plane parallel to the signal transmission direction 65. Since the differential signal is supported and transmitted by the odd mode of the differential transmission line, the mirror-symmetric arrangement of the circuit is effective in order not to cause unnecessary mode conversion from the odd mode to the even mode. By using the transmission line pair structure of the present invention, which has the advantageous characteristic of non-radiation at the time of single-ended signal transmission as compared with a conventional transmission line pair, a common mode signal is superimposed on the differential transmission line. In this case, an advantageous effect of improving the radiation characteristics can be obtained. Moreover, an advantageous effect of maintaining isolation from the peripheral differential transmission line can be obtained.

  In the above description, the two signal conductors 3a and 3b in the transmission line pair 10 of the present embodiment are, for example, as shown in the schematic cross-sectional view of FIG. Although the case where it is formed in the plane has been described, the transmission line pair of the present embodiment is not limited only to such a case. Instead of such a case, for example, as shown in the schematic cross-sectional view of FIG. 32B, a dielectric substrate 1 is a multilayer structure substrate configured such that a first substrate 1a and a second substrate 1b are laminated. In some cases, two signal conductors 3a are formed on the upper surface of the first substrate 1a, and another signal conductor 3b is formed on the upper surface of the second substrate 1b. There may be a case where the conductors are not arranged on the same plane but arranged on different planes.

(Example)
Next, some examples of the transmission line (or transmission line pair) of the present embodiment will be described below.

  First, as an example of this embodiment and a comparative example for this example, a signal conductor having a thickness of 20 μm and a width of 100 μm is formed by copper wiring on the surface of a dielectric substrate having a dielectric constant of 3.8 and a total thickness of 250 μm. Similarly, a ground conductor layer having a thickness of 20 μm was also formed on the entire back surface by copper wiring to constitute a microstrip line structure. The crosstalk intensity was measured by comparing the line length Lcp to 5 mm. The input terminal was connected to a coaxial connector, and the terminal on the output side was terminated to ground with a resistance of 100 Ω, which is almost the same as the characteristic impedance, and the adverse effect of signal reflection at the terminal was reduced from the measurement results. The total wiring area width W was 500 μm, and the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor were bent in the rotational direction reversal structure with the number of rotations Nr. The characteristics of the transmission line pair according to the example and the comparative example were compared with the characteristics of the conventional example 1 which is a linear conventional transmission line pair. When comparing the characteristics of two or more types of transmission lines, the substrate conditions, the wiring length Lcp, the wiring width w, and the wiring interval D were always unified.

  Specifically, the structure of the transmission line pair of Comparative Example 1 is a transmission line pair having a rotation frequency Nr equivalent to 0.5, that is, transmission having a structure having a rotation direction inversion structure but no transmission direction inversion unit. It is a pair of lines, and has a structure in which semicircular signal conductors having an outer diameter of 250 μm and an inner diameter of 150 μm are bent in different rotational directions and connected continuously for nine periods. The wiring interval D = 750 μm corresponds to 1.5 times the total wiring area width W and 7.5 times the wiring width w. The transmission line pair of Comparative Example 1 is configured by replacing two lines (that is, transmission line pairs) in the structure of the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 1 with a transmission line having the above structure from a linear transmission line. It is a fruit. The two transmission lines have the same shape and size, and have a relationship in which one transmission line is moved by 750 μm in a direction perpendicular to the signal transmission direction. Moreover, the transmission line pair of the comparative example 2 which made the arrangement | positioning relationship of one transmission line and the other transmission line mirror-symmetrical without changing the wiring space | interval D was also produced.

  FIG. 17 shows a comparison of crosstalk characteristics between the transmission line pair of Comparative Example 1 and the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 1. In FIG. 17, the vertical axis indicates the crosstalk characteristic S41 (dB), and the horizontal axis indicates the frequency (GHz). As is clear from FIG. 17, the transmission line pair of Comparative Example 1 has better separation characteristics than the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 1 over the entire frequency band (up to 30 GHz) measured. For example, in the first conventional example, the crosstalk intensity cannot be maintained below 25 dB in the frequency band of 10 GHz or higher, and in the first comparative example, the crosstalk intensity can be suppressed to 20 dB or lower in the frequency band below 25 GHz.

  Further, in the transmission line pair of Comparative Example 2, it was possible to realize a crosstalk strength characteristic of 20 dB or less in a frequency band of 23 GHz or less, which is substantially the same value as Comparative Example 1. Further, in Comparative Example 1-2 in which only one of the two transmission lines that were in parallel relation is shifted by 250 μm in the signal transmission direction in Comparative Example 1, a low cross of 20 dB or less in a frequency band of 32 GHz or less. Talk characteristics were maintained. The moving distance of 250 μm corresponds to half the period of the rotating direction reversal structure. Further, although the effect is reduced in the transmission line pair in which the number of repetitions of the rotating direction reversal structure repeatedly arranged in series in the comparative example 1 is reduced to 5 or 1, it is also better than the conventional example 1 in the entire frequency band. Separation characteristics were obtained.

  FIG. 18 shows a comparison of group delay characteristics between the conventional example 1 and the comparative example 1. In FIG. 18, the vertical axis represents the group delay amount (picosecond), and the horizontal axis represents the frequency (GHz). The delay amount of about 48 picoseconds in the conventional example 1 was increased by about 20% in the comparative example 1, but it can be said that such an increase in the delay amount is not a problem in practical use.

  Next, as the transmission line pairs of Examples 1 and 2, which are examples of the present embodiment, in the transmission lines of Comparative Examples 1 and 2, the signal conductor whose rotation number Nr of the rotation direction inversion structure was 0.5 was 0.5 The number of rotations Nr of the transmission line is increased by 0.75 rotations and 1 rotation, and two transmission lines are arranged in parallel, and the forward crosstalk strength from one transmission line to the other transmission line and the passing strength characteristics are It was measured. That is, in contrast to Comparative Examples 1 and 2 having a structure that has a rotation direction reversal structure but no transmission direction reversal part, Examples 1 and 2 have both a rotation direction reversal structure and a transmission direction reversal part. The signal conductor was configured not to exceed the total wiring width of 500 μm. Specifically, the value of w was reduced from 100 μm in Comparative Example 1 to 75 μm to configure a rotating direction reversal structure. The effective characteristic impedances of the transmission lines constituting Examples 1 (Nr = 0.75) and 2 (Nr = 1) also correspond to 102Ω and 105Ω, respectively, and the terminal termination impedance at the time of measurement was 100Ω. . In Example 1, the rotation direction reversal structure was continuously arranged for 8 periods, and in Example 2, 7 periods were continuously arranged. In FIG. 17, in addition to the characteristics of Comparative Example 1 and Conventional Example 1, the frequency dependence of the crosstalk characteristics in Examples 1 and 2 is added. As is clear from FIG. 17, in Examples 1 and 2 in which the number of rotations was increased compared to Comparative Example 1, the effect of suppressing the crosstalk intensity was further improved.

  Further, in FIG. 18, in addition to the pass group delay characteristics of Comparative Example 1 and Conventional Example 1, the frequency dependence of the pass group delay characteristics in Examples 1 and 2 is added. As is clear from FIG. 18, the delay amount increased as the number of rotations increased. For example, the delay amount increase in Example 1 (Nr = 0.75) increased by 45% compared to Conventional Example 1. It remained at a level that was not a problem in practice. From each of the above examples, it was proved that the transmission line pair according to the present invention brings comprehensively good characteristics to the high-frequency circuit even when the number of rotations is changed.

  Next, the transmission line pair structure obtained by reducing the circuit structure in the transmission line pair of Example 2 to 1/2 was used as the transmission line of Example 2-2, and the characteristics of the transmission line pair structure were measured. That is, the substrate thickness (125 μm), the total wiring width (250 μm), the wiring width w (37.5 μm), the inter-wiring distance D (375 μm), and the parameters in Example 2 were reduced by half. However, the thickness of the copper wiring was kept at 20 μm and the wiring length was kept at 5 mm. The number of repetitions of the rotating direction reversal structure reached 14 times, which is twice that of Example 2. FIG. 19 shows a crosstalk characteristic comparison between Example 2 and Example 2-2, and FIG. 20 shows a group delay characteristic comparison. FIGS. 19 and 20 show the characteristics of the conventional example 2A composed of two microstrip lines each having a substrate thickness of 125 μm, a total wiring width of 250 μm, and a spacing between wirings of 375 μm.

  As shown in FIG. 19, although the crosstalk suppression effect was slightly reduced by the structure reduction, characteristics much better than the conventional example 2A which is a conventional transmission line pair characteristic at the same scale were obtained in the entire band. Further, as shown in FIG. 20, the problem that the group delay characteristics deteriorated as the frequency increased in Example 2 was that the substrate thickness was reduced and the effective line lengths of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor were shortened. In Example 2-2.

  Further, for Comparative Example 1 and Example 2, a comparative example and an example in which the wiring interval D between adjacent transmission lines was increased or decreased, and a conventional example in which the wiring interval D was increased or decreased as compared with Conventional Example 1 were also produced. First, the comparison between Comparative Example 1 and Conventional Example 1 will be described. Comparative Example 1 always showed a better crosstalk suppressing effect than Conventional Example 1 in which the wiring interval D was set to the same condition. 21A and 21B show the wiring interval D dependency of the crosstalk intensity in Conventional Example 1 and Comparative Example 1 at frequencies of 10 GHz and 20 GHz. 21A and 21B, the horizontal axis uses a value obtained by standardizing the wiring interval D by the total wiring area width W. Moreover, in the transmission line of the prior art example 1, although w = W, the value of D / W was calculated using 500 micrometers which is the value of the transmission line of this invention on calculation.

  As is clear from FIGS. 21A and 21B, the crosstalk minimum value was obtained at the same D value even at different frequencies. Further, even when the wiring interval was reduced to 1.1 times W (the wiring region interval d was equivalent to half of w), the crosstalk characteristic of Comparative Example 1 exceeded that of the conventional transmission line pair. In the analysis results, even when d was reduced to 1/5 of w in Comparative Example 1, the crosstalk intensity was lower than that of the conventional transmission line pair under the same conditions.

  Next, a comparison between Example 2 and Conventional Example 1 will be described. In the description, FIGS. 22A and 22B show the dependency of the crosstalk intensity on the wiring interval D in the conventional example 1 and the example 2 at the frequencies of 10 GHz and 20 GHz. As is clear from FIGS. 22A and 22B, in Example 2, as in Comparative Example 1, only a minimum value of crosstalk is obtained at D = 1.8 × W, which is a D value independent of frequency. In addition, a crosstalk suppression effect exceeding that of Comparative Example 1 was obtained. Even when the wiring interval was reduced to 1.1 times W (the wiring region interval d was equivalent to half of w), the crosstalk characteristics of Example 2 exceeded the characteristics of the conventional transmission line pair. Furthermore, in the analysis results, even when d was reduced to 1/5 of w in Example 2, the crosstalk intensity was lower than that of the conventional transmission line pair under the same conditions. In any case, even if the wiring interval D is set to a value that is three times or more the total wiring area width W, characteristics exceeding the crosstalk characteristics of the conventional example 1 can be obtained.

  Further, FIG. 23A and FIG. 23B show the dependency of the crosstalk characteristic of Example 2-3 on one side between adjacent transmission lines arranged in parallel in Example 2 by 250 μm in the signal transmission direction on the wiring interval D. Shown in In Example 2-3, not only was the minimum value of crosstalk obtained under the condition of D = 1.6 × W, which is a higher-density wiring condition than in Example 2, but crosstalk exceeding that in Example 2 was achieved. The suppression effect was obtained.

  In addition, Example 2-4 was manufactured in which the wiring interval D was set to 750 μm and the coupled line length Lcp was extended to 50 mm with the configuration of Example 2-3. FIG. 24 shows a comparison of crosstalk intensity between Example 2-4 and Conventional Example 2 (Lcp = 50 mm). As is clear from FIG. 24, a good crosstalk suppression effect was obtained over the entire measurement frequency band. Further, a pulse having a voltage of 1 V, a rise time and a fall time of 50 picoseconds was applied to Example 2-4, and the crosstalk waveform at the far end crosstalk terminal was measured. This condition is the same as the condition for measuring the crosstalk waveform in the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 2 shown in FIG. FIG. 25 shows the measurement results in the time domain of the crosstalk waveforms of Example 2-4 and Conventional Example 2 (both Lcp = 50 mm). As is clear from FIG. 25, a crosstalk voltage of 175 mV was generated in the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 2, but in Example 2-4, the crosstalk intensity is suppressed to 45 mV, which is a quarter of the intensity. I was able to. Note that, as shown in FIG. 23A and FIG. 23B, the D dependence of the crosstalk intensity in Example 2-3 is shown. The setting of D in Example 2-4 is more than the D2 value (1.6 × W = 800 μm). Since the voltage is low, the voltage of the crosstalk signal is opposite to that of the conventional one.

  It is to be noted that, by appropriately combining arbitrary embodiments of the various embodiments described above, the respective effects can be achieved.

  Although the present invention has been fully described in connection with preferred embodiments with reference to the accompanying drawings, various variations and modifications will be apparent to those skilled in the art. Such changes and modifications are to be understood as being included therein, so long as they do not depart from the scope of the present invention according to the appended claims.

  Japanese Patent Application No. 1 filed on March 30, 2005. The disclosures of the specification, drawings, and claims of 2005-97370 are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

  The transmission line, the transmission line pair, or the transmission line group according to the present invention can suppress unnecessary radiation to the surrounding space and transmit the signal with low loss without leaking the signal to the peripheral circuit or the adjacent transmission line. As a result, it is possible to achieve both reduction in circuit area due to dense wiring and high-speed operation of the circuit, which has been difficult due to signal leakage in the past. Further, it can be widely applied to applications in the communication field such as filters, antennas, phase shifters, switches, and oscillators, and can also be used in various fields that use wireless technologies such as power transmission and ID tags.

These and other objects and features of the invention will become apparent from the following description taken in conjunction with the preferred embodiments with reference to the accompanying drawings.
FIG. 1 is a schematic perspective view of a transmission line pair according to an embodiment of the present invention. 2A is a schematic plan view of one transmission line in the transmission line pair of FIG. 2B is a schematic cross-sectional view taken along line A1-A2 in the transmission line of FIG. 2A. FIG. 3 is a schematic plan view showing one transmission line in a transmission line pair according to a modification of the embodiment, and is a diagram showing a configuration in which a plurality of rotation direction inversion structures are connected in series. FIG. 4 is a schematic plan view showing one transmission line in the transmission line pair according to the modification of the embodiment, and is a diagram showing a configuration in which the number of rotations of the rotation direction inversion configuration is set to 0.75. is there. FIG. 5 is a schematic plan view showing one transmission line in the transmission line pair according to the modification of the embodiment, and is a diagram showing a configuration in which the number of rotations of the rotation direction inversion configuration is set to 1.5. is there. FIG. 6 is a schematic plan view showing one transmission line in a transmission line pair according to a modification of the embodiment, and is a diagram showing a configuration including a third signal conductor and a fourth signal conductor. FIG. 7 is a schematic plan view showing one transmission line in a transmission line pair according to a modification of the embodiment, and is a diagram showing a configuration having a capacitor structure. FIG. 8 is a schematic explanatory diagram for explaining conditions satisfied by a current loop in the transmission line pair of the embodiment. FIG. 9 is a schematic explanatory diagram showing the direction of the high-frequency current that travels locally in the transmission line pair of the above embodiment. FIG. 10 is a schematic plan view showing one transmission line in a transmission line pair according to a modification of the above embodiment, and shows a configuration in which the rotation direction in the adjacent rotation direction inversion configuration is set in the reverse direction. It is. FIG. 11 is a schematic plan view showing a configuration in which the rotation directions in adjacent rotation direction inversion configurations are set to the same direction in the configuration of the transmission line in FIG. 10. FIG. 12 is a schematic diagram in the form of a graph showing a comparison of the wiring density dependence of the crosstalk strength of the transmission line pair of the present invention, the transmission line pair of the comparative example, and the conventional transmission line pair. FIG. 13A is a schematic plan view showing one transmission line in a transmission line pair according to a modification of the embodiment, and shows a configuration in which a dielectric substrate is set thick. FIG. 13B is a schematic plan view showing a configuration in which the dielectric substrate is set thinner than the transmission line of FIG. 13A. FIG. 14A is a schematic plan view showing a configuration of a transmission line pair according to a modified example of the above-described embodiment, in which both transmission lines are in an arrangement relationship of parallel movement. FIG. 14B is a schematic plan view showing a configuration of a transmission line pair according to a modification of the embodiment, in which both transmission lines are in a mirror-symmetric arrangement relationship. FIG. 15 is a schematic plan view showing a configuration of a transmission line pair according to a modification of the above-described embodiment, in which one transmission line is further translated in the signal transmission direction than the configuration of FIG. 14A. . FIG. 16 is a schematic plan view showing a configuration used as a differential transmission line, which is a transmission line pair according to a modification of the embodiment. FIG. 17 is a diagram illustrating the frequency dependence of the isolation characteristics of the transmission line pair of Comparative Example 1 and the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 1 for Examples 1 and 2 of the above embodiment and Comparative Example 1 for these examples. FIG. 18 is a diagram showing the frequency dependence of the pass group delay characteristics of the transmission line pairs of Examples 1 and 2 and Comparative Example 1 and the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 1. FIG. 19 is a diagram illustrating the frequency dependence of the isolation characteristics of the transmission line pairs of Examples 2 and 2-2 and the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 2A. FIG. 20 is a diagram illustrating the frequency dependence of the pass group delay characteristics of the transmission line pairs of Examples 2 and 2-2 and the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 2A. FIG. 21A is a diagram illustrating the wiring interval D dependency (frequency 10 GHz) of the crosstalk strength of the transmission line pair of Comparative Example 1 and the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 1. FIG. 21B is a diagram illustrating the wiring interval D dependency (frequency 20 GHz) of the crosstalk intensity of the transmission line pair of Comparative Example 1 and the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 1. FIG. 22A is a diagram illustrating the dependency of the crosstalk strength between the transmission line pair of Example 2 and the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 1 on the wiring interval D (frequency: 10 GHz). FIG. 22B is a diagram illustrating the dependency of the crosstalk strength between the transmission line pair of Example 2 and the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 1 on the wiring interval D (frequency 20 GHz). FIG. 23A is a diagram illustrating the wiring interval D dependency (frequency 10 GHz) of the crosstalk strength of the transmission line pair of Example 2-3 and the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 1. FIG. 23B is a diagram illustrating the wiring interval D dependency (frequency 20 GHz) of the crosstalk strength of the transmission line pair of Example 2-3 and the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 1. FIG. 24 is a diagram illustrating the frequency dependence of the crosstalk intensity of the transmission line pair of Example 2-4 and the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 2. FIG. 25 is a diagram showing a crosstalk voltage waveform observed at the far-end crosstalk terminal when a pulse is applied to the transmission line pair of Example 2-4 and the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 2. FIG. 26A is a diagram showing a transmission line cross-sectional structure of a conventional transmission line, and is a diagram in the case of single-ended transmission. FIG. 26B is a diagram showing a transmission line cross-sectional structure of a conventional transmission line pair, and is a diagram in the case of differential signal transmission. FIG. 27A is a schematic cross-sectional view of a conventional transmission line pair. 27B is a schematic plan view of the conventional transmission line pair of FIG. 27A. FIG. 28 is a schematic explanatory diagram for explaining the principle of generation of a crosstalk signal caused by mutual inductance in a conventional transmission line pair. FIG. 29 is a schematic explanatory diagram showing the relationship of current elements related to the crosstalk phenomenon in a conventional transmission line pair. FIG. 30 is a diagram illustrating the frequency dependence of the crosstalk intensity of the transmission line pairs of Conventional Example 1 and Conventional Example 2. FIG. 31 is a diagram showing a crosstalk voltage waveform observed at the far-end crosstalk terminal when a pulse is applied to the transmission line pair of Conventional Example 2. FIG. 32A is a schematic cross-sectional view of the transmission line pair of the above-described embodiment, and shows a configuration in which two signal conductors are arranged on the same plane. FIG. 32B is a schematic cross-sectional view of a transmission line pair according to a modification of the embodiment, and is a diagram illustrating a configuration in which two signal conductors are arranged on different planes. FIG. 33 is a schematic plan view for explaining a transmission direction and a transmission direction inversion portion in the transmission line according to the embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 34 is a schematic cross-sectional view showing a configuration in which another dielectric layer is arranged on the surface of the dielectric substrate in the transmission line of the above embodiment. FIG. 35 is a schematic cross-sectional view showing a configuration in which the dielectric substrate is a laminate in the transmission line of the above embodiment. FIG. 36 is a schematic cross-sectional view showing a configuration in which the configurations of the transmission line of FIG. 34 and the transmission line of FIG. 35 are combined in the transmission line of the above embodiment.

Further, in FIG. 8, the direction of the high-frequency current in a local portion in the transmission line 2a is indicated by an arrow, and the high-frequency current elements are locally formed together with the return current of the grounding conductor 5 that forms a pair. A part of the current loops 73 and 74 are shown. In order to facilitate understanding of the description, the illustration of the adjacent transmission line 2a that is arranged in parallel with the transmission line 2b of the present embodiment and that receives crosstalk is omitted.

Here, as an example, FIG. 13A shows a schematic plan view of the transmission line 82a in the case where the structure of the transmission line pair of the present invention is formed on a dielectric substrate having a large substrate thickness H1, whereas the transmission of the present invention is shown in FIG. FIG. 13B shows a schematic plan view of the transmission line 97a when the line pair is formed on a dielectric substrate having a small substrate thickness H2, and the configurations of the two are compared. In FIGS. 13A and 13B, only one transmission line of the two transmission lines constituting the transmission line pair is shown. In the transmission line 82a shown in FIG. 13A, since the total line width W1 is set to be large, each part including the rotation direction inversion structure 87 is large, but in the transmission line 92a shown in FIG. 13B, Since the total line width W2 (that is, W2 <W1) is set to be small as the circuit board thickness is reduced, the electrical length of each part constituting the circuit including the rotation direction inversion structure 97 can be reduced. Recognize. This means that the upper limit frequency of the transmission band that can be accommodated by the transmission line pair structure of the present invention can be improved as the trend toward higher-density wiring that makes the circuit structure thinner and the wiring width as fine as possible progresses. It is shown that.

Further, as in the transmission line pair 130 shown in the schematic plan view of FIG. 15, the other transmission line 132 b arranged in proximity to the transmission line 132 a is arranged in the direction 67 perpendicular to the signal transmission direction 65. More preferably, after the first parallel movement, the second parallel movement is further performed in parallel with the signal transmission direction 65. Although not shown, a relationship in which only one of the transmission lines having a mirror-symmetrical relationship is further translated in the signal transmission direction 65 is also preferable. The optimum movement distance of the second parallel movement is half of the period of the plurality of rotation direction inversion structures in both transmission lines.

According to the first aspect of the present invention, the first signal conductor is disposed on one surface of the substrate formed of a dielectric or semiconductor and is formed to bend in the first rotation direction within the surface. ,
A second signal conductor formed so as to bend in a second rotation direction opposite to the first rotation direction, and disposed in series with the first signal conductor on the surface. And
A transmission direction inversion unit that includes at least a part of the first signal conductor and a part of the second signal conductor and transmits a signal in a direction inverted with respect to the transmission direction of the signal in the entire transmission line; A rotation direction reversal structure configured to include two transmission lines connected in series with respect to the transmission direction of the signal adjacent to the transmission direction of the signal in the entire transmission line. Provided is a pair of transmission lines arranged.

According to a sixteenth aspect of the present invention, there is provided the transmission line pair according to the fifteenth aspect , wherein the adjacent rotating direction reversal structures are connected by a fourth signal conductor.

According to a nineteenth aspect of the present invention, there is provided the transmission line pair according to the sixteenth aspect , wherein the fourth signal conductor is arranged in a direction different from the signal transmission direction in the entire transmission line.

According to the eighteenth aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, the plurality of rotation direction inversion structures are arranged over an effective line length of 0.5 times or more of an effective wavelength at the frequency of the transmission signal . A transmission line pair according to one aspect is provided.

According to the nineteenth aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, the first aspect in which the plurality of rotation direction inversion structures are arranged over an effective line length that is one or more times the effective wavelength at the frequency of the transmission signal. The transmission line pair described in 1. is provided.

According to the twentieth aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, the first aspect in which the plurality of rotation direction inversion structures are arranged over an effective line length that is at least twice the effective wavelength at the frequency of the transmission signal. The transmission line pair described in 1. is provided.

According to a twenty-first aspect of the present invention, in each of the transmission lines, the first aspect in which the plurality of rotational direction inversion structures are arranged over an effective line length that is five times or more the effective wavelength at the frequency of the transmission signal. The transmission line pair described in 1. is provided.

According to a twenty-second aspect of the present invention, there is provided a transmission line group that provides a differential signal to at least one pair of the transmission line pairs described in the first aspect and functions as a differential transmission line.

If the transmission line is formed by connecting the plurality of rotation direction inversion structures in series as in the first aspect , the advantageous effects of the present invention can be continuously provided to the transmission signal. The plurality of rotating direction reversal structures may be directly connected, or may be connected by a fourth signal conductor as in the sixteenth aspect. .

If the rotation direction inversion structure is continuously arranged over the effective line length of 0.5 times or more, more preferably 1 time or more of the effective wavelength at the frequency of the transmission signal as in the 18th aspect or the 19th aspect , In the transmission line pair of the present invention, the crosstalk suppressing effect can be enhanced. Further, as in the twentieth aspect and the twenty-first aspect , if the rotation direction inversion structure is continuously arranged over the effective line length of 2 times or more, more preferably 5 times or more of the effective wavelength at the frequency of the transmission signal, In the transmission line pair of the present invention, the effect of suppressing crosstalk with the adjacent transmission line structure can be further enhanced.

Claims (23)

  1. A transmission line pair in which two transmission lines are arranged adjacent to and parallel to the signal transmission direction in the entire transmission line,
    Each transmission line is
    A first signal conductor disposed on one surface of a substrate formed of a dielectric or semiconductor and configured to bend in a first rotation direction within the surface;
    A second signal conductor formed so as to bend in a second rotation direction opposite to the first rotation direction, and disposed in series with the first signal conductor on the surface. And
    A transmission direction reversing unit that includes at least a part of the first signal conductor and a part of the second signal conductor and transmits a signal in a direction reversed with respect to the transmission direction of the signal in the entire transmission line; A transmission line pair configured.
  2. The transmission line pair according to claim 1, wherein each of the transmission lines has the same line length.
  3. The transmission line pair according to claim 1, wherein a distance between centers of the wiring regions of the respective transmission lines is set to be 1.1 to 2 times a width of the wiring region of the transmission line.
  4. The transmission line pair according to claim 1, wherein the transmission lines are arranged in mirror symmetry with each other.
  5. 2. The transmission lines according to claim 1, wherein the transmission lines have the same line shape, and the transmission lines have an arrangement relationship in which one transmission line is translated in a direction perpendicular to a transmission direction of the signal. Transmission line pair.
  6. Each of the transmission lines has the same line shape, and each of the transmission lines translates one of the transmission lines in each of a transmission direction of the signal and a direction perpendicular to the transmission direction of the signal. The transmission line pair according to claim 1, which has an arranged relationship.
  7. 2. The transmission line pair according to claim 1, wherein in each of the transmission lines, each of the curved shapes of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor is an arc shape.
  8. In each of the transmission lines, the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor are arranged point-symmetrically with respect to the center of the connection portion between the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor. The transmission line pair according to claim 1.
  9. 2. The transmission line pair according to claim 1, wherein each of the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor has the curved shape having a rotation angle of 180 degrees or more.
  10. 2. The transmission according to claim 1, wherein in each of the transmission lines, the transmission direction inversion unit sets a direction having an angle exceeding 90 degrees with respect to a transmission direction of the signal in the entire transmission line as a transmission direction of the signal. Line pair.
  11. The transmission line pair according to claim 10, wherein the transmission direction inversion unit sets a direction having an angle of 180 degrees with respect to a transmission direction of the signal in the entire transmission line as a transmission direction of the signal.
  12. Each of the transmission lines further includes a third signal conductor that electrically connects the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor, including the third signal conductor, and reversing the transmission direction. The transmission line pair according to claim 1, wherein:
  13. In each of the transmission lines, the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor are electrically connected via a dielectric, and the dielectric, the first signal conductor, and the second signal are connected. The transmission line pair according to claim 1, wherein the capacitor structure is formed by a conductor.
  14. 2. The transmission line pair according to claim 1, wherein in each of the transmission lines, the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor are each set to a non-resonant line length at a frequency of the transmission signal.
  15. The transmission line pair according to claim 12, wherein the third signal conductor is set to a non-resonant line length at a frequency of the transmission signal.
  16. In each of the transmission lines, the rotation direction reversal structure configured by electrically connecting the first signal conductor and the second signal conductor to the transmission direction of the signal in the entire transmission line, The transmission line pair according to claim 1, wherein a plurality of pairs are connected in series.
  17. The transmission line pair according to claim 16, wherein the adjacent rotation direction inversion structures are connected by a fourth signal conductor.
  18. The transmission line pair according to claim 17, wherein the fourth signal conductor is arranged in a direction different from a signal transmission direction in the entire transmission line.
  19. 17. The transmission line pair according to claim 16, wherein in each of the transmission lines, the plurality of rotation direction inversion structures are arranged over an effective line length of 0.5 times or more of an effective wavelength at a frequency of a transmission signal.
  20. 17. The transmission line pair according to claim 16, wherein in each of the transmission lines, the plurality of rotation direction inversion structures are arranged over an effective line length that is one or more times an effective wavelength at a frequency of a transmission signal.
  21. 17. The transmission line pair according to claim 16, wherein in each of the transmission lines, the plurality of rotation direction inversion structures are arranged over an effective line length that is twice or more an effective wavelength at a frequency of a transmission signal.
  22. 17. The transmission line pair according to claim 16, wherein in each of the transmission lines, the plurality of rotation direction inversion structures are arranged over an effective line length that is five times or more an effective wavelength at a frequency of a transmission signal.
  23. The transmission line group which gives a differential signal to the at least one pair of said transmission line pair of Claim 1, and makes it function as a differential transmission line.
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US20070040634A1 (en) 2007-02-22
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US20070040627A1 (en) 2007-02-22
US7518462B2 (en) 2009-04-14
JPWO2006106764A1 (en) 2008-09-11
JP3984638B2 (en) 2007-10-03
CN101053112A (en) 2007-10-10
CN100595974C (en) 2010-03-24
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US7369020B2 (en) 2008-05-06
WO2006106764A1 (en) 2006-10-12

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