JPH06222397A - Liquid crystal display device - Google Patents

Liquid crystal display device

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Publication number
JPH06222397A
JPH06222397A JP2860393A JP2860393A JPH06222397A JP H06222397 A JPH06222397 A JP H06222397A JP 2860393 A JP2860393 A JP 2860393A JP 2860393 A JP2860393 A JP 2860393A JP H06222397 A JPH06222397 A JP H06222397A
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Japan
Prior art keywords
liquid crystal
display device
crystal display
direction
electric field
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JP2860393A
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Japanese (ja)
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Tomoya Yano
友哉 谷野
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Sony Corp
ソニー株式会社
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Application filed by Sony Corp, ソニー株式会社 filed Critical Sony Corp
Priority to JP2860393A priority Critical patent/JPH06222397A/en
Publication of JPH06222397A publication Critical patent/JPH06222397A/en
Application status is Pending legal-status Critical

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour 
    • G02F1/13Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour  based on liquid crystals, e.g. single liquid crystal display cells
    • G02F1/133Constructional arrangements; Operation of liquid crystal cells; Circuit arrangements
    • G02F1/1333Constructional arrangements; Manufacturing methods
    • G02F1/1343Electrodes
    • G02F1/134309Electrodes characterised by their geometrical arrangement
    • G02F1/134363Electrodes characterised by their geometrical arrangement for applying an electric field parallel to the substrate, i.e. in-plane switching [IPS]

Abstract

PURPOSE: To provide a liquid crystal display device which is wide in visual angle characteristic and symmetrical.
CONSTITUTION: The liquid crystal display device is equipped with a liquid crystal cell 1 and a pair of polarizing plates 2 and 3 arranged on both surfaces thereof. The liquid crystal cell 1 has a nematic liquid crystal 6 hold between a pair of substrates 4, 5 and an electrode 7 provided on the inner surface of at least one substrate 5. The nematic liquid crystal 6 is homogeneously oriented. Further, the electrodes 7 combined in the comb-shape impress the electric field E approximately parallel with the substrate along the direction at a prescribed angle from the direction of the homogeneous orientation (45° for instance) on the magnetic liquid crystal. In response to the electric field E, the liquid crystal 6 is changed in the array of molecules due to the dielectric anisotropy thereof, resulting in the change of the double refractive index in the cell 1. The change of the double refractive index is taken out by a pair of polarizing plates 2 and 3 as the change of transmissivity to execute a desired display.
COPYRIGHT: (C)1994,JPO&Japio

Description

【発明の詳細な説明】 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

【0001】 [0001]

【産業上の利用分野】本発明は液晶表示装置に関する。 The present invention relates to a liquid crystal display device.
より詳しくは、視角依存性が抑制された液晶セルの構造に関する。 More particularly, to a structure of a liquid crystal cell viewing angle dependency is suppressed.

【0002】 [0002]

【従来の技術】従来から液晶表示装置においては、ツイストネマティックモードの液晶セルが一般的に利用されている。 BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The liquid crystal display device conventionally comprises a liquid crystal cell of the twisted nematic mode is generally used. 図8はツイストネマティックモードの液晶セルの動作原理を示す模式図である。 Figure 8 is a schematic diagram showing an operation principle of the liquid crystal cell of twisted nematic mode. 左側が電圧無印加状態を示し右側が電圧印加状態を示す。 Left indicates no voltage is applied right indicates the voltage applied state. 上側の偏光板101 The upper polarizing plate 101
の偏光軸Aと下側の偏光板102の偏光軸Bは互いに直交している。 The polarization axis A and the polarization axis B of the lower polarizing plate 102 are perpendicular to each other. 又、上側の配向膜103の配向方向と下側の配向膜104の配向方向も互いに直交している。 Further, the alignment direction of the alignment direction and the lower alignment film 104 of the upper alignment layer 103 are orthogonal to each other. 従って、ネマティック液晶分子105は90°捩れたツイスト配向となる。 Thus, nematic liquid crystal molecules 105 becomes twisted twisted 90 °. 電圧無印加状態では、上側の偏光板10 Voltage In the absence of an applied, the upper polarizing plate 10
1を通過した入射光の直線偏光成分が、ツイスト配向された液晶分子105により90°旋光され下側の偏光板102を透過する。 Linearly polarized light component of the incident light passing through the 1, is 90 ° optical rotation by the liquid crystal molecules 105 which are twisted to transmit the polarizing plate 102 of the lower. 従って電圧無印加状態では白色表示が得られる。 Thus white display is obtained in the absence of an applied voltage. 一方、電圧を印加すると液晶分子105は立ち上がり旋光能が失われる。 On the other hand, the liquid crystal molecules 105 by applying a voltage rise rotatory power is lost. 従って、入射光の直線偏光成分は下側の偏光板102により遮断され黒色表示が得られる。 Therefore, linearly polarized light component of the incident light black color display is blocked by the polarizing plate 102 of the lower side is obtained. この様な表示方式はノーマリホワイトモードと呼ばれている。 Such a display method is referred to as a normally white mode.

【0003】 [0003]

【発明が解決しようとする課題】ツイストネマティックモードの液晶セルは視角特性が悪いという課題がある。 The liquid crystal cell of twisted nematic mode The object of the invention is to be Solved there is a problem of poor viewing angle characteristics.
図9はノーマリホワイト表示のツイストネマティックモード液晶セルに関する印加電圧Vと透過率Tの関係を示すグラフである。 Figure 9 is a graph showing the relationship between the applied voltage V and the transmittance T about the twisted nematic mode liquid crystal cell normally white display. 横軸は液晶セルに印加される電圧を示しており、縦軸は垂直入射光で電圧無印加時の透過率を100%とした場合の相対透過率を表わしている。 The horizontal axis shows the voltage applied to the liquid crystal cell, and the vertical axis represents the relative transmittance is 100% of transmittance when no voltage is applied at normal incidence light. このグラフでは視角θをパラメータとしており、のカーブはθ=0の場合の透過率変化を表わし、のカーブはθ This graph has a viewing angle theta as a parameter, the curve represents the change in transmittance in the case of theta = 0, the curve theta
=+30°の場合であり、のカーブはθ=−30°の場合である。 = A + 30 For °, the curve is a case of theta = -30 °. なお、このグラフでは、視角θはy軸に沿って傾けたものである。 In this graph, the visual angle θ is obtained tilted along the y-axis. y軸の定義についてはグラフの下側に示してある。 For the definition of the y-axis is shown in the lower graph. 即ち、液晶セルの上側基板配向方向と下側基板配向方向は互いに直交しており、その対称軸がy軸として与えられる。 That is, the upper substrate alignment direction and the lower substrate alignment direction of the liquid crystal cell are perpendicular to each other, the symmetry axis is given as y-axis. 基板法線を基準としてy軸の正方向に30°傾けた場合をθ=+30°で表わし、負方向に30°傾けた場合をθ=−30°で表わしている。 It represents a case where the inclined 30 ° in the positive direction of the y-axis the substrate normal as a reference in theta = + 30 °, represents the case where the inclined 30 ° in the negative direction with θ = -30 °. のカーブとのカーブを比較すれば明らかな様に、液晶セルを観察する方向に依存して透過率Tが非対称になっており表示品質を著しく損なうという課題がある。 Curve As apparent from the comparison with the curve of the transmittance T depending on the direction for observing the liquid crystal cell there is a problem that significantly impair the display quality has become asymmetric. さらには、白黒表示反転が生じる場合もある。 In addition, there is also a case of black-and-white display inversion occurs. 例えば、図9のグラフにおいて液晶セルに2Vの電圧を印加すると、垂直入射で相対透過率Tは50%になる。 For example, when a voltage of 2V to the liquid crystal cell in the graph of FIG. 9, the relative transmittance T at normal incidence becomes 50%. この時、θ=+30°の視角から観察した場合電圧無印加時の透過率Tと略同一のレベルにあり所望の変調ができていない。 In this case, θ = + 30 ° located in approximately the same level as the transmittance T when no voltage is applied when observed from the viewing angle is not able desired modulation. 一方、θ=−30°の視角から観察した場合透過率Tが最小レベルとなり過変調になってしまう。 On the other hand, if the transmittance T observed from the viewing angle of theta = -30 ° becomes becomes overmodulation a minimum level.

【0004】 [0004]

【課題を解決するための手段】上述した従来の液晶セルの課題に鑑み、本発明は視角特性が広く且つ対称的な液晶表示装置の構造を提供する事を目的とする。 SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In view of the problems of the conventional liquid crystal cell described above, the present invention aims to provide a structure of the viewing angle characteristic is wide and symmetric liquid crystal display device. かかる目的を達成する為に以下の手段を講じた。 In order to achieve the above object has taken the following means. 即ち、本発明にかかる液晶表示装置は基本的な構成要素として、一対の基板間に挟持されたネマティック液晶及び少なくとも一方の基板内表面に設けられた電極を有する液晶セルと、 That is, the liquid crystal display device The basic components of the present invention, a liquid crystal cell having an electrode provided on the clamping nematic liquid crystal and at least one of the substrate surface between the pair of substrates,
該液晶セルの両面に配置された一対の偏光板とを備えている。 And a pair of polarizing plates disposed on both sides of the liquid crystal cell. 特徴事項として、前記液晶はホモジニアス配向されたものであり、前記電極はホモジニアス配向方向と所定の角度をなす方向に沿って基板と略平行な電界を液晶に印加するものである。 As a feature, the liquid crystal has been homogeneously aligned, the electrode is used to apply a substrate and substantially parallel electric field to the liquid crystal along a direction forming an homogeneous orientation direction at a predetermined angle. 好ましくは、前記電極は櫛歯状電極である。 Preferably, the electrode is a comb-shaped electrode. 又、前記液晶セルはマトリクス状に配列した画素を有しており、櫛歯状電極は個々の画素に対応して設けられている。 Further, the liquid crystal cell has a pixel arranged in a matrix form, comb-shaped electrodes are provided corresponding to each pixel. さらに好ましくは、電界方向はホモジニアス配向に対して略45°の角度をなしている。 More preferably, the electric field direction is at an angle of approximately 45 ° to the homogeneous alignment. 加えて、一対の偏光板はクロスニコル配置されており、一方の偏光板の偏光軸はホモジニアス配向方向に一致している。 In addition, a pair of polarizing plates are arranged crossed Nicols, the polarization axis of one polarizing plate are matched to the homogeneous alignment direction.

【0005】 [0005]

【作用】液晶セルに電圧を印加すると、ネマティック液晶の誘電異方性により液晶分子配列が変化し、その結果液晶セル中の複屈折率が変化する。 SUMMARY OF] When voltage is applied to the liquid crystal cell, the liquid crystal molecular arrangement is changed by the dielectric anisotropy of the nematic liquid crystal, as a result birefringence in the liquid crystal cell changes. 液晶セルを一対の偏光板中に配置すると、その複屈折率の変化が光透過率の変化として現われ所望の表示が行なわれる。 When the liquid crystal cell is placed in a pair of polarizing plates, the change in birefringence desired display appears as a change in light transmission is performed. 本発明では、特にネマティック液晶をホモジニアス配向するとともに、基板と略平行な電界をネマティック液晶に印加して液晶分子配列を変化させている。 In the present invention, in particular as to homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystal, the substrate and substantially parallel to the electric field to change the alignment of liquid crystal molecules is applied to the nematic liquid crystal. この為、液晶分子配列変化は基板法線に対して対称的に発生し、視角特性も従って対称的となる。 Therefore, liquid crystal molecular alignment changes symmetrically generated with respect to the substrate normal, viewing angle characteristics thus become symmetrical.

【0006】 [0006]

【実施例】以下図面を参照して本発明の好適な実施例を詳細に説明する。 EXAMPLES illustrating the preferred embodiments in detail of the present invention with reference to the drawings. 図1は、本発明にかかる液晶表示装置の基本的な構成を示す模式図である。 Figure 1 is a schematic diagram showing a basic configuration of a liquid crystal display device according to the present invention. (イ)に示す様に本液晶表示装置は液晶セル1とその両側に配置された一対の偏光板2,3とを備えている。 (B) in the liquid crystal display device as shown has a pair of polarizing plates 2 and 3 which are arranged and on both sides of the liquid crystal cell 1. 液晶セル1は一対の基板4,5の間に挟持されたネマティック液晶6と、少なくとも一方の基板5内表面に設けられた電極7を有する。 The liquid crystal cell 1 has a nematic liquid crystal 6 which is sandwiched between a pair of substrates 4 and 5, the electrode 7 provided on at least one substrate 5 surface. このネマティック液晶6は上下一対の配向膜8,9 The nematic liquid crystal 6 are a pair of upper and lower orientation films 8,9
に接触しておりホモジニアス配向されている。 It is homogeneous orientation is in contact with the. 又、電極7はホモジニアス配向方向と所定の角度をなす方向に沿って基板と略平行な電界Eをネマティック液晶6に印加する。 The electrode 7 for applying the substrate substantially parallel to the electric field E to the nematic liquid crystal 6 along a direction forming an homogeneous orientation direction at a predetermined angle.

【0007】(ロ)に示す様に、本例では上側の偏光板2の偏光軸Aと下側の偏光板3の偏光軸Bとは互いに直交しており、所謂クロスニコル配置されている。 [0007] As shown in (b), in this example are orthogonal to the polarization axis B of the polarizing plate 3 of the upper polarization axis A and the lower polarizing plate 2 is disposed a so-called crossed Nicols. 但し、 However,
本発明はこれに限られるものではなく例えば平行ニコル配置であっても良い。 The present invention may be not for example parallel Nicols for limitation. 一方、ホモジニアス配向された液晶分子60の整列方向(ディレクタDで示す)は、上側偏光板2の偏光軸Aと一致する様に設定されている。 On the other hand, (indicated by the director D) alignment direction of the liquid crystal molecules 60 which are homogeneously aligned is set so as to coincide with the polarization axis A of the upper polarizer 2. 即ち、配向膜8,9のラビング方向Rは偏光軸Aと平行である。 That is, the rubbing direction R of the alignment film 8, 9 is parallel to the polarization axis A.

【0008】引き続き図1を参照して本発明にかかる液晶表示装置の動作を詳細に説明する。 [0008] Continuing operation will be described in detail in the liquid crystal display device according to the present invention with reference to FIG. (ロ)に示す様に電圧無印加状態では、液晶分子60のディレクタDと偏光板の偏光軸A(透過軸)が一致する為、複屈折は起らず理想的な状態では透過光強度が0になる。 In the absence of an applied voltage as shown in (b), since the director D and the polarizer of the polarization axis A of the liquid crystal molecules 60 (transmission axes) match, the birefringence transmission light intensity in an ideal state without Okoshira 0 to become. ここで(ハ)に示す様に、ホモジニアス配向方向Rと45°の角度をなす方向に基板と平行な電界Eを印加すると、電界Eによる自由エネルギー密度と弾性自由エネルギー密度が最小になる様に、液晶分子60のディレクタDの分布が決まる。 As shown in this case (c), it is applied to the substrate and parallel to the electric field E in the direction forming an angle of homogeneous alignment direction R and 45 °, as the free energy density and elastic free energy density due to the electric field E is minimized , determines the distribution of the directors D of the liquid crystal molecules 60. 図示の様に液晶分子60が正の誘電異方性を有する場合、ディレクタDは電場Eの方向に配列する。 If the liquid crystal molecules 60 as shown has a positive dielectric anisotropy, the director D are arranged in the direction of the electric field E. 逆に液晶分子60が負の誘電異方性を有する場合には電場Eと直交する方向に配列する。 Liquid crystal molecules 60 on the contrary be arranged in a direction orthogonal to the electric field E in the case of having a negative dielectric anisotropy. 何れにしても偏光軸AとディレクタDが一致しなくなり透過光は複屈折効果により0ではなくなる。 Transmitted light will not match the polarization axis A and the director D Anyway is not zero due to the birefringence effect. 周知の様に、複屈折効果は偏光軸Aに対しディレクタDが45°の角度をなす場合に最大となるので、本例では基板の配向方向Rは電界Eの方向に対し45°の角度をなす様に設定している。 As is well known, since the director D to birefringence effects polarization axis A is maximum when an angle of 45 °, an angle of 45 ° to the direction of orientation direction R is the electric field E of the substrate in this example It is set to like eggplant. 但し、±10°程度の変化は許容できる。 However, the change in the order of ± 10 ° is acceptable. ディレクタDが完全に電場Eの方向(もしくは電場Eと垂直の方向)に整列すると、透過光強度Tは次式で表わされる。 If the director D is perfectly aligned in the direction of the electric field E (or electric field E perpendicular direction), the transmitted light intensity T is expressed by the following equation. T=sin 2 (πΔnd/λ) 但しΔnはネマティック液晶の屈折率異方性、dは液晶の厚み、λは入射光波長である。 T = sin 2 (πΔnd / λ ) where Δn is the refractive index anisotropy of the nematic liquid crystal, d is the liquid crystal thickness, lambda is the wavelength of incident light. 上式から理解される様に、例えばΔnd=λ/2となる様にセル定数を定めた時透過光強度Tは最大になる。 As will be understood from the above equation, the transmitted light intensity T when defining a cell constant as for example a [Delta] nd = lambda / 2 is maximized. よってλ=560nmの単色入射光を用いた場合、Δndが280nmとなる様に液晶の屈折率異方性及び厚みを設定すれば良い。 Therefore, when using a monochromatic incident light lambda = 560 nm, it may be a refractive index anisotropy and thickness of the liquid crystal so as Δnd becomes 280 nm.

【0009】次に、図2を参照して本発明にかかる液晶表示装置の第1具体例を説明する。 [0009] Next, a first example of the liquid crystal display device according to the present invention with reference to FIG. 本例はアクティブマトリクス型液晶表示装置に適用したものである。 This example is applied to an active matrix type liquid crystal display device. 図示する様に、基板表面にはマトリクス状に配列された画素2 As shown, the pixel 2 on the substrate surface arranged in a matrix
1が形成されている。 1 is formed. 各画素21の行間にはゲートライン22が形成されており、同じく列間にはデータライン23が形成されている。 The rows of pixels 21 and gate line 22 are formed, are also the data line 23 between the rows is formed. 図面上中央位置にある画素21 In the drawing center pixel 21
についてその詳細な電極構造を示してある。 About it is shown a detailed electrode structure. 画素は互いに櫛歯状に整合した画素電極24と共通電極25とから構成されている。 Pixel is composed of a pixel electrode 24 in alignment with the comb-like mutually common electrode 25. 共通電極25は全ての画素に渡って共通ライン26により互いに接続されており、所望の基準電位に保持される。 The common electrode 25 are connected to each other by a common line 26 across all of the pixels are held in a desired reference potential. 一方各画素毎に設けられた画素電極24は薄膜トランジスタ27により駆動される。 Meanwhile pixel electrodes 24 provided for each pixel is driven by a thin film transistor 27. 薄膜トランジスタ27のドレイン領域Dは対応する画素電極2 Drain region D of the thin film transistor 27 is the corresponding pixel electrode 2
4に接続されており、ソース領域Sは対応するデータライン23に接続されており、ゲート電極Gは対応するゲートライン22から延設されている。 4 are connected to the source region S is connected to the corresponding data line 23, the gate electrode G is extended from the corresponding gate line 22.

【0010】引き続き図2を参照して本アクティブマトリクス型液晶表示装置の動作を説明する。 [0010] With continued reference to FIG. 2 illustrating the operation of the active matrix type liquid crystal display device. ゲートライン22を介して線順次で行毎に薄膜トランジスタ27が選択導通される。 TFT 27 for each row in a line sequential manner through the gate line 22 is selected conduction. 各データライン23を介して供給された画像データは導通状態にある薄膜トランジスタ27を介して対応する画素電極24に書き込まれる。 Image data supplied via the data line 23 is written into the pixel electrode 24 corresponding through the thin film transistor 27 is conductive. この後、次の選択期間まで書き込まれた画像データはそのまま保持される。 Thereafter, the image data written to the next selection period is held as it is. この結果、櫛歯状に組み合わされた画素電極2 As a result, the pixel electrode 2 combined in a comb shape
4と共通電極25との間に、書き込まれた画像データに応じて基板に平行な電界が印加される。 Between 4 and the common electrode 25, an electric field parallel to the substrate in accordance with the image data written it is applied. ホモジニアス配向されたネマティック液晶の誘電異方性により液晶分子配列が変化し前述した様にセル中の複屈折率が変化する。 Homogeneous oriented liquid crystal molecular arrangement is changed by the dielectric anisotropy of the nematic liquid crystal birefringence in the cell as described above is changed.

【0011】図3は、図2に示したアクティブマトリクス型液晶表示装置の部分拡大断面図である。 [0011] Figure 3 is a partially enlarged cross-sectional view of an active matrix type liquid crystal display device shown in FIG. 図示する様に、下側の基板28の内表面には互いに櫛歯状に整合した画素電極24及び共通電極25が形成されている。 As shown, the pixel electrodes 24 and the common electrode 25 in alignment with the comb-like mutually on the inner surface of the lower substrate 28 is formed. なお図示しないが、薄膜トランジスタも同一基板上に形成されている。 Incidentally not shown, it is also formed on the same substrate a thin film transistor. 下側の基板28には所定の間隙を介して上側のガラス基板29が対向配置されており、両基板間にはホモジニアス配向された液晶30が封入充填されている。 The lower substrate 28 has the upper glass substrate 29 is opposed via a predetermined gap, the liquid crystal 30, which is homogeneously aligned is sealed filled between both substrates. 画素に書き込まれた画像データに応じて画素電極2 Pixel electrodes 2 in accordance with the image data written in the pixel
4と共通電極25との間に基板に平行な電界Eが発生する。 4 parallel to the electric field E is generated in the substrate between the common electrode 25. 一般に、ホモジニアス配向された液晶30の分子配列変化を起す為には、所定の電気光学的閾値Vth以上の電界を印加する必要がある。 Generally, in order to cause the molecular arrangement change of the liquid crystal 30, which is homogeneously aligned, it is necessary to apply a predetermined electro-optical threshold value Vth or more of the electric field. 従って、液晶表示装置の低電圧化を図る為にはこの電気光学的閾値Vthを低くする必要がある。 Therefore, in order to reduce the voltage of the liquid crystal display device it is necessary to lower the electro-optical threshold Vth. 一般にVthは近似的に次式で表わされる。 Generally Vth is approximately expressed by the following equation.

【数1】 [Number 1] 上式から理解される様に、Vthを下げる為には共通電極25と画素電極24との間隔を狭くする必要がある。 As will be understood from the above equation, in order to reduce the Vth, it is necessary to narrow the gap between the common electrode 25 and pixel electrode 24.
又、電極の幅を極力細くする必要がある。 Further, it is necessary to narrow the width of the electrode as much as possible. この為、上述した櫛歯状電極構造が適している。 Therefore, the above-described comb-shaped electrode structure is suitable.

【0012】図4は、図2及び図3に示した第1具体例の変形例を示す模式的な部分断面図である。 [0012] Figure 4 is a schematic partial sectional view showing a modification of the first embodiment shown in FIGS. 本例では、 In the present example,
下側の基板28に画素電極24が形成されており、上側の基板29に共通電極25が形成されている。 The lower substrate 28 and the pixel electrode 24 is formed, the common electrode 25 on the upper side of the substrate 29 is formed. 両側の電極を互いにアライメントする事により櫛歯状の電極構造が得られる。 Comb-shaped electrode structure is obtained by aligning the sides of the electrodes together. 液晶30の厚みに比べ画素電極24と共通電極25との間の距離を相対的に大きく設定する事により、略基板に平行な電界Eを得る事ができる。 By setting a relatively large distance between the common electrode 25 and the pixel electrode 24 than the thickness of the liquid crystal 30, it is possible to obtain a parallel electric field E substantially substrate. 同一基板上に画素電極24及び共通電極25を形成する場合に比べ櫛歯形状のパタニング加工が容易になる。 Patterning processing of comb shape compared to the case of forming the pixel electrodes 24 and the common electrode 25 on the same substrate is facilitated. 但し、上下一対の基板28,29の精密なアライメントが必要になる。 However, it is necessary to precise alignment of the pair of upper and lower substrates 28 and 29.

【0013】図5は本発明にかかる液晶表示装置の第2 [0013] Figure 5 is a second liquid crystal display device according to the present invention
具体例を示す模式的な平面図であって、単純マトリクス型に適用したものである。 A schematic plan view showing a specific example, is applied to a simple matrix type. 図示する様に、単純マトリクス型液晶表示装置では行電極41と列電極42がマトリクス状に交差配列されており、各交点に画素43が規定される。 As shown, the row electrodes 41 and column electrodes 42 in the passive matrix liquid crystal display device are crossed arranged in a matrix, the pixels 43 are defined at each intersection. 行電極41、列電極42は同一基板上に形成しても良く、あるいは互いに対向する基板の夫々に設けても良い。 Row electrodes 41, column electrodes 42 may be formed on the same substrate, or may be provided s husband opposing substrates. 個々の画素43の領域において、行電極41と列電極42は所定の形状にパタニングされ互いに櫛歯状に組み合わされている。 In the area of ​​the individual pixels 43, the row electrodes 41 and column electrodes 42 are combined into patterned by comb-like mutually in a predetermined shape. かかる構造により周知のマルチプレックス駆動を行なう事で、行電極41と列電極42 Such structure By performing known multiplex driving, the row electrodes 41 and column electrodes 42
との間に基板と略平行な電界が発生し、ホモジニアス配向された液晶の分子配列が変化する。 Substrate and substantially parallel electric field is generated, the liquid crystal molecular alignment which is homogeneously aligned varies between.

【0014】最後に図6を参照して本発明にかかる液晶表示装置の視角特性の対称性について説明を加える。 [0014] Finally, the symmetry of the viewing angle characteristics of a liquid crystal display device according to the present invention with reference to FIG. 6 Add description. 図示する様に、櫛歯状電極間に所定の電圧を印加すると液晶分子60の配列方向が変化し電界Eの方向に揃う。 As shown, aligned in the direction of the arrangement direction changed electric field E of the liquid crystal molecules 60 when a predetermined voltage is applied between the comb-shaped electrodes. 印加電圧を所定の閾値レベルよりも高くすると液晶分子6 Liquid crystal molecules 6 when the applied voltage is higher than a predetermined threshold level
0の殆どは基板と平行に整列するが、両端の液晶分子は若干チルト状態にある。 Most 0 is aligned parallel to the substrate, but the liquid crystal molecules at both ends is slightly tilted state. しかしながら電極両端におけるチルトの方向は反対になる。 However the direction of tilt at the electrode ends are reversed. 従って液晶分子60の配列分布は紙面上左右対称である。 Accordingly sequence distribution of the liquid crystal molecules 60 are on paper symmetrical. この為、右斜め方向及び左斜め方向から見た液晶セルの透過特性は同じになる。 Therefore, the transmission characteristics of the liquid crystal cell as viewed from the right oblique direction and the left oblique direction is the same.

【0015】比較の為図7にツイストネマティックモード液晶表示装置の視角依存性について説明する。 [0015] Figure 7 for comparison for the viewing angle dependency of twisted nematic mode liquid crystal display device will be described. ツイストネマティックモードでは基板に対して垂直な電界を印加させる事により捩れ配向した液晶分子60を立ち上げる様にしている。 The twisted nematic mode is the manner start up of the liquid crystal molecules 60 aligned twisted By applying a vertical electric field to the substrate. しかしながら基板界面近傍の液晶分子は配向力の影響を受け所定のチルト状態に固定されている。 However liquid crystal molecules in the substrate near the interface is fixed to a predetermined tilting state under the influence of alignment force. 従って液晶セルの斜め方向から見た光透過特性は右方向と左方向とで異なっている。 Light transmission characteristics when viewed from an oblique direction of the liquid crystal cell thus are different in the right direction and left direction.

【0016】 [0016]

【発明の効果】以上説明した様に、本発明によれば、ネマティック液晶はホモジニアス配向されたものであり、 As has been described above, according to the present invention, according to the present invention, a nematic liquid crystal has been homogeneously aligned,
電極はホモジニアス配向方向と所定の角度をなす方向に沿って基板と略平行な電界をネマティック液晶に印加するものである。 Electrode is used to apply a substrate and substantially parallel electric field to the nematic liquid crystal along a direction forming an homogeneous orientation direction at a predetermined angle. この基板に平行な電界に応答して液晶の誘電異方性により分子配列が変化し、その結果セル中の複屈折率が変化する。 The substrate in response to an electric field parallel to the molecular arrangement is changed by the dielectric anisotropy of liquid crystal, resulting birefringence in the cell is changed. 液晶セルを2枚の偏光板中に置くとこの複屈折率の変化が光透過率の変化として現われ所望の表示を行なう事ができる。 This change in birefringence placing the liquid crystal cell during two polarizing plates can perform desired display appears as a change in light transmission. かかる構造により視角特性が広く且つ対称的な液晶表示装置を得る事ができるという効果がある。 There is an effect that can be the viewing angle characteristic by such a structure to obtain a wide and symmetrical liquid crystal display device. この為、従来ツイストネマティックモードの液晶表示装置で問題となっていた白黒反転表示も起らない。 For this reason, black-and-white inverted display does not occur as well, which has been a problem in the liquid crystal display device of the conventional twisted nematic mode.

【図面の簡単な説明】 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

【図1】本発明にかかる液晶表示装置の基本的な構成を示す模式図である。 1 is a schematic diagram showing a basic configuration of a liquid crystal display device according to the present invention.

【図2】本発明にかかる液晶表示装置の第1具体例を示す平面図である。 Is a plan view showing a first example of the liquid crystal display device according to the present invention; FIG.

【図3】第1具体例の模式的な部分断面図である。 Figure 3 is a schematic partial cross-sectional view of the first embodiment.

【図4】第1具体例の変型を示す模式的な部分断面図である。 4 is a schematic partial sectional view showing a variation of the first embodiment.

【図5】本発明にかかる液晶表示装置の第2具体例を示す平面図である。 Is a plan view showing a second example of the liquid crystal display device according to the present invention; FIG.

【図6】本発明にかかる液晶表示装置の視角特性の説明図である。 6 is an explanatory view of a viewing angle characteristic of the liquid crystal display device according to the present invention.

【図7】従来のツイストネマティックモード液晶表示装置の視角特性の説明図である。 7 is an explanatory view of viewing angle characteristics of the conventional twisted nematic mode liquid crystal display device.

【図8】従来のツイストネマティックモード液晶表示装置の原理図である。 8 is a principle diagram of a conventional twisted nematic mode liquid crystal display device.

【図9】従来のツイストネマティックモード液晶表示装置の視角依存性を示すグラフである。 9 is a graph showing the viewing angle dependence of a conventional twisted nematic mode liquid crystal display device.

【符号の説明】 DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS

1 液晶セル 2 偏光板 3 偏光板 4 基板 5 基板 6 ネマティック液晶 7 電極 8 配向膜 9 配向膜 1 the liquid crystal cell 2 polarizer 3 polarizing plate 4 substrate 5 substrate 6 nematic liquid crystal 7 electrode 8 alignment film 9 oriented film

Claims (5)

    【特許請求の範囲】 [The claims]
  1. 【請求項1】 一対の基板間に挟持されたネマティック液晶及び少なくとも一方の基板内表面に設けられた電極を有する液晶セルと、該液晶セルの両面に配置された一対の偏光板とを備えた液晶表示装置であって、 前記ネマティック液晶はホモジニアス配向されたものであり、前記電極はホモジニアス配向方向と所定の角度をなす方向に沿って基板と略平行な電界をネマティック液晶に印加するものである事を特徴とする液晶表示装置。 And 1. A liquid crystal cell having electrodes provided on the clamping nematic liquid crystal and at least one of the substrate surface between the pair of substrates, and a pair of polarizing plates disposed on both sides of the liquid crystal cell a liquid crystal display device, the nematic liquid crystal has been homogeneously aligned, the electrode is used to apply a substrate and substantially parallel electric field to the nematic liquid crystal along a direction forming an homogeneous orientation direction at a predetermined angle thing a liquid crystal display device according to claim.
  2. 【請求項2】 前記電極は櫛歯状電極である事を特徴とする請求項1記載の液晶表示装置。 2. A liquid crystal display device according to claim 1, wherein a said electrode is a comb-shaped electrode.
  3. 【請求項3】 前記液晶セルはマトリクス状に配列した画素を有しており、前記櫛歯状電極は個々の画素に対応して設けられている事を特徴とする請求項2記載の液晶表示装置。 Wherein said liquid crystal cell has a pixel arranged in a matrix form, wherein the interdigital electrode is the liquid crystal display according to claim 2, characterized in that are provided corresponding to each pixel apparatus.
  4. 【請求項4】 電界方向はホモジニアス配向方向に対して略45°の角度をなす事を特徴とする請求項1記載の液晶表示装置。 Wherein the direction of the electric field liquid crystal display device according to claim 1, characterized in that an angle of approximately 45 ° to the homogeneous alignment direction.
  5. 【請求項5】 一方の偏光板の偏光軸はホモジニアス配向方向に一致している事を特徴とする請求項1記載の液晶表示装置。 The polarization axis of 5. One of the polarizer liquid crystal display device according to claim 1, wherein a match in the homogeneous alignment direction.
JP2860393A 1993-01-25 1993-01-25 Liquid crystal display device Pending JPH06222397A (en)

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