JPH0769539B2 - Liquid Crystal Display - Google Patents

Liquid Crystal Display

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Publication number
JPH0769539B2
JPH0769539B2 JP61267771A JP26777186A JPH0769539B2 JP H0769539 B2 JPH0769539 B2 JP H0769539B2 JP 61267771 A JP61267771 A JP 61267771A JP 26777186 A JP26777186 A JP 26777186A JP H0769539 B2 JPH0769539 B2 JP H0769539B2
Authority
JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
liquid crystal
wave
display device
crystal display
element
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
JP61267771A
Other languages
Japanese (ja)
Other versions
JPS63121821A (en
Inventor
剛三 佐藤
浩幸 宮嶋
展明 甲
京平 福田
Original Assignee
株式会社日立製作所
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by 株式会社日立製作所 filed Critical 株式会社日立製作所
Priority to JP61267771A priority Critical patent/JPH0769539B2/en
Publication of JPS63121821A publication Critical patent/JPS63121821A/en
Publication of JPH0769539B2 publication Critical patent/JPH0769539B2/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour 
    • G02F1/13Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour  based on liquid crystals, e.g. single liquid crystal display cells
    • G02F1/133Constructional arrangements; Operation of liquid crystal cells; Circuit arrangements
    • G02F1/1333Constructional arrangements; Manufacturing methods
    • G02F1/1335Structural association of cells with optical devices, e.g. polarisers or reflectors
    • G02F1/133528Polarisers
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour 
    • G02F1/13Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour  based on liquid crystals, e.g. single liquid crystal display cells
    • G02F1/133Constructional arrangements; Operation of liquid crystal cells; Circuit arrangements
    • G02F1/1333Constructional arrangements; Manufacturing methods
    • G02F1/1335Structural association of cells with optical devices, e.g. polarisers or reflectors
    • G02F1/1336Illuminating devices
    • G02F1/13362Illuminating devices providing polarised light, e.g. by converting a polarisation component into another one

Description

TECHNICAL FIELD The present invention relates to a liquid crystal display device, and more particularly to a liquid crystal display device capable of improving light utilization efficiency.

[Conventional technology]

An example of a conventional liquid crystal display device is, for example,
Some are disclosed in Japanese Patent No. 46447. The structure is shown in FIG.

In FIG. 9, 1 is a light source, and this light is scattered upward by the light guide plate 2 as uniform light. Reference numeral 3 denotes a polarizing plate, which selects and outputs only P wave (or S wave) of the incident light. Here, the P wave is linearly polarized light having a plane of polarization parallel to the plane of incidence (plane in which the electric vector oscillates), and the S wave is a plane of polarization perpendicular to the plane of incidence. It is linearly polarized light.

The light emitted from the polarizing plate 3 in this way is applied to the liquid crystal 4. The liquid crystal 4 is composed of, for example, TN (twisted nematic) liquid crystal. Transparent electrodes 5 are arranged on both sides of the liquid crystal 4, and by applying a potential difference in the thickness direction of the electrode 5, the alignment state of the liquid crystal 4 is changed and the polarization state of incident light is changed.

For example, if the incident light is a P wave and the potential difference is not given, the polarization plane is rotated by 90 ° while passing through the liquid crystal 4 and is emitted as an S wave, but if a potential difference is given. As the alignment state of the liquid crystal 4 changes, the plane of polarization does not rotate and the P wave is emitted as it is.

Hereinafter, the liquid crystal 4 and the transparent electrode 5 will be collectively referred to as a liquid crystal element.

The light that has passed through the liquid crystal 4 in this way is then incident on the polarizing plate 6. Here, the polarizing plate 6 is configured to select and emit only P waves, for example. By using such a polarizing plate, light is emitted from the polarizing plate 6 only when a potential difference is applied to the transparent electrode 5 in the above-mentioned example.

As described above, with the configuration shown in FIG. 9, the light from the light source 1 is modulated into the light with the light and shade in accordance with the electric field applied to the transparent electrode 5, and an image can be displayed.

By the way, in recent years, a device (hereinafter, referred to as a liquid crystal projection device) for enlarging and projecting an image obtained by such a liquid crystal display device by a lens has been considered. This configuration is
Shown in Figure 10.

In FIG. 10, the light from the light source 7 is collimated by the concave mirror 8. This light is applied to the liquid crystal display device 9 described with reference to FIG. Furthermore, in front of the liquid crystal display device 9,
A lens 10 is arranged and has a function of enlarging and projecting an image obtained by the liquid crystal display device 9 on a screen 11.

Now, in the conventional liquid crystal display device as described above,
As the light amount of the light source increases, a bright screen can be realized as a screen for displaying an image, but on the other hand, there are the following problems.

That is, the greatest feature of the liquid crystal display is that it consumes less power. However, since the above-mentioned liquid crystal display device requires a light source, it is necessary to reduce the power used for this light source as much as possible. However, in reality, there is a loss of light. For example, when the color liquid crystal is used, the light transmittance of the liquid crystal itself is about 5% at present, and the light utilization rate is extremely poor. In order to obtain a screen with a certain degree of brightness, it is necessary to supply considerable power to the light source.

Further, in the liquid crystal projection device using the liquid crystal display device as shown in FIG. 10, there is a considerable loss of light even when the light source 7 emits light or when the concave mirror 8 and the lens 10 respectively collect light. Therefore, in the liquid crystal projection device, for example, even if a 300 W Xe (xenon) lamp is used as a light source, sufficient brightness is not practically obtained.

Further, even if the power to the light source is increased to improve the brightness, there is a limit depending on the application, and for example, for home use, the maximum is about 500W.

As described above, there are various causes of the light loss, and one of them is caused by the polarizing plate 3 shown in FIG. 9 particularly as a liquid crystal display device. That is, in FIG. 9, in the polarizing plate 3, of the light from the light source 1,
Since only the P wave (or S wave) is selected and emitted, the S wave (or P wave) included in the light from the light source 1 is selected.
The wave component is lost, and the amount of light that passes through is inevitably less than half.

[Problems to be Solved by the Invention] As described above, in the prior art, since only one of P wave and S wave is emitted from the polarizing plate 3,
There is a problem that the amount of light that passes through is reduced to less than half, resulting in a considerable loss of light.

For example, conventionally, a polarizing plate generally containing a dye (such as a dichroic pigment) is used as the polarizing plate 3, and in that case, an S-wave is absorbed by an element that transmits a P-wave.
Further, as the polarizing plate 3, there is a case where a transparent body having a thin film optically having a certain characteristic on its surface is used. In that case, S wave (or P wave) can be effectively used, but Wave (or S wave) cannot be used effectively. Thus, in either of the above cases, light loss will occur.

Therefore, an object of the present invention is to solve the above-mentioned problems of the prior art and effectively use not only the P wave (or S wave) but also the S wave (or P wave) to improve the light utilization rate. Let
It is to provide a liquid crystal display device capable of obtaining a bright screen.

[Means for solving problems]

In order to achieve the above object, in the present invention, a polarizing element that splits light from a light source into linearly polarized P-waves and S-waves after being made into substantially parallel light by a concave mirror or a convex lens. And the S wave (or P
Wave) and change its phase to change the P wave (or S wave)
And a 1/2 wavelength plate for converting the P wave (or S wave) obtained by the conversion by the 1/2 wavelength plate are changed by a mirror or the like and separated by the polarizing element. The liquid crystal element is irradiated with the P wave (or S wave) obtained in this manner.

[Action]

The polarizing element separates the light from the light source into P waves and S waves. Next, the half-wave plate, which is the polarization conversion means, converts the S wave (or P wave) of the separated light into the P wave (or S wave).
Wave). Then, P separated by the polarizing element
By irradiating the liquid crystal element with the wave (or S wave) and the P wave (or S wave) converted by the half-wave plate, the liquid crystal element is irradiated with all the light emitted from the light source. In the present invention, only half of the light from the light source has been used in the past, but almost all of the light can be used in the present invention, and the effective utilization rate of light can be improved nearly twice. The brightness can be improved.

〔Example〕

 Embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings.

FIG. 1 is a vertical sectional view showing a first embodiment of the present invention.
In FIG. 1, parts that are the same as the parts in FIGS. 9 and 10 are given the same numbers. In addition, 12 is a polarizing element,
13 is an S wave, 14 is a P wave, 18 is a half-wave plate, 19 is a mirror, 20 is a polarizing plate, and 21 and 22 are filters.

2 (a) is a vertical cross-sectional view showing the specific structure of the polarizing element in FIG. 1, and FIG. 2 (b) is FIG. 2 (a).
It is the elements on larger scale which expanded and showed the A section.

As shown in FIG. 1, the light from the light source 7 is extracted by the concave mirror 8 so as to be parallel light. This parallel ray is
The light enters the polarizing element 12 and is separated into S wave 13 and P wave 14.

The polarizing element 12, FIG. 2 (a), (b), the on each one side of two triangular prisms substrate 26, Z n S (zinc sulfide) 15, M 9 F 2 It made each coating in the order of (magnesium fluoride) 16, Z n S15, then, is constructed by combining bonded to each other of the prism substrate 26 by an adhesive 17, called balsams.

When the polarizing element 12 is configured as described above, the polarizing element
FIG. 3 shows the reflectance characteristics with respect to the incident angles of the S wave and the P wave at 12.

As shown in FIG. 3, by setting the incident angle of the light from the light source 7 to the polarizing element 12 to be 80 °, the reflectance of the S wave in the polarizing element 12 is about 98%, and the P wave is about 2%. Therefore, the polarization rate (representing the degree of separation of P wave and S wave by the polarizing element 12. For example, when the incident angle is 0 °, the reflectance of both P wave and S wave is about 70%. , The polarization ratio is 0%, since the separation due to the polarized light does not occur, it is possible to obtain the polarization characteristic of 98%.

Therefore, the polarizing element 12 is arranged so that the incident angle of the light from the light source 7 is about 80 °.

Next, of the S wave 13 and the P wave 14 separated by the polarization element 12 as described above, the S wave 13 is constituted as it is by the liquid crystal element (the liquid crystal 4 and the transparent electrodes 5 arranged on both sides thereof). ). At this time, in particular, the light is incident only on the left half of the liquid crystal element.

Further, one P wave 14 is next passed through the half-wave plate 18. As a result, the P wave is converted into the S wave. The half-wave plate 18, which is such a phase conversion element, is generally made by cleaving a cleaved crystal such as mica or gypsum between parallel-plane glasses and adhering it. Then this converted S
The wave is deflected by the mirror 19 and is incident on the right half of the liquid crystal element.

In the liquid crystal element, as in the conventional example shown in FIG. 9, a potential difference is applied in the thickness direction of this electrode by the transparent electrode 5, thereby changing the alignment state of the liquid crystal 4 and changing the polarization state of incident light. Let

Next to the liquid crystal element, a polarizing plate 6 is arranged similarly to the conventional example, and, for example, only S waves are selected and emitted. The polarizing plate 6 may be a polarizing plate having a commonly used dichroic dye.

In this way, the light from the light source 7 is modulated into light having a light and shade according to the electric field applied to the transparent electrode 5, and an image is displayed.

As described above, in the light from the light source, only half of the light conventionally used, but according to the present embodiment, almost all of the light can be effectively used. It can be greatly improved.

In addition, as shown in FIG. 1, in front of the liquid crystal element, a polarizing plate 20 that selects and outputs only S waves of the incident light.
May be arranged. When the polarizing plate 20 is arranged in this way, the purity of the polarization of the light incident on the liquid crystal element is further improved, and the contrast performance can be improved.

Further, in the present embodiment, in order to balance the left and right brightness in the liquid crystal element, a filter for absorbing light in the bright area of the left half or right half area.
Set 21 (or 22). By optimizing the light absorption rate of this filter, the left and right brightness can be made uniform.

Next, FIG. 4 is a vertical sectional view showing a second embodiment of the present invention.

The feature of this embodiment is that the filter 23 is provided in order to make the joint part of the left and right regions on the screen inconspicuous.
Has been established.

That is, as shown in FIG. 4, first, in the left and right joints A, the light reflected by the mirror 19 and the light not passing through the mirror 19 partially overlap with each other, so that the polarizing element 12 and the mirror 19 are overlapped. Make up. Then, the part A becomes the brightest on the screen,
The filter 23 is arranged near the area A. As the filter 23, a filter having a characteristic that the absorptance is the largest at the center and the absorptance becomes smaller toward the ends is used. By applying such a device, the boundary, that is, the joint portion is almost inconspicuous.
Further, in the present embodiment, the half-wave plate 18 is arranged between the mirror 19 and the liquid crystal element, but it has the same operation and effect as the embodiment shown in FIG. .

Next, FIG. 5 is a vertical sectional view showing a third embodiment of the present invention. In FIG. 5, the same parts as those in the above-described embodiment are designated by the same reference numerals.

The feature of this embodiment is that the depth of the set itself of the liquid crystal display device is larger than that of the embodiment shown in FIG. 1, but when viewed from the front of the screen, it can be made compact vertically and horizontally. There is a point that can be done. This is because the light source 7 and the concave mirror 8 are arranged on the rear side of the polarizing element 12 as viewed from the front of the screen, rather than on the left side of the polarizing element 12 as in the embodiment of FIG.
The polarizing element 12 in the present embodiment has a characteristic opposite to that of the polarizing element shown in FIG. 1 and has a characteristic that S wave 13 is transmitted but P wave is reflected.

Next, FIG. 6 is a vertical sectional view showing a fourth embodiment of the present invention. In FIG. 6, the same parts as those in the above-described embodiment are designated by the same reference numerals.

In this embodiment, the P wave 14 separated by the polarizing element 12 is
After passing through the mirror 19 and the half-wave plate 18 to be converted into S-wave, the S-wave is irradiated with the S-wave 13 from the polarizing element 12 over the entire area of the liquid crystal element. With such a configuration, unlike the case of each of the above-described embodiments, a filter for ensuring the uniformity of brightness is unnecessary, and the effective light utilization rate can be improved. It should be noted that the polarizing plate 20 is adapted to select and emit only the S-wave, as in the case of the embodiment shown in FIG. 1, so as to increase the polarization purity of the light incident on the liquid crystal element. There is.

The above-described embodiments are all examples applied to the transmissive liquid crystal, but can also be applied to the emission liquid crystal. The structure is shown in FIG.

FIG. 7 is a vertical sectional view showing a fifth embodiment of the present invention.
In FIG. 7, the same parts as those in the above-described embodiment are designated by the same reference numerals. In addition, 27 is a mirror.

In this embodiment, as shown in FIG.
The light passing through is reflected by the mirror 27, and then emitted again through the polarizing plate 6 and the liquid crystal element.

Next, FIG. 8 is a longitudinal sectional view showing a case where the first embodiment shown in FIG. 1 is used in a liquid crystal projection device.

In FIG. 8, a light source 7, a concave mirror 8, a polarizing element 12, a mirror 19, 1/2
Wave plate 18, liquid crystal 4, transparent electrode 5, polarizing plate 6, filter 21,
Each constitutes the liquid crystal display device shown in FIG.
The operation is the same as that described with reference to FIG. 1/2
The arrangement of the wave plate 18 is different from that shown in FIG.

In addition, in FIG. 8, a projection lens 24 and a screen 25 are arranged as a projection device. In FIG. 8, the image from the liquid crystal display device is enlarged and projected by the projection lens 24 to obtain a magnified real image on the screen 25.

Generally, in a liquid crystal display device, an image on the screen becomes very dark compared to a direct-viewing liquid crystal display device due to a loss of light amount in a projection lens or the like, or light being dispersed by magnified projection. It was a big obstacle to the spread. Therefore, as shown in FIG. 8, applying the liquid crystal display device according to the present invention to such a projection device has a great merit.

〔The invention's effect〕

According to the present invention, since the light from the light source can be used to illuminate the liquid crystal with almost no waste, a liquid crystal display device with a bright screen and low power consumption can be realized. That is, in the prior art, more than half of the light was absorbed by the polarizing plate, and less than half of the light could be effectively used. However, according to the present invention, almost 100% of the light can be used. Therefore, the light utilization rate is doubled.

Further, in the present invention, when a device having a thin film (Z n S, M 9 F 2, etc.) coating on the surface of a transparent body (prism substrate, etc.) is used as a polarizing element, the purity of light polarization is improved. Therefore, the contrast performance can be improved.

[Brief description of drawings]

1 is a vertical sectional view showing a first embodiment of the present invention, FIG. 2 (a) is a vertical sectional view showing a specific structure of the polarizing element in FIG. 1, and FIG. 2 (b) is Fig. 2 (a) is an enlarged partial enlarged view of part A, Fig. 3 is a graph showing the reflectance characteristics of S wave and P wave with respect to the incident angle in the polarizing element of Fig. 2, and Fig. 4 is FIG. 5 is a vertical sectional view showing a second embodiment of the present invention, FIG. 5 is a vertical sectional view showing a third embodiment of the present invention, and FIG. 6 is a vertical sectional view showing a fourth embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 7 is a vertical sectional view showing a fifth embodiment of the present invention, and FIG. 8 is a vertical sectional view showing a case where the embodiment of FIG. 1 is used in a liquid crystal projection device.
FIG. 10 is a vertical sectional view showing a conventional liquid crystal display device, and FIG.
FIG. 6 is a vertical cross-sectional view showing liquid crystal projection using the liquid crystal display device shown in FIG. Explanation of symbols 1 ... Light source, 4 ... Liquid crystal, 6 ... Polarizing plate, 7 ... Light source,
8 ... Concave mirror, 12 ... Polarizing element, 13 ... S wave, 14 ... P
Wave, 18 …… 1/2 wave plate, 21,22 …… Filter, 24 …… Projection lens

 ─────────────────────────────────────────────────── ─── Continuation of the front page (72) Inventor Hiroyuki Miyajima 292 Yoshida-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa Inside the Home Appliances Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd. (56) References JP-A-61-182020 (JP, A)

Claims (9)

[Claims]
1. A liquid crystal display device having a liquid crystal element for displaying an image by driving the liquid crystal element while irradiating the liquid crystal element with linearly polarized light, wherein a liquid crystal element is provided between a light source and the liquid crystal element. A polarization element that separates the light from the light source into linearly polarized P wave and S wave, and S wave (or P wave) of the separated light is incident to the P wave (or S wave).
And a P-wave (or S-wave) obtained by separating the P-wave (or S-wave) obtained by the polarization-converting means by the polarization element. A liquid crystal display device, characterized in that the liquid crystal element is irradiated.
2. The liquid crystal display device according to claim 1, wherein the P-wave (or S-wave) obtained by converting by the polarization converting means is one of the light irradiation regions in the liquid crystal element. A liquid crystal display device, characterized in that the P-wave (or S-wave) obtained by irradiating the half region and separating by the polarizing element illuminates the other half region.
3. The liquid crystal display device according to claim 2, further comprising a filter that reduces one of the light emitted to each half area of the liquid crystal element. Characteristic liquid crystal display device.
4. The liquid crystal display device according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the polarization conversion means changes the phase by 1/2 wavelength. A liquid crystal display device comprising a plate.
5. The liquid crystal display device according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the polarizing element is an optical element having birefringence. Liquid crystal display device.
6. A liquid crystal display device according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the polarizing element is an optical element in which a specific surface of a transparent body is coated with a thin film. A liquid crystal display device comprising:
7. The liquid crystal display device according to claim 6, wherein the optical element has a thin film coating on each specific surface of two transparent bodies having a triangular prism shape, and then the coating is performed. A liquid crystal display device, characterized in that the surfaces subjected to are bonded together.
8. An image obtained by the liquid crystal display device according to any one of claims 1 to 7 is magnified by a lens and projected on a screen. Characteristic liquid crystal projection device.
9. The liquid crystal display device according to claim 1, wherein the P wave (or S wave) obtained by conversion by the polarization conversion means is obtained by being separated by the polarization element. When the liquid crystal element is irradiated with P waves (or S waves), both P waves (or both S waves) are irradiated on the irradiation surface.
A liquid crystal display device, characterized in that a filter element for making the overlapping portion of the waves) less noticeable than the non-overlapping portion is provided on the light incident surface side of the liquid crystal element.
JP61267771A 1986-11-12 1986-11-12 Liquid Crystal Display Expired - Lifetime JPH0769539B2 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP61267771A JPH0769539B2 (en) 1986-11-12 1986-11-12 Liquid Crystal Display

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP61267771A JPH0769539B2 (en) 1986-11-12 1986-11-12 Liquid Crystal Display

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
JPS63121821A JPS63121821A (en) 1988-05-25
JPH0769539B2 true JPH0769539B2 (en) 1995-07-31

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JP61267771A Expired - Lifetime JPH0769539B2 (en) 1986-11-12 1986-11-12 Liquid Crystal Display

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