JPH078402B2 - Molding method for flanged boss - Google Patents

Molding method for flanged boss

Info

Publication number
JPH078402B2
JPH078402B2 JP3461487A JP3461487A JPH078402B2 JP H078402 B2 JPH078402 B2 JP H078402B2 JP 3461487 A JP3461487 A JP 3461487A JP 3461487 A JP3461487 A JP 3461487A JP H078402 B2 JPH078402 B2 JP H078402B2
Authority
JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
die
mold
punch
boss
annular
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
JP3461487A
Other languages
Japanese (ja)
Other versions
JPS63203241A (en
Inventor
俊雄 真枝
千代志 三浦
通敏 河野
Original Assignee
本田技研工業株式会社
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by 本田技研工業株式会社 filed Critical 本田技研工業株式会社
Priority to JP3461487A priority Critical patent/JPH078402B2/en
Publication of JPS63203241A publication Critical patent/JPS63203241A/en
Publication of JPH078402B2 publication Critical patent/JPH078402B2/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21JFORGING; HAMMERING; PRESSING METAL; RIVETING; FORGE FURNACES
    • B21J5/00Methods for forging, hammering, or pressing; Special equipment or accessories therefor
    • B21J5/02Die forging; Trimming by making use of special dies ; Punching during forging
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21JFORGING; HAMMERING; PRESSING METAL; RIVETING; FORGE FURNACES
    • B21J5/00Methods for forging, hammering, or pressing; Special equipment or accessories therefor
    • B21J5/008Incremental forging

Description

【発明の詳細な説明】 (産業上の利用分野) 自動車用自動変速機などに使用する歯車は、多量生産を
し、かつ軽量に作る必要があるため、素材を温間又は半
熱間でトランスファ成形して、切削加工を必要としない
程度に精密な成形加工を行なっている。
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION (Industrial field of application) Gears used in automatic transmissions for automobiles need to be mass-produced and made lightweight. It is molded and then processed with precision to the extent that cutting is not required.
本発明は、このトランスファ成形の際の中間製品である
フランジ付きボスを成形する方法に関する。
The present invention relates to a method of molding a flanged boss which is an intermediate product in this transfer molding.
前記トランスファ成形は、第1図(a)ないし(e)に
示すように、ビレットaをアプセット加工して(b)に
示すように中央部の厚い素材bを作り、これを反転して
(c)に示すように押込み加工してボスc1、フランジ
c2、端壁c3をもつ中間製品cを作り、更に(d)に示す
穴あけ加工をした製品dを経てボス部e1、リムe2、歯部
e3等を成形して最終製品eを得るものであり、本発明
は、この工程中の前記の中間製品cを作るために実施さ
れる。
In the transfer molding, as shown in FIGS. 1 (a) to 1 (e), the billet a is upset to form a thick material b in the central portion as shown in FIG. 1 (b), which is inverted (c). push processed boss c 1, as shown in), the flange
An intermediate product c having c 2 and an end wall c 3 is produced, and a boss e 1 , a rim e 2 and a tooth are formed through a product d that has been subjected to the drilling process shown in (d).
The final product e is formed by molding e 3 and the like, and the present invention is carried out to produce the above-mentioned intermediate product c during this step.
(従来の技術及び発明が解決しようとする問題点) このようなフランジ付きボスの形状を成形するものとし
て、従来特公昭56−31177、同60−50537等の技術が知ら
れている。これは、ダイス、拘束リング及び圧板で素材
のフランジになる部分を保持し、マンドレルを用いてボ
スになる部分を押出すものである。この技術は、前記の
ダイスその他の金型要素の数が多いため金型が高価にな
ると共に、これらの油圧駆動機構を遂次作動させるため
高速生産工程に適応できない難点がある。
(Problems to be Solved by Conventional Techniques and Inventions) As a technique for molding such a flanged boss shape, techniques such as Japanese Patent Publication Nos. 56-31177 and 60-50537 are known. In this method, a die, a restraint ring, and a pressure plate hold a portion of the material that becomes a flange, and a mandrel is used to extrude a portion that becomes a boss. This technique has a drawback in that the die is expensive because of the large number of die elements such as the die and the die is expensive, and cannot be applied to a high-speed production process because these hydraulic drive mechanisms are sequentially operated.
また、第2図に示すように二つの金型だけで成形する手
段も知られている。この手段によれば、パンチP及びダ
イDによって素材bを同図(イ)ないし(ホ)の順序に
従って加工し、中間成品Cを成形していた。パンチPは
中心にボスc1を成形するための突出部P1と段部P2をも
ち、外周にフランジc2を成形するための環状部P3をも
つ。
Further, as shown in FIG. 2, a means for molding with only two molds is known. According to this means, the material b is processed by the punch P and the die D in the order shown in (a) to (e) of FIG. The punch P has a protrusion P 1 and a step P 2 for forming the boss c 1 at the center, and an annular portion P 3 for forming the flange c 2 on the outer circumference.
この装置により加工すると、まず同図(ロ)、(ハ)の
ように突出部P1によって山形部c11を段部P2に向けて盛
り上げ、続いて(ニ)のように環状部P3によって山形部
c11を加工する。このとき、山形部c11は環状部P3に押さ
れて外周寄りの部分は高さを減ずるが、変形部位が局限
されているため、材料の流れがスムーズに行われ、巻く
れこみw1が生じ、最終的に(ホ)に示すように傷w2が形
成されることがある。
When processed with this device, first, as shown in (b) and (c) of the figure, the protrusion P 1 raises the mountain portion c 11 toward the step P 2 , and then, as shown in (d), the annular portion P 3 By Yamagata
Process c 11 . At this time, the chevron portion c 11 is pushed by the annular portion P 3 and the height of the portion near the outer periphery is reduced, but since the deformed portion is localized, the material flows smoothly, and the curl w 1 May occur, and eventually a scratch w 2 may be formed as shown in (e).
このように傷が発生すると、この傷w2は以後の工程と共
に成長して欠陥製品が作られることになる。この現象は
第2図(ホ)の段差lを小さくしたり、P1とP3を同一の
タイミングで作用させれば防ぐことはできるが、lを小
さくすれば希望形状が得られず、同一タイミングにすれ
ばプレス機構が複雑化する。
When a flaw is generated in this way, the flaw w 2 grows in the subsequent steps to produce a defective product. This phenomenon can be prevented by reducing the step l in Fig. 2 (e) or by causing P 1 and P 3 to act at the same timing. However, if l is reduced, the desired shape cannot be obtained and the same shape is obtained. The timing complicates the press mechanism.
また、素材形状を第1図(b)のようにせず、フラット
な形状にするとフランジ部c2が充満したのちボス部c1
流れるので、フランジ部の内圧が高くなってバリが発生
し易く、かつ高い内圧の発生は金型の強度及び耐久性の
面からみても好ましくはない。
Also, without the material shape as Fig. 1 (b), flows through the boss portion c 1 after the flange portion c 2 is filled when a flat shape, easily burrs higher internal pressure of the flange portion In addition, generation of high internal pressure is not preferable in terms of strength and durability of the mold.
更に、素材形状を第1図(b)に示すものの厚肉部外周
の傾斜を大きくするか円弧状にしても傷の発生は防止で
きるが、ボリュームの配分がくずれて同図(e)の高精
度の製品を得ることがむずかしくなる。
Further, although the material shape shown in FIG. 1 (b) can be prevented by increasing the inclination of the outer circumference of the thick portion or forming an arc shape, scratches can be prevented, but the volume distribution is disturbed and the height of FIG. It is difficult to get a product of precision.
また、素材bを閉塞鍛造法によって中間製品cにする手
段もある。これは、下型のキャビティ内に素材bを入れ
て薄肉部の上面を環状金型で閉塞し、中央の厚肉部にパ
ンチを押込むものであるが、素材形状、ボリューム配分
に自由度がなく、環状金型の型締めに油圧機構を設ける
ため、トランスファ成形装置に組込むと装置が大型にな
ると共に高速の作業の流れに追随させることも困難であ
った。
There is also a means for converting the material b into the intermediate product c by the closed forging method. In this method, the material b is put in the cavity of the lower die, the upper surface of the thin portion is closed by an annular die, and the punch is pushed into the thick portion in the center, but there is no freedom in the material shape and volume distribution, and the annular shape Since a hydraulic mechanism is provided for clamping the mold, the device becomes large when incorporated in the transfer molding device, and it is difficult to follow the high-speed work flow.
(問題点を解決するための手段) 本発明は、簡単な手段によってこれらの問題点を解決し
たもので、その手段は、外周に段部を設けて凸形の端面
を形成したインナ金型と、内径部と環状端面をもち、内
径部によってインナ金型に嵌合し、インナ金型と一体の
ストッパによって後退量を制限すると共にばねで前方に
弾発したアウタ金型とによって一方の金型を構成し、こ
の金型及びこれと協同する他方の金型と間に素材を供給
して加圧し、まずアウタ金型の弾圧とインナ金具の強制
加圧により、前記段部に向かう縦方向の流れとアウタ金
型の環状端面に沿う半径方向の流れとを生じさせ、次に
アウタ金型が前記ストッパに接触してインナ金具と一体
となって素材に強制加圧を加えるようにしたことを特徴
とする。
(Means for Solving Problems) The present invention solves these problems by a simple means, and the means is to provide an inner mold having a stepped portion on the outer periphery to form a convex end surface. , Which has an inner diameter part and an annular end surface, is fitted to the inner mold by the inner diameter part, and limits the amount of retreat by a stopper integrated with the inner mold, and one mold by the outer mold elastically springing forward The material is supplied between this mold and the other mold that cooperates with this mold to apply pressure, and first by elastic pressure of the outer mold and forced pressurization of the inner metal fitting, Flow and a flow in the radial direction along the annular end surface of the outer mold are generated, and then the outer mold comes into contact with the stopper so as to integrally pressurize the material with the inner metal fitting. Characterize.
(作 用) 前記の手段により、素材の外方部分はアウタ金型で規制
されているため、インナ金型により押出された材料はア
ウタ金型の内径部及び環状端面に沿って流れてこれらの
部分における厚さを増大する。次いでアウタ金型とイン
ナ金型が一体になって加圧するので材料はキャビティ内
に充満する。
(Operation) Since the outer part of the material is regulated by the outer mold by the above means, the material extruded by the inner mold flows along the inner diameter part and the annular end surface of the outer mold and these Increase the thickness at the part. Then, the outer die and the inner die are integrally pressed, so that the material is filled in the cavity.
(実施例) 以下本発明の実施例を図面によって説明する。Embodiment An embodiment of the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings.
第3図は本発明を実施するための装置の1例で、パンチ
側を2分割した形式のもので、パンチ(1)は、インナ
パンチ(2)とアウタパンチ(3)とからなり、インナ
パンチ(2)は、ラム(4)にストッパ(5)を介して
固定され、アウタパンチ(3)はインナパンチ(2)に
外嵌されてストッパ(5)との間に圧縮バネ(6)が介
在され、上端のフランジがラム(4)と一体のフック筒
(11)に係合して支持されている。
FIG. 3 shows an example of an apparatus for carrying out the present invention, which is a type in which the punch side is divided into two. The punch (1) is composed of an inner punch (2) and an outer punch (3). (2) is fixed to the ram (4) via a stopper (5), the outer punch (3) is externally fitted to the inner punch (2), and a compression spring (6) is interposed between the outer punch (3) and the stopper (5). The flange at the upper end is engaged with and supported by the hook tube (11) integrated with the ram (4).
インナパンチ(2)の端面には突出部(2a)と後退した
段部(2b)が設けられてボス側金型を形成し、アウタパ
ンチ(3)は平らな端面(3a)によってフランジ側金型
を形成し、内径部(3b)によってボス部の外形面を規定
する。そしてこのパンチ(1)によって一方の金型を構
成している。
The inner punch (2) has a protrusion (2a) and a recessed step (2b) on the end face to form a boss side mold, and the outer punch (3) has a flat end face (3a) for the flange side mold. And the inner surface (3b) defines the outer surface of the boss. The punch (1) constitutes one mold.
他方の金型を構成するダイ(8)は凹部(8a)とその周
囲の後退した段部(8b)を備え、中央にノックアウト
(9)を嵌合している。
The die (8) which constitutes the other mold comprises a recess (8a) and a recessed step (8b) around the recess (8a), and a knockout (9) is fitted in the center thereof.
この装置は第4図(a)ないし(e)示すように作用す
る。ダイ(8)の凹部(8a)に素材bを入れラム(4)
を下降すると、まずアウタパンチ(3)の端面(3a)が
素材bの薄肉部を弾力的に押さえ、次にインナパンチ
(2)の突出部(2a)が厚肉部bに強制的に押込まれ、
第4図(b)、(c)のように材料にv方向とh方向の
流れを生じさせる。このときh方向の流れは、アウタパ
ンチ(3)の下面に沿うことを強制されるから、該下面
に略一致した平面形状をもち、厚さの増加量は比較的少
ない。
This device operates as shown in FIGS. 4 (a) to 4 (e). Insert the material b into the recess (8a) of the die (8) and the ram (4).
When the tool is lowered, first the end face (3a) of the outer punch (3) elastically presses the thin portion of the material b, and then the protruding portion (2a) of the inner punch (2) is forced into the thick portion b. ,
As shown in FIGS. 4B and 4C, the material is caused to flow in the v direction and the h direction. At this time, since the flow in the h direction is forced to follow the lower surface of the outer punch (3), it has a planar shape that substantially matches the lower surface, and the amount of increase in thickness is relatively small.
更にラム(4)を下降させると、アウタパンチ(3)は
素材bの抵抗により殆ど停止し、インナパンチ(2)の
みが下降し、ストッパ(5)がアウタパンチ(3)の上
端に重なってアウタパンチ(3)をインナパンチ(2)
と共に強制的に下降させる。材料は(d)に示すように
縦方向のv及びv1方向に流れてキャビディ内を充満して
(e)に示す状態になり中間製品Cができあがる。
When the ram (4) is further lowered, the outer punch (3) almost stops due to the resistance of the material b, only the inner punch (2) is lowered, and the stopper (5) overlaps with the upper end of the outer punch (3) and the outer punch (3) is lowered. 3) the inner punch (2)
And forcibly lower it. As shown in (d), the material flows in the v and v 1 directions in the vertical direction to fill the inside of the cavid to the state shown in (e), and the intermediate product C is completed.
ラム(4)を引上げるとパンチ(1)は上昇しノックア
ウトピン(9)の上昇によって中間製品bを取出すこと
ができる。
When the ram (4) is pulled up, the punch (1) rises and the knockout pin (9) rises so that the intermediate product b can be taken out.
次に第5図によって本発明を実施するための別の装置を
説明する。この装置は、ダイ側を内外2部分に分割した
もので、ダイ(10)は、インナダイ(11)と可動のアウ
タダイ(12)からなり、インナダイ(11)はベース(1
3)に固定され、アウタダイ(12)はインナダイ(11)
に嵌合している。ベース(13)にアウタダイの後退を阻
止するストッパ(14)と前進を制限するフック筒(15)
が固定してあり、アウタダイ(12)はばね(16)で上向
きの圧力を受ける。
Next, another apparatus for carrying out the present invention will be described with reference to FIG. In this device, the die side is divided into inner and outer parts. The die (10) is composed of an inner die (11) and a movable outer die (12), and the inner die (11) is a base (1).
Fixed to 3), outer die (12) is inner die (11)
Is fitted to. A stopper (14) that prevents the outer die from retreating and a hook tube (15) that limits the forward movement of the outer die.
Are fixed, and the outer die (12) receives upward pressure by the spring (16).
インナダイ(11)の上面は前記第3図のインナパンチ
(2)と同一形状をなしており、突出部(11a)と段部
(11b)を備える。アウタパンチ(12)は、環状の端面
(12a)、内径部(12b)の外に内周面(12c)を備えて
いる。パンチ(17)は第3図のダイ(8)の底面と同一
形状の頂面をもち、キャビティは備えていない。
The upper surface of the inner die (11) has the same shape as that of the inner punch (2) shown in FIG. 3, and includes a protrusion (11a) and a step (11b). The outer punch (12) includes an annular end surface (12a) and an inner peripheral surface (12c) outside the inner diameter portion (12b). The punch (17) has a top surface having the same shape as the bottom surface of the die (8) in FIG. 3 and has no cavity.
以上の構成であるから、アウタダイ(12)の環状の端面
上(12a)に素材bを置き、パンチ(17)を下降させる
と、第5図(b)、(c)で示すようにアウタダイイ
(12)をばね(16)に抗して押下げながら加工し、
(d)に至ってアウタダイをストッパ(14)に突き当
て、更に若干下降して加工を終る。この成形作用は第4
図の場合と実質上等しい。
With the above configuration, when the material b is placed on the annular end surface (12a) of the outer die (12) and the punch (17) is lowered, as shown in FIGS. 5 (b) and 5 (c), the outer die ( While pressing 12) against the spring (16),
At (d), the outer die is abutted against the stopper (14) and further lowered slightly to finish the machining. This molding action is the fourth
Substantially equal to the case in the figure.
前記二つの装置において加工に用いた素材bは、いずれ
も中央部の肉厚を大きくしているが、これは成品のボス
部の肉量を大にするための手段であり、ボス部の寸法が
小さいとき、又は比較的低速で変形率の大きい加工をす
るときは平らな素材を使用することができる。
The material b used for processing in the above two devices has a large thickness in the central portion, but this is a means for increasing the thickness of the boss portion of the product, and the dimension of the boss portion is large. A flat material can be used when the value is small, or when processing is performed at a relatively low speed and a large deformation rate.
(発明の効果) 本発明は、一方の金型を、アウタパンチ又はアウタダイ
からなるアウタ金型と、この金型に嵌合するインナパン
チ又はインナダイからなるインナ金型とによって構成
し、インナ金型による加圧時にアウタ金型で材料の縦方
向及び横方向の流れを案内するから、アウタ金型で強制
加圧するとき無理な変形をせず傷を発生することはな
い。また、この加工方向によれば、金型の一つだけを加
圧すれば足りるから、逐次的に金型を駆動する必要がな
く金型駆動構成は一つだけ済み、これにより高速作業が
できると共に金型のみならず金型駆動機構を含む全装置
を簡単にすることができる。
(Effect of the Invention) The present invention is configured such that one mold is composed of an outer mold including an outer punch or an outer die and an inner mold including an inner punch or an inner die that fits into the mold. Since the outer die guides the flow of the material in the longitudinal and lateral directions at the time of pressurization, when the outer die is forcibly pressed, no undue deformation occurs and no scratches occur. Further, according to this processing direction, since it is sufficient to press only one of the molds, it is not necessary to sequentially drive the molds, and only one mold drive structure is required, which enables high-speed work. At the same time, not only the mold but also the entire device including the mold driving mechanism can be simplified.
【図面の簡単な説明】[Brief description of drawings]
第1図(a)ないし(e)は本発明の方法によって加工
される成品の説明図、第2図は従来方法の説明図、第3
図は本発明を実施するための装置の縦断面図、第4図は
第3図の装置の作用説明図、第5図は本発明を実施する
別の装置の縦断面図である。 (2)、(11)……インナ金型、(3)、(12)……ア
ウタ金型 (5)、(14)……ストッパ、(6)、(16)……ばね
FIGS. 1 (a) to 1 (e) are explanatory views of a product processed by the method of the present invention, FIG. 2 is an explanatory view of a conventional method, and FIG.
FIG. 4 is a vertical sectional view of an apparatus for carrying out the present invention, FIG. 4 is an explanatory view of the operation of the apparatus of FIG. 3, and FIG. 5 is a vertical sectional view of another apparatus for carrying out the present invention. (2), (11) ... Inner mold, (3), (12) ... Outer mold (5), (14) ... Stopper, (6), (16) ... Spring
フロントページの続き (56)参考文献 特開 昭61−266142(JP,A) 特開 昭54−62164(JP,A) 特開 昭61−92749(JP,A) 特開 昭52−103099(JP,A) 特開 昭53−22144(JP,A) 特公 昭56−31177(JP,B2) 特公 昭60−50537(JP,B2)Continuation of the front page (56) References JP-A 61-266142 (JP, A) JP-A 54-62164 (JP, A) JP-A 61-92749 (JP, A) JP-A 52-103099 (JP , A) JP 53-22144 (JP, A) JP 56-31177 (JP, B2) JP 60-50537 (JP, B2)

Claims (1)

    【特許請求の範囲】[Claims]
  1. 【請求項1】外周に段部を設けて凸形の端面を形成した
    インナ金型と、内径部と環状端面をもち、内径部によっ
    てインナ金型に嵌合し、インナ金型と一体のストッパに
    よって後退量を制限すると共にばねで前方に弾発したア
    ウタ金型とによって一方の金型を構成し、この金型及び
    これと協同する他方の金型と間に素材を供給して加圧
    し、まずアウタ金型の弾圧とインナ金具の強制加圧によ
    り、前記弾部に向かう縦方向の流れとアウタ金型の環状
    端面に沿う半径方向の流れとを生じさせ、次にアウタ金
    型が前記ストッパに接触してインナ金具と一体となって
    素材に強制加圧を加えるようにしたことを特徴とするフ
    ランジ付きボスの成形方法。
    Claims: 1. An inner die having a stepped portion on the outer periphery to form a convex end surface, and a stopper integral with the inner die, having an inner diameter portion and an annular end surface, fitted into the inner die by the inner diameter portion. By limiting the amount of retreat by using the outer mold that springs forward with a spring, one mold is configured, and material is supplied between this mold and the other mold that cooperates with this mold to pressurize, First, by the elastic pressure of the outer die and the forced pressurization of the inner metal fitting, a vertical flow toward the elastic portion and a radial flow along the annular end surface of the outer die are generated, and then the outer die presses the stopper. A method of forming a boss with a flange, characterized in that the boss comes into contact with the inner metal member and is forcedly applied to the material together with the inner metal member.
JP3461487A 1987-02-19 1987-02-19 Molding method for flanged boss Expired - Fee Related JPH078402B2 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP3461487A JPH078402B2 (en) 1987-02-19 1987-02-19 Molding method for flanged boss

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP3461487A JPH078402B2 (en) 1987-02-19 1987-02-19 Molding method for flanged boss

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
JPS63203241A JPS63203241A (en) 1988-08-23
JPH078402B2 true JPH078402B2 (en) 1995-02-01

Family

ID=12419252

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
JP3461487A Expired - Fee Related JPH078402B2 (en) 1987-02-19 1987-02-19 Molding method for flanged boss

Country Status (1)

Country Link
JP (1) JPH078402B2 (en)

Families Citing this family (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS63295035A (en) * 1987-05-25 1988-12-01 Aida Eng Ltd Method for molding small projecting part on material
JP2534940B2 (en) * 1991-06-27 1996-09-18 アイダエンジニアリング株式会社 Plastic processing method for annular groove
EP1422384B1 (en) * 2001-08-03 2009-07-08 Akita Fine Blanking Co., Ltd. Method of manufacturing component member in vgs type turbo charger and component member manufactured by the method
CN103212948B (en) * 2013-04-19 2016-08-10 无锡宏达重工股份有限公司 A kind of carrier flange forging process for fuel technique
CN106583483A (en) * 2017-01-26 2017-04-26 郝鑫颖 Hub manufacturing equipment and hub manufacturing method
CN106799404A (en) * 2017-01-26 2017-06-06 郝鑫颖 A kind of wheel hub manufacturing equipment and manufacturing method of wheel hub
CN106825241A (en) * 2017-01-26 2017-06-13 郝鑫颖 A kind of wheel hub manufacturing equipment and manufacturing method of wheel hub
CN106583484A (en) * 2017-01-26 2017-04-26 郝鑫颖 Wheel hub manufacturing device and method

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
JPS63203241A (en) 1988-08-23

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