JPH07251043A - Filtering method and filter device - Google Patents

Filtering method and filter device

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Publication number
JPH07251043A
JPH07251043A JP1294795A JP1294795A JPH07251043A JP H07251043 A JPH07251043 A JP H07251043A JP 1294795 A JP1294795 A JP 1294795A JP 1294795 A JP1294795 A JP 1294795A JP H07251043 A JPH07251043 A JP H07251043A
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Japan
Prior art keywords
separation membrane
membranes
membrane
filtration
hollow fiber
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
JP1294795A
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Japanese (ja)
Inventor
Kazuhiro Izumi
Yuichi Okuno
Yasutoshi Shimizu
Katsuji Uryu
一弘 出水
祐一 奥野
康利 清水
勝嗣 瓜生
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Toto Ltd
東陶機器株式会社
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Priority to JP873294 priority Critical
Priority to JP6-8732 priority
Application filed by Toto Ltd, 東陶機器株式会社 filed Critical Toto Ltd
Priority to JP1294795A priority patent/JPH07251043A/en
Publication of JPH07251043A publication Critical patent/JPH07251043A/en
Application status is Pending legal-status Critical

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Abstract

PURPOSE: To efficiently peel the layer of matter to be filtered deposited on the surface of a separation membrane by supplying a predetermined amt. of air to mix the same with a raw soln. to form air bubble streams along the separation membrane.
CONSTITUTION: In a filter device 3, a plurality of plate-shaped membranes 4 are vertically arranged so as to be spaced apart from each other and the suction pipe 6 connected to a pump 5 is connected to the upper end parts of the membranes 4 and a first air diffusion pipes 7 are arranged under the membranes 4 while a second air diffusion pipe 8 is provided on the lateral side of the lower ends of the membranes 4. The first air diffusion pipe 7 forms air bubble streams along the surfaces of the membranes 4 and the second air diffusion pipe 8 applies vibration and an impact to the membranes 4 to peel the layer of matter to be filtered on the surfaces of the membranes 4. In order to form the air bubble streams, the amt. V1 of air supplied to the lower parts of the separation membranes 4 is set to 0.5≤V1≤380(m3m-2h-1) per a unit projection area of the separation membranes 4 per a unit time. By this constitution, transmission flow velocity is ensured and operation is efficiently performed.
COPYRIGHT: (C)1995,JPO

Description

【発明の詳細な説明】 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

【0001】 [0001]

【産業上の利用分野】本発明は菌体などのコロイド分散粒子、酵素等の高分子或いは有機物等の粒子成分を含む原液を限外濾過法や精密濾過法等によって濾過する方法とその装置に関する。 BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention is a colloidal dispersion particles such as cells, to a method and an apparatus for filtering by ultrafiltration or microfiltration, etc. A stock solution containing a polymer or particulate component such as an organic substance such as enzymes .

【0002】 [0002]

【従来の技術】食品工業における溶液の分離或いは濃縮、工場排水の分離、便所、洗面所、風呂及び厨房などからの排水を生物的に浄化する際の菌体濃度の維持等に従来から分離膜が用いられている。 Separation or enrichment of the Prior Art solution in the food industry, the separation of industrial wastewater, toilet, lavatory, separation membranes conventionally maintenance or the like of the cell concentration when biologically purifying waste water from such a bath and kitchen It has been used. 斯かる分離膜は膜間差圧或いは膜間濃度差を駆動力として原液から膜透過液を分離するが、経時的に分離膜の原液側の表面には被濾過物が濃縮されてゲル状に堆積し、この被濾過物層が厚くなると急激に膜の透過流束が低下する。 Although such a separation membrane for separating the membrane permeate from a stock solution of the differential pressure or the intermembrane concentration difference between film as a driving force, on the surface of the stock side over time separation membrane is enriched the filtrate to gel deposited, permeation flux of rapid film decreases when the object filtrate layer becomes thicker.

【0003】透過流束の低下を防止する手段として、気泡流を用いる技術が特開昭56−21615号公報、或いは特開平4−131182号公報に開示されている。 As a means for preventing a decrease in permeation flux, a technique of using a bubble flow is disclosed in JP 56-21615 and JP-or in JP-A 4-131182 JP.
これら先行技術に開示される透過流束の低下防止手段は、膜面に沿って気泡流の流れを作り、膜面に堆積した被濾過物層を掻き取るようにしたものである。 Reduction means for preventing flux disclosed in these prior art is to make the flow of the bubble flow along the membrane surface, is obtained by such scraping the filtrate layer deposited on the membrane surface.

【0004】 [0004]

【発明が解決しようとする課題】上述した従来技術にあっては、気泡流と透過流束との定性的な関係は示されているが、両者の定量的な関係は示されていない。 [0007] In the prior art described above, although qualitative relationship between permeation flux and bubble flow is shown, quantitative relationship between the two is not shown. 即ち、 In other words,
気泡流を形成するために供給する気体の量が少ないと分離膜面に堆積した被濾過物層を掻き取る効果は発揮されず、また供給する気体の量がある量に達すると、それ以上気体を供給しても供給量に見合った掻き取り効果は得られず、コスト的に不利になる。 Effect of scraping the filtrate layers deposited with on the separation membrane surface is small amount of gas supplied to form a bubble flow will not be exhibited, and reaches a certain amount the amount of gas supplied, more gas It is fed up effect scraping commensurate with the supply amount can not be obtained, the cost disadvantage of.

【0005】 [0005]

【課題を解決するための手段】上記課題を解決すべく本願の第1発明に係る濾過方法は、分離膜表面に堆積した被濾過物層を剥離すべく分離膜に沿って原液と気体が混合した気泡流を連続的にまたは間欠的に形成するものとし、この気泡流を形成するために分離膜下方に供給する気体量(V 1 )を、分離膜の単位投影面積当り且つ単位時間当り、0.5≦V 1 ≦380(m 3 m -2 h -1 )とした。 Filtration method according to the first aspect of the present invention to solve the above problems, there is provided a means for solving] is mixed stock solution and gas along the separation membrane so as to peel off the object filtrate layer deposited on the separation membrane surface a bubble flow shall continuously or intermittently formed was, the amount of gas supplied to the separation membrane downwardly to form a bubble flow (V 1), per unit projected area per and unit time of the separation membrane, was 0.5 ≦ V 1 ≦ 380 (m 3 m -2 h -1).

【0006】また、本願の第2発明に係る濾過方法は、 Further, a filtration method according to the second aspect of the present invention is
分離膜表面に堆積した被濾過物層を剥離すべく分離膜に沿って原液と気体が混合した気泡流を連続的にまたは間欠的に形成するとともに気泡を連続的にまたは間欠的に分離膜表面に当てるものとした。 Continuously or intermittently separating membrane surface bubbles with a bubble stream stock and the gas are mixed along the separation membrane so as to peel off the object filtrate layer deposited on the separation membrane surface is continuously or intermittently formed It was assumed to shed in. ここで、気泡流を形成するとともに分離膜表面に当る気泡を形成するために分離膜表面近傍に供給する気体量(V 2 )は、例えば分離膜の単位面積当り且つ単位時間当り、V 2 ≦2000 Here, the gas amount supplied to the separation membrane surface vicinity to form a bubble impinging on the separation membrane surface to form a bubble flow (V 2), for example per unit area per and unit time of the separation membrane, V 2 ≦ 2000
(m 3 m -2 h -1 )とした。 Was (m 3 m -2 h -1) .

【0007】また、本願の第3発明に係る濾過装置は、 [0007] The filtering device according to a third invention of the present application,
分離膜を原液内に上下方向に配置される平板状膜とし、 A flat membrane disposed vertically to the separation membrane in the stock solution,
この平板状膜の下方に平板状膜に沿って原液と気体が混合した気泡流を形成するための散気部材を配置し、また平板状膜の側方に平板状膜に気泡を当てるための散気部材を配置した。 Below this flat film along the flat film arranged air diffusion member for forming a bubble flow undiluted and gas are mixed, also for directing air bubbles flat film on the side of the plate-like membrane It was placed aeration member.

【0008】また、本願の第4発明に係る濾過装置は、 [0008] The filtering device according to a fourth invention of the present application,
分離膜を原液内に上下方向に架設される中空糸状膜とし、この中空糸状膜を両端が上方になるように折り返して集水部材に連結し、また折り返し部には散気部材を配置した。 A hollow fiber membrane is spanned vertically separation membrane in the stock solution, both ends of this hollow fiber membrane is connected to the water collecting member is folded so that the upper and the folded portion is arranged air diffusion member.

【0009】また、本願の第5発明に係る濾過装置は、 [0009] The filtering device according to a fifth invention of the present application,
分離膜を原液内に横方向に架設される中空糸状膜とし、 A hollow fiber membrane which is laid laterally separation membrane in the stock solution,
この中空糸状膜の両端を集水部材に連結し、また中空糸状膜の下方に散気部材を配置した。 The both ends of the hollow fiber membranes connected to the water collecting member and arranged air diffusion member below the hollow fiber membrane.

【0010】 [0010]

【作用】所定量の気体を供給して気泡流を形成することで、分離膜表面に堆積した被濾過物層を効率よく剥離でき、更に気泡流だけでなく気泡を分離膜表面の被濾過物層に直接当てることで剥離効率を更に高めることができる。 [Action] By forming a bubble flow by supplying a predetermined amount of gas, to be filtered material layer deposited on the separation membrane surface can be efficiently peeled off, further the filtrate bubble separation membrane surface as well as bubble flow it is possible to further enhance the peeling efficiency by applying directly to the layer. また、濾過を長期間にわたり継続すると、膜面の被濾過物層の変成、液中微粒子成分のわずかながらの膜面集積により、少々、膜濾過特性が劣化する。 Further, when continuing the filtration over a long period of time, metamorphic of the filtrate layer of the film surface, the film surface accumulation of slight particulate components in a liquid, Some, membrane filtration characteristics deteriorate. 膜面の被濾過物層の掻き取りを十分に行っておくと、この膜透過流束の長期間にわたる経時的劣化も防止できる。 When they are processed to scraping of the filtrate layer of film surface sufficiently, deterioration over time over a long period of the membrane permeation flux can be prevented.

【0011】 [0011]

【実施例】以下に本発明の実施例を添付図面に基づいて説明する。 EXAMPLES be described with reference to the embodiment accompanying drawings of the invention are described below. ここで、図1は本願の第3発明に係る濾過装置を組み込んだ浄化槽の縦断面図、図2は図1のAーA Here, 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of a septic tank incorporating a filtering apparatus according to a third aspect of the present invention, FIG. 2 of Figure 1 A over A
方向から見た図であり、浄化槽の本体1内には隔壁2, A view seen from the direction, the partition wall in the septic tank body 1 2,
2が設けられ、これら隔壁2,2によって画成される空間に濾過装置3が配置されている。 2 is provided, the filtration unit 3 is arranged in a space defined by the partition walls 2,2.

【0012】濾過装置3は上下方向の平板状膜4を複数枚離間して配列し、各平板状膜4の上端部にはポンプ5 [0012] Filtration devices 3 arranged spaced apart plurality of flat film 4 in the vertical direction, the pump 5 at the upper end of the flat film 4
につながる吸引管6を接続し、また各平板状膜4の下方には第1散気管7が、各平板状膜4の下端側方には第2 Connected to a suction pipe 6 connected to, and the first aeration tube 7 below each flat film 4, on the lower end side of the flat film 4 second
散気管8が配置されている。 Diffusing pipe 8 is disposed.

【0013】前記第1散気管7は平板状膜4の表面に沿った気泡流を形成するためのものであり、平板状膜4の下端からの距離は、この範囲を外れると気泡流の上昇による掻き取り効果が充分期待できないため1cm以上2 [0013] The first diffuser tube 7 is provided for forming a bubble flow along the surface of the flat film 4, the distance from the lower end of the flat film 4 is elevated bubble flow is outside this range 2 for 1cm more than the scraping effect of the can not be sufficiently expected
m以下とする。 To below the m. また第2散気管8は平板状膜4の表面に気泡を当てて平板状膜4に振動或いは衝撃を与え膜表面の被濾過物層を剥離させるためのものであり、平板状膜4表面からの距離は1cm以下で平板状膜4表面に接触していてもよい。 The second aeration tube 8 is intended for peeling the object filtrate layer of vibration or shock given membrane surface by applying a bubble on the surface of the flat film 4 is flat membrane 4, a plate-shaped film 4 surface the distance may be in contact with the flat film 4 surface 1cm below.

【0014】以上の濾過装置3を用いた濾過方法について以下に説明する。 For filtration method described below using the [0014] above filtration device 3. 尚、第1発明に係る濾過方法は気泡流のみによって被濾過物層を剥離するので、第2散気管8は使用しない。 Since filtration method according to the first invention is peeled off the filtrate layer by only the bubble flow, the second aeration tube 8 is not used.

【0015】即ち、第1発明に係る濾過方法にあっては、第1散気管7を介して空気等の気体を平板状膜4の下方から供給して平板状膜4の表面に沿った気泡流を形成する。 [0015] That is, in the filtration method according to the first invention, the bubbles along the surface of the flat film 4 by supplying a gas such as air through the first diffusing pipe 7 from the lower side of the plate-shaped film 4 to form a flow. すると、この気泡流によって浄化槽内に流れが生成され、散気(曝気)によって吹込まれた酸素を利用して活性汚泥に含まれる硝化菌により原液中に含まれるアンモニア態窒素(NH 4 + )が硝酸態窒素(NO 3 - )や亜硝酸態窒素(NO 2 - )に酸化分解され、また未分解有機物は活性汚泥中に取り込まれる。 Then, the flow is generated in the septic tank by the bubble flow, the air diffuser ammonia nitrogen contained in the stock solution by nitrifying bacteria contained in activated sludge using a blown filled-in oxygen by (aeration) (NH 4 +) is nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 -) and nitrite nitrogen (NO 2 -) are oxidized and decomposed to and undecomposed organic substance is incorporated into the activated sludge.

【0016】一方、ポンプ5を駆動して平板状膜4に膜間差圧を発生させることで、原液から活性汚泥等の被濾過物を除いた透過液を吸引管6を介して取り出し、この透過液を消毒室に送り込んだり、直接下水として放出する。 [0016] On the other hand, by driving the pump 5 by generating the intermembrane pressure differential flat film 4, removed permeate excluding the filtrate such as activated sludge from a stock solution through a suction tube 6, this Guests fed permeate the sterilization chamber, to release as a direct sewer. 尚、膜間差圧以外に膜間濃度差、膜間電位差或いは膜間温度差を発生させて、それにより濾過を行うようにしてもよい。 Incidentally, the intermembrane concentration difference in outer membrane Difference pressure or, by generating a temperature difference between the membrane potential difference or film, thereby may perform filtering.

【0017】また、上記の濾過運転を継続すると、図3 [0017] Continuing with the above filtration operation, FIG. 3
に示すように平板状膜4の原液側表面に活性汚泥10等が堆積し被濾過物層11が形成される。 Activated sludge 10 and the like is deposited on the stock side surface of the flat film 4 as shown in the filtrate layer 11 is formed. この被濾過物層11が厚くなると透過流束が低下し、運転効率が落ちる。 The object filtrate layer 11 is permeation flux is reduced thick and operation efficiency drops. しかしながら、第1発明にあっては気泡流による掻き取り作用によって常時活性汚泥10等が剥離するので被濾過物層11の厚みは厚くはならない。 However, not the thickness of the filtrate layer 11 is thicker so constantly activated sludge 10 and the like is peeled off by scraping action of bubble flow In the first invention. つまり、透過流束をJ(m 3・m -2・d -1 )、活性汚泥10等の剥離速度をV(m・d -1 )とすると、一定時間経過後は平衡状態に達し、この平衡状態にあってはJ(m 3・m -2・d -1 )=V(m・ That is, the permeation flux J (m 3 · m -2 · d -1), when the release rate of such activated sludge 10 and V (m · d -1), after a certain time equilibrium is reached, the in the equilibrium state J (m 3 · m -2 · d -1) = V (m ·
d -1 )となっている。 and it has a d -1).

【0018】但し、気泡流が十分な掻き取り作用を発揮するには、一定量以上の気体を供給しなければならず、 [0018] However, the bubble flow to exert sufficient scraping action, must be supplied more than a certain amount of gas,
また必要以上に多量の気体を供給しても透過流束の向上にはつながらないことが実験の結果判明した。 Also by supplying a large amount of gas more than necessary does not lead to the improvement of the permeation flux was found the results of the experiment. 図4は、 Figure 4,
上記気体量によって膜透過流束が濾過時間の経過とともにどのように変化するかを示す上記実験結果のグラフである。 Membrane permeation flux by the gas amount is a graph of the experimental results showing how the change over of the filtration time. 実験条件は、平板状膜4の細孔径Dp =0.1μ The experimental conditions, the pore diameter Dp = 0.1 [mu] tabular film 4
m、平板状膜4に発生する膜間差圧ΔP=30kPa、 m, transmembrane pressure ΔP generated in tabular film 4 = 30 kPa,
原液の温度T=20℃であった。 Had a temperature T = 20 ℃ of stock. このグラフは片対数方眼紙に示されており、横軸の濾過時間が対数目盛となっている。 This graph is shown in semilogarithmic graph paper, the filtration time of the horizontal axis represents the logarithmic scale. このグラフから膜透過流束が気体量(V 1 )をパラメータとして濾過時間の対数と直線関係にあることが分る。 Membrane permeation flux from the graph the amount of gas (V 1) it can be seen that the a logarithmic and linear relationships filtration time as a parameter. 濾過時間が5(h )のときの膜透過流束を初期値とすれば、この初期値は気体量(V 1 )が210(m 3 If the membrane permeation flux when the filtration time is 5 (h) as the initial value, the initial value is the amount gas (V 1) is 210 (m 3
m -2 h -1 )、290(m 3 m -2 h -1 )、380(m 3 m -2 h -1 )、 m -2 h -1), 290 ( m 3 m -2 h -1), 380 (m 3 m -2 h -1),
450(m 3 m -2 h -1 )と大きくなるにつれて、0.40 450 As (m 3 m -2 h -1) and increases, 0.40
(m 3 m -2 h -1 )、0.48(m 3 m -2 h -1 )、0.51(m 3 m (M 3 m -2 h -1) , 0.48 (m 3 m -2 h -1), 0.51 (m 3 m
-2 h -1 )、0.52(m 3 m -2 h -1 )と大きくなる。 -2 h -1), as large as 0.52 (m 3 m -2 h -1 ). また、 Also,
直線の勾配は右下がりから次第に水平になって行く。 The slope of the line is going to become increasingly horizontally from the right edge. しかしながら、気体量(V 1 )が380(m 3 m -2 h -1 )を超えても膜透過流束はほとんど大きくならない。 However, the gas volume (V 1) is 380 (m 3 m -2 h -1 ) membrane permeation flux even exceed does not become almost large. 必要以上に多量の気体を供給しても透過流束の向上にはつながらないことが分る。 It is understood that even when supplying a large amount of gas more than necessary does not lead to improvement in permeation flux. また、必要な気体量(V 1 )は、膜濾過特性の長期間にわたる経時的劣化防止も考慮して決定する必要がある。 Moreover, the gas amount required (V 1) has to be determined in consideration of preventing deterioration over time long term membrane filtration characteristics.

【0019】平板状膜4下方に供給する具体的な気体量(V 1 )は、分離膜を浄化槽底面に投影した場合の単位投影面積当り且つ単位時間当り、0.5≦V 1 ≦380 The tabular film 4 specific amount of gas supplied to the lower (V 1) is per unit projected area per and unit time in the case of projecting the separation membrane septic tank bottom, 0.5 ≦ V 1 ≦ 380
(m 3 m -2 h -1 )とする。 And (m 3 m -2 h -1) . これは、初期の膜面の掻き取りには200(m 3 m -2 h -1 )の気体量で十分なものの、長期間にわたる膜濾過特性の経時劣化防止には380(m 3 m - 2 h This is despite the scraping of the initial film surface sufficient in the amount of gas 200 (m 3 m -2 h -1 ), the time degradation prevention of membrane filtration properties over a long period of time 380 (m 3 m - 2 h
-1 )以下の気体量が必要で、380(m 3 m -2 h -1 )を超える気体量を供給しても、被濾過物層の掻き取り効果は変化せず、気体量を供給する動力が無駄になるからであり、また、0.5(m 3 m -2 h -1 )より小さい気体量では気泡流による掻き取り効果が得られないためである。 -1) requires less amount of gas, it can supply a gas amount in excess of 380 (m 3 m -2 h -1 ), scraping effect of a filtrate layer is not changed, and supplies the amount of gas it is because power is wasted, also, because the 0.5 (m 3 m -2 h -1 ) can not be obtained scraping effect by the bubbles flow with a smaller amount of gas. 気体量と曝気による気泡流の上昇速度との間には正の相関が存在することから、気体量を多くすればするほど、より高い掻き取り効率が得られる。 Between the rising speed of the gas volume and the bubble flow by aeration from the positive correlation exists, the more you increase the amount of gas, higher scraping efficiency. しかし、そのための動力費と掻き取り効率は負の相関関係を示すことから、気体量を大きくしすぎると動力費が過大となってしまう。 However, power cost and scraping efficiency therefor because they exhibit a negative correlation, when too large amount of gas power cost becomes excessive. そこで、膜濾過特性と動力費とのバランスから望ましい気体量の上限は、290(m 3 m -2 h -1 )とする。 Therefore, the upper limit of the membrane filtration characteristic and the balance from the desired amount of gas and power cost are the 290 (m 3 m -2 h -1 ). 下限は、装置として十分な膜濾過特性を得るために1.0(m 3 m -2 h Lower limit, in order to obtain sufficient membrane filtration properties as a device 1.0 (m 3 m -2 h
-1 )とする。 -1) to. 即ち、望ましい気体量(V 1 )は、1.0 That is, the desired amount of gas (V 1) is 1.0
≦V 1 ≦290(m 3 m -2 h -1 )とする。 And ≦ V 1 ≦ 290 (m 3 m -2 h -1).

【0020】また、上記した好気性処理のみを行う場合には連続して空気を散気管7から平板状膜4に向けて供給すればよいが、嫌気性処理、つまり活性汚泥に含まれる酸生成菌によって合併排水中の有機物を酢酸(CH 3 Further, generation acid may be supplied toward the trachea 7 diffusing air continuously in tabular film 4 in the case of performing only aerobic process described above, but included in the anaerobic treatment, i.e. activated sludge acid organic matter in the merger drained by bacteria (CH 3
COOH )やプロピオン酸(CH 3 CH 2 COOH)等の有機酸に低分子化し、更にこれら有機酸をメタン菌などによってメタン(CH 4 )や二酸化炭素(CO 2 )のガスに変換し、更に、タンパク質や尿素などの窒素分の分解物であるアンモニア態窒素(NH 4 + )を生成する嫌気性処理を行いたい場合には、空気の代りに窒素ガス等の酸素を含まないガスを供給するか、或いは好気と嫌気の繰り返し処理を行う場合には、散気用空気の供給を間欠的に行うようにすればよい。 And low molecular weight organic acids such as COOH) and propionic acid (CH 3 CH 2 COOH), and further converted to gas methane by methane bacteria these organic acid (CH 4) and carbon dioxide (CO 2), and further, or if you want to anaerobic treatment to produce ammonia nitrogen as nitrogen partial decomposition products such as proteins and urea (NH 4 +) is fed a gas instead of air does not contain oxygen, such as nitrogen gas or when iterating the aerobic and anaerobic, it is sufficient to intermittently for supplying aeration air.

【0021】また、濾過装置3を用いた第2発明に係る濾過方法にあっては、第1散気管7と第2散気管8の両方から空気を板状膜4に向けて供給する。 Further, in the filtration method according to the second invention using the filtering device 3 and supplies toward the air plate film 4 from both the first diffusion pipe 7 second aeration tube 8. すると、前記したように平板状膜4の表面に沿った気泡流が形成されるだけでなく、第2散気管8からの気泡が直接平板状膜4の表面に当り、振動或いは衝撃によって平板状膜4表面に付着している活性汚泥10等が剥離される。 Then, not only the bubbles flow along the surface of the flat film 4 is formed as described above, it strikes the surface bubbles of a flat film 4 directly from the second aeration tube 8, tabular by vibration or shock activated sludge 10 and the like adhering to the film 4 surface is peeled off.

【0022】このように、気泡流だけでなく振動や衝撃を加えることで剥離作用は第1発明よりも飛躍的に向上する。 [0022] Thus, exfoliation by applying vibration or shock as well bubble flow is drastically improved than the first invention. 但し、このような飛躍的な効果が期待できる気体量(V 2 )は、分離膜の単位面積当り且つ単位時間当り、V 2 ≦2000(m 3 m -2 h -1 )であり、この気体量より多く供給しても剥離効果は向上しないためであり、好ましくはV 2 ≦500(m 3 m -2 h -1 )である。 However, the amount of gas that can be expected such dramatic effects (V 2) is per and unit time per unit area of the separation membrane, a V 2 ≦ 2000 (m 3 m -2 h -1), this gas be supplied more than the amount it is because the peeling effect is not improved, and preferably V 2 ≦ 500 (m 3 m -2 h -1).

【0023】図5は本願の第4発明に係る濾過装置を組み込んだ浄化槽の縦断面図、図6は図5のBーB方向から見た図、図7は図6の要部拡大図であり、この浄化槽は浄化槽本体1内を隔壁12によって2つの処理室に画成し、一方の処理室に濾過装置13を配置している。 [0023] Figure 5 is a longitudinal sectional view of a septic tank incorporating a filtering apparatus according to a fourth aspect of the present invention, FIG. 6 is a view from B - B direction of FIG. 5, FIG. 7 is a partially enlarged view of FIG. 6 There, the septic tank defines a septic tank body 1 into two processing chambers by a partition wall 12, it is arranged filtration unit 13 in one of the processing chamber.

【0024】濾過装置13は保持枠14の上部に集水管15を取り付け、この集水管15にポンプ16につながる吸引管17を接続し、また保持枠14の下部に下方に向けて気体噴出穴18aが開口する散気管18を取り付けている。 The filtering device 13 fitted with a water collecting pipe 15 at the top of the holding frame 14, this water collecting pipe 15 connected to a suction pipe 17 leading to pump 16, also a gas downward in the lower part of the holding frame 14 ejection holes 18a There is attached a diffusion pipe 18 which opens. そして、分離膜としての中空糸状膜19を両端が上方になるように折り返し、その両端を前記集水管15に連結し、また折り返し部には散気管18を配置し、中空糸状膜19の下端に空気を供給し、上下方向の中空糸状膜19に沿った気泡流を形成するとともに中空糸状膜19に振動を与えるようにしている。 Then, folding the hollow fiber membrane 19 as a separation membrane such ends is upward, connecting the both ends to the water collecting tube 15, also arranged diffuser tube 18 in the folded portion, the lower end of the hollow fiber membranes 19 air supply, and to give vibration to the hollow fiber membrane 19 to form a bubble flow along the vertical direction of the hollow fiber membrane 19. ここで、分離膜として中空糸状膜を用いているため、気体によって膜自身が可動してゆらぎによる被濾過物層の剥離が効果的に行われる。 Here, because of the use of hollow fiber membrane as a separation membrane, peeling of the filtrate layer film itself by gas by fluctuation in moving it is effectively performed.

【0025】図8は本願の第5発明に係る濾過装置を組み込んだ浄化槽の縦断面図であり、この浄化槽は浄化槽本体1内に2つの濾過装置20を並列して配置している。 [0025] Figure 8 is a longitudinal sectional view of a septic tank incorporating a filtering apparatus according to a fifth aspect of the present invention, the septic tank is arranged in parallel with two of the filter 20 to the septic tank body 1. 濾過装置20は本体1内に2本の集水管21を左右に離間して配置し、これら2本の集水管21間に横方向に架設される中空糸状膜22の両端を集水管21に連結し、この集水管21にポンプ23につながる吸引管24 Filtration device 20 is disposed at a distance from each other in the right and left two water collecting pipe 21 into the body 1, connecting the two ends of the hollow fiber membrane 22 which is bridged laterally between these two water collecting pipes 21 to the water collecting pipe 21 and, the suction tube 24 leading to the pump 23 to the water collecting pipe 21
を接続しまた中空糸状膜22の下方には散気管25を配置している。 It is arranged diffuser tubes 25 to connect the hand below the hollow fiber membrane 22.

【0026】図8に示す濾過装置20にあっては、中空糸状膜22が横方向(斜めでもよい)に架設されているため散気管25から供給される気体によって形成される気泡流により中空糸状膜22が振動するため、気泡流による掻き取り作用と振動との相乗効果によって被濾過物層11の剥離は極めて顕著である。 [0026] In the filtration device 20 shown in FIG. 8, a hollow fiber by bubble flow hollow fiber membrane 22 is formed by a transverse gas supplied from the diffuser tubes 25 because it is bridged (which may be a diagonal) since the film 22 vibrates, peeling of the filtrate layer 11 by the synergistic effect of the vibration and the scraping action by bubble flow is very significant.

【0027】 [0027]

【発明の効果】以上に説明した如く本願の第1発明に係る濾過方法によれば、分離膜表面に堆積した被濾過物層を剥離すべく分離膜に沿って原液と気体が混合した気泡流を連続的にまたは間欠的に形成するものとし、この気泡流を形成するために分離膜下方に供給する気体量(V According to the filtration method according to the first invention as described above in the present application, according to the invention, the separation membrane surface deposited along the separation membrane so as to peel off the object filtrate layer stock solution and the bubble flow gas are mixed continuously or shall intermittently formed, the gas amount supplied to the separation membrane downwardly in order to form the bubble flow (V
1 )を、分離膜の単位投影面積当り且つ単位時間当り、 1), per unit projected area per and unit time of the separation membrane,
0.5≦V 1 ≦380(m 3 m -2 h -1 )としたので、効率よく被濾過物層を剥離することができる。 Since the 0.5 ≦ V 1 ≦ 380 (m 3 m -2 h -1), can be peeled off efficiently the filtrate layer.

【0028】また、本願の第2発明に係る濾過方法によれば、気泡流だけでなく気泡を分離膜表面に当てるようにしたので、気泡流による掻き取り作用と気泡による振動作用の相乗効果によって更に効率よく被濾過物層を剥離することができる。 Further, according to the filtration method according to the second aspect of the present invention. Thus shed bubbles not only bubble flow on the separation membrane surface, by the synergistic effect of the vibration action of scraping action and bubbles due to the bubble flow it can be peeled off the filtrate layer more efficiently. 特にこの効果は供給する気体量(V 2 )を、分離膜の単位面積当り且つ単位時間当り、 In particular, this effect is the amount of gas supplied (V 2), per and unit time per unit area of the separation membrane,
2 ≦2000(m 3 m -2 h -1 )とした場合に顕著となる。 Becomes remarkable when the V 2 ≦ 2000 (m 3 m -2 h -1).

【0029】また、本願の第3発明に係る濾過装置によれば、分離膜を原液内に上下方向に配置される平板状膜とし、この平板状膜の下方に平板状膜に沿って原液と気体が混合した気泡流を形成するための散気部材を配置し、また平板状膜の側方に平板状膜に気泡を当てるための散気部材を配置したので、気泡流による掻き取り作用と気泡による振動作用の相乗効果によって被濾過物層を剥離することができる。 Further, according to the filtration device according to a third aspect of the present invention, a flat membrane disposed vertically to the separation membrane in the stock solution, and the stock solution along the flat film below the flat film the diffuser member for forming a bubble flow gas are mixed is arranged, also so positioned serves aeration member for directing the bubbles into a flat plate film on the side of the flat membrane, the scraping action by the bubble flow it can be peeled off the filtrate layer by the synergistic effect of the vibration effect by the bubbles.

【0030】また、本願の第4発明に係る濾過装置によれば、分離膜を原液内に上下方向に架設される中空糸状膜とし、この中空糸状膜を両端が上方になるように折り返して集水部材に連結し、また折り返し部には散気部材を配置したので、気泡流による効率的な掻き取り作用を発揮でき、しかも散気部材が中空糸状膜の支持部材としての機能を発揮するので、構造がシンプルとなる。 Further, according to the filtration device according to a fourth aspect of the present invention, the hollow fiber membrane is spanned vertically separation membrane in the stock solution, collecting folded so across the hollow fiber membrane is upward linked to water members, and since the folded portion arranged air diffusion member can exert an efficient scraping action by bubble flow, and since air diffuser member exerts a function as a supporting member of the hollow fiber membranes , the structure is simple.

【0031】更に、本願の第5発明に係る濾過装置によれば、分離膜を原液内に横方向に架設される中空糸状膜とし、この中空糸状膜の両端を集水部材に連結し、また中空糸状膜の下方に散気部材を配置したので、気泡流による掻き取り作用の他に振動による剥離作用が極めて大きくなる。 Furthermore, according to the filtration device according to a fifth aspect of the present invention, a hollow fiber membrane which is laid laterally separation membrane in the stock solution, and connecting both ends of the hollow fiber membrane in the water collecting member, also Having arranged the aeration member under the hollow fiber membranes, exfoliation due to vibration in addition to the scraping action by the bubble flow becomes extremely large.

【図面の簡単な説明】 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

【図1】本願の第3発明に係る濾過装置を組み込んだ浄化槽の縦断面図 Figure 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of a septic tank incorporating a filtering apparatus according to a third aspect of the present invention

【図2】図1のAーA方向から見た図 View from the A-A direction of FIG. 2] FIG. 1

【図3】本発明の作用を説明した図 Diagram for explaining the operation of the present invention; FIG

【図4】気体量によって膜透過流束が濾過時間の経過とともにどのように変化するかを示す実験結果のグラフ Figure 4 is a graph of experimental results membrane permeation flux by the gas amount indicates changes how with the passage of filtration time

【図5】本願の第4発明に係る濾過装置を組み込んだ浄化槽の縦断面図 Figure 5 is a longitudinal sectional view of a septic tank incorporating a filtering apparatus according to a fourth aspect of the present invention

【図6】図5のBーB方向から見た図 FIG. 6 is a view as seen from the B - B direction in FIG. 5

【図7】図6の要部拡大図 [7] a main part enlarged view of FIG. 6

【図8】本願の第5発明に係る濾過装置を組み込んだ浄化槽の縦断面図 Figure 8 is a longitudinal sectional view of a septic tank incorporating a filtering apparatus according to a fifth aspect of the present invention

【符号の説明】 DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS

1…浄化槽の本体、2,12…隔壁、3,13,20… 1 ... septic tank of the body, 2, 12 ... partition walls, 3,13,20 ...
濾過装置、4…平板状膜、5,16,23…ポンプ、 Filtration device, 4 ... tabular film, 5,16,23 ... pump,
6,17,24…吸引管、7,8,18,25…散気管、10…活性汚泥粒子、11…被濾過物層、15,2 6,17,24 ... suction pipe, 7,8,18,25 ... diffusing pipe, 10 ... activated sludge particles, 11 ... the filtrate layer, 15, 2
1…集水管、19,22…中空糸状膜。 1 ... the water collection tube, 19, 22 ... hollow fiber membrane.

───────────────────────────────────────────────────── フロントページの続き (72)発明者 瓜生 勝嗣 福岡県北九州市小倉北区中島2丁目1番1 号 東陶機器株式会社内 (72)発明者 奥野 祐一 福岡県北九州市小倉北区中島2丁目1番1 号 東陶機器株式会社内 ────────────────────────────────────────────────── ─── of the front page continued (72) inventor Uryu Katsu嗣 Kitakyushu, Fukuoka Prefecture Kokura-ku Nakajima 2-chome No. 1 No. 1 TOTO within Co., Ltd. (72) inventor Okuno Kitakyushu, Fukuoka Prefecture Kokura-ku Nakajima Yuichi 2 chome No. 1 TOTO within Co., Ltd.

Claims (6)

    【特許請求の範囲】 [The claims]
  1. 【請求項1】 原液内に分離膜を浸漬し、濾過を行うようにした濾過方法において、この濾過方法は分離膜表面に堆積した被濾過物層を剥離すべく分離膜に沿って原液と気体が混合した気泡流を連続的にまたは間欠的に形成するものとし、且つ前記気泡流を形成するために分離膜下方に供給する気体量(V 1 )は、分離膜の単位投影面積当り且つ単位時間当り、0.5≦V 1 ≦380(m 3 m 1. A separation membrane was immersed in the stock solution, in the filtration method to perform filtration, the filtration method is undiluted and gas along the separation membrane so as to peel off the object filtrate layer deposited on the separation membrane surface There shall continuously or intermittently forming a mixed bubble flow, and the gas amount supplied to the separation membrane downwardly in order to form the bubble flow (V 1), the unit projected area per and units of the separation membrane per time, 0.5 ≦ V 1 ≦ 380 ( m 3 m
    -2 h -1 )としたことを特徴とする濾過方法。 Filtration wherein the -2 h -1) and the possible.
  2. 【請求項2】 原液内に分離膜を浸漬し、濾過を行うようにした濾過方法において、この濾過方法は分離膜表面に堆積した被濾過物層を剥離すべく分離膜に沿って原液と気体が混合した気泡流を連続的にまたは間欠的に形成するとともに気泡を連続的にまたは間欠的に分離膜表面の被濾過物層に当てるようにしたことを特徴とする濾過方法。 Wherein the separation membrane was immersed in the stock solution, in the filtration method to perform filtration, the filtration method is undiluted and gas along the separation membrane so as to peel off the object filtrate layer deposited on the separation membrane surface There filtration method characterized by with a mixed bubble flow continuously or intermittently formed was set to hit the target filtrate layer continuously or intermittently separating membrane surface bubbles.
  3. 【請求項3】 請求項2に記載の濾過方法において、前記気泡流を形成するとともに分離膜表面に当る気泡を形成をするために分離膜表面近傍に供給する気体量(V 3. A filtration method according to claim 2, the gas amount supplied to the separation membrane surface near to the form bubbles impinging on the separation membrane surface to form a said bubble flow (V
    2 )は、分離膜の単位面積当り且つ単位時間当り、V 2 2) is, per and unit time per unit area of the separation membrane, V 2
    ≦2000(m 3 m -2 h -1 )としたことを特徴とする濾過方法。 ≦ 2000 (m 3 m -2 h -1) and filtered wherein the a.
  4. 【請求項4】 分離膜により原液の濾過を行う濾過装置において、前記分離膜は原液内に上下方向に配置される平板状膜であり、この平板状膜の下方には平板状膜に沿って原液と気体が混合した気泡流を形成するための散気部材が配置され、また平板状膜の側方には平板状膜に気泡を当てるための散気部材が配置されていることを特徴とする濾過装置。 4. A filtering device for performing filtering of stock by the separation membrane, the separation membrane is a flat membrane disposed vertically in the stock solution, is below the flat film along the flat film is arranged diffuser member for forming a bubble flow undiluted and gas are mixed, also on the side of the flat membrane and characterized in that the diffuser member for directing the bubbles into a flat plate film is disposed filtration device that.
  5. 【請求項5】 分離膜により原液の濾過を行う濾過装置において、前記分離膜は原液内に上下方向に架設される中空糸状膜であり、この中空糸状膜は両端が上方になるように折り返され、その両端は集水部材に連結し、また折り返し部には散気部材が配置されていることを特徴とする濾過装置。 5. A filtering device for performing filtering of stock by the separation membrane, the separation membrane is a hollow fiber membrane is spanned vertically within the stock solution, the hollow fiber membranes folded so both ends becomes upward , both ends thereof connected to the water collecting member and the filtration apparatus characterized by being arranged diffuser member in the folded portion.
  6. 【請求項6】 分離膜により原液の濾過を行う濾過装置において、前記分離膜は原液内に横方向に架設される中空糸状膜であり、この中空糸状膜は両端が集水部材に連結し、また中空糸状膜の下方には散気部材が配置されていることを特徴とする濾過装置。 6. A filtering device for performing filtering of stock by the separation membrane, the separation membrane is a hollow fiber membrane which is laid laterally within the stock solution, the hollow fiber membranes at both ends connected to the water collecting member, the filtration apparatus characterized by being arranged diffuser member below the hollow fiber membrane.
JP1294795A 1994-01-28 1995-01-30 Filtering method and filter device Pending JPH07251043A (en)

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